Sample records for lacquer tree rhus

  1. Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree ( Rhus vernicifera stokes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ho Hong; Sang Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Se Hyung Park; Young Jin Jeon; Myong-Jo Kim; Sang-Soo Kwak; Hwan Mook Kim

    1999-01-01

    Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were\\u000a below 4 ?g\\/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols\\u000a suggesting that they would

  2. Chemical modification, characterization and bioactivity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides from lac tree Rhus vernicifera against leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du

    2003-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated from the sap of lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Its derivatives, carboxymethyl LP, sulfated LP and debranching LP were prepared. Their structure was analyzed by GPC, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The sugar components of carboxymethyl and sulfated LPs hardly changed, but the molecular weight of the former decreased. The side chains of LPs were partially removed

  3. Chemical modification and antitumour activity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharide from lac tree Rhus vernicifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Ronghua Huang; Liping Sun; Hui Liu; Xiaohai Gao; John F. Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide from Rhus vernicifera was separated into two fractions with high and low molecular weights, LPH and LPL. LPL was degraded using dilute sulphuric acid. Besides molecular weight, products had only a little change in their contents of ?-l-rhamnopyranose, ?-l-arabinofuranose and ?-d-galactopyranose. The side chains of LPH and LPL were partially removed with NaIO4 oxidation. The structures of all

  4. Characterization of Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquer films and their pyrolysis mechanisms studied using two-stage pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyasu Niimura; Tetsuo Miyakoshi; Jun Onodera; Tetsuo Higuchi

    1996-01-01

    Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquers, which are used as a surface coating for wood, porcelain and metalware in Japan, were investigated using two-stage pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS). Urushiol and laccol components were detected in each lacquer film by pyrolysis at 400 °C. These are the monomers, and are characteristic of Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquer films. In

  5. Some Properties of Laccase from the Latex of Lacquer Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Keilin; T. Mann

    1940-01-01

    WE have previously shown1 that laccase, the oxidizing enzyme present in the latex of the Indo-Chinese lacquer tree (Rhus succedanea), is a copper-protein compound. Our purest preparation of this enzyme, which catalyses the oxidation of polyphenols and diamines, contained 0.154 per cent copper and 6.45 per cent nitrogen, corresponding to about 45 per cent protein. The remaining fraction of the

  6. Primary structure of a Japanese lacquer tree laccase as a prototype enzyme of multicopper oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutomo Nitta; Kunishige Kataoka; Takeshi Sakurai

    2002-01-01

    The cDNA library of the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera) was constructed by the reverse transcription of mRNA. A cDNA encoding laccase was amplified by PCR using primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified laccase and its peptide fragments formed by digestions with chymotrypsin and trypsin, and subcloned. The laccase cDNA clone contained a single, large

  7. A new method for the histochemical localization of laccase in Rhus verniciflua Stokes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of biochemical methods, such as spectrophotometry, oxygen-absorbance and polarography from the liquid lacquer of studying its physiological function in the lacquer tree, a simple permanent staining tech- nique One year old seedlings of the lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifltia Stokes cv. Puchengxiaomuy were grown

  8. Preparation of lacquer polysaccharide sulfates and their antioxidant activity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Zou; Yumin Du; Yan Li; Jianhong Yang; Tao Feng; Le Zhang; John F. Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated and purified from the sap of the lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Five sulfated lacquer polysaccharide (LPS), with various molecular weights (Mw) and degrees of sulfation (DS) were prepared by the reaction of LP with sulfur trioxide–pyridine complex (SO3·Py) in DMSO. The structure of LPS was analyzed by GPC, UV–vis, FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy; the

  9. Applied analysis of lacquer films based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Yukio Kamiya; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Ancient lacquer film, a Nanban lacquer film, an old lacquer-ware object imported from an Asian country, and the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Compared with the results of the natural lacquer film, it was revealed that the ancient lacquer film and Nanban lacquer film were made from Rhus vernicifera, and the old lacquer-ware imported

  10. Determination of the type of lacquer on East Asian lacquer ware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimura, Noriyasu

    2009-07-01

    Simple and easy analytical methods, which are applicable to precious artistic objects, have long been desired to determine the type of lacquer on lacquer ware. Direct inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) were applied to the determination of the coating film on a lacquered wooden dish obtained in Okinawa. The above two-step mass spectrometry confirmed the coating film: the lacquer to be East Asian lacquer, or natural urushi derived from Rhus verniciflua. These two-step analyses are very useful for the determination of the type of lacquer on any lacquer ware. The first step analysis with DIMS is used to distinguish the natural urushi including the urushi-type lacquers from non-natural urushi: imitation urushi and lacquer containing synthetic resins. And the second step with Py-GC/MS is used to discriminate one type among the three natural urushi-type lacquers. These two-step analyses need only a small amount of sample ranging 0.01-0.5 mg without any pre-treatment so that these analyses can be used for precious lacquer ware with archeological interest.

  11. Lacquer work

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-07-30

    A short sequence of part of the final decoration of a lacquer object. The technique of applying gold dust to the black surface is extremely delicate, but suddenly Mount Fuji appears before our eyes....

  12. Rhus glabra (Native) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    o B F Elbowbush, Forestiera pubescens 4 b i i o B F o B F Ephedra, Ephedra spp. 44 i o B F o Evergreen sumac, Rhus virens 44 b i o B F o B F Feather dalea, Dalea formosa 44 b i o B F Flameleaf sumac, Rhus glabra 4 i i o B F o B F Four... sumac, Rhus glabra 4 i i o B F o B F Four-wing saltbrush, Atriplex canescens 44 i o i o B F o Fragrant mimosa, Mimosa borealis 4 b i o B F o B F Granjeno, spiny hackberry, Celtis pallida 44 b i o i o B F B F B B F o B F Greenbrier, Smilax spp. 44 i o...

  13. Structural study of oriental lacquer films during the hardening process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyasu Niimura; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Oriental lacquer is the natural resin obtained by tapping lac trees. It hardens into a tough and insoluble film. The extreme hardness and insolubility are some of the most important functions, which are required for industrial coating materials. In this study, two kinds of oriental lacquer films, traditionally named Kiurushi (raw urushi) and Kuromeurushi produced by two different pretreatments, were

  14. Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tingshuang; Miller, Allison J; Wen, Jun

    2004-12-01

    Sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, the chloroplast ndhF gene, and chloroplast trnL-F regions (trnL intron, and trnL [UAA] 3' exon-trnF [GAA] intergenic spacer) were used for phylogenetic analyses of Rhus, a genus disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe, Hawaii, North America, and Northern Central America. Both ITS and cpDNA data sets support the monophyly of Rhus. The monophyly of subgenus Rhus was suggested by the combined cpDNA and ITS data, and largely supported in the cpDNA data except that Rhus microphylla of subgenus Lobadium was nested within it. The monophyly of subgenus Lobadium was strongly supported in the ITS data, whereas the cpDNA data revealed two main clades within the subgenus, which formed a trichotomy with the clade of subgenus Rhus plus R. microphylla. The ITS and cpDNA trees differ in the positions of Rhus michauxii, R. microphylla, and Rhus rubifolia, and hybridization may have caused this discordance. Fossil evidence indicates that Rhus dates back to the early Eocene. The penalized likelihood method was used to estimate divergence times, with fossils of Rhus subgenus Lobadium, Pistacia and Toxicodendron used for age constraints. Rhus diverged from its closest relative at 49.1+/-2.1 million years ago (Ma), the split of subgenus Lobadium and subgenus Rhus was at 38.1+/-3.0 Ma. Rhus most likely migrated from North America into Asia via the Bering Land Bridge during the Late Eocene (33.8+/-3.1 Ma). Rhus coriaria from southern Europe and western Asia diverged from its relatives in eastern Asia at 24.4+/-3.2 Ma. The Hawaiian Rhus sandwicensis diverged from the Asian Rhus chinensis at 13.5+/-3.0 Ma. Subgenus Lobadium was inferred to be of North American origin. Taxa of subgenus Lobadium then migrated southward to Central America. Furthermore, we herein make the following three nomenclatural combinations: (1) Searsia leptodictya (Diels) T. S. Yi, A. J. Miller and J. Wen, comb. nov., (2) Searsia pyroides (A. Rich.) T. S. Yi, A. J. Miller and J. Wen, comb. nov., and (3) Searsia undulata (Jacq.) T. S. Yi, A. J. Miller and J. Wen, because our analyses support the segregation of Searsia from Rhus. PMID:15522809

  15. Lacquered tinplate: Corrosion resistance in the function of lacquering conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Do Nascimento; J. L. C. Dos Santos; I. C. P. Margarit; O. R. Mattos

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the pack tests normally used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of tinplate in the can industry are inadequate for routine work. In this paper, electrochemical impedance is presented as an alternative. Using this technique, it was possible to characterize the better lacquer between two “first line” products. Variables involved in the lacquering, such as number

  16. Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra.

    PubMed

    Saxena, G; McCutcheon, A R; Farmer, S; Towers, G H; Hancock, R E

    1994-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and isolated constituents of Rhus glabra (Anacardiaceae), a species used in folk medicine by North American native people, was evaluated against 11 microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The extract was subsequently fractionated and monitored by bioassays leading to the isolation of three antibacterial compounds, the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (methyl gallate) (minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) 12.5 micrograms/ml), 4-methoxy-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (MIC 25 micrograms/ml) and gallic acid (MIC > 1000 micrograms/ml). The first two compounds are reported here for the first time from Rhus glabra. Their structures were established using spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:8072309

  17. Sulfation of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides in different solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Yan Wen; Tianyu Li; Ling Hu

    2003-01-01

    A branched ionic polysaccharide isolated from the sap of the Chinese lac tree (Rhus vernicifera) was chemically modified by sulfation using sulfur trioxide–pyridine (SO3·Py) complex as a reagent. Effects of molar ratio of SO3·Py complex to sugar unit, reaction time and reaction temperature on degree of sulfation (DS) and molecular weights of products were studied. Solvent was another important factor

  18. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or breathing in (sniffing) products to remove paint, lacquer , or varnish . This is for information only and ... Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers may contain the following poisonous ingredients: Benzyl alcohol Ethanol Formic acid Methyl alcohol Methylene ...

