Science.gov

Sample records for labour relations

  1. Development, labour relations and gender in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fahey, S

    1986-08-01

    The increase in wage labor in the periurban village of Siar, Papua New Guinea, was examined by carrying out field work in 1980. There were 82 households in Siar: 40 (49%) had at least one wage earner, and of these, 8 (20%) had two or more wage earners. This was far less than in urban areas (86%) and far more than in rural villages (6%). 39 males aged 20-49 years and 10 females aged 10-29 years out of the total population of 503 people were in regular employment. 6 of the 9 women between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 2 as domestic servants, and 1 as a shop assistant. 6 of the 21 men between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 6 as laborers in a timber mill, 4 as construction workers, 2 as medical assistants, 2 as plantation workers, and 1 in a bakery. 67% of the women were in skilled employment compared with 51% of men. Most Siar villagers were employed in Madang town with 26 people being employed in private enterprise, 17 employed by the government, and 6 by the Lutheran Mission. Access to employment depended largely on the wantok system of referring kinfolk by people who were employed. In contrast to male employment patterns, there was little opportunity for unskilled females. Most wage laborers were unable to save money because of the demands exerted on them by relatives. The villagers had developed needs to be satisfied by monetized transactions: food, clothing, housing materials, school fees, transport costs, and social activities for beer and cigarettes. On the other hand, several women requested that their employers deduct 15% of their wages for savings. The expenditure for food varied between 38% and 58% of the total cash income of units of villagers. The village's population increased because migrants arrived. In 1977, 247 (37%) Siar villagers were absent, most having left for reasons related to employment. Sexual division in Siar reinforced women's alienation from the means of production and they became doubly subordinated to

  2. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  3. Is the core-periphery labour market structure related to perceived health? findings of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is controversy as to whether peripheral employment is related to poor health status or not. This study aims at examining whether 1) the accumulation of time in peripheral labour market positions is associated with psychological distress and poor or average self-rated health; 2) the proposed association is different among women than among men. Method Participants in the 1995 and 2007 follow-up surveys of the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 985) completed self-administered questionnaires about psychological and general health and about employment positions during the follow-up years. Associations between 12 year peripheral labour market positions (no, low, medium and high exposure) and health were examined using logistic regression. Results Exposure to peripheral employment was positively related to psychological distress in both women and men (p-values for trend < 0.001). Adjustment for sociodemographics and psychological distress at baseline, as well as for unemployment and being out of the labour market at the follow-up, resulted in attenuation of the odds ratios, particularly in the group with high exposure to peripheral employment, although results remained significant in men in the fully adjusted model. Women and men with high exposure to peripheral employment had high odds of poor or average self-rated health, but the association was rendered non-significant after adjustment for the covariates. Conclusions Our findings suggest that exposure to peripheral employment positions has an impact particularly on mental health, partly due to the over-representation of other unfavourable social and employment conditions among those with substantial exposure to peripheral employment. PMID:22202436

  4. Fathers' feelings related to their partners' childbirth and views on their presence during labour and childbirth: A descriptive quantitative study.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Qian, Xiao-Fang; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Gong, Yuhua; Wang, Wenru

    2015-05-01

    This study examined Chinese fathers' feelings about their partners' delivery and views on their presence during labour and birth. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 403 fathers whose partners gave birth in one provincial hospital in China. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test and content analysis. The results indicated that more than 80% of fathers experienced feelings of pride related to fatherhood and of love towards their partners and newborns. Significant differences in fathers' feelings were found between subgroups with regard to age, education, employment, presence in the delivery room, method of birth and whether preparatory visits had been made to the hospital. The majority who answered an open-ended question on the meaning of fathers' presence in the delivery room held a positive attitude towards fathers' presence at labour and birth, as their presence could empower their partners and provide psychological support. This study indicates fathers' presence at delivery and birth is important and that younger fathers need more support. It also provides evidence for clinical practice and future interventions to improve fathers' psychological health and experiences. PMID:26125575

  5. Improving Job Site Skills Project. Local 343 United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America & Construction Labour Relations Association of Manitoba. Final Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis

    A project of Local 343 of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and the Construction Labour Relations Association (CLRA) of Manitoba documented the workplace literacy skills needed by union carpenters on job sites in Manitoba. The following techniques were used: mailed questionnaires to the carpenter members of Local 343 and…

  6. Premature labour

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Prematurity is by far the commonest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The management of premature labour is empirical because little is understood about the mechanism of labour. Effective uterine relaxant drugs have an important, albeit minor role. Phototherapy has reduced the complications of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and the beneficial effect of antepartum corticosteroid therapy in minimizing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome is now convincing. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in premature rupture of the membranes does not alter perinatal mortality, although postpartum maternal morbidity is reduced. The introduction of neonatal intensive care units has improved the survival rate of premature infants. Sound clinical judgement remains the mainstay in the management of premature labour. PMID:4217

  7. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  8. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  9. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  10. Women Who Work: Part I, the Relative Importance of Age, Education and Marital Status for Participation in the Labour Force. Special Labour Force Studies No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allingham, John D.

    This paper is intended to provide a systematic treatment of some hypotheses relating to labor force participation determinants, and an illustration of the relative importance of age, education, and marital status for female participation. Marital status, education, and age have all been shown to affect participation rates. On an impressionistic…

  11. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18–34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969–1982. Beginning from the year of each subject’s 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7–16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers. PMID:25938764

  12. Narratives of neoliberalism: 'clinical labour' in context.

    PubMed

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2015-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care has been thrust under the international spotlight by a series of recent scandals. These have prompted calls to develop more robust means of assessing the exploitative potential of such practices and the need for overarching and normative forms of national and international regulation. Allied theorisations of the emergence of forms of clinical labour have cast the outsourcing of reproductive services such as gamete donation and gestational surrogacy as artefacts of a wider neoliberalisation of service provision. These accounts share with many other narratives of neoliberalism a number of key assertions that relate to the presumed organisation of labour relations within this paradigm. This article critically engages with four assumptions implicit in these accounts: that clinical labourers constitute a largely homogeneous underclass of workers; that reproductive labour has been contractualised in ways that disembed it from wider social and communal relations; that contractualisation can provide protection for clinical labour lessening the need for formal regulatory oversight; and that the transnationalisation of reproductive service labour is largely unidirectional and characterised by a dynamic of provision in which 'the rest' services 'the West'. Drawing on the first findings of a large-scale ethnographic research project into assisted reproduction in India I provide evidence to refute these assertions. In so doing the article demonstrates that while the outsourcing and contractualisation of reproductive labour may be embedded in a wider neoliberal paradigm these practices cannot be understood nor their impacts be fully assessed in isolation from their social and cultural contexts. PMID:26052118

  13. Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (<7% fall in GDP), each additional unit of employment protection reduced job loss risk (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90). Before the recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are

  14. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    PubMed

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." PMID:12157825

  15. Whither Asian Labour Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Apo

    2004-01-01

    Despite the initiatives from governments and unions alike, the need for worker-centred labour education still exists. Labour educators should have to be more creative in planning and running educational programs to empower workers so that they can be liberated from all forms of exploitation, no matter how such exploitation is disguised or…

  16. Palestinian labour mobility.

    PubMed

    Shaban, R A

    1993-01-01

    "Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement." PMID:12287545

  17. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight

  18. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  19. Embodied labour in music work.

    PubMed

    Pettinger, Lynne

    2015-06-01

    This paper frames the work of performance as embodied labour in order to understand the contingent production of particular music performances. It is an interdisciplinary account that sits at the intersection of the sociology of work, culture and the body. The concept of embodied labour is developed with reference to the complex account of materiality - of bodies and things - present in Tim Ingold's account of skill. This material account of skill is used to inform use to develop already of well established conceptualizations of body labour: craft, emotional and aesthetic labour through a reading of how these dimensions of embodied labour make possible the work of performance. PMID:25899831

  20. Precarious Learning and Labour in Financialized Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession,…

  1. Labour Productivity Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

  2. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  3. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Annemarie; Lewis, Lucy; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Dowswell, Therese; Styles, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background It is more common for women in the developed world, and those in low-income countries giving birth in health facilities, to labour in bed. There is no evidence that this is associated with any advantage for women or babies, although it may be more convenient for staff. Observational studies have suggested that if women lie on their backs during labour this may have adverse effects on uterine contractions and impede progress in labour. Objectives The purpose of the review is to assess the effects of encouraging women to assume different upright positions (including walking, sitting, standing and kneeling) versus recumbent positions (supine, semi-recumbent and lateral) for women in the first stage of labour on length of labour, type of delivery and other important outcomes for mothers and babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (November 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing women randomised to upright versus recumbent positions in the first stage of labour. Data collection and analysis We used methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for carrying out data collection, assessing study quality and analysing results. A minimum of two review authors independently assessed each study. Main results The review includes 21 studies with a total of 3706 women. Overall, the first stage of labour was approximately one hour shorter for women randomised to upright as opposed to recumbent positions (MD −0.99, 95% CI −1.60 to −0.39). Women randomised to upright positions were less likely to have epidural analgesia (RR 0.83 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96).There were no differences between groups for other outcomes including length of the second stage of labour, mode of delivery, or other outcomes related to the wellbeing of mothers and babies. For women who had epidural analgesia there were no differences between those randomised to upright

  4. Remifentanil for labour pain relief.

    PubMed

    Solek-Pastuszka, Joanna; Zagrodnik-Ulan, Edyta; Bohatyrewicz, Romuald; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Labour is thought to be one of the most intense and painful experiences in a woman's life. Numerous studies using a Visual Analogue Scale invariably demonstrate that 20% of women in labour describe the pain as "unbearable" and 60% describe the pain as "very intense". Since the mid-1980s, continuous epidural analgesia during labour has been considered the gold standard of labour anaesthesia and is currently the most frequently used. There are situations in which this type of analgesia could not be used. An alternative pain management is administration of parenteral opioids, the most frequently used of which is pethidine. Its use is associated with adverse effects and unsatisfactory analgesia. Since the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of opioids, such as fentanyl or remifentanil, has been used. Despite their much better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists are most aware of pethidine, probably because it has been used for the longest period of time, despite its disadvantages and the risk that its use entails. The drug that is nearest to ideal is remifentanil. The countries in which it is widely used as an alternative type of labour anaesthesia have developed practice standards or guidelines practice. Guidelines and alternatives to pethidine protocols for effective labour analgesia in Poland might be merited. PMID:25751295

  5. Donning the mask: effects of emotional labour strategies on burnout and job satisfaction in community healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jatin; Singh, Manjari

    2016-06-01

    Emotional labour involves management of one's emotions to match the demands of their roles. This emotion display involves just expression (surface-level emotional labour) or experience in addition to expression (deep-level emotional labour) of the desired emotions. Emotional labour is required in the effective, efficient and successful healthcare service delivery. Burnout associated with emotional labour is an important factor that decides how satisfied frontline service providers with their job are. This empirical study investigates the link between surface and deep-level emotional labour, burnout and job satisfaction in women community health workers from India. Our results from the structural equation modelling of 177 accredited social health activists (ASHAs) indicate a negative relation between surface and deep-level emotional labour, clearly demarcating them as two different strategies for performance of emotional labour in community health care setting. Surface-level emotional labour is associated with higher job satisfaction, and burnout partially mediates this relation. Deep-level emotional labour is associated with lower job satisfaction; burnout fully mediates this relation. Qualitative post hoc analysis based on interviews of 10 ASHAs was done to understand the findings of the quantitative study. Surface-level emotional labour was found to be a more desirable strategy for community health care workers for the effective and efficient performance of their work roles. Our results have a significant contribution to design, redesign, and improvement of employment practices in community healthcare. This study brings forth the neglected issues of emotions and their implications for these healthcare workers in low and middle-income countries who are a vital link that delivers healthcare to weaker section of the society. The findings have relevance not merely for the individual providing this service but the beneficiary and the organization that facilitates this