  19. Hyposensitization to urushiol among Japanese lacquer craftsmen: results of patch tests on students learning the art of lacquerware.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Nakagawa, M; Kawai, K; Liew, F M; Yasuno, H

    1991-11-01

    8 subjects learning the art of lacquerware were patch tested to urushiol before and after contact with lacquer, in order to document whether hyposensitization to urushiol occurred among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. Simultaneously, we performed patch tests on 2 urushiol-sensitized controls who had no contact with lacquer during the investigation. Lacquer is made from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree and raw lacquer is composed of 60-65% urushiol and its oligomer. 5 of the 8 subjects showed positive reactions to urushiol 1 month after their first contact. They became negative or less positive after prolonged (9 or 10 months) exposure to lacquer. As reactions to urushiol decreased, dermatitis became less severe. Controls showed consistently high reactions. However, 1 subject showed persistently strong reactions to urushiol. Unlike the other 7 subjects, he was previously sensitized to urushiol before the first contact with lacquer. The remaining 2 subjects showed no reaction throughout our investigation. These results strongly suggest that hyposensitization to urushiol does occur among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. PMID:1839723

  20. Recent advances in research on lacquer allergy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-ming; Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by contact with lacquer sap and lacquerware affects the welfare of lacquer workers and the lacquerware industry. Many studies of the mechanism of urushiol allergy, including animal models, have been carried out and have established several hypotheses. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of lacquer allergy, we review recent advances in the research on lacquer allergy including the chemical properties of lacquer lipid components, allergic mechanism analyses, immunological explanations, allergy medications, and the prevention combined with the research results from our laboratory. PMID:22015566

  1. Surface finishing by lacquer-coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, M.; Inneman, A.; Franc, F.; Pina, L.

    1997-02-01

    A series of optically flat glass substrates with microroughness of a few nanometers prepared by standard mechanical polishing has been covered with acrylic lacquer coatings. The influence of lacquer concentration on the surface finish has been investigated by using X-ray reflectometry and optical interferometry. The surface microroughness of about 0.6 nm with simultaneous preservation of the underlying optical figure may be achieved in the case of optimal lacquer concentration.

  2. Lacquer polishing of X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Roethig, D. T.; Brookover, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for polishing figured X-ray optics by a lacquer-coating process are described. This acrylic lacquer coating has been applied with an optical quality of an eighth-wave in red light and very effectively covers surface roughness with spatial wavelengths less than about 0.2 mm. Tungsten films have been deposited on the lacquer coatings to provide highly efficient X-ray reflectivity.

  3. Lacquer Reveals Impact Damage in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Brittle lacquer unveils effects normally visible only by ultrasonic inspection. Laquer coating measures spread of cracking and delamination in graphite/epoxy panels subjected to cyclic compression loads after impact damage. Test specimen is coated with lacquer on side opposite surface at which projectile will be fired. Spalled area shows effect of impact without removing specimen from test fixture.

  4. Seasonal variations in yields of Hwangchil lacquer and major sesquiterpene compounds from selected superior individuals of Dendropanax morbifera Lév

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Cheul Ahn; Sung Ho Kim; Min Young Kim; Ok Tae Kim; Kwang Soo Kim; Baik Hwang

    2003-01-01

    We studied fluctuations in the production of Hwangchil lacquer and major essential oils byDendropanax morbifera Lev. Considerable seasonal as well as intraspecific (individual-tree) variations were observed. Yields of Hwangchil lacquer\\u000a as well as ß-elemene, ?-selinene, ß-selinene, germacrene D, and ?-cadinene also depended on harvesting time, with levels being\\u000a generally higher in July and August.

  5. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Robert Baran

    2000-01-01

    Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% has been shown to be effective in the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild to moderate severity. Other studies report the effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer in onychomycosis caused by Candida sp and nondermatophyte molds. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection\\/relapse. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%

  6. Rhus javanica var. chinensis as a new plant origin of propolis from Okayama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masayo; Kato, Manabu; Sun, Aihua; Ono, Takayuki; Nakamura, Jun; Sato, Tsutomu; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2008-10-01

    To directly identify the plant origin of propolis from Takebe-cho (Okayama, Japan), we observed the honeybee behavior. Honeybees scraped sap from the tree, Rhus javanica var. chinensis. We compared the constituents and radical-scavenging activity of this sap and propolis. Their chemical constituents and radical-scavenging activity were comparable. This indicates directly that the plant origin of this propolis is R. javanica var. chinensis. PMID:18838785

  7. Specific biological activities of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lu; T Yoshida; H Nakashima; M Premanathan; R Aragaki; T Mimura; Y Kaneko; N Yamamoto; T Miyakoshi; T Uryu

    2000-01-01

    The specific biological activities such as blood coagulant, anti-tumor, anti-HIV, and anticoagulant activities of a Chinese lacquer polysaccharide, a branched acidic polysaccharide, before and after sulfonation were investigated. The lacquer polysaccharide at a concentration of 0.016mg\\/ml was found to shorten the coagulation time of bovine plasma more than 1min by comparison with that of a blank, 5min and 25s, suggesting

  8. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Lacquer Cracks in Pathologic Myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Ohno-Matsui; Naoto Morishima; Mutsuko Ito; Takashi Tokoro

    1998-01-01

    Lacquer cracks are thought to represent healed mechanical breaks in the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch’s membrane, and choriocapillaris complex. In this study, we analyzed the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic features of lacquer cracks and compared them with findings using fluorescein angiography. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, fluorescein angiography, and ICG angiography were performed in 29 consecutive patients (37 eyes) with lacquer cracks.

  9. Comparative Study on the Chemical Composition of Syrian Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L.) Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rima Kossah; Consolate Nsabimana; Jianxin Zhao; Haiqin Chen; Fengwei Tian; Hao Zhang; Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, two different sumac species, namely Syrian sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) were investigated in order to determine and compare the chemical compositions of their fruits. The proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the two sumac species, with Chinese sumac exhibiting higher contents in ash, protein, fat and fiber. Gas Chromatography

  10. Development of a fast drying lacquer based on raw lacquer sap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Sayoko Harigaya; Takahisa Ishimura; Kisuke Nagase; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2004-01-01

    A series of new lacquers, based on the raw lacquer sap that drying fast in the natural environment, has been developed using a repeated-kurome process. Fast drying occurred due to the repeated-kurome process from K-0 to K-4, and the 982cm?1 for the dienes decreased and the 993cm?1 for the trienes increased in the IR measurement. In addition, the polymerization of

  11. Microbiological production of gallic acid from Rhus coriaria L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Pourrat; F. Regerat; P. Morvan; A. Pourrat

    1987-01-01

    Summary A tannase-producing strain ofAspergillus niger efficiently hydrolyses the gallotannins ofRhus coriaria. Optimization of fermentation parameters enables practically quantitative conversion of tannin to 98 % pure gallic acid to be achieved

  12. Lacquer crack lesions in experimental chick myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Hirata; Akira Negi

    1998-01-01

    • Background: Lacquer crack lesion (LCL) is a complication of human pathologic myopia, accompanied by loss of retinal pigment\\u000a epithelium (RPE) and break of Bruch’s membrane. The present paper describes comparable lesions occurring in prolonged experimental\\u000a myopia in the chick. • Methods. Form-deprivation myopia was induced by unilateral eyelid suturing on the 1st day after hatching.\\u000a Bruch’s membrane in NaOH

  13. On the UV-induced polymeric behavior of Chinese lacquer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianrong; Lin, Jinhuo; Xu, Yanlian; Chen, Qinhui

    2011-02-01

    To dry Chinese lacquer rapidly for the protection and restoration of archeological findings coated by lacquer or excavated lacquer wares and the development of new application of this lacquer, we carried out UV curing technology to improve its curing rate using a high-pressure mercury lamp as a UV source in the absence of any additional photoinitiator. The effects of mainly specific components in Chinese lacquer sap and the role of each reactive group of urushiol, namely hydroxyl groups, hydrogen on the phenyl ring, and olefins in the side chain, in the course of UV exposure were well-investigated. The UV-cured Chinese lacquer films were also characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, TGA, and Py-GC/MS. The results showed that urushiol was the main component to form Chinese lacquer films, and decomposed to generate the urushiol semiquinone radicals, which sequentially induced the polymerization of Chinese lacquer by radical polymerization, as well as radical substitution under UV irradiation. In addition, the TG analysis suggested that polysaccharide and glycoproteins were integrated with the UV-cured films by covalent bonding. Furthermore, this method could be suitable to fast cure other phenol bearing long aliphatic unsaturated chain, such as CNSL. PMID:21190328

  14. Agronomic and chemical evaluation of smooth sumac, Rhus glabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) is a potential whole-plant source of polyphenol and oil. In a 2-yr evaluation of progenies from 14 Maryland, 1 northern Virginia, and 2 Georgia populations, highly significant variation (1% level) in vigor, number of plants surviving the seeding year, dry matter yield the seeding year, and number of tillers produced the second year was observed. In

  15. Drying and curing of stains and lacquers used in furniture finishing 1 DRYING AND CURING OF STAINS AND LACQUERS USED IN

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Yvonne

    Drying and curing of stains and lacquers used in furniture finishing 1 DRYING AND CURING OF STAINS AND LACQUERS USED IN FURNITURE FINISHING Y.M. Stokes1 and P. Pendleton2 1. Problem description Nexus Pty Ltd. The furniture is finished with a stain and two lacquer coatings which give it a semi-gloss surface. In 1997

  16. Perianal contact dermatitis caused by nail lacquer allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Lazarov

    1999-01-01

    Background: Allergy to nail cosmetics is relatively infrequent compared with other cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis from nail lacquer typically affects the eyelids, cheeks, sides of the neck, hands and periungual areas, and less frequently another areas.Objective: We report on a patient who developed nail lacquer-related allergic contact dermatitis in an infrequent location, namely the perianal area.Methods: A patient with perianal

  17. Lacquered polymer-ceramic composite dielectric film for capacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Simamoto; Y. Sakata; J. Kojima; N. Kume; Y. Tsujimoto

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of increasing the dielectric constant of lacquered thin film for capacitors was studied using a polymer-ceramic composite film consisting of polyphenylene oxide (PPO) polymer and TiO2 fine particle filler Basic electrical characteristics of the composite film were investigated with a simple capacitor composed of aluminum foil lacquered with a composite dielectric layer 0.9 ?m in thickness. Stacked capacitors

  18. Structure of silica in matt water-based lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royall, C. P.; Donald, A. M.