  6. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the 2006 AUA Annual Conference at Queen's University Belfast on 11 April. The first part was published in perspectives 10.3 in July 2006. In the Presentation Sir David commented on three areas of unfinished business with which New Labour has struggled; in the…

  7. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  8. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159587

  9. Teacher, Lecturer or Labourer? Performance Management Issues in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Education management has increasingly been dominated by the norms and requirements of general management ideologies that focus on performance controls and target achievements. Under this regime, solving the labour problem--relatively low productivity--has taken precedence over all other forms of management. In pursuit of this objective senior…

  10. New Labour, Communitarianism and Citizenship Education in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Andrew; Burton, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article posits a connection between the influence of communitarianism on New Labour's ideology and the content of citizenship education in England and Wales. We first describe and problematize communitarianism, drawing on both UK and US thinkers, and then relate our findings to literature on citizenship education. We conclude by suggesting…

  11. Being "Fun" at Work: Emotional Labour, Class, Gender and Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on data drawn from an "Economic and Social Research Council"-funded project investigating the experiences of UK-based students training on level-2 and level-3 childcare courses. We focus on the concept of emotional labour in relation to learning to care for and educate young children and the ways in which the…

  12. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  13. Loss of functional K+ channels encoded by ether-à-go-go-related genes in mouse myometrium prior to labour onset

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, I A; Yeung, S Y; Tribe, R M; Ohya, S

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that ion channels encoded by the ether-à-go-go-related gene family have a functional impact in smooth muscle in addition to their accepted role in cardiac myocytes and neurones. This study aimed to assess the expression of ERG1–3 (KCNH1–3) genes in the murine myometrium (smooth muscle layer of the uterus) and determine the functional impact of the ion channels encoded by these genes in pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Quantitative RT-PCR did not detect message for ERG2 and 3 in whole myometrial tissue extracts. In contrast, message for two isoforms of mERG1 were readily detected with mERG1a more abundant than mERG1b. In isometric tension studies of non-pregnant myometrium, the ERG channel blockers dofetilide (1 μm), E4031 (1 μm) and Be-KM1 (100 nm) increased spontaneous contractility and ERG activators (PD118057 and NS1643) inhibited spontaneous contractility. In contrast, neither ERG blockade nor activation had any effect on the inherent contractility in myometrium from late pregnant (19 days gestation) animals. Moreover, dofetilide-sensitive K+ currents with distinctive ‘hooked’ kinetics were considerably smaller in uterine myocytes from late pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals. Expression of mERG1 isoforms did not alter throughout gestation or upon delivery, but the expression of genes encoding auxillary subunits (KCNE) were up-regulated considerably. This study provides the first evidence for a regulation of ERG-encoded K+ channels as a precursor to late pregnancy physiological activity. PMID:19332483

  14. Exploring gender differences in the relationships between eldercare and labour force participation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Kevin H; Albert, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation. PMID:25631705

  15. A Study on the Association between Low Maternal Serum Magnesium Level and Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Kehinde S.; Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study was aimed to assess the association between low maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm labour. Methods. It is a cross-sectional case-control study in which eligible participants were pregnant women admitted in labour within the labour ward complex of a Lagos tertiary hospital. Relevant data were extracted from the case records of these women and blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum magnesium levels measured. Results. The study showed that 36% of the study patients had varying degrees of hypomagnesaemia. The relative risk indicates that preterm labour is 1.83 times higher among the patients with low serum magnesium (less than 1.6 mg/dL). The mean difference in serum magnesium levels in both groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. We can infer that low serum magnesium (hypomagnesaemia) is associated with preterm onset of labour. We can, also from this finding, formulate a proposition that would help in preventing preterm labour and birth with the use of prophylactic oral magnesium supplementation among patients with higher risk for development of preterm labour. PMID:26556421

  16. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    PubMed Central

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  17. The Emotional Labour of Caring in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenbarger, Lynn; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on a collaborative action research study between one teacher and a teacher educator and provides an account of the emotional labour in enacting caring teaching in an inclusive classroom. The emotional labour demanded in caring relationships is an area of research that has not received much attention. Results from this case…

  18. The ethics of surrogacy: women's reproductive labour.

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the surrogate mother herself. Specific attention is paid to the claim that surrogacy is similar to prostitution in that it reduces women's reproductive labour to a form of alienated and/or dehumanized labour. PMID:8778458

  19. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  20. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…

  1. Clinical hypnosis for labour and birth: a consideration.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Labour pain is one of the most important factors in shaping women's experiences of birth. Choice around pharmacological relief can be complex. Clinical hypnosis is a non-pharmacological option which a number of women have chosen to use, often paying privately to do so. Self hypnosis allows women the opportunity to take control of this technique. Research findings relating to the therapy vary; some trials have found positive effects by way of a reduction in use of pharmacological pain relief, oxytocin use and shortened first stage of labour. Inclusion of the therapy as a means to invoke relaxation and counter the effects of stress and anxiety alone may be valid reasons for consideration of its use. This article outlines the framework used in clinical hypnosis and discusses some of the issues relating to the evidence base for it. PMID:23789248

  2. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale. PMID:24581889

  3. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma C; Hutchinson, James L; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  4. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, James L.; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  5. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour

    PubMed Central

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

  6. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12292466

  7. Parenteral opioids for maternal pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Roz; Smith, Lesley A; Burns, Ethel; Mori, Rintaro; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    did not have sufficient evidence to assess which opioid drug provided the best pain relief with the least adverse effects. Authors’ conclusions Parenteral opioids provide some relief from pain in labour but are associated with adverse effects. Maternal satisfaction with opioid analgesia was largely unreported but appeared moderate at best. This review needs to be examined alongside related Cochrane reviews examining pain management in labour. More research is needed to determine which analgesic intervention is most effective, and provides greatest satisfaction to women with acceptable adverse effects for mothers and their newborn. PMID:20824859

  8. Labour economics and healthcare professional education

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professional education is the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development for doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Labour economics is the relationship between workers and employers, and the resultant effect on employment and wages. Healthcare professional education ultimately produces a workforce, and that workforce is governed by the rules of labour economics like any other workforce. Despite all of these largely incontrovertible facts, there has been remarkably little interest in the relationship between healthcare professional education and labour economics. This short article attempts to redress this shortcoming by describing some of the factors that can affect healthcare professional education and labour economics, and aims to mention some of the methods in which these two disciplines can interact with each other. PMID:26478884

  9. The business of care: the moral labour of care workers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eleanor K

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a case study conducted in a private residential care home, this article examines the emotional labour of care workers in relation to the moral construction of care and the practical experiences of work. An examination of the company's discursive attempts to construct, manage and demarcate its employees' emotional labour was carried out alongside an exploration of the carers' own interpretations of, and enrolment in, the care-giving role. The potential economic and emotional consequences of these occurrences were a key focus of the inquiry. The study found that carers, encouraged by the company, naturalised their emotional labour, and that this had contradictory consequences. On the one hand it justified the economic devaluation of the carer's work and left her vulnerable to emotional over-involvement and client aggression. On the other, it allowed the worker to defend the moral interests of those within her care and to see when those interests were in conflict with the economic motivations of her employer. PMID:25601068

  10. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  11. Epidural labour analgesia using Bupivacaine and Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Syal, K; Dogra, RK; Ohri, A; Chauhan, G; Goel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacaine (0.125%) alone, whereas Group II received bupivacaine (0.125%) along with Clonidine (60 μg). 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected as first dose and further doses titrated with patient relief (Numerical Rating Scale <3). Top ups were given whenever Numerical Rating Scale went above 5. Results: There was statistically significant prolongation of duration of analgesia in Group II, with no difference in duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section or foetal outcome. Also clonidine gave dose sparing effect to bupivacaine and there was better patient satisfaction without any significant side effects in Group II. Conclusion: Clonidine is a useful adjunct to bupivacaine for epidural labour analgesia and can be considered as alternative to opioids. PMID:21804714

  12. Labour supply in the home care industry: A case study in a Dutch region.

    PubMed

    Breedveld, Elly J; Meijboom, Bert R; de Roo, Aad A

    2006-04-01

    Health organizations have started to become more market-driven. Therefore, it is important for health organizations to analyse the competitive dynamics of their industrial structure. However, relevant theories and models have mainly been developed for organizations acting in the profit sector. In this paper, we adapt Porter's 'five forces model' to the home care industry. In particular, we modify the (determinants of the) bargaining power of labour suppliers. We then apply the modified Porter-model to the home care industry in the Netherlands for the period of 1987-1997 with special attention for labour supply. The new instrument clarifies the complexity of the supply chains and value systems of the home care industry. As can be illustrated by developments in the home care industry in the province of North Brabant during the 1990s, competition between home care providers has influenced labour market relations, but so do other factors as well. Between 1987 and 1997, the bargaining power of labour suppliers was relatively limited. After 1997, however, the demand for home care personnel has increased strongly. In spite of the present economic recession, scarcity on this labour market seems to prevail in the longer term due to a growing demand for home care services. PMID:16011857

  13. Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Pickering, Ruth M; Getliffe, Kathryn; Saunders, Nigel James St George

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of labouring in water during first stage of labour on rates of epidural analgesia and operative delivery in nulliparous women with dystocia. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting University teaching hospital in southern England. Participants 99 nulliparous women with dystocia (cervical dilation rate < 1 cm/hour in active labour) at low risk of complications. Interventions Immersion in water in birth pool or standard augmentation for dystocia (amniotomy and intravenous oxytocin). Main outcome measures Primary: epidural analgesia and operative delivery rates. Secondary: augmentation rates with amniotomy and oxytocin, length of labour, maternal and neonatal morbidity including infections, maternal pain score, and maternal satisfaction with care. Results Women randomised to immersion in water had a lower rate of epidural analgesia than women allocated to augmentation (47% v 66%, relative risk 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.01), number needed to treat for benefit (NNT) 5). They showed no difference in rates of operative delivery (49% v 50%, 0.98 (0.65 to 1.47), NNT 98), but significantly fewer received augmentation (71% v 96%, 0.74 (0.59 to 0.88), NNT 4) or any form of obstetric intervention (amniotomy, oxytocin, epidural, or operative delivery) (80% v 98%, 0.81 (0.67 to 0.92), NNT 5). More neonates of women in the water group were admitted to the neonatal unit (6 v 0, P = 0.013), but there was no difference in Apgar score, infection rates, or umbilical cord pH. Conclusions Labouring in water under midwifery care may be an option for slow progress in labour, reducing the need for obstetric intervention, and offering an alternative pain management strategy. PMID:14744822

  14. Hypnosis: removing the labour from birth.

    PubMed

    Mottershead, Natalie

    2006-03-01

    Hypnosis has been used in obstetrics for more than a century. However, with increasing numbers of women looking for alternative coping strategies for use during labour, the birth of a new discipline, HypnoBirthing, is gaining in popularity. HypnoBirthing is a hypnotherapy programme specifically designed for birth, employing the principles and techniques of hypnosis and self-relaxation. This article explains the philosophy and principles of HypnoBirthing, the evidence base and its physiological impact on labouring women, brought to life by real accounts. PMID:16562656