    2002-08-01

    A model for the structure of silica matting agent in water-based lacquers is presented. It is assumed that, during film formation, the air that lies between the silica particles in the dry powder is replaced by polymer. At a critical concentration this leads to a silica structure similar to that of the dry powder. We assume the bulk volume occupied by the dry silica powder (silica and air) equals the dried lacquer film (polymer, silica, and residual air). Since the silica structure in the dry powder percolates, the silica in the dried lacquer is tested for percolation. Experimentally, a percolation threshold is found close to the critical concentration predicted by the model. Two further silica structures are also seen under different conditions. At low silica concentrations, the silica particles are suspended in the lacquer matrix and isolated. Above the percolation threshold, where the bulk volume of the dry silica exceeds that of the film, the silica structure can undergo collapse. This is caused by volume reduction in the lacquer as water evaporates. The lacquer is imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy, to produce three-dimensional images of the bulk of the 50-?m film. Resolution is enhanced with image reconstruction via deconvolution. Computational image analysis is then used to investigate the structure quantitatively.

  19. Agronomic and chemical evaluation of smooth sumac, Rhus glabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Campbell

    1984-01-01

    Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) is a potential whole-plant source of polyphenol and oil. In a 2-yr evaluation of progenies from 14 Maryland, 1 northern\\u000a Virginia, and 2 Georgia populations, highly significant variation (1% level) in vigor, number of plants surviving the seeding\\u000a year, dry matter yield the seeding year, and number of tillers produced the second year was observed. In

  20. A CONDIMENT (SUMAC (RHUS CORIARIA L.) FRUITS): SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musa Özcan; Haydar Haciseferogullari

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is a perennial edible plant, which is grow- ing wild. In the present research, the proximate physical and chemical prop- erties of sumac fruits along with their mineral constituents were studied. The analyses of sumac fruits showed the following composition: moisture (9.6%), oil (7.4 %), protein (2.6 %), fibre (14.6 %), ash (1.8%) and water-soluble extract

  1. Homoeopathic Arnica and Rhus toxicodendron for delayed onset muscle soreness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Jawara; G. T. Lewith; A. J. Vickers; M. A. Mullee; C. Smith

    1997-01-01

    We intend to develop a simple, reproducible, clinical model to test the null hypothesis thatthe effects of ultramolecular homoeopathic preparations are always equivalent to placebo. A pilot of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of Arnica and Rhus tox 30c on delayed onset muscle soreness. 50 healthy volunteers undertook a standard bench-stepping exercise, with outcome

  2. In-situ phosphatizing coatings I: An air-dried lacquer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaohua Wang; Yi-Yuan Chuang; Chhiu-Tsu Lin

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of in-situ phosphatizing coatings (ISPCs) was successfully performed for lacquer systems using a commercial\\u000a nitrocellulose lacquer and an optimum amount of in-situ phosphatizing reagents (ISPRs). The in-situ phosphatizing lacquer\\u000a (ISPL) system is stable, and shows no change in surface appearance and drying speed as compared to the unmodified lacquer\\u000a (UML). The ISPLs are applied on pine, poplar, and

  3. Urushi (oriental lacquer) — a natural aesthetic durable and future-promising coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Kumanotani

    1995-01-01

    What is oriental lacquer? This article attempts an answer to this question from the viewpoint of materials chemistry and coatings technology of the lacquer in Japan and also describes a strategy for developing oriental lacquers in harmony with the natural environment.

  4. Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox - lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Anna E; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy. PMID:25821426

  5. Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox – lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Anna E.; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy. PMID:25821426

  6. The Essential Oils of Rhus coriaria L. (Sumac)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kurucu; M. Koyuncu; A. Güvenç; K. H. C. Baser; T. Özek

    1993-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaf, fruit pericarp and branch\\/bark of Rhus coriaria L. by hydrodistillation were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-three constituents in the branch\\/bark oil, sixty-three constituents in the leaf oil and eighty-five constituents in the fruit pericarp oil were identified. The predominant compounds in the pericarp oil were limonene (0.17–9.49%), nonanal (10.77–13.09%) and (Z)-2-decenal (9.90–42.35%),

  7. Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard

    2013-11-18

    Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

  8. Scheduling lacquer production by reachability analysis - A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Behrmann; Ed Brinksma; Martijn Hendriks; Angelika Mader

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case study on lacquer production scheduling that was performed in the European IST-project AMETIST and was provided by one of the industrial partners. The approach is to derive schedules by means of reachability analysis: with this technique the search mechanism of model checkers, in our case here Uppaal, is used to find feasible or optimal schedules. The

  9. Tales in Sprinkled Gold: Japanese Lacquer for European Collectors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the John Paul Getty Museum's online exhibits features Japanese lacquered objects from the Victoria and Albert Museum that were popular among European collectors in the 17th-19th centuries. The highlight of the exhibit is the Mazarin chest, which can be viewed as a slideshow by clicking on "Launch Slideshow", near the top far right hand side of the homepage. Visitors can view the chest from several different angles, use a zoom feature, and pan the images using the arrows below the slideshow images. However, dragging the cursor on the image, instead of using the arrows, allows for more control. Visitors can watch a video entitled "The Making of Japanese Lacquer", by clicking on the link on the far right hand side of the homepage, underneath "Launch Slideshow". For visitors lucky enough to visit the Getty Museum, a multitude of related events can be found under the "Events" tab near the top of the page. Those persons interested in further information on the topic of Asian lacquer can click on the "Publications" tab near the top of the page, which suggests two authoritative books on lacquer. Still more information can be found on the Victoria and Albert Museum website, accessible by the links in the "Learn More" box on the far right hand side of the homepage.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Eight Phenolic Compounds and Their Conjugated Metabolites after Oral Administration of Rhus verniciflua Extracts in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ming Ji; Kim, In Sook; Park, Jong Suk; Dong, Mi-Sook; Na, Chun-Soo; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-06-10

    Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum) is a medicinal tree popularly used in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea as a food additive or herbal medicine because of its beneficial effects. R. verniciflua extract (RVE) contains diverse phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, as its major biological active constituents. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of eight phenolic compounds were investigated following oral administration of RVE to rats. The eight phenolic compounds were 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, fisetin, fustin, butin, sulfuretin, taxifolin, and garbanzol. The plasma concentrations of the eight compounds were determined by using a liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer before and after treatment with ?-glucuronidase. When 1.5 g/kg RVE was administered, the eight compounds were all detected in plasma, mainly as conjugated forms. These pharmacokinetic data would be useful for understanding the pharmacological effects of RVE. PMID:25998231

  11. Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingshuang Yi; Allison J. Miller; Jun Wen

    2004-01-01

    Sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, the chloroplast ndhF gene, and chloroplast trnL-F regions (trnL intron, and trnL [UAA] 3? exon-trnF [GAA] intergenic spacer) were used for phylogenetic analyses of Rhus, a genus disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe, Hawaii, North America, and Northern Central America. Both ITS and cpDNA data sets support the monophyly of Rhus.

  12. Choroidal Thickness and Biometric Markers for the Screening of Lacquer Cracks in Patients with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chou, Chai Lin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Chao, An-Ning; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. Methods Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks). Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. Results Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%). Conclusions This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia. PMID:23349728

  13. New antifungal xanthones from the seeds of Rhus coriaria L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Onkar; Ali, Mohammed; Akhtar, Nida

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) led to the identification of four new xanthones, characterized as 2,3-dihydroxy-7-methyl xanthone (1), 2,3,6-trihydroxy-7-hydroxymethylene xanthone-1-carboxylic acid (2), 2-methoxy-4-hydroxy-7-methyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl xanthone-1,8-dicarboxylic acid (4), and 2-hydroxy-7-hydroxymethylene xanthone-1,8-dicarboxylic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2'-->3")-3"-O-stigmast-5-ene (5), along with the known steroidal glucoside beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside (3). The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. All xanthones were active against Aspergillus flavus. PMID:21476432

  14. Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

  15. Trees and Shrubs in Northwest Texas.

    E-print Network

    Gaines, Frank; Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl); Jones, D. L. (Don L.)

    1932-01-01

    Suitable for Screens 1. Spirea (Spiraea van.houttei) 2. Salt Cedar ( Tamarix) 3. Vitex ( Vitex negundo var. incisa) 4. Chaste Tree ( Vitex agnus-castus) 5. Amur River Privet (Ligustrum, amurense) 6. Weigela ( Weigela rosea) 7. Euonymus (Euonymus... Suitable for the Following Purposes: Tall Backgrounds 1. Golden Bell (Forsythia m~spensa) 2. Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typh.ina) 3. Vitex ( Vitex ne.qun,do) 4. Chaste Tree ( Vitex agnus-castu.~) 5. Weigela ( Weigela rosea) 6. Euonymus (Euonyrnus jnponica...

  16. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers.

    PubMed

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial. PMID:21995293

  17. Monitoring of Curing of Urushi Lacquer Using Speckle Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Masataka; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hideaki

    2009-09-01

    The curing of urushi lacquer is investigated by analyzing the dynamic behavior of speckle images with cross-correlation function between the frames at an area of 40×40 pixels in the image. The cross-correlation value was plotted using the maximum value of the cross-correlation function. There is no inconsistency between the experimental results and the curing phenomena. Moreover, the method is also suggested to be suitable for observing the transition from sol to gel. The transition in various types of material will be analyzed by digital speckle correlation.