  15. Complementary therapy for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michelle; Grabowska, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Midwives at West Middlesex hospital (WMUH) offer complementary therapies as part of antenatal care. Aromatherapy and reflex zone therapy (also known as 'reflexology', a system of using touch on areas of the feet that stimulate parts of the body) are offered to induce spontaneous labour for women with low risk pregnancies once post dates, reducing the need for medical induction of labour (IOL) and intervention and reducing the cost to the NHS. This paper discusses how this service was implemented and developed, and the audit results and feedback from women and midwives. PMID:24163924

  16. A safe, sensible and social AHRSE: New Labour and alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2007-10-01

    When the Labour government came to power in the UK in 1997, it took over high and rising levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Contrary to 'old Labour''s views on alcohol policy, New Labour did nothing to reverse this trend, and, if anything, exacerbated it. Since New Labour has been in power, alcohol has become 40% more affordable; consumption has increased by 14% and alcohol-related deaths have increased by over 40%. New Labour viewed alcohol-related harm as a question of individual responsibility and, as expressed in its long awaited 2004 alcohol harm reduction strategy (commonly known as AHRSE), viewed partnerships with the alcohol industry as the solution to reducing harm. Ten years on we have safe, sensible and social, the 3Ss, AHRSE's next steps. On first reading it would seem that the government has learnt nothing from its mistakes of the previous ten years, and in its approach to alcohol policy continues to disable the public interest. Nevertheless, there remain areas where science might inform policy, including health sector policy where there is an emphasis on early diagnosis and treatment, and transport policy, where reducing the legal blood alcohol level to the European Commission maximum recommended level of 0.5g/L is again on the agenda. The 3Ss propose an independent review of the evidence of the relationship between alcohol price, promotion and harm. However, unless this fully reviews the international evidence of the relationship between the economic and physical availability of alcohol, the marketing of alcohol and alcohol related harm, AHRSE and its successor will continue to be a recipe for ineffectiveness. PMID:17854326

  17. Exploring Professional Support Offered by Midwives during Labour: An Observation and Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Anette; Lundgren, Ingela; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Support in labour has an impact on the childbirth experience as well as on childbirth outcomes. Both social and professional support is needed. The aim of this study was to explore professional support offered by midwives during labour in relation to the supportive needs of the childbearing woman and her partner. The study used a qualitative, inductive design using triangulation, with observation followed by interviews. Seven midwives were observed when caring for seven women/couples in labour. After the observations, individual interviews with midwives, women, and their partners were conducted. Data were analysed using hermeneutical text interpretation. The results are presented with three themes. (1) Support as a professional task seems unclear and less well defined than medical controls. (2) Midwives and parents express somewhat different supportive ideas about how to create a sense of security. (3) Partner and midwife interact in support of the childbearing woman. The main interpretation shows that midwives' supportive role during labour could be understood as them mainly adopting the “with institution” ideology in contrast to the “with woman” ideology. This may increase the risk of childbearing women and their partners perceiving lack of support during labour. There is a need to increase efficiency by providing support for professionals to adopt the “with woman” ideology. PMID:23304482

  18. Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour.

    PubMed Central

    Golding, J.; Greenwood, R.; Birmingham, K.; Mott, M.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess unexpected associations between childhood cancer and pethidine given in labour and the neonatal administration of vitamin K that had emerged in a study performed in the 1970 national birth cohort. DESIGN AND SETTING--195 children with cancer diagnosed in 1971-March 1991 and born in the two major Bristol maternity hospitals in 1965-87 were compared with 558 controls identified from the delivery books for the use of pethidine during labour and administration of vitamin K. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios for cancer in the presence of administration of pethidine or of intramuscular vitamin K. Both logistic regression and Mantel-Haenszel techniques were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS--Children of mothers given pethidine in labour were not at increased risk of cancer (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.5) after allowing for year and hospital of delivery, but there was a significant association (p = 0.002) with intramuscular vitamin K (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.0) when compared with oral vitamin K or no vitamin K. There was no significantly increased risk for children who had been given oral vitamin K when compared with no vitamin K (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 2.7). These results could not be accounted for by other factors associated with administration of intramuscular vitamin K, such as type of delivery or admission to a special care baby unit. CONCLUSIONS--The only two studies so far to have examined the relation between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K have shown similar results, and the relation is biologically plausible. The prophylactic benefits against haemorrhagic disease are unlikely to exceed the potential adverse effects from intramuscular vitamin K. Since oral vitamin K has major benefits but no obvious adverse effects this could be the prophylaxis of choice. PMID:1392886

  19. [Causative hormonal prevention of premature labour].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Labour is the most important caesura in the life of every human being, as it is the ultimate test of the child's fetal maturity to self dependent life, whose onset is connected with a violent change in the circulatory system and the commencement of breathing. Maturity assessment scale comprises such features as, among others: posture, angle forearm, pulling an elbow to the middle line of the body, distribution of lanugo, plantar creases, breast development. They can be objectified through their technical quantification the same way as we give the appropriate number of grams and centimeters when assessing the weight and length of the newborn. However, two equally mature fetuses call differ in mass by 800g, body length by 6 cm, and gestational age by 6 weeks. Relativity of pregnancy duration clearly demonstrates that only the quantitativization of maturity enabled its prenatal assessment on the basis of the rate of increase of the spatial parameters of the baby developing in the mother's womb. The date of the end of pregnancy is determined depending equally on the child's fetal maturity and the mother's readiness to birth, where the placenta plays an important role, as its existence coincides with the individual duration of every pregnancy. The use of industrially synthesized hormones means that those pharmaceuticals contain the whole mixture of side-products of the synthesis of the hormones. The biologically alien corticoid analogues like dexamethasone and betamethasone must, when exerting prolonged action, cause unwanted side effects. In contrast the ACTH-depot administration leads to desired production and secretion of corticoids through the control of the whole body function of the adrenals. Such naturally stimulated endogenous steroid hormones are free from unwanted side effects of drugs from the group of their synthetic analogues. An enormous body of evidence supports the link between the administration of corticotrophin and fetal body mass, maturity and age of

  20. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  1. A New Direction for Schools and Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; O'Connell, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that it is time to get radical about the Left's vision for education and develop a direction that communities can really own. The Labour Party being out of government for the first time in 13 years gives us a chance to consider what education means to the Left, and allows us to be innovative in how the Party can approach…

  2. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  3. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  4. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  5. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with the skin colour and position in the family. The…

  6. [Induction of labour: which method to use?].

    PubMed

    Tinelli, A; Tinelli, R; Tinelli, F G

    2003-12-01

    Induction of labour is a common obstetric instrument to employ when the potential risk to continue a pregnancy is higher than to terminate it. The methods of induction can be pharmacological or mechanical; the choice of the method mainly depends by the cervical ripening, as it is significantly able to influence, according to the type of induction, its final issue. The mechanical methods are: stripping and sweeping of the membranes, hand dilatation of cervix, intrauterine pressure catheters, Laminaria Japonicum, transcervical Foley catheter and amniotomy. To pharmacological methods include some agents such as the prostaglandins (PG), the most common approach to induce a labour, and used above all by vaginal way in patients with unripe cervix. They simulate the natural PG effects at the beginning of delivery and show a great efficiency. There are a lot of PG on the market, but except some of them, as Dinoprostone for PGE2 and Misoprostol for PGE1, no one of them shows the same safety in management of labour. Oxytocin, another inductive method, administered by diluted intravenous infusion, is utilized alone or mainly with other methods when the labour is started or with rupture of the membranes, because it begins or maintains the myometrial contraction. PMID:14676736

  7. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  8. Higher Education Teachers and Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…

  9. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    PubMed

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness. PMID:25188207

  10. Acute Hemoperitoneum after Administration of Prostaglandin E2 for Induction of Labour

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Lou, Jiangyan

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is widely used in obstetrics and is thought to be relatively safe for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Here we present a case in which acute hemoperitoneum was observed after administration of prostaglandin E2 in a pregnant woman. The patient had a history of endometriosis, and a severe pelvic adhesion (ASRM stage IV) was found during her last laparoscopic surgery 3 years previously. In cases with endometriosis, use of prostaglandin E2 for induction of labour in pregnant women must be done cautiously. PMID:26495145

  11. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints – whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance – that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country’s epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the “needed” number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  12. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  13. Women’s perception of pre-hospital labour duration and obstetrical outcomes; a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Progress during early labour may impact subsequent labour trajectories. Women admitted to hospital in latent phase (<3 cm cervical dilation) labour have been shown to be at higher risk of obstetrical interventions. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of 1247 healthy nulliparous women in spontaneous labour at term with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at seven hospitals in Southwestern British Columbia. We computed relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals to examine our primary outcome of cesarean section and secondary outcomes including obstetrical interventions and maternal and newborn outcomes according to women’s perception of length of pre-hospital labour. Women were asked on admission to hospital how long they had been experiencing contractions prior to coming to hospital. Results Women indicating that they had been in labour for 24 hours or longer at the time of hospital admission were at elevated risk for cesarean birth, relative risk (RR) 1.40, (95% Confidence Intervals 1.15-1.72), admission with a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less, RR 1.21 (1.07-1.36), more obstetrical interventions including continuous electronic fetal monitoring RR 1.11 (1.03-1.20), augmentation of labour RR 1.33 (1.23-1.44), use of narcotic RR 1.21 (1.06-1.37) and epidural analgesia RR 1.18 (1.09-1.28). Adverse neonatal outcomes did not differ apart from a significant increase in meconium-stained amniotic fluid RR 1.60 (1.09-2.35). Conclusions A single question asked of women on presentation to hospital was an important predictor of cesarean birth and may have utility in identifying women who would benefit from close observation and more active management of labour. PMID:24884415

  14. Accountability and the Affective Labour of Teachers: A Marxist-Vygotskian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostogriz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of affective labour in education in the context of standards-based reforms and accountability. In particular, it focuses on neoliberal strategies of rationalization and control that produce a number of social pathologies, such as alienated teaching and learning and reified social relations between teachers and…

  15. Guest Worker Programs and Canada: Towards a Foundation for Understanding the Complex Pedagogies of Transnational Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Peter H.; Kempf, Arlo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contextualise historically transnational labour experiences within guest worker programs in Canada and to provide a conceptual foundation for analysing work, learning and living relations with special attention to agricultural workers. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a critical review…

  16. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2008/09 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Service Plan Report reflects the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's success in achieving the overall priorities of the Government of British Columbia, in the current economic conditions and other relevant external factors related to the strategic direction and operations of this Ministry. This paper also highlights…

  17. Social Capitalism and Educational Policy: Democracy, Professionalism and Social Justice under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamarnikow, Eva; Green, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Here we examine New Labour's education policy concerning social justice and the organisation of educational provision with reference to social capital as policy vocabulary. The central focus is on policy discourses and practices in relation to networking between schools and other partners. We identify three policy phases for reducing inequalities…

  18. Linking Qualifications and the Labour Market through Capabilities and Vocational Streams. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…

  19. Is Combining Child Labour and School Education the Right Approach? Investigating the Cambodian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…

  20. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  1. Use of labour induction and risk of cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mishanina, Ekaterina; Rogozinska, Ewelina; Thatthi, Tej; Uddin-Khan, Rehan; Khan, Khalid S.; Meads, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induction of labour is common, and cesarean delivery is regarded as its major complication. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether the risk of cesarean delivery is higher or lower following labour induction compared with expectant management. Methods: We searched 6 electronic databases for relevant articles published through April 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which labour induction was compared with placebo or expectant management among women with a viable singleton pregnancy. We assessed risk of bias and obtained data on rates of cesarean delivery. We used regression analysis techniques to explore the effect of patient characteristics, induction methods and study quality on risk of cesarean delivery. Results: We identified 157 eligible RCTs (n = 31 085). Overall, the risk of cesarean delivery was 12% lower with labour induction than with expectant management (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–0.93; I2 = 0%). The effect was significant in term and post-term gestations but not in preterm gestations. Meta-regression analysis showed that initial cervical score, indication for induction and method of induction did not alter the main result. There was a reduced risk of fetal death (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25–0.99; I2 = 0%) and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.94), and no impact on maternal death (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.10–9.57; I2 = 0%) with labour induction. Interpretation: The risk of cesarean delivery was lower among women whose labour was induced than among those managed expectantly in term and post-term gestations. There were benefits for the fetus and no increased risk of maternal death. PMID:24778358