  18. Formulation of non-lacquer (latex) PBX-9502

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, C.P.; Freer, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    Waste minimization necessitates evaluation of current waste streams with regard to new processing methods and technology. PBX-9502 (95% TATB/5% Kel-F 800) uses an ethyl acetate solvent to dissolve the Kel-F 800 resin, creating a lacquer for coating TATB. This report describes a new latex polymer application method for PBX-9502, which eliminates the H{sub 2}O-to-ethyl acetate rinse-out and the resultant solvent-contaminated water waste stream and distillation air emissions.

  19. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Marawan M.; El Sayed, Aly M.; Yousif, Miriam F.; El Sayed, Abeer M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities. PMID:22262932

  20. Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

  1. A Comparison of Nutrient Concentration in Two Poisonous and Three Nonpoisonous Species of Sumac (Rhus spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen C. Weathers; Thomas G. Siccama

    1986-01-01

    Elemental concentrations in twigs and fruits of poisonous and nonpoisonous species of sumac (Rhus spp.) were determined. Two poisonous species (R. vernix and R. radicans) and three nonpoisonous (R. copallina, R. glabra and R. typhina) were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Cu and Pb 1 to determine if higher concentrations were associated with toxic species. Nitrogen

  2. Experimental evaluation of the foliar flag hypothesis using fruits of Rhus glabra (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Facelli

    1993-01-01

    I tested experimentally whether the presence of colorful plastic ovals (simulating foliar “flags”) attached to infructescences of Rhus glabra increase fruit removal by birds in a forest-oldfield border. I used a factorial experimental design testing for the effect of size (small or large) and color (yellow or red) of the flags. There was also a control, without flags. Large red

  3. Fire effects on germination of seeds from Rhus and Rubus : competitors to pine during natural regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the southeastern United States, Rhus and Rubus species are common associates of the southern pines on a wide array of upland site and stand conditions. Because of their ability to overrun disturbed sites, these species are categorized as competitors to pine during stand regeneration. Since prescribed burning is often used for site preparation in advance of pine regeneration, this

  4. A search for hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Shakibaei, Rashin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. fruit (75 and 100 microg/ml) and also gallic acid (100 microM) as one of its main components were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. Both extract concentrations and gallic acid (100 microM) significantly (P<0.05) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane oxidative damage and cellular proteolysis. Aqueous extracts of Rhus coriaria L. (75 and 100 microg/ml) were more effective than gallic acid (100 microM) in protecting hepatocytes against CHP induced lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). On the other hand gallic acid (100 microM) acted more effective than aqueous extracts of Rhus coriaria L. (75 and 100 microg/ml) at preventing hepatocyte membrane lysis (P<0.05). In addition H(2)O(2) scavenging effect of both extract concentrations (75 and 100 microg/ml) were determined in hepatocytes and compared with gallic acid (100 microM). Gallic acid (100 microM) was more effective than aqueous extracts of Rhus coriaria L. (75 and 100 microg/ml) at H(2)O(2) scavenging activity (P<0.05). PMID:20036300

  5. A Leaflet of Rhus toxicodendroides, a Fossil Plant from the Los Ahuehuetes Locality, Puebla, Mexico

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hector Hern& aacute; ndez Campos

    2004-03-09

    A leaflet of Rhus toxicodendroides, a fossil plant from the Los Ahuehuetes locality, Puebla, Mexico, a center of diversity for the Anacardiaceae since the Oligocene, suggesting that the area was important for the radiation and diversification for some lineages within the family.

  6. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  7. Alteration of Asian lacquer: in-depth insight using a physico-chemical multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Duhamel, Chloé; Daher, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Paris, Céline; Regert, Martine; Sablier, Michel; André, Guilhem; Desroches, Jean-Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Oriental lacquer has been used in Asian countries for thousands of years as a durable and aesthetic coating material for its adhesive, consolidating, protective and decorative properties. Although these objects are made from an unusual material in Occident, Western museum collections host many lacquerwares. Curators, restorers and scientists are daily confronted with questions of their conservation and their alteration. The characterization of their conservation state is usually assessed through visual observations. However deterioration often starts at the microscopic level and cannot be detected by a simple visual inspection. Often, ageing and deterioration of artworks are connected to physical, mechanical and chemical transformations. Thus new insight into alteration of lacquer involves the monitoring of macro-, microscopic and molecular modifications, and this can be assessed from physico-chemical measurements. Non-invasive (microtopography and Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM) and micro-invasive (infrared micro-spectroscopy using a synchrotron source - SR-?FTIR) investigations were performed to study the degradation processes of lacquers and evaluate their level of alteration. In particular, spectral decomposition and fitting procedure were performed in the 1820-1520 cm(-1) region to follow the shift of the C=O and C=C band positions during lacquer ageing. The present work proves the potential of this physico-chemical approach in conservation studies of lacquers and in the quantification of the state of alteration. It evidences chemical phenomena of alteration such as oxidation and decomposition of a lacquer polymeric network. It also demonstrates for the first time the degradation front of artificially aged lacquer and the chemical imaging of a more than 2000 years old archaeological lacquer by using SR-?FTIR. PMID:23897515

  8. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  9. Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-10-15

    A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-L-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-L-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

  10. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  11. Effects of Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) on lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Candan, Ferda; Sökmen, Atalay

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae), a well-known spice, the methanolic extract (water-soluble part) was prepared and investigated using free radical-generating systems in vitro. The IC(50) value of the extract for lipid peroxidation was estimated as 1200 microg/mL in the Fe(+2)-ascorbate system while those for superoxide-scavenging activity in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase method and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the deoxyribose decomposition method were 282.92 microg/mL and 3850 microg/mL, respectively. These data suggest that the methanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria L. fruits have considerable antioxidant activity against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in vitro, a fact that may encourage in vivo studies. PMID:14750207

  12. Hypoglycaemic activity of two spices extracts: Rhus coriaria L. and Bunium persicum Boiss.

    PubMed

    Giancarlo, Statti; Rosa, Loizzo Monica; Nadjafi, Farsad; Francesco, Menichini

    2006-07-20

    The hypoglycaemic efficacy of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss) extracts were investigated through inhibition of a glycoside hydrolase: alpha-amylase. On the basis of our result ethyl acetate extract of sumac may have interest in the treatment and prevention of hyperglycaemia, diabetes and obesity, with an IC50 value of 28.7 microg mL-1. PMID:16753927

  13. Hypoglycaemic activity of two spices extracts: Rhus coriaria L. and Bunium persicum Boiss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Statti Giancarlo; Loizzo Monica Rosa; Farsad Nadjafi; Menichini Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The hypoglycaemic efficacy of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss) extracts were investigated through inhibition of a glycoside hydrolase: ?-amylase. On the basis of our result ethyl acetate extract of sumac may have interest in the treatment and prevention of hyperglycaemia, diabetes and obesity, with an IC50 value of 28.7?µg?mL. §Statti Giancarlo and Loizzo Monica Rosa

  14. A search for hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalal Pourahmad; Mohammad Reza Eskandari; Rashin Shakibaei; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2010-01-01

    The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. fruit (75 and 100?g\\/ml) and also gallic acid (100?M) as one of its main components were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. Both extract concentrations and gallic acid (100?M) significantly (P<0.05) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers

  15. Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, S.; Montasser Kouhsari, S; Monavar Feshani, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Fruits of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) are traditionally used as a table spice in Iran and are highly recommended for diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits and also its mechanisms of action. Methods The effects of ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits were measured on blood glucose, lipids and antioxidant enzymes by commercial kits. mRNA levels of insulin (INS) and glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT-4) genes were investigated by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction) technique. Moreover, its effects on intestinal a-glucosidases was measured using an in vitro method. Results and Conclusion Following a single dose administration of the extract it was found that extract could significantly reduce postprandial blood glucose by 24% (at 5 hrs). In the long term experiment, on the day of 21, postprandial blood glucose (PBG) was found to be significantly lower (by 26%) compared to diabetic control group. The plant extract raised markedly serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 34% and also reduced low-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 32%. Also it had noticeable antioxidant effects by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase(CAT) activities by 46% and 77%, respectively. However it did not show a strong effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. The extract inhibited maltase and sucrase activities by 44% and 27%, respectively. However it made no changes in the transcript levels of INS and GLUT-4 genes. It can be concluded that constituents of Rhus coriaria fruits have effective components which can be utilized as useful herb for alleviation of diabetes complications. PMID:22615627

  16. Integrating Traditional Medicine into Modern Inflammatory Diseases Care: Multitargeting by Rhus verniciflua Stokes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that numerous researches were performed on prevention and treatment of inflammation related diseases, the overall incidence has not changed remarkably. This requires new approaches to overcome inflammation mediated diseases, and thus traditional medicine could be an efficacious source for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the contribution of traditional medicine, especially Rhus verniciflua Stokes, to modern medicine against diverse inflammation mediated diseases. Traditionally, this remedy has been used in Eastern Asia for the treatment of gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of Rhus verniciflua Stokes against such disorders and diseases. Various chemical constituents have been identified from this plant, including phenolic acid, and flavonoids. Cell-based studies have exhibited the potential of this as antibacterial, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, growth inhibitory, and anticancer activities. Enormous animal studies have shown the potential of this against proinflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, liver diseases, and chemical insults. At the molecular level, this medicinal plant has been shown to modulate diverse cell-signaling pathways. In clinical studies, Rhus verniciflua Stokes has shown efficacy against various cancer patients such as colorectal, gastric, hepatic, renal, pancreatic, and pulmonary cancers. Thus, this remedy is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. PMID:25024508

  17. Effect of passivation treatment and storing on adhesion and protective properties of lacquered tinplate cans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bastidas; J. M. Cabañes; R. Catalá