  2. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective. PMID:22974344

  3. Walking biped humanoids that perform manual labour.

    PubMed

    Hirukawa, Hirohisa

    2007-01-15

    The Humanoid Robotics Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan realized that biped humanoid robots can perform manual labour. The project developed humanoid robot platforms, consisting of humanoid robot hardware and a package of fundamental software, and explored applications of humanoid robots on them. The applications include maintenance tasks of industrial plants, teleoperation of industrial vehicles, cooperative tasks with a human, guarding the home and office and the care of patients in beds. PMID:17148050

  4. Fertility and labour supply in Femina economica.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    1998-10-01

    This paper sets out a formal framework for the biological-evolutionary study of human economic behaviour. Femina economica is a hypothetical parthenogenetic species with a simple economy. Individuals make decisions about labour supply and fertility subject to time and resource constraints. Labour is of differing types and a parent determines the type of her offspring's labour. Wages are determined as marginal productivities from an economy-wide production function. Three propositions are proved, of which the first shows that under very general conditions there exists a population genetic equilibrium, in which individuals' decisions are assumed to be under genetic control. The second shows that at a population genetic equilibrium, individuals have the same behaviour as they would at an economic equilibrium, in which individuals are assumed to maximise a common utility function. The third proposition shows that if the common utility function fulfils certain conditions, the attainment of an economic equilibrium brings about the same behaviour as a population genetic equilibrium. This suggests a way in which evolutionarily stable behaviour can be brought about without the necessity for changes in gene frequencies. Demographic implications include the possibility of interpreting in Darwinian terms the reductions in offspring number that occur in fertility transitions, and the weak or even negative correlation in economically developed societies between control of resources and offspring number. There are implications for economics of deriving utility maximisation from population genetics. PMID:9778448

  5. New Heroines of Labour: Domesticating Post-feminism and Neoliberal Capitalism in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become ‘valuable subjects’. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related. PMID:26663947

  6. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother’s absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293

  7. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  8. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-06-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother's absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293

  9. Wages and Labour Mobility; A Report by a Group of Independent Experts on the Relation between Changes in Wage Differentials and the Pattern of Employment with a Foreword on the Implications of the Study for Income Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deWolff, Pieter; And Others

    To determine the relationship between wage structure and employment patterns available evidence on changes in relative earnings and in relative numbers employed were surveyed for periods up to 15 years in 10 countries: Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Some findings…

  10. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

  11. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  12. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  13. Inverse roles of emotional labour on health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Erika; Abe, Takeru; Ono, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labour increases among long-term care workers because providing care and services to impaired elders causes conflicting interpersonal emotions. Thus, we investigated the associations between emotional labour, general health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 132 established, private day care centres in Tokyo using a mail survey. The outcome variables included two health-related variables and four job satisfaction variables: physical and psychological health, satisfaction with wages, interpersonal relationships, work environment and job satisfaction. We performed multiple regression analyses to identify significant factors. Directors from 36 facilities agreed to participate. A total of 123 responses from long-term care workers were analysed. Greater emotional dissonance was associated with better physical and psychological health and worse work environment satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -2.93, p = .0389; -3.32, p = .0299; -1.92, p = .0314, respectively). Fewer negative emotions were associated with more job satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -1.87, p = .0163). We found that emotional labour was significantly inversely associated with health and job satisfaction. Our findings indicated that the emotional labour of long-term care workers has a negative and positive influence on health and workplace satisfaction, and suggests that care quality and stable employment among long-term care workers might affect their emotional labour. Therefore, we think a programme to support emotional labour among long-term care workers in an organized manner and a self-care programme to educate workers regarding emotional labour would be beneficial. PMID:25263457

  14. Availability of Skilled Labour in Selected Occupations in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Cooney, Richard; Long, Michael; Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This report investigates the future supply of and demand for certain types of skilled labour at the trades and sub-trades levels that will be required for these projects up to 2010. In particular, it focuses on skilled labour in the mechanical, fabrication and electrical trades and mobile plant operators and construction workers in the sub-trades.…

  15. New Labour and Teacher Education: The End of an Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the development of teacher education policy during the first two terms of the New Labour government. It argues that there is substantial evidence to support the claim that during their two terms of office, New Labour forged a policy on teacher education that was distinctively different from the Conservative administrations that…

  16. New Labour and Education: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the evidence concerning performance and progress in the primary school over the lifetime of New Labour's tenure in government since 1997. It examines the claims made by New Labour that the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies have been an outstanding success and have changed the ways that teachers teach. On the evidence of the…

  17. Faculty in the U.S. Community College: Corporate Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Community college faculty are a major labour force in the U.S. and constitute one-third of all postsecondary education faculty. As a labour force, community college faculty epitomize professional work in the new economy and the post-bureaucratic organization: they are predominantly temporary or part-time; the majority bargain collectively for a…

  18. New Labour and the Logic of Practice in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…

  19. Performing Labour in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the theme of "performing labour" in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond" (2013). In this performance, individual audience members participate as a generic staff member in a fully functioning five star hotel in London. I consider three modes of performing labour in "Above and Beyond":…

  20. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  1. Computing Careers and Irish Higher Education: A Labour Market Anomaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…

  2. Gove's Offensive and the Failure of Labour's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author examines the response of the Labour leadership to the Conservative-led Government's policies for restructuring and re-agenting the school system. His focus is on the role of local authorities and local democracy. He identifies two contradictory dynamics in Labour's current thinking. One promises to enhance local…

  3. New Labour's Policies for Schools: Raising the Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, Jim, Ed.

    This book, which is designed primarily for undergraduate and graduate students of education, contains 12 papers devoted the New Labour's policies for schools in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Jim Docking) presents an overview of the book's contents and lists questions to help evaluate the effectiveness of New Labour's educational policies.…

  4. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  5. Workers with Disabilities and the Challenges of Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilton, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of emotional labour for workers with disabilities, drawing on qualitative data from interviews with 59 respondents who had disabilities and who worked in service sector occupations. The analysis illustrates that employer demands for emotional labour may prove difficult for workers with a range of disabilities,…

  6. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern apprenticeship" schemes adopted…

  7. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  8. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  9. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473

  10. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  11. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: a British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Design Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. Results British American Tobacco co‐founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US$2.3 million over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US$40 million over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's “corporate social responsibility agenda” rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. Conclusion In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco. PMID:16728754

  12. Regulation of human myometrial contractility during pregnancy and labour: are calcium homeostatic pathways important?

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M

    2001-03-01

    If we are to develop new strategies for the treatment and management of preterm and dysfunctional term labour, it is imperative that we improve current understanding of the control of human uterine activity. Despite many studies of animal pregnancy, there is a paucity of knowledge relating to the complex control of human myometrium during pregnancy. It is hypothesized that human myometrium is relatively quiescent during the majority of pregnancy and that as term approaches there is cascade of molecular events that prepare the uterus for labour. This review will consider the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human myometrial activity and the modulation of these by hormonal and mechanical signals. In particular, the contribution of calcium homeostatic pathways to the control of human myometrial contractility during gestation will be discussed. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 247-254. PMID:11429641

  13. Identification of Chemokines Associated with the Recruitment of Decidual Leukocytes in Human Labour: Potential Novel Targets for Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Sarah A.; Tower, Clare L.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL) focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface). Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL) and term labour (TL), thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL), idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI). Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid. The current

  14. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits.

    PubMed

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur. PMID:24697384

  15. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur.

  16. Induction of Labour: Change of Method and its Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, S.; Weiss, C.; Dammer, U.; Raabe, E.; Burghaus, S.; Heimrich, J.; Hackl, J.; Winkler, M.; Beckmann, M. W.; Faschingbauer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The combination of mechanical and drug procedures for the induction of labour seems to be beneficial. Accordingly, the normal procedure in clinical routine has been changed and induction of labour by means of a balloon catheter has been implemented. The aim of this study was to find out if this procedural change has resulted in a more effective induction of labour. Materials and Method: In this historical cohort study 230 inductions of labour at term in the year 2012 were compared with 291 inductions of labour in the year 2013, all at the University of Erlangen Perinatal Centre. Exclusion criteria were, among others, a multiple pregnancy, a premature rupture of membranes and a prior Caesarean section. In 2012 births were induced solely by use of the drugs dinoprostone and misoprostol, in 2013 not only with misoprostol but also mainly by use of a balloon catheter. The primary target parameter was the rate of failed labour inductions, defined as “no birth within 72 hours”. Results: Altogether 521 inductions of labour were analysed. The rate of failed inductions of labour could be reduced by the changes in induction method (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204). Furthermore, the rate of primary Caesarean sections due to failed induction of labour (5.7 vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.0064), that of the observation of green amniotic fluid (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204) and of infantile infections (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204) were all reduced as well. Conclusion: The routine use of a balloon catheter for induction of labour has markedly improved the procedure. There were fewer failed labour inductions and fewer Caesarean sections due to failed induction of labour. PMID:25914416

  17. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  18. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

  19. The Labour Market, Skill Formation and Training in the "Post-Developmental" State: The Example of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insub

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the nature of the post-developmental state in the Republic of Korea with respect to skill formation and training. It takes as its starting point the changing structure of the labour market in relation to elements of economic globalisation. In responding to these changes the state has introduced new actors with respect to…

  20. Comparison of automatic oscillometric arterial pressure measurement with conventional auscultatory measurement in the labour ward.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M A; Thomas, T A; Prys-Roberts, C

    1993-02-01

    We have compared two non-invasive methods of arterial pressure (AP) measurement used in labour wards: an automatic oscillometric measurement obtained by Dinamap 1846, and a conventional auscultatory measurement obtained by midwives. A total of 369 AP measurements were recorded, involving 28 normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women during labour, with or without extradural analgesia. Compared with the midwife group, the Dinamap group had a greater systolic AP, by 2.7 mm Hg (P < 0.01) and smaller diastolic AP, by 9.8 mm Hg (P < 0.01). The correlations between the two methods were highly significant, but the limits of agreement were relatively wide for both systolic and diastolic AP measurements. We conclude that a clinically important difference exists in diastolic AP measurements. Dinamap diastolic AP must be corrected using a regression equation, or simply by adding 10 mm Hg, before being compared with the available normal and hypertensive AP values. PMID:8435255

  1. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  2. Labour and residential accessibility: a Bayesian analysis based on Poisson gravity models with spatial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. P.; Beamonte, M. A.; Gargallo, P.; Salvador, M. J.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we measure jointly the labour and the residential accessibility of a basic spatial unit using a Bayesian Poisson gravity model with spatial effects. The accessibility measures are broken down into two components: the attractiveness component, which is related to its socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the impedance component, which reflects the ease of communication within and between basic spatial units. For illustration purposes, the methodology is applied to a data set containing information about commuters from the Spanish region of Aragón. We identify the areas with better labour and residential accessibility, and we also analyse the attractiveness and the impedance components of a set of chosen localities which allows us to better understand their mobility patterns.

  3. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    PubMed Central

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  4. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925

  5. Why Should Workers Know More about International Labour Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Zdenek

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness and importance of international labor standards for workers; workers' participation in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) standard-setting activities and in the implementation of international labor standards; and the ILO's procedures of supervision. (CT)

  6. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925

  7. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate what impact individuals’ position in a labour market core–periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992–2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993–2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core–periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20–39 years. Conclusions The core–periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. PMID:25142263

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  9. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision. PMID:11560707

  10. The Ulysses contract in obstetrics: a woman's choices before and during labour.

    PubMed

    Burcher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Women recognise that labour represents a mind-altering event that may affect their ability to make and communicate decisions and choices. For this reason, birth plans and other pre-labour directives can represent a form of Ulysses contract: an attempt to make binding choices before the sometimes overwhelming circumstances of labour. These choices need to be respected during labour, but despite the reduced decisional and communicative capacity of a labouring woman, her choices, when clear, should supersede decisions made before labour. PMID:23065492

  11. Diminished hERG K+ channel activity facilitates strong human labour contractions but is dysregulated in obese women.

    PubMed

    Parkington, Helena C; Stevenson, Janet; Tonta, Mary A; Paul, Jonathan; Butler, Trent; Maiti, Kaushik; Chan, Eng-Cheng; Sheehan, Penelope M; Brennecke, Shaun P; Coleman, Harold A; Smith, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels determine cardiac action potential and contraction duration. Human uterine contractions are underpinned by an action potential that also possesses an initial spike followed by prolonged depolarization. Here we show that hERG channel proteins (α-conducting and β-inhibitory subunits) and hERG currents exist in isolated patch-clamped human myometrial cells. We show that hERG channel activity suppresses contraction amplitude and duration before labour, thereby facilitating quiescence. During established labour, expression of β-inhibitory protein is markedly enhanced, resulting in reduced hERG activity that is associated with an increased duration of uterine action potentials and contractions. Thus, changes in hERG channel activity contribute to electrophysiological mechanisms that produce contractions during labour. We also demonstrate that this system fails in women with elevated BMI, who have enhanced hERG activity as a result of low β-inhibitory protein expression, which likely contributes to the weak contractions and poor labour outcomes observed in many obese women necessitating caesarean delivery. PMID:24937480

  12. The origin of violent behaviour among child labourers in India.

    PubMed

    Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B

    2008-01-01

    We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted. PMID:19288361

  13. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  14. Arab women and the labour market.

    PubMed

    Bint Talal, B

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a summary and excerpts from a speech given by Her Royal Highness Basma bint Talal, sister of His Majesty King Hussein of Jordan, before the International Institute for Labor Studies of the International Labour Organization on March 26, 1996. Princess Talal spoke about the conditions among Arab women, their contributions to work and political life, and suggestions for the increased participation of women. Reference is made to the UN Development Report for 1995 that indicates a very low (under 20%) level of participation among Arab women in the labor force and a modest literacy rate of 40%. The developing country averages are higher than the averages for Arab women. Arab family networks and practices have benefitted women. Even the poorest Arab countries have less hunger and starvation than other developing countries. Rape is almost "nonexistent" and drugs and prostitution are limited. There are few births outside of marriage and few single parent families. Community violence is generally low, except within less-advantaged groups. Labor statistics do not count women engaged in farming and other domestic production activities. Low labor force participation rates among Arab women are attributed to high illiteracy, high fertility, and social customs. Almost 50% of Arab women are under 15 years old, and there is difficulty in creating opportunities for new female labor entrants due to the high unemployment rates for men (12.6%) and women (29.4%). The future looks more hopeful as literacy rates among women rise and school enrollment rates for women rise. Arab women are legally entitled to equal opportunities for work with men of the same qualifications. Women need to be encouraged to take up productive work and income generation and to assume political leadership roles. The Jordanian National Forum for Women and the Jordanian National Committee for Women are active at the grassroots and national levels. PMID:12347373

  15. A simplified cervix model in response to induction balloon in pre-labour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is poorly understood even though it is performed in 20% of births in the United States. One method of induction, the balloon dilator applied with traction to the interior os of the cervix, engages a softening process, permitting dilation and effacement to proceed until the beginning of active labour. The purpose of this work is to develop a simple model capable of reproducing the dilation and effacement effect in the presence of a balloon. Methods The cervix, anchored by the uterus and the endopelvic fascia was modelled in pre-labour. The spring-loaded, double sliding-joint, double pin-joint mechanism model was developed with a Modelica-compatible system, MapleSoft MapleSim 6.1, with a stiff Rosenbrock solver and 1E-4 absolute and relative tolerances. Total simulation time for pre-labour was seven hours and simulations ended at 4.50 cm dilation diameter and 2.25 cm effacement. Results Three spring configurations were tested: one pin joint, one sliding joint and combined pin-joint-sliding-joint. Feedback, based on dilation speed modulated the spring values, permitting controlled dilation. Dilation diameter speed was maintained at 0.692 cm·hr-1 over the majority of the simulation time. In the sliding-joint-only mode the maximum spring constant value was 23800 N·m-1. In pin-joint-only the maximum spring constant value was 0.41 N·m·rad-1. With a sliding-joint-pin-joint pair the maximum spring constants are 2000 N·m-1 and 0.41 N·m·rad-1, respectively. Conclusions The model, a simplified one-quarter version of the cervix, is capable of maintaining near-constant dilation rates, similar to published clinical observations for pre-labour. Lowest spring constant values are achieved when two springs are used, but nearly identical tracking of dilation speed can be achieved with only a pin joint spring. Initial and final values for effacement and dilation also match published clinical observations. These results provide a framework for

  16. [Increased risk of stillbirth in older mothers--a rationale for induction of labour before term?].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Wolff, F

    2014-10-01

    The average age of childbearing has risen markedly in Germany and other high-income countries during the past 2 decades. Women aged 35 years or older have an increase in pregnancy complications and in preexisting medical conditions including obesity, diabetes and hypertension as well as a significant increase in the gestational age-related rate of stillbirth compared to younger mothers. Additional individual risk factors for stillbirth are primiparity, body mass index>30 and smoking. After exclusion of risk factors the absolute risk of stillbirth in women aged≥40 years old is 2-fold higher (1 in 503 maternities) at 39/40 weeks of gestation compared to women aged<35 years (1 in 1 020 maternities) at the same gestational age. Women aged 40 years or older have a similar stillbirth risk at 39 weeks of gestation to 25-29-year-olds at 41 weeks gestation. The underlying mechanism for the excess risk of stillbirth in women of advanced maternal age after exclusion of congenital anomalies is unknown. Independent of maternal age the cumulative probability of perinatal death increases from 1.8/1 000 deliveries at 38 weeks of gestation to 9.3/1 000 deliveries at 42 weeks of gestation. Whether on the basis of these data induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation should be recommended in women of advanced maternal age has recently been discussed in a Scientific Impact Paper of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. In this context it should be taken into account that the rate of Caesarean sections in women aged 40 years or over is 40%, and, in particular, older nulliparous may request elective Caesaran section rather than elective induction of labour. Recent metaanalyses have shown that elective induction of labour before or after term is not associated with an increase of the Caesarean section rate compared to expectant management. Up to now no randomised controlled trials exist and consequently no -recommendations from current guidelines regarding

  17. Impact of social factors on labour discrimination of disabled women.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve their chances of entering the labour market. The current work adopts a constructivist perspective on disability and offers a preliminary examination of the influence of social factors, such as the rural or urban nature of the disabled women's place of residence, the assistance they receive from their family or outside the family, the quantity of information they receive about the labour market, and their educational level, on the activity and employment status of this group of people. PMID:19692206

  18. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  19. Epidemiology and hazards of student labour in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, A H; Khalil, I A H; El-Wehady, A

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of student labour, underlying causes and impacts, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 1293 students enrolled in government secondary schools in Mansoura. Year-round work was reported by 8.6% of students and summer work by 27.5%. The majority worked for > or =6 hours/day. Lower social status, attending vocational school, male sex, large family size and rural residence were significant predictors of student labour. Hazards at the workplace, injuries and corporal punishment were prevalent among working students. Work adversely affected education and social life. Contribution to family income was the main reason for working. PMID:17684857

  20. South Carolina Shipyards: Labour, Logistics, Lumber and Ladies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.

  1. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  2. NO-induced relaxation of labouring and non-labouring human myometrium is not mediated by cyclic GMP.

    PubMed

    Buxton, I L; Kaiser, R A; Malmquist, N A; Tichenor, S

    2001-09-01

    1. In myometrial strips from near-term non-labouring human uterus, addition of oxytocin (OT) evoked dose-dependent (10 - 3000 nM) phasic contractions that were antagonized by atosiban (1 microM) and relaxed by addition of the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso L-cysteine (Cys-NO). In near-term labouring myometrium, however, addition of OT was ineffective at raising additional tone. 2. In both labouring and non-labouring tissue, Cys-NO mediated relaxation of spontaneous or OT-induced contractions (IC(50)=1 microM) was unaffected by prior addition of the guanylyl cyclase (GC) inhibitors ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one; 1 microM), or methylene blue (MB; 10 microM). 3. Elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP accompanying 30 microM Cys-NO addition in non-labouring tissue (7.5 fold) or in labouring tissues (2.5 fold) was completely blocked in tissues that had been pre-treated with ODQ or MB. 4. Charybdotoxin (ChTx), iberiotoxin (IbTx) and kaliotoxin (KalTx) all shifted the Cys-NO inhibition curve to the right and reduced the degree of relaxation produced by maximal Cys-NO treatment (100 microM in non-labouring tissue; in labouring tissue, KalTx prevented Cys-NO mediated relaxation in both stimulated and unstimulated tissue. 5. Addition of the NO-donor S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) produced a dose-dependent relaxation of pregnant myometrium while 3-morpholinosyndonimine (SIN-1) did not. The failure of SIN-1 to relax OT-induced contractions was not due to a failure of the donor to stimulate myometrial GC. 6. We demonstrate that despite the ability of NO to stimulate myometrial GC in pregnant uterine muscle, relaxations are independent of cyclic GMP action. Effects of K(+)-channel inhibitors suggests that NO-induced relaxation in human uterine smooth muscle may be subserved by direct or indirect activation of one or more calcium-activated K(+)-channels. PMID:11522613

  3. Training and Labour Market Integration of Education Science Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…

  4. Child Domestic Labour: A Modern Form of Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blagbrough, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a global scene for the scope of child domestic labour and explores the inter-woven relationship between the practice and slavery, as well as the consequences for this uniquely vulnerable group of child workers. In doing so, it seeks to dispel the myths that child domestic work is a safe form of employment for girls…

  5. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  6. Labour insecurity and health: an epidemiological study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Loewenson, R

    1988-01-01

    Existing data on health status and health care provision in agricultural labour communities in Zimbabwe indicate that both are poor. In addition, there is evidence that the concentration of capital through increased areas of landholdings, through mechanisation and use of agrochemicals produces a rise in under- and unemployment within the agricultural sector, which increases the risk of ill health. This paper addresses this question in Zimbabwe by examining the nature of developments within the large scale agricultural sector in the last decade, and the consequent effects on employment and income. Rising capital intensity in the private large scale sector is found to be associated with increases in unemployment and underemployment. The impact of this socioeconomic pattern on health is assessed in a longitudinal assessment of 78 permanent labour families and 76 non-permanent (underemployed) labour families in the large scale farming sector. The study shows that while poor social, economic and health conditions exist in all groups, non-permanent labour households suffer greater insecurity of employment and income, poorer health status and lesser participation in sociopolitical structures important for negotiating primary health care gains. PMID:3227374

  7. Labour Policy for Lower Achievers, Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This article notes that the attempt to include all young people in education, an aim of Labour governments over the years, still relies on an expanded and expensive special educational needs "industry". How to include all lower attainers and those with disabilities in the education system and the economy is a political issue for a Labour…