    1997-01-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with three commercial lacquer systems were studied. The relationship found between lacquer\\u000a adhesion, metallic chromium (CrM), chromium oxide (CrOx), and total chromium (CrT) existing in the passivated layer was: adhesion=CrM+10\\u000a (CrOx\\/CrT). The study was completed by conducting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and direct current (DC) polarization\\u000a experiments up to 410 days. A dilute acetic acidsodium chloride

  18. Toxic leukoencephalopathy with atypical MRI features following a lacquer thinner fire.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Pare, Laura; Kim, Ronald; Hasso, Anton N

    2014-05-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a structural alteration of the white matter following exposure to various toxic agents. We report a 49-year-old man exposed to an explosion of lacquer thinner with brain MRI features atypical from those of chronic toxic solvent intoxication. PMID:24291481

  19. Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Philip Fleckman; Robert Baran

    2000-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a relatively common condition affecting toenails more than fingernails. It is caused predominantly by dermatophytes. Onychomycosis can cause pain and discomfort and has the potential to be a source of morbidity. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% used to treat onychomycosis of the toe in the United States and in

  20. Pharmacoeconomic applications of meta-analysis for single groups using antifungal onychomycosis lacquers as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Einarson

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for summarizing clinical success rates across studies or arms of studies. Topical lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis are used to illustrate the approach. A modification of Cochran's method, later modified by Der-Simonian and Laird, is presented in a stepwise fashion. A summary point estimate weighted by both within- and between-study variance is produced, along

  1. Study on the adhesion of different types of lacquers used in food packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Barilli; R Fragni; S Gelati; A Montanari

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of the durability and quality of a coating used to protect against corrosion is a practical problem that in the specific case canned food packaging, both canmaker and the food industry must consider carefully. In this work we discuss three methods for evaluating the adhesion of three types of lacquers (stoving and UV curing) applied on different

  2. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

  3. Synthesis and properties of a lacquer wax-based quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Lu, Li; Yang, Zhibing

    2014-01-01

    Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA)% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 5 × 10?? mol·L?¹, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m?¹. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min. PMID:24662075

  4. Trees, Trees, Trees!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

  5. Genetic variation and evidence of hybridization in the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Hamrick, J L

    2002-01-01

    Rhus michauxii, a rare plant species endemic to the southeastern United States, was previously known only from central North Carolina and one site in Georgia. An additional site, which is now believed to represent the largest known concentration of R. michauxii, was recently discovered at Ft. Pickett near Blackstone, Virginia. Morphological characteristics in several of the Ft. Pickett Rhus populations appear to be intermediate between R. michauxii and the widespread R. glabra, a closely related congener that co-occurs at Ft. Pickett. Although morphological evidence of hybridization between R. michauxii and R. glabra in North Carolina has been provided previously, genetic marker data are lacking. In the present study we examined levels of allozyme variation at 11 polymorphic loci within and among seven populations of R. michauxii, one population of R. glabra, and four putative hybrid populations at Ft. Pickett. Overall, R. michauxii had typical levels of within-population genetic variation when compared to other species with similar life-history characteristics. In contrast, the proportion of genetic variation among populations (G(ST)) was considerably lower than expected. Finally, R. michauxii and R. glabra appear to have a fixed allelic difference at the Idh2 locus. This enabled us to confirm hybridization in all four of the putative hybrid populations and one of the R. michauxii populations. PMID:12011173

  6. Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2012-11-01

    Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

  7. Anatomy of Two Mechanisms of Breaking Physical Dormancy by Experimental Treatments in Seeds of Two North American Rhus Species (Anacardiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojie Li; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy of the endocarp was studied in relation to the physical dormancy-breaking mechanisms in experimentally treated Rhus aromatica var. aromatica and R. glabra germination units, which include seed plus endocarp (hereafter seeds). The endocarp has three distinct layers, with brachysclereids on the outside, osteosclereids in the middle, and macrosclereids on the inside. Brachysclereids in the carpellary micropyle region (i.e., region

  8. Comparative Morphology and Physiology of Fruit and Seed Development in the Two Shrubs Rhus aromatica and R. glabra (Anacardiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojie Li; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

    1999-01-01

    Morphology and physiology of fruit and seed development were compared in Rhus aromatica and R. glabra (Anacardi- aceae), both of which produce drupes with water-impermeable endocarps. Phenology of flowering\\/fruiting of the two species at the study site was separated by ;2 mo. However, they were similar in the timetable and pattern of fruit and seed development; it took ; 2m

  9. Evaluation of reducing power and radical scavenging activities of water and ethanol extracts from sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ercan Bursal; Ekrem Köksal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reducing power, metal chelating, and radical scavenging capabilities of water and ethanol extracts of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.), comparatively. The water and ethanol extracts of sumac were evaluated for their radical scavenging activities by means of the DPPH and DMPD assays. Water extract of sumac (R. coriaria L.) scavenged radicals effectively

  10. Preparation and characterization of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer film based on pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Yukio Kamiya; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2007-01-01

    3-(10-Phenyldecyl)catechol was synthesized by the reaction of catechol and 1-phenyl-10-iododecane, followed by de-protection of the hydroxyl groups of catechol; it was then polymerized into synthetic lacquer film by laccase enzyme, and characterized using pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py–GC\\/MS) in order to reveal the polymerization mechanism of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer. The molecular weight and molecular structure information for each peak in the

  11. Fabrication and characterization of replicated and lacquer-coated grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, M.P. (Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (US)); Haidle, R.; Altkorn, R. (Northwestern Univ., Basic Industry Research Lab., Evanston, IL (US)); Georgopoulos, P. (Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Material Science, Evanston, IL (US)); Rodricks, B. (Argonne National Lab., Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (US)); Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Instrumentation Div., Upton, NY (US))

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the fabrication and testing of electroformed replica Wolter I optics made from gold-coated lacquered mandrels. The authors also discuss testing of gold- and palladium-coated lacquered test flats. X-ray (5 keV for Wolter I mirror and 8 to 40 keV for test flats) and optical (Wyko NCP-1000 profiler) measurements were used to evaluate the mirrors.

  12. Method and apparatus for cleaning used air from spray booths wherein articles are lacquered

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, R.; Wagner, H.

    1981-03-24

    For cleaning a flow of used air from a spray booth wherein articles are lacquered, a duct is provided with a first constriction where the flow of used air is brought into contact with washing fluid so as to wet lacquer particles in the used air. Downstream of the first constriction a guide conduit, which has a bend therein deflects the flow of used air and the washing fluid. The guide conduit is provided with a second constriction and after the flow of used air and the washing fluid have been deflected they pass through the second constriction, which is narrower than the first. Turbulence is thus created and the washing fluid is atomized and intimately mixed with the used air.

  13. Corrosion behavior of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with cockles (cardium edulis) in brine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bastidas, J.M.; Cabanes, J.M.; Catala, R.

    2000-04-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with an epoxyphenolic plus zinc oxide (ZnO) lacquer were studied. The relationship between lacquer adhesion and total chromium, metallic chromium, and chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) in the passivated layer was analyzed. The thickness of the CrO{sub x} layer is a controlling parameter of adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), direct current (DC) polarization, and atomic absorption (AA) experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. EIS, DC, and AA results indicated that the passivation treatment with the lowest chromium content (Type 1) showed slightly worse corrosion behavior, with substantial iron dissolution and sulfur staining of the tinplate, than passivation treatments Types 2 and 3, which behaved similarly to each other. A fully opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell in contact with canned cockles (a mollusc, Cardium edulis).

  14. Chemical modification, characterization and structure-anticoagulant activity relationships of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Ronghua Huang; Yunyang Wan; Tianyu Li

    2002-01-01

    A natural lacquer polysaccharide with complex branches was separated into two fractions, LPH (MW 16.9×104) and LPL (MW 6.85×104). Results of 13C NMR and FT-IR indicated they had the same structure. The treatment of LPL with sodium periodate led to a partial cut-off of side chains with 4-O-methyl--d-glucuronic acid in the terminal. These polysaccharides were sulfated in the presence of

  15. Evaluation of prolonged exposure of lacquered tinplate cans to a citrate buffer solution using electrochemical techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bastidas; J. M. Cabañes; R. Catalá

    1997-01-01

    Four lots of tinplate cans, internally coated with water- and organic solvent-based epoxyphenolic lacquer, were studied. A 0.1 M citric-citrate test buffer solution (pH 3.5) was packed at 90 °C, sterilised at 121 °C and stored at room temperature. A full opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell. Electrochemical a.c. and d.c. experiments were conducted after

  16. Bénard convection ZnO\\/resin lacquer coating — a new approach to electrostatic dissipative coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoi Kitano; Makoto Shiojiri

    1997-01-01

    Coating of ZnO\\/resin composite films has been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electromeasurement. Poly(vinyl chloride)\\/poly(methyl methacrylate) lacquer mixed with either needle-like (N-) or tetrapod-like (T-) ZnO particles is spread in a 200 ?m thick layer on a glass sheet. Bénard convection occurs in the coating. N-ZnO particles flow along the convection streams, and are then dispersively fixed

  17. Micro-cells beneath organic lacquers: a study using scanning Kelvin probe and scanning acoustic microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Doherty; J. M. Sykes

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of degradation of epoxy-phenolic lacquer coated thin electro-chrome-coated mild steel (food can material) has been investigated in brine using a novel combination of experimental techniques. A scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) was used to map electrochemical potential distributions beneath the coating at several stages of exposure to 0.17 M (1% w\\/w) NaCl solution. An interesting sequence of events was

  18. Polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate) blend as selective sensor for acetone in lacquer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladawan Ruangchuay; Anuvat Sirivat; Johannes Schwank

    2003-01-01

    A film of ?-naphthalene sulfonate-doped polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate), PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA, obtained from solution mixing was successfully used as sensing material for acetone vapor in lacquer with a high degree of selectivity based on electrical conductivity over acetic acid and a high degree of stability over the humidity change. Compared with pure PPy\\/?-NS?, the selectivity ratio of acetone\\/acetic acid response of PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA blend with

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a Kel-F resin and lacquer

    SciTech Connect

    Rutenberg, A.C.