  8. A Labour of Love: Mothers, Emotional Capital and Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new analysis of homework by building on feminist scholarship which documents the invisible labour done by women in support of their children's education. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between homework and achievement, little attention has been paid to the largely gendered and potentially stressful…

  9. Impact of Social Factors on Labour Discrimination of Disabled Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaria, Maria-Leticia; Mondejar-Jimenez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve…

  10. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). As students…

  11. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Ban, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…

  12. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  13. Education Policy and Practice "under" New Labour: An Epistolary Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Since the election of 1997 New Labour's education policy has been subject to variety of forms of critique--in this journal and others. One of the sources for such critique has been a barrage of letters unleashed for over a decade by Colin Richards in the "Times Educational Supplement". Here are reproduced a self-edited selection of his published…

  14. Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

  15. Learning for Labour: Specialist Diplomas and 14-19 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Education Act provided an entitlement for all 14 year-olds to take a specialist diploma from 2013. Despite concerns of many educationalists and politicians, the first diplomas will begin in September 2008. New Labour claims that the diplomas are innovative and challenging; however, this article argues that they exhibit many of the…

  16. Labour Studies, the Liberal Arts, and the Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the US, the value of liberal arts is in question as neo-liberal reformers push for a more instrumentalist form of higher education. Older traditions of worker education, however, along with more recent university-based labour studies programs, offer a compelling counter-narrative concerning the social and political purpose of higher education.…

  17. Common Sense or Professional Qualifications? Division of Labour in Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Gerd Sylvi

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the division of labour between kindergarten teachers and assistants in Norwegian kindergartens and discusses the two groups' perceptions of what kind of knowledge is important in order to carry out their tasks. This study is based on a survey representing kindergartens from all over Norway, and is part of a national…

  18. The Portuguese Youth Labour Market: A Critical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…

  19. From Learning to Labour to Learning for Precarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovemark, Marianne; Beach, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A demand on national economies in the 1970s was that they should begin to increase their labour market flexibility, which came to mean transferring risks and insecurity onto workers. Education was one way to prepare future workers for this new situation. The present article examines this preparation of learning for precarity some 40 years on. It…

  20. Audit Cultures, Labour, and Conservative Movements in the Global University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    I want to use this essay -- basically a commentary -- as a context for some political reflections on what is happening to the governance and the labour processes at universities internationally. In the process, in addition to my critical reflections on the neoliberal impulses affecting universities, I want to do two other things. First, I shall…

  1. The Value of Childcare: Class, Gender and Caring Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Yarrow; Newman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing attention being paid to early childhood services as the foundation for lifelong learning, one issue seems to be consistently ignored--staff wages. The authors argue that this constitutes ongoing exploitation of childcare staff, and that this exploitation is a result of gendered and classed discourses around caring labour. As…

  2. The International Institute for Labour Studies: Appraisal and Forward Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robert W.

    An appraisal is made of work accomplished by the International Institute for Labour Studies during the period 1965-1970, and guidelines for future development are suggested. Educational work accomplished by the institute since 1965 followed the general purpose of providing leadership education for those in labor and social policy fields. Related…

  3. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  4. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  5. The Relevance of Doctoral Training in Different Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…

  6. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…

  7. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  8. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  9. Predicting Preterm Labour: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Harry M.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Permezel, Michael; Brennecke, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm labour and birth are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite modern advances in obstetric and neonatal management, the rate of preterm birth in the developed world is increasing. Yet even though numerous risk factors associated with preterm birth have been identified, the ability to accurately predict when labour will occur remains elusive, whether it is at a term or preterm gestation. In the latter case, this is likely due to the multifactorial aetiology of preterm labour wherein women may display different clinical presentations that lead to preterm birth. The discovery of novel biomarkers that could reliably identify women who will subsequently deliver preterm may allow for timely medical intervention and targeted therapeutic treatments aimed at improving maternal and fetal outcomes. Various body fluids including amniotic fluid, urine, saliva, blood (serum/plasma), and cervicovaginal fluid all provide a rich protein source of putative biochemical markers that may be causative or reflective of the various pathophysiological disorders of pregnancy, including preterm labour. This short review will highlight recent advances in the field of biomarker discovery and the utility of single and multiple biomarkers for the prediction of preterm birth in the absence of intra-amniotic infection. PMID:26160993

  10. Skill Needs: Linking Labour Market Analysis and Vocational Training. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication contains workshop papers which discuss the link between the labor market and vocational training. Part I provides an overview of the workshop--its objectives, issues, and conclusions. Part II consists of seven country papers. "Labour Market Information (LMI) and Vocational Training Decision-Making in Hungary" (Lazar) outlines…

  11. Vocational Trajectories within the Australian Labour Market. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is researching…

  12. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  13. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.

  14. Insulin during pregnancy, labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Harold W; Visser, Gerard H A

    2011-02-01

    subcutaneous insulin administration (CSII (insulin pump)) over intensive insulin injection therapy (multiple-dose insulin (MDI)) on any maternal or foeto-neonatal end point. However, group sizes were far too small to allow assessment of superiority and issues such as manageability of the disease and quality of life were never assessed. These two issues are of major importance to patients. The first trimester is often the period of most hypoglycaemic events, and insulin therapy should be especially closely monitored and adjusted in this period. After midterm, insulin requirements increase. Continuous glucose monitoring can offer better insights into the glycaemic profile than self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by the patients but the place of these new monitoring techniques has yet to be established more clearly. Insulin therapy during labour means short-acting insulin adjusted to achieve glucose levels between 4 and 8 mmol l(-1) to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia as much as possible. After delivery, glycaemic control must be relaxed to prevent hypoglycaemia, especially in women who breastfeed. PMID:21186142

  15. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  16. Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment. PMID:23859734

  17. Changing Labour Markets and Early Career Outcomes: Labour Market Entry in Europe over the Past Decade. Working Papers = Arbeitspapiere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangl, Markus

    An empirical analysis used data for 12 European countries from the 1988-1997 European Community Labour Force Survey to assess the effects of cyclical changes in aggregate economic conditions, changing youth cohort sizes, increasing educational expansion, and structural changes in labor demand on new labor force participants. Emphasis was on the…

  18. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  19. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  20. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period. PMID:18222445

  1. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681

  2. Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism. PMID:21258426

  3. [Brain damage in a child after outpatient induction of labour].

    PubMed

    Hill, Stig A; Aasheim, Erlend T

    2013-06-17

    A 32-year-old woman had labour induced (25 + 25 microgram misoprostol vaginally) at 291 days gestation for post-term pregnancy. A cardiotocography (CTG) showed normal conditions. The woman went home to await regular contractions in line with hospital policy. She awoke at 3.15 a.m. with abdominal pain and came to the labour ward at 3.45 a.m. with less pain but a desire to push. The cervix was dilated but the foetal head sat high in the pelvis. Internal CTG showed a pre-terminal pattern. A girl was born at 4.27 a.m. She had hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (APGAR at 1, 5 and 10 min.: 1, 3, 3; umbilical cord arterial blood pH 6.71, base excess -19.9 mmol/l). At the age of three years she had severe cerebral palsy. PMID:23773216

  4. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  5. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees.

    PubMed

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes. PMID:26300489

  6. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  7. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources. PMID:22727652

  8. The Right to Education for Children in Domestic Labour: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munene, Ishmael I.; Ruto, Sara J.

    2010-02-01

    Since 1948, various UN conventions have recognised basic education as a human right. Yet this right continues to be denied to many child labourers across the world. This articles draws on the results of a study examining how children in domestic labour in Kenya access and participate in education. Three issues were explored: (1) the correlates of child domestic labourers; (2) their working conditions and contexts; and (3) the right to education. Interviews and group discussions held in one city and two rural districts elicited data from 91 child domestic labourers and 84 adults. The results indicated that child labour was both poverty-induced and adult-initiated, and that children worked in hazardous environments characterised by economic exploitation. Most did not attend school; those who did had to contend with a rigid school structure and an authoritarian class environment. Children in domestic labour often skipped school, and their participation in classes was low.

  9. Socio-economic determinants of child labour and attitudes to child labour among school children in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Omokhodion, S I

    2004-12-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to compare the characteristics of working and non-working school children. Two hundred and thirty one working and 236 non-working children were interviewed. The socio economic factors associated with child labour were trading as mother's occupation, father's educational status, religion, family type (monogamous vs polygamous) and type of residence. Family type (OR = 0.562, 95% C.I. 0.353-0.897, p = 0.016), religion (OR = 0.559, 95% C.I. 0.361-0.867, p = 0.009) and trading as mother's occupation (O.R = 2.49, 95% CI 1.68-3.68, p = 0.000) were sustained on logistic regression analysis. With regard to attitude to child work, 186 (40%) of all respondents thought that children should be allowed to work. The majority of those who held this opinion 150, were child workers. Ten percent of working children had themselves chosen to work without any parental influence to do so. Seventy five respondents had ever repeated a class. Forty nine of these were working children a prevalence of 21% of repeaters compared to 26 non working children, (11%.) p = 0.004. Sixty eight percent of children aspiring to careers in artisan trades were child workers. Road traffic accidents and poor school performance were the commonest adverse effects of child labour indicated by school children. Parents should be educated about the adverse effects of child labour on child development. As poverty is one of the major root causes of child labour, free and compulsory primary education may help to reduce the notion of child work as an option for survival in poor families. PMID:15977436

  10. Effects of algorithm for diagnosis of active labour: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Hundley, Vanora; Dowding, Dawn; Bland, J Martin; McNamee, Paul; Greer, Ian; Styles, Maggie; Barnett, Carol A; Scotland, Graham; Niven, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an algorithm for diagnosis of active labour in primiparous women with standard care in terms of maternal and neonatal outcomes. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Maternity units in Scotland with at least 800 annual births. Participants 4503 women giving birth for the first time, in 14 maternity units. Seven experimental clusters collected data from a baseline sample of 1029 women and a post-implementation sample of 896 women. The seven control clusters had a baseline sample of 1291 women and a post-implementation sample of 1287 women. Intervention Use of an algorithm by midwives to assist their diagnosis of active labour, compared with standard care. Main outcomes Primary outcome: use of oxytocin for augmentation of labour. Secondary outcomes: medical interventions in labour, admission management, and birth outcome. Results No significant difference was found between groups in percentage use of oxytocin for augmentation of labour (experimental minus control, difference=0.3, 95% confidence interval −9.2 to 9.8; P=0.9) or in the use of medical interventions in labour. Women in the algorithm group were more likely to be discharged from the labour suite after their first labour assessment (difference=−19.2, −29.9 to −8.6; P=0.002) and to have more pre-labour admissions (0.29, 0.04 to 0.55; P=0.03). Conclusions Use of an algorithm to assist midwives with the diagnosis of active labour in primiparous women did not result in a reduction in oxytocin use or in medical intervention in spontaneous labour. Significantly more women in the experimental group were discharged home after their first labour ward assessment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00522952. PMID:19064606

  11. The Enduring Debate over Unpaid Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneria, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national accounting statistics. Responds to the continuing criticism that women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided. (JOW)

  12. Educational Planning and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between education and the labor market, with a focus on the technical side and on the economic connection, is investigated. A potential role of educational planning for smoothing out market imperfections and thus preventing the emergence of social problems relating to the education-work relationship is discussed. (MLW)

  13. Labour Market Flexibility: Trends in Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Since the mid-1980s, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has carried out a number of studies on the issues of labor market flexibility under the supervision of the Manpower and Social Affairs Committee and its Working Party on Industrial Relations. While much of the previous work focused on the external forms of labor…

  14. Complementary therapies for labour and birth study: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal integrative medicine for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Levett, Kate M; Smith, C A; Bensoussan, A; Dahlen, H G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an antenatal integrative medicine education programme in addition to usual care for nulliparous women on intrapartum epidural use. Design Open-label, assessor blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting 2 public hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Population 176 nulliparous women with low-risk pregnancies, attending hospital-based antenatal clinics. Methods and intervention The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth protocol, based on the She Births and acupressure for labour and birth courses, incorporated 6 evidence-based complementary medicine techniques: acupressure, visualisation and relaxation, breathing, massage, yoga techniques, and facilitated partner support. Randomisation occurred at 24–36 weeks’ gestation, and participants attended a 2-day antenatal education programme plus standard care, or standard care alone. Main outcome measures Rate of analgesic epidural use. Secondary: onset of labour, augmentation, mode of birth, newborn outcomes. Results There was a significant difference in epidural use between the 2 groups: study group (23.9%) standard care (68.7%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.55), p≤0.001). The study group participants reported a reduced rate of augmentation (RR=0.54 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77), p<0.0001); caesarean section (RR=0.52 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.87), p=0.017); length of second stage (mean difference=−0.32 (95% CI −0.64 to 0.002), p=0.05); any perineal trauma (0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), p=0.02) and resuscitation of the newborn (RR=0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), p≤0.015). There were no statistically significant differences found in spontaneous onset of labour, pethidine use, rate of postpartum haemorrhage, major perineal trauma (third and fourth degree tears/episiotomy), or admission to special care nursery/neonatal intensive care unit (p=0.25). Conclusions The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth study protocol significantly reduced epidural use and caesarean section. This

  15. Methods of induction of labour: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rates of labour induction are increasing. We conducted this systematic review to assess the evidence supporting use of each method of labour induction. Methods We listed methods of labour induction then reviewed the evidence supporting each. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library between 1980 and November 2010 using multiple terms and combinations, including labor, induced/or induction of labor, prostaglandin or prostaglandins, misoprostol, Cytotec, 16,16,-dimethylprostaglandin E2 or E2, dinoprostone; Prepidil, Cervidil, Dinoprost, Carboprost or hemabate; prostin, oxytocin, misoprostol, membrane sweeping or membrane stripping, amniotomy, balloon catheter or Foley catheter, hygroscopic dilators, laminaria, dilapan, saline injection, nipple stimulation, intercourse, acupuncture, castor oil, herbs. We performed a best evidence review of the literature supporting each method. We identified 2048 abstracts and reviewed 283 full text articles. We preferentially included high quality systematic reviews or large randomised trials. Where no such studies existed, we included the best evidence available from smaller randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Results We included 46 full text articles. We assigned a quality rating to each included article and a strength of evidence rating to each body of literature. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vaginal misoprostol were more effective than oxytocin in bringing about vaginal delivery within 24 hours but were associated with more uterine hyperstimulation. Mechanical methods reduced uterine hyperstimulation compared with PGE2 and misoprostol, but increased maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity compared with other methods. Membrane sweeping reduced post-term gestations. Most included studies were too small to evaluate risk for rare adverse outcomes. Conclusions Research is needed to determine benefits and harms of many induction methods. PMID:22032440

  16. Postpartum septic sacroiliitis coincident with labour epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, J M

    2008-11-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented to hospital 10 days after emergency caesarean section with severe back pain, fever tachycardia and a raised C-reactive protein. She had received labour epidural analgesia and was investigated for an epidural abscess. After repeat magnetic resonance imaging she was ultimately diagnosed with septic sacroiliitis. Although an uncommon cause of back pain, pregnancy-associated sacroiliitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post-epidural back pain, as the presentation and symptoms of an epidural infection and sacroiliitis are similar. We recommend imaging to include the sacroiliac joints when considering the diagnosis of an epidural collection. PMID:19115661

  17. Property and women's alienation from their own reproductive labour.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, D L

    2001-06-01

    There is an urgent need for reconstructing models of property to make them more women-friendly. However, we need not start from scratch: both 'canonical' and feminist authors can sometimes provide concepts which we can refine and apply towards women's propertylessness. This paper looks in particular at women's alienation from their reproductive labour, building on Marx and Delphy. Developing an economic and political rather than a psychological reading of alienation, it then considers how the refined and revised concept can be applied to concrete examples in global justice for women: in particular, the commercialisation of embryonic and fetal tissue in the new stem cell technologies. PMID:11700675

  18. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    PubMed

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers. PMID:12159614

  19. Medical and Social Determinants of Subsequent Labour Market Marginalization in Young Hospitalized Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C.; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Methods Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16–30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992–1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995–2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Results Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). Conclusions As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account. PMID:26784886

  20. Hard Lessons for Lifelong Learners? Age and Experience in the Graduate Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Kate; Wilton, Nick; Elias, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of the higher education system and widening access to undergraduate study has led to growing diversity within the graduate labour supply, including increasing numbers who studied for their degrees as mature students. Analysis of graduates entering the labour market prior to the major expansion in the early 1990s indicated that those…

  1. Social Predictors of Unsuccessful Entrance into the Labour Market--A Socialization Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Ellen; Sovio, Ulla; Remes, Jouko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    Social determinants over the life course, including childhood family characteristics, were studied in predicting unsuccessful entrance into the labour market at the age of 31 years. Among men, unsuccessful entrance into the labour market was predicted prospectively by the mother's receptive attitude towards receiving social aid and contentment…

  2. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour market has no doubt…

  3. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  4. Being Young and Visible: Labour Market Access among Immigrant and Visible Minority Youth. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Jean Lock

    2003-01-01

    Youth represent one of the most culturally diverse groups in Canada. It has been shown that labour market participation among immigrant youth, especially those who are members of a visible minority, has been lower than the Canadian-born. Using the 1996 Census, this paper provides an overview of labour market attachment of immigrant and visible…

  5. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  6. The Role of Qualifications in Foreign Labour Mobility in Australia. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2012-01-01

    Australia has had a long history of using migrants to fill skill gaps and labour shortages, and continues to target skilled foreign workers for permanent and temporary migration. The purpose of this report is to investigate the role of qualifications in the labour mobility of these foreign workers, especially as those who do not have employer…

  7. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  8. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  9. Sustainability and Productivity Indicators with Sensitivity Truth Table for Unskilled Thai Labour Reverse Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaingvait, Poj; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Sureephong, Paradorn; Nimmonrat, Acrapol

    2014-01-01

    Thailand, a developing country, had labours migrating from the agriculture into the industrial due to higher pay in the past. However the economic force has made the government policy to focus on creativity and developing technology towards automatic production. Unskilled Thai labours are facing a big challenge after retirement, which is called…

  10. Valuing Diversity: Guidance for Labour Market Integration of Migrants. Working Paper No 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno da Fonseca, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Europe faces an increase in the age of its natural population and a reduction in available labour force. The retirement of a highly qualified workforce, alongside a rise in demand for medium- and high-skilled workers, will likely result in labour shortages in several sectors and countries. The movement of qualified, third-country immigrants into…

  11. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Jacqui

    2001-01-01

    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the notion that…

  12. Graduate Employability and Student Attitudes and Orientations to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the way students, making the transition from higher education into the labour market, construct, understand and begin to manage their employability. It draws upon a qualitative study of 53 final-year undergraduates in a pre-1992 university in the UK. It firstly explores students' perceptions of the current labour market for…

  13. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  14. The State of the Labour Market in South Africa after the First Decade of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Rulof; Woolard, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This article attempts to document and identify the key…

  15. An End to Selection at Eleven: The Long Battle to Make Labour Listen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The author is a long-time advocate inside the Labour Party for ending selective education and the 11-plus. She outlines how Labour Party frontbenchers routinely ignore or deflect calls from Party members to stand up for comprehensive education in both word and deed. As UKIP, whose policy is to extend selective education more widely, rises in the…

  16. Resolutions Adopted by the International Labour Conference; Shelter for the Homeless: Signs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Cites the text of resolutions adopted at the International Labour Conference, focusing on (1) homelessness, (2) the anniversary of the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, and (3) measures against substance abuse in working and social life. Outlines the International Labour Office's recent efforts to improve…

  17. Miss Congeniality Meets the New Managerialism: Feminism, Contingent Labour, and the New University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, non-permanent faculty are no longer simply a reserve, flexible labour pool available for administrators to draw on when needed (e.g. during times of fluctuating enrollments); rather, they represent a strategy utilized by universities to reduce overall labour costs. In this article I bring together Women's Studies, feminism, contingent…

  18. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in Germany: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…

  19. The Relationship between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: The Weakest Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…

  20. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  1. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  2. Learning to Adapt: Does Returning to Education Improve Labour Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…

  3. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  4. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  5. The Labour Party and the Need for Change: Values, Education and Emotional Literacy/Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that when the Labour Party has analysed its values emotional development has been neglected. He shows the importance of emotional literacy and uses education as a vehicle to show how Labour when in power reinforced right-wing ideology. Ways of changing education policy are indicated. It is hoped that this article will promote a…

  6. Educational Technology and the Enclosure of Academic Labour inside Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Across higher education in the United Kingdom, the procurement and deployment of educational technology increasingly impacts the practices of academic labour, in terms of administration, teaching and research. Moreover the relationships between academic labour and educational technology are increasingly framed inside the practices of neoliberal,…

  7. Measuring Pre- and Post-Labour Market Occupational Segregation Using Careers Service Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Martyn; Bradley, Steve; Stott, Dave

    2004-01-01

    In this article we calculate the magnitude of occupational segregation pre- and post-labour market entry for young people using the Karmel and Maclachlan IP index. Our data refer to 22,280 males and 17,678 females who entered the labour market during the period 1988-91. Our results show that the magnitude of segregation is substantial, and is…

  8. The Right to Education for Children in Domestic Labour: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.; Ruto, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1948, various UN conventions have recognised basic education as a human right. Yet this right continues to be denied to many child labourers across the world. This articles draws on the results of a study examining how children in domestic labour in Kenya access and participate in education. Three issues were explored: (1) the correlates of…

  9. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  10. Considering "Teacher Resilience" from Critical Discourse and Labour Process Theory Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anne; Mansfield, Caroline; McConney, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the construct of "teacher resilience" from critical discourse and labour process perspectives in order to cast new light on what has been traditionally viewed from a psychological perspective. In this respect, the construct of resilience is placed in the broad political landscape of teachers' work and the labour process of…

  11. Effect of acupressure on labour pain during first stage of labour among Primi mothers in a selected hospital of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Martina K

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the degree of pain during labour in experimental and control groups before and after intervention and to compare the pain score during labour between the experimental and control groups after intervention. This experimental pre-test and post-test control group study was conducted on 60 primi mothers (30 each in experimental and control group) in Swami Dayanand Hospital, Delhi. The mean post-test pain score of control group (8.23) was higher than mean pre-test pain score (7.13) with a mean difference of 1.1 and standard deviation of 2.22. The obtained t-value (3.98) was higher than the t-value of 2.04 at df (29) at 0.05 level of significance. The mean post-test pain score in experimental group was 6.17 and mean post-test pain score of control group was 8.23 with a mean difference of 2.06 and standard deviation of 1.10. The t-value computed at 2.41 was more than the t-value of 2.00 at df (58) at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicate that Acupressure at point Li4 was effective in reducing the pain in experimental group. The findings suggest that the non-pharmacological method of pain relief measure like acupressure at point Li4 was effective in reducing labour pain in experimental group and in the control group it was found that pain was increasing as no intervention was done. PMID:25643569