    1985-08-02

    Proton, carbon, and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to determine the concentration of various species present in Kel-F 800 resin and its lacquers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize Kel-F 800 resin and to measure the various chemical species present in a lacquer based on this resin. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of ethyl acetate to xylenes and to estimate the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the water and ethanol content of the lacquer as well as some of its components. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was also used to estimate the amount of perfluorodecanoate emulsifier present in the Kel-F resin. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the isomeric composition of various batches of xylenes and as an alternate method for measuring the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

    2013-05-01

    In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38-70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48-89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0-21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27-61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

  1. Effect of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) on superoxide radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Candan, Ferda

    2003-02-01

    Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) is a well-known spice in the Middle-East and grown in the Central and East Anatolia region of Turkey. A methanolic extract (water-soluble part constituents) of R. coriaria, was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and scavenger of superoxide radical in vitro with IC50 values of 172.5 microg/mL and 232 microg/mL respectively. Superoxide radicals were generated either by an enzymatic or a non-enzymatic system, and scavenging ability was evaluated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. This study provides evidence that a crude extract of R. coriaria exhibits interesting antioxidant properties, expressed either by the capacity to scavenge superoxide radical or to uncompetitively inhibit xanthine oxidase. PMID:12751822

  2. Lipid-lowering effect of Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M; Nobakht, M; Moazzam, A A

    2011-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, the hypolipidemic effects of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits in high cholesterold diet (HCD)-fed rats was investigated. There was a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) along with augmented activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Treatment with aqueous methanol extract of sumac fruits reduced the above alterations observed in hypercholesterolemic rats. Sumac extract also reversed the hypertrophic cardiac histology. Furthermore, in vivo toxicological studies showed no evidence of acute toxicity of the extract in male Wistar rats. In conclusion, sumac fruit extract intervention minimized the lipid abnormalities and abnormal biochemical changes induced in HCD fed rats. This shows that sumac fruit extract possesses cardioprotective and hepatoprotective activities which will be beneficial in hypercholesterolemic condition. PMID:22312707

  3. Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The worldwide increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the undesirable side effects associated with constant use of synthetic drugs has prompted the search for novel antimicrobial agents, particularly those manufactured from plants. This study is designed to ascertain the antibacterial potential of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts on the growth of gram-positive and gram–negative bacteria. Methods: The methanolic and hexane extract of different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 ?g/ml) were prepared and their antibacterial efficacy was tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method and the size of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. Results: The methanol and hexane extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activity with methanol extract showing a potent inhibitory activity in the range of 16±2 to 23±1, which was almost equal to the values of ciprofloxacin (25±3), used as a standard. Further, the methanol extract was mostly potent and effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-negative bacteria, namely, E. coli, when compared to gram –positive bacteria stains, which are responsible for antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical screening showed positive results for the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: The potent antibacterial activity of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts indicates its useful therapeutic application against bacterial infection. Furthermore, this study indicates that the extract might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of infectious diseases and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medications. PMID:24455483

  4. Efficacy of Injections with Disci\\/Rhus Toxicodendron Compositum for Chronic Low Back Pain – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pach; Benno Brinkhaus; Stephanie Roll; Karl Wegscheider; Katja Icke; Stefan N. Willich; Claudia M. Witt

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. We compared the efficacy of local injections of the homeopathic preparation Disci\\/Rhus toxicodendron compositum (verum) with placebo injections and with no treatment in patients with chronic low back pain.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn a randomized controlled partly double blind multicenter trial patients with chronic low back pain from 9 German outpatient clinics

  5. Influence of between-year variation in the density of Rhus trichocarpa fruits on the removal of fruit by birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Osada

    2005-01-01

    The fruiting phenology and fruit removal patterns of Rhus trichocarpa Miq. (Anacardiaceae) were investigated in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Mature fruits of this species are dispersed by birds. Effects of fruit display size and canopy openness on fruit removal were investigated in years with different fruit densities (i.e., masting and non-masting years). Moreover, effects of increased canopy openness

  6. On the liquid chromatography and identification of the flavonoids, present in the “sumach tannic acid” extracted from Rhus coriaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Van Loo; A. De Bruyn; M. Verzele

    1988-01-01

    Summary  The leaves ofRhus coriaria contain about 15–20% polyphenolic compounds. These are mostly hydrolysable tannins, with a central glucose unit, to which\\u000a several gallic acid rests are bound depsidically. 5 to 10% of the total polyphenolic fraction however, consists of condensed\\u000a tannins or flavonoids. This work studies the identity and the liquid chromatographic behaviour of these flavonoids. The presence\\u000a of the

  7. Antimicrobial effect of water extract of sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.) on the growth of some food borne bacteria including pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Nasar-Abbas; A. Kadir Halkman

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of water extracts of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w\\/v), non-neutralized and after neutralization to pH 7.2±0.1, was studied on the growth of 12 bacterial strains (six Gram positive strains and six Gram negative strains), mostly food borne including pathogens. It was found to be effective against all the

  8. Comparative morphology and physiology of fruit and seed development in the two shrubs Rhus aromatica and R. glabra (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, X; Baskin, J M; Baskin, C C

    1999-09-01

    Morphology and physiology of fruit and seed development were compared in Rhus aromatica and R. glabra (Anacardiaceae), both of which produce drupes with water-impermeable endocarps. Phenology of flowering/fruiting of the two species at the study site was separated by ?2 mo. However, they were similar in the timetable and pattern of fruit and seed development; it took ?2 mo and ?1.5 mo for flowers of Rhus aromatica and R. glabra, respectively, to develop into mature drupes. The single sigmoidal growth curve for increase in fruit size and in dry mass of these two species differs from the double-sigmoidal one described for typical commercial drupes such as peach and plum. Order of attainment of maximum size was fruit and endocarp (same time), seed coat, and embryo. By the time fruits turned red, the embryo had reached full size and become germinable; moisture content of seed plus endocarp had decreased to ?40%. The endocarp was the last fruit component to reach physiological maturity, which coincided with development of its impermeability and a seed plus endocarp moisture content of <10%. At this time, ?50, 37, and 13% of the dry mass of the drupe was allocated to the exocarp plus mesocarp unit, endocarp, and seed, respectively. The time course of fruit and seed development in these two species is much faster than that reported for other Anacardiaceae, including Rhus lancea, Protorhus, and Pistacia. PMID:10487809

  9. In vivo Uptake and Retention of Fluoride in Human Surface Enamel after Application of a Fluoride-Containing Lacquer (Fluor Protector®)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bruun; H. Givskov; K. Stoltze

    1980-01-01

    The ability of a newly developed urethane lacquer containing silane fluoride (Fluor Protector®) to deposit fluoride in the enamel was tested in vivo using the enamel biopsy technique. The enamel fluoride concentration was measured before, 1 week after a single application or two applications of the lacquer performed with a 1-week interval, and 6 months after two applications. At the

  10. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% and the new oral antifungal agents used to treat dermatophyte toe onychomycosis in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Background: Recently a novel topical nail lacquer, ciclopirox solution 8%, has been approved for the treatment of onychomycosis. Objective: This was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective treatment for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toes in the United States in 2000. Methods: The nature of the problem was defined. The drug comparators were ciclopirox nail lacquer, terbinafine, itraconazole

  11. [Preliminary study on lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty unearthed in Laoguanshan, Chengdu].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Zhou, Xinglan; Xie, Tao; Lu, Yinke; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Zhang-hua

    2015-01-01

    The lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty, unearthed in Tianhui town, Jinniu district, Chengdu in 2012, has been the earliest and the most complete human figure of meridian-acupoints in China so far. There were over ten courses of meridians, and over 100 visible acupoints as well as multiple intaglio inscriptions. All of them are valuable in academic study. The writers introduced the lacquer figure un- earthed in Laoguanshan in terms of the briefs and characteristics of meridian and acupoint distributions, which give the references to the future studies. PMID:25906581

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Rhus javanica against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Ouk; Kang, Sun-Young; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the leaves of Rhus javanica (R. javanica) were extracted with ethanol, and we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of R. javanica against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Control groups were treated with media containing 0.1% DMSO. The ethanol extract of R. javanica inhibited the growth of MRSA at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2?mg/mL and inhibited acid production at concentrations higher than 0.1?mg/mL (P < 0.05). MRSA biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy and safranin staining. The ethanol extract of R. javanica inhibited the formation of MRSA biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.05?mg/mL. In confocal laser scanning microscopy, high concentration (0.4–1.6?mg/mL) of R. javanica extract showed bactericidal effect in a dose-dependent manner. In real-time PCR analysis, R. javanica extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expression of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in MRSA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the strong presence of phenolics. These results suggest that R. javanica may be a useful medicinal plant for inhibiting MRSA, which may be related to the presence of phenolics in the R. javanica extract. PMID:24223060

  13. Effects of dietary inclusion of Rhus coriaria on internal milieu of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Capcarova, M; Slamecka, J; Abbas, K; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Valent, M; Filipejova, T; Chrastinova, L; Ondruska, L; Massanyi, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of Rhus coriaria L. inclusion to the diet on some biochemical, haematological parameters and the level of antioxidant status of male rabbits. Adult rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C) and four experimental groups. Experimental animals received sumac per os in feed in various doses (0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00% and 1.50%) for 90 days. Significant increase in PDWc (platelet distribution width) in E3 group when compared with control group was recorded. Sumac administration resulted in decreased cholesterol levels in all experimental groups vs. control group. Significantly lower level of cholesterol was found in E4 group with highest dose of sumac (1.50%). Higher values of total antioxidant status (TAS) and albumins were observed in all experimental groups in comparison with control group. A significant increase in TAS was detected in group E1 and E4. Concentrations of albumins were significantly higher in groups E3 and E4 vs. control group. Sumac administration had no significant effect on bilirubin content. In conclusion, these results show a positive effect of sumac consumption on antioxidant status and cholesterol level in adult male rabbits. PMID:21585564