  12. Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

  13. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    PubMed

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." PMID:12320415

  14. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  15. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  16. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  17. Division of labour and the evolution of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Ackermann, Martin; Doebeli, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the emergence and evolution of multicellularity and cellular differentiation is a core problem in biology. We develop a quantitative model that shows that a multicellular form emerges from genetically identical unicellular ancestors when the compartmentalization of poorly compatible physiological processes into component cells of an aggregate produces a fitness advantage. This division of labour between the cells in the aggregate occurs spontaneously at the regulatory level owing to mechanisms present in unicellular ancestors and does not require any genetic predisposition for a particular role in the aggregate or any orchestrated cooperative behaviour of aggregate cells. Mathematically, aggregation implies an increase in the dimensionality of phenotype space that generates a fitness landscape with new fitness maxima, in which the unicellular states of optimized metabolism become fitness saddle points. Evolution of multicellularity is modelled as evolution of a hereditary parameter: the propensity of cells to stick together, which determines the fraction of time a cell spends in the aggregate form. Stickiness can increase evolutionarily owing to the fitness advantage generated by the division of labour between cells in an aggregate. PMID:22158952

  18. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system. PMID:26744912

  19. Changes in the cervical competence in preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Venturini, Paolo; Blasi, Immacolata; Giannella, Luca

    2005-03-01

    Cervical competence is a key function in normal and abnormal labour. Remodelling of the cervical structure, by reorientation and changes in the integrity of collagen fibres by an alteration in the content of water, proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, takes place before parturition. Such morphological changes have been associated with the activation of several biochemical pathways, sharing those of an apyretic, proinflammatory reaction, including the inducible isoform of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to be the final mediator in the mechanisms that allow ripening of the cervix. A reduction of NO activity in the uterus, together with its activation in the cervix, is hypothesised to be a facilitating factor in human parturition. The local application of NO donors in both animals and humans induces ultrastructural changes similar to those occurring during physiological cervical maturation. NO donors have proven to be clinically effective in facilitating first trimester dilation and curettage. Preliminary data also suggest that in women presenting with threatening preterm labour, there is increased activity of NO in the cervix, which is associated with shortening. A complex interaction between cytokines, prostaglandins (PGs) and NO is the key biochemical pathway accounting for the preterm ripening of the cervix. PMID:15715590

  20. Effect of body mass index on outcome of labour induction.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Farheen; Naru, Tahira; Sheikh, Sana

    2016-05-01

    The retrospective study to explore the adverse effect of obesity on pregnancy and labour was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients booked between 12-14 weeks and required induction of labour from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Women were grouped into two body mass index categories: normal weight (<22.9 kg/ m2) as controls and exposed group (>23 kg/m2). Obesity increased the risk of development of gestational hypertension and diabetes. Therefore obese women were more likely to be induced due to medical indication whether primiparous or multiparous adjusted odds ratio =2.89(95% confidence interval 1.29-6.48) and 2.77 (95% confidence interval 1.07-7.19) respectively. There was increased chance of having caesarean section in primigravida adjusted odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.72-2.92), duration of caesarean section and blood loss during the procedure were not significantly associated with high body mass index (p>0.05). Obesity may lead to a lot of problems in primigravida, but it did not have major impact. PMID:27183944

  1. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  2. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour: randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Franssen, Maureen T; Papatsonis, Dimitri N; Hajenius, Petra J; Hollmann, Markus W; Woiski, Mallory D; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W H M; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J Marko; Kuipers, A H M; Logtenberg, Sabine L M; van der Salm, Paulien C M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M; Struys, Michel M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine women’s satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. Design Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants Women with an intermediate to high obstetric risk with an intention to deliver vaginally. To exclude a clinically relevant difference in satisfaction with pain relief of more than 10%, we needed to include 1136 women. Because of missing values for satisfaction this number was increased to 1400 before any analysis. We used multiple imputation to correct for missing data. Intervention Before the onset of active labour consenting women were randomised to a pain relief strategy with patient controlled remifentanil or epidural analgesia if they requested pain relief during labour. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was satisfaction with pain relief, measured hourly on a visual analogue scale and expressed as area under the curve (AUC), thus providing a time weighted measure of total satisfaction with pain relief. A higher AUC represents higher satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcomes were pain intensity scores, mode of delivery, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Analysis was done by intention to treat. The study was defined as an equivalence study for the primary outcome. Results 1414 women were randomised, of whom 709 were allocated to patient controlled remifentanil and 705 to epidural analgesia. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Pain relief was ultimately used in 65% (447/687) in the remifentanil group and 52% (347/671) in the epidural analgesia group (relative risk 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.48). Cross over occurred in 7% (45/687) and 8% (51/671) of women, respectively. Of women primarily treated with remifentanil, 13% (53/402) converted to epidural analgesia, while in women primarily treated with epidural analgesia 1% (3/296) converted to remifentanil. The

  3. Polymorphism and division of labour in a socially complex ant: neuromodulation of aggression in the Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina.

    PubMed

    Kamhi, J Frances; Nunn, Kelley; Robson, Simon K A; Traniello, James F A

    2015-07-22

    Complex social structure in eusocial insects can involve worker morphological and behavioural differentiation. Neuroanatomical variation may underscore worker division of labour, but the regulatory mechanisms of size-based task specialization in polymorphic species are unknown. The Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, exhibits worker polyphenism: larger major workers aggressively defend arboreal territories, whereas smaller minors nurse brood.Here, we demonstrate that octopamine (OA) modulates worker size-related aggression in O. smaragdina. We found that the brains of majors had significantly higher titres of OA than those of minors and that OA was positively and specifically correlated with the frequency of aggressive responses to non-nestmates, a key component of territorial defence. Pharmacological manipulations that effectively switched OA action in major and minor worker brains reversed levels of aggression characteristic of each worker size class. Results suggest that altering OA action is sufficient to produce differences in aggression characteristic of size-related social roles. Neuromodulators therefore may generate variation in responsiveness to task-related stimuli associated with worker size differentiation and collateral behavioural specializations, a significant component of division of labour in complex social systems. PMID:26136448

  4. Polymorphism and division of labour in a socially complex ant: neuromodulation of aggression in the Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

    PubMed Central

    Kamhi, J. Frances; Nunn, Kelley; Robson, Simon K. A.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex social structure in eusocial insects can involve worker morphological and behavioural differentiation. Neuroanatomical variation may underscore worker division of labour, but the regulatory mechanisms of size-based task specialization in polymorphic species are unknown. The Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, exhibits worker polyphenism: larger major workers aggressively defend arboreal territories, whereas smaller minors nurse brood. Here, we demonstrate that octopamine (OA) modulates worker size-related aggression in O. smaragdina. We found that the brains of majors had significantly higher titres of OA than those of minors and that OA was positively and specifically correlated with the frequency of aggressive responses to non-nestmates, a key component of territorial defence. Pharmacological manipulations that effectively switched OA action in major and minor worker brains reversed levels of aggression characteristic of each worker size class. Results suggest that altering OA action is sufficient to produce differences in aggression characteristic of size-related social roles. Neuromodulators therefore may generate variation in responsiveness to task-related stimuli associated with worker size differentiation and collateral behavioural specializations, a significant component of division of labour in complex social systems. PMID:26136448

  5. Induction of Labour in Late and Postterm Pregnancies and its Impact on Maternal and Neonatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajah, F.; Scheufen, P.; Kirn, V.; Mallmann, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effects of induction of labour in late-term pregnancies on the mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed deliveries between 2000 and 2014 at the University Hospital of Cologne. Women with a pregnancy aged between 41 + 0 to 42 + 6 weeks were included. Those who underwent induction of labour were compared with women who were expectantly managed. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated. Results: 856 patients were included into the study. The rate of cesarean deliveries was significantly higher for the induction of labour group (33.8 vs. 21.1 %, p < 0.001). Aside from the more frequent occurrence of perineal lacerations (induction of labour group vs. expectantly managed group = 38.1 % compared with 26.4 %, p = 0.002) and all types of lacerations (induction of labour group vs. expectantly managed group = 61.5% vs. 52.2 %, p = 0.021) in women with vaginal delivery, there were no significant differences in maternal outcome. Besides, no differences regarding neonatal outcome were observed. Conclusions: Our study suggests that induction of labour in late and postterm pregnancies is associated with a significantly higher cesarean section rate. Other maternal and fetal parameters were not influenced by induction of labour.

  6. Opinion, Dialogue, Review: The New ILO Report on Child Labour--A Success Story, or the ILO Still at a Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebel, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    With this year's Global Report on Child Labour, the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopts a stance of victory. With confidence and pride, it announces that "the worldwide movement against child labour" led by the ILO itself has brought "the end of child labour--within reach". However, no convincing proof is given for this surprising…

  7. Econonatology: the physics of the economy in labour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2003-06-01

    A fear of crashes preoccupies stock market observers, both investors and economic decision makers (governments, banks). This is reflected in major efforts to predict future stock values. However, an economic system under prolonged stress may have in its nature to plunge to lower performance levels but recover without suffering damage. To support this claim, we draw parallels between two complex systems: that of the heart, as observed through the rate of heartbeat, and the economy, measured by the stock index record. The ultimate stress situation of fetal heartbeat during labour provides a conceptual basis for accommodating heavy crashes. It also suggests a different perspective for evaluating crashes and post crash recovery in order to diagnose, and (ultimately) prognose, ‘economic health’, in addition to monitoring the stock index value.

  8. Operative delivery rates following induction of labour for obstetric cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jessica R; Chappell, Lucy; Cheng, Floria; Breeze, Andrew C G; Lucas, Nuala; Plaat, Felicity; Williamson, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women induced for obstetric cholestasis (OC) have increased rates of operative delivery compared with women without OC who are induced. This retrospective case-control study included 64 women with OC (singleton pregnancies), who had labour induced compared with two control groups (matched for parity and gestational week at delivery). The majority of women were induced at 37 weeks. We found no significant increase in the rate of operative or assisted delivery in OC cases compared with either control group. Women with OC who are induced between 36 and 40 weeks gestation do not have increased rates of assisted or operative delivery compared with induced controls.

  9. Pathophysiology of foetal oxygenation and cell damage during labour.

    PubMed

    Yli, Branka M; Kjellmer, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    A foetus exposed to oxygenation compromise is capable of several adaptive responses, which can be categorised into those affecting metabolism and those affecting oxygen transport. However, both the extent and duration of the impairment in oxygenation will have a bearing on these adaptive responses. Although intrapartum events may account for no more than one-third of cases with an adverse neurological outcome, they are important because they can be influenced successfully. This review describes the mechanisms underlying foetal hypoxia during labour, acid-base balance and gas exchange, and the current scientific understanding of the role of intrauterine asphyxia in the pathophysiology of neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Although the mechanisms involved include similar initiating events, principally ischaemia and excitotoxicity, and similar final common pathways to cell death, there are certain unique maturational factors that influence the type and pattern of cellular injury. PMID:26211833

  10. Operative delivery rates following induction of labour for obstetric cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jessica R; Chappell, Lucy; Cheng, Floria; Breeze, Andrew C G; Lucas, Nuala; Plaat, Felicity; Williamson, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women induced for obstetric cholestasis (OC) have increased rates of operative delivery compared with women without OC who are induced. This retrospective case-control study included 64 women with OC (singleton pregnancies), who had labour induced compared with two control groups (matched for parity and gestational week at delivery). The majority of women were induced at 37 weeks. We found no significant increase in the rate of operative or assisted delivery in OC cases compared with either control group. Women with OC who are induced between 36 and 40 weeks gestation do not have increased rates of assisted or operative delivery compared with induced controls. PMID:27582856