  14. Effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts on the oxidative stability of peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at various concentrations were tested in natural peanut oil stored at 65 degrees C for 35 days. The concentrations (weight/volume) of extracts added into oil were 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, and those of BHA were 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%. Antioxidant effect was determined by the measurement of peroxide value. After 7 days of storage, BHA and extracts of sumach were active in varying degrees against autoxidation of peanut oil, compared with the control test (P <.01). The sumach extracts generally inhibited the formation of hydroperoxide, as did BHA. After 28 days of storage, antioxidant effects of extracts were significantly decreased when compared with BHA. The decrease in the antioxidant activity of extracts might have resulted from the decrease of polyphenolic constituents. The results showed that high concentrations can enhance the potency of the antioxidant effect of sumach extract. PMID:12804022

  15. Ciclopirox Nail Lacquer 8%: In vivo Penetration into and through Nails and in vitro Effect on Pig Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Ceschin-Roques; H. Hänel; S. M. Pruja-Bougaret; J. Luc; J. Vandermander; G. Michel

    1991-01-01

    This report presents original methods to assess the bioavailability of an antifungal drug from a varnish preparation in finger nails. For the studies with human volunteers a ciclopirox 8 % nail lacquer was used to determine its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycoses. In vivo studies were performed on the fingernails of healthy volunteers by determining the total amount of

  16. An impedance study on the corrosion properties of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with tuna and mussels in pickled sauce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R CatalÁ; J. M CabaÑES; J. M Bastidas

    1998-01-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with two commercial epoxyphenolic lacquers were studied. Tuna and mussels in pickled sauce and an acetic model were used as electrolytes. EIS and polarization experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. Tin and iron dissolution was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Similar results were yielded by the three experimental techniques employed. The

  17. Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis with Amorolfine 5% Nail Lacquer: Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Once and Twice Weekly Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Reinel

    1992-01-01

    456 patients with onychomycosis were treated once or twice weekly for up to 6 months with amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in an open, randomized study. The patients were examined at monthly intervals during treatment and followed-up 1 and 3 months after completion of treatment. Slightly better cure rates were achieved with twice weekly use than with once weekly use (overall

  18. The application of AC impedance to study the performance of lacquered aluminium specimens in acetic acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D Scantlebury; K Gali?

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium tubes with single and double coat solvent based and water based lacquers, based on epoxy-phenolic resins, were analysed. To determine the electrochemical parameters to correlate with the actual behaviour of a collapsible tube, impedance spectroscopy was used. The measurements were performed in 3% (v\\/v) acetic acid, at room temperature. After impedance measurements specimens surface were analysed by scanning electron

  19. Fabrication of paper-based devices by lacquer spraying method for the determination of nickel (II) ion in waste water.

    PubMed

    Nurak, Thara; Praphairaksit, Narong; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-30

    A spraying method with lacquer was developed for the fabrication of paper-based devices. A patterned iron mask was initially placed on a filter paper and held tightly attached by a magnetic plate placed on the opposite side. After that, acrylic lacquer was sprayed on the filter paper to create a hydrophobic area while the hydrophilic area was protected with the iron mask. The optimal conditions for the fabrication of this device were studied including lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper. Gloss spray lacquer and filter paper No. 4 were chosen as optimal lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper, respectively. To evaluate its efficiency, the paper-based devices were used to determine nickel using electrochemical detection. Cu-enhancer solution was employed to increase sensitivity of nickel determination with the optimal concentration of 4.5 ppm. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was observed in the range of 1-50 ppm with a coefficient of determination of 0.9971. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.5 and 1.97 ppm, respectively. Moreover, these paper-based devices coupled with electrochemical detection were applied to determine nickel in waste water of a jewelry factory and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that there were no significant variations between this proposed method (4.15±0.043 ppm) and the ICP-OES method (4.06±0.013 ppm). Therefore, this spraying method was found to be an excellent alternative for the fabrication of paper-based devices due to its ease of use, affordability and simplicity. PMID:23953473

  20. DNA-protective effects of sumach ( Rhus coriaria L.), a common spice: Results of human and animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asima Chakraborty; Franziska Ferk; Tatjana Simi?; Adelheid Brantner; Maria Dušinská; Michael Kundi; Christine Hoelzl; Armen Nersesyan; Siegfried Knasmüller

    2009-01-01

    Sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) is widely used as a spice. The aim of this study was the investigation of its DNA-protective effects in humans and animals. Prevention of the formation of strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases as well as the protection against H2O2- and (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA-damage were monitored in human lymphocytes in a placebo controlled trial (N=8\\/group) with

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of some extracts and pure natural products isolated from Rhus tripartitum (Ucria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Ali Mahjoub; Samia Ammar; Hayet Edziri; Nabila Mighri; Abderrahman Bouraoui; Zine Mighri

    2010-01-01

    Chromatographic separation of Rhus tripartitum (Anacardiaceae) chemical components revealed the presence of four main natural substances: a new biflavonoid masazinoflavanone\\u000a (S1), myricetin (S2), (-)-lyoniresinol 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (S3), and (-)-methyl shikimate (S4). The anti-inflammatory\\u000a activity of the new biflavonoid substance was performed. Compared with the standard drug dexamethasone, the biflavonoid substance\\u000a masazinoflavanone (S1) inhibited in a dose-related manner carrageenan-induced paw edema in

  2. Anti-HIV-1 activity, protease inhibition and safety profile of extracts prepared from Rhus parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, extracts prepared from the leaves of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Anacardiaceae) were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity, which have been traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy. Methods Aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts prepared from leaves of the plant were tested for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV property using reporter gene based assays as well as human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Further these extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease activity. Safety profile of the extracts was determined on viability of Lactobacillus sp., secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by vaginal keratinocytes and transepithelial resistance. Results Both aqueous (IC50?=?15 ?g/ml) and 50% ethanolic (IC50?=?26 ?g/ml) extracts prepared from leaves of R. parviflora showed anti-HIV activity in TZM-bl cells wherein the virus was treated with the extracts prior to infection. Further, both the extracts also inhibited virus load in HIV infected CEM-GFP cells and human PBLs. The anti-HIV activity is mediated through inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity. Both the extracts did not disturb the integrity of monolayer formed by intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The extracts when tested up to 100 ?g/ml did not significantly reduce the viability of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei. The extracts (100 ?g/ml) did not reveal any cytotoxic effect on vaginal keratinocytes (Vk2/E6E7). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by Vk2/E6E7 cells treated with both the plant extracts were within the non-inflammatory range. Conclusions The studies reported herein showed in vitro anti-HIV activity and preliminary safety profile of the extracts prepared from the leaves of R. parviflora. PMID:24059266

  3. Rhus coriaria ameliorates insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Tarique; Sharma, Manju; Khan, Gyas; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Alam, Mohammad Sarfaraz; Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen; Gupta, Nakul

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of methanolic extract of Rhus coriaria (RC) on hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg) to 2 days old rat pups. RC (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for 5 weeks after the animals were confirmed diabetic (i.e, 90 days after STZ injection). A group of citrate control rats were also maintained which has received citrate buffer on the 2nd day of their birth. There was a significant increase in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum insulin levels were observed in NIDDM control rats. Treatment with RC reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin in the NIDDM rats. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in the same groups, in which we found a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in the rats treated with RC. The insulin sensitivity was assessed for both peripheral insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance. RC treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity index (K(ITT)) which was significantly decreased in NIDDM control rats. There was significant rise in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) in NIDDM control rats whereas RC treatment significantly prevented the rise in HOMA-R in NIDDM treated rats. Our data suggest that methanolic extract of RC significantly delayed the onset of hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance and improved insulin sensitivity in NIDDM rats. PMID:24147364

  4. Quality control of commercial Mediterranean oregano: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of the adulterants Cistus incanus L., Rubus caesius L. and Rhus coriaria L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Marieschi; Anna Torelli; Ferruccio Poli; Alberto Bianchi; Renato Bruni

    2010-01-01

    A recent pharmacognostic survey showed a frequent adulteration of commercial Mediterranean oregano with dried plants having a similar silvery gray color (Rhus coriaria L., Cistus spp. and Rubus spp.). If performed by skilled adulterators, the detection of this practice relies almost completely on pharmacognostic assays which are extremely laborious and time consuming, especially when multiple batches of oregano have to

  5. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Süleyman Kizil; Murat Turk

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants

  6. A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for Air Cherenkov Telescopes by applying a lacquer that scatters light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, D.; Gebauer, H. J.; Lorenz, E.; Mirzoyan, R.

    2004-02-01

    The sensitivity of photomultipliers (PMT) can be substantially increased by applying a light scattering lacquer doped with a Wavelength Shifter. Applying this method to the Electron Tubes 9116/17A PMT resulted in a good sensitivity in the short wave UV range as well as a 15-20% increase in quantum efficiency above 350nm. Details of the procedure and a simple model for the explanation of the enhancement are presented.

  7. Determination of butoxyacetic acid and N -butoxyacetyl-glutamine in urine of lacquerers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Rettenmeier; R. Hennigs; R. Wodarz

    1993-01-01

    Summary To determine the fraction of butoxyacetic acid (BAA) which is excreted as the amino acid conjugate N-butoxyacetylglutamine (BAA-GLN), urine samples of six lacquerers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol (BE) were collected before and after work and analysed using an HPLC-method which allows the simultaneous quantification of both BAA species. Whereas the pre-shift samples contained only little or no butoxyethanol-related material, concentrations

  8. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm?3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  9. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  10. Anatomy of two mechanisms of breaking physical dormancy by experimental treatments in seeds of two North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, X; Baskin, J M; Baskin, C C

    1999-11-01

    Anatomy of the endocarp was studied in relation to the physical dormancy-breaking mechanisms in experimentally treated Rhus aromatica var. aromatica and R. glabra germination units, which include seed plus endocarp (hereafter seeds). The endocarp has three distinct layers, with brachysclereids on the outside, osteosclereids in the middle, and macrosclereids on the inside. Brachysclereids in the carpellary micropyle region (i.e., region immediately adjacent to the integumentary micropyle) are shorter than those in other parts of the endocarp, and the macrosclereids in this region are not elongated. Thus, a weak point is formed in the endocarp. Concentrated sulfuric acid broke seed dormancy in R. aromatica by eroding the brachysclereids and osteosclereids in the carpellary micropyle region, whereas boiling water broke dormancy in seeds of R. glabra by inducing a blister adjacent to the carpellary micropyle. PMID:10562242

  11. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of nanoparticles designed for inclusion in paints and lacquers.

    PubMed

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Birkedal, Renie; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-08-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials are projected to be used on a large scale in paints and lacquers. We selected seven commercially interesting materials: Three titanium dioxide-based (two coated rutile; one uncoated anatase), one carbon black (Flamrüss 101), one kaolinite clay, and two silica products, whereas carbon black, Printex 90, was used as reference material. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity (pulmonary cell composition and mRNAs) were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Greatest inflammation was induced by Printex 90 and uncoated titanium dioxide. The inflammatory potency correlated with instilled surface area (R(2) = 0.94) but not with material volume (R(2) = 0.17). The coated titanium dioxides induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The uncoated titanium dioxide was not DNA damaging by the comet assay 24 h after exposure despite being highly inflammogenic. This suggests that inflammation is not a prerequisite to DNA damage in titanium dioxide-based products. PMID:21649461

  12. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of moronic acid purified from Rhus javanica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, M; Basnet, P; Ohsugi, M; Hozumi, T; Kadota, S; Namba, T; Kawana, T; Shiraki, K

    1999-04-01

    Rhus javanica, a medicinal herb, has been shown to exhibit oral therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in mice. We purified two major anti-HSV compounds, moronic acid and betulonic acid, from the herbal extract by extraction with ethyl acetate at pH 10 followed by chromatographic separations and examined their anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo. Moronic acid was quantitatively a major anti-HSV compound in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction of moronic acid and betulonic acid for wild-type HSV type 1 (HSV-1) were 3.9 and 2.6 microgram/ml, respectively. The therapeutic index of moronic acid (10.3-16.3) was larger than that of betulonic acid (6.2). Susceptibility of acyclovir-phosphonoacetic acid-resistant HSV-1, thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1, and wild-type HSV type 2 to moronic acid was similar to that of the wild-type HSV-1. When this compound was administered orally to mice infected cutaneously with HSV-1 three times daily, it significantly retarded the development of skin lesions and/or prolonged the mean survival times of infected mice without toxicity compared with the control. Moronic acid suppressed virus yields in the brain more efficiently than those in the skin. This was consistent with the prolongation of mean survival times. Thus, moronic acid was purified as a major anti-HSV compound from the herbal extract of Rhus javanica. Mode of the anti-HSV activity was different from that of ACV. Moronic acid showed oral therapeutic efficacy in HSV-infected mice and possessed novel anti-HSV activity that was consistent with that of the extract. PMID:10086989

  13. PROCESSING, PRODUCTS, AND FOOD SAFETY The Effect of Water Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Lactic Acid on Decontamination and Shelf Life of Raw Broiler Wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gulmez; N. Oral; L. Vatansever

    In an attempt to improve the bacteriologi- cal quality and refrigerated shelf life of broiler meat, 10- min surface wash treatments with sterile distilled water (DW), 8% (wt\\/vol) water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (WES), and 2% (vol\\/vol) lactic acid (LA) were compared by using a broiler wing model. The aerobic plate counts (log10 cfu\\/g) of psychrotrophs, mesophilic

  14. The use of the Er:YAG 2940nm laser associated with amorolfine lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Shinzato, Dayane Higa; Ayres, Guilherme Marreta Cavalcanti; Cardoso, Rayane Marques

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common disease, accounting for up to 50% of all ungual pathologies. We have been developing a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01528813) using a 2940nm Er:YAG laser to fractionally ablate human nails in vivo, aiming to increase topical amorolfine lacquer delivery to the nail unit, increasing the efficacy of topical treatment of distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Partial results have shown an increase in areas of nail plate free of disease. We believe that ablative lasers can increase the efficacy of topical onychomycosis treatment. PMID:24173203

  15. Clinical Effects of Rhus coriaria Fruits on Dyslipidemia in Adolescents: a Triple-blinded Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Golshiri, Keivan; Ghannadi, Alireza; Badri, Shirinsadat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Children and adolescents are considered as the best target groups for preventing and controlling the cardiovascular diseases risk factors and reducing mortality in adulthood. Alternative medicine and herbal drugs have been taken into account for managing dyslipidemia in this population. The beneficial effects of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) on lipid profile have been confirmed in some laboratory and animal studies. This study was designed to investigate the clinical effects of sumac fruits on dyslipidemia in 12-18 years-old adolescents. Methods: This randomized triple-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 72 obese adolescents with dyslipidemia from August 2011 to June 2012 in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. Eligible adolescents were randomly assigned to two case and control groups. The control group received placebo capsules and the case group received capsules containing 500 mg of powdered sumac fruits, each three times a day for one month. Biochemical parameters including 12-hrs fasting serum levels of total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured before the initiation and after the completion of the study protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 16.0, using Independent Samples T-test, or Paired Samples T-test, for between-group and within-group analysis, respectively. Findings: The plasma levels of Total-C, LDL-C, and TG changed significantly over-time in the case group. Furthermore, between-group analysis showed a statistically significant difference between case and control groups with this regard (P < 0.05, for all statistical comparisons). However, HDL-C levels have not been changed significantly over-time within the case or control group, neither between the two study groups. Conclusion: In this study, the considerable effects of Rhus coriaria (sumac) on reducing serum levels of Total-C, LDL-C, and TG have been noticed during one-month trial. However, probably due to the concise period of sumac consumption, its effect on HDL-C was not statistically significant. PMID:25568560

  16. Cognitive-enhancing effects of Rhus verniciflua bark extract and its active flavonoids with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Cho, Namki; Lee, Ki Yong; Huh, Jungmoo; Choi, Ji Hoon; Yang, Heejung; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2013-08-01

    The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids within the brain comprises anti-apoptosis of neuronal cells, anti-neuroinflammation and enhancement of cognitive function. We reported that Rhus vernciflua inhibits glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Here we narrowed it down to get neuroprotective fractions from the plant yielding flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate fraction (PREF). Among its active flavonoids, fisetin exhibited not only inhibitory effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but also memory enhancing effects via reactivation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway in memory-impaired mice by scopolamine. Butein also showed a similar activity to fisetin even though to a lesser extent. The neuroprotection by PREF and selected flavonoids may involve maintenance of antioxidant defense mechanism including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Conclusively, we demonstrate the R. vernciflua bark extract and its active flavonoids with potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects might be good therapeutic candidates as cognitive-enhancers. PMID:23688860

  17. Identification of aromas from alcohols using a Japanese-lacquer-film-coated quartz resonator gas sensor in conjunction with pattern recognition analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Nanto; K Kondo; M Habara; Y Douguchi; R. I Waite; H Nakazumi

    1996-01-01

    Transient response curves for exposure to aromas from several kinds of alcohols are observed using a Japanese-lacquer-film-coated quartz resonator gas sensor. The shape of the transient response curves strongly depends on the ethanol concentration of alcohols. The pattern recognition analysis using principal component or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the shape of the transient

  18. Antiviral activity of Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac) extract against two types of herpes simplex viruses in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Reichling, J; Neuner, A; Sharaf, M; Harkenthal, M; Schnitzler, P

    2009-08-01

    We report on the antiviral potency of an aqueous extract of root/stem bark of Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac extract) against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in cell culture (RC-37 cells) using a plaque reduction assay. The extract exhibited a high level of anti-HSV activity with IC50-values of 0.0005% for HSV-1 and 0.0043% for HSV-2 as well as high selectivity indices (SI) of 5400 for HSV-1 and 628 for HSV-2. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the fragrant sumac extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the viral infection cycle. At maximum non-cytotoxic concentration (0.25%), plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99% when herpes simplex viruses were pretreated with the plant extract for 1 h prior to cell infection. When the host cells were pretreated with the fragrant sumac extract for 1 h prior to virus infection, the infectivity of viruses was reduced by 50% for HSV-1 but only moderately for HSV-2. No antiviral effect was seen when the plant extract was added to already infected host cells. Based on these findings the plant extract seems to interact not only with the viral envelope but also with the surface of the host cells impairing the ability of herpes simplex viruses to adsorb to and penetrate into the host cells. In conclusion, the aqueous fragrant sumac extract revealed a strong antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro. PMID:19746844

  19. DNA-protective effects of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.), a common spice: results of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Asima; Ferk, Franziska; Simi?, Tatjana; Brantner, Adelheid; Dusinská, Maria; Kundi, Michael; Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2009-02-10

    Sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) is widely used as a spice. The aim of this study was the investigation of its DNA-protective effects in humans and animals. Prevention of the formation of strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases as well as the protection against H(2)O(2)- and (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA-damage were monitored in human lymphocytes in a placebo controlled trial (N=8/group) with ethanolic extract of sumach (3.0g/day, 3 days) in single cell gel electrophoresis assays. Furthermore, DNA-protective effects of sumach were monitored in different inner organs of rats under identical conditions. No alteration of DNA-migration was detectable in human lymphocytes under standard conditions, but a decrease of the tail-lengths due to formation of oxidized purines and pyrimidines (52% and 36%) was found with lesion-specific enzymes. Also damage caused by H(2)O(2) and BPDE was significantly reduced by 30% and 69%, respectively. The later effect may be due to induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST). After the intervention, the overall GST (CDNB) activity in plasma was increased by 40%, GST-alpha by 52% and GST-pi by 26% (ELISA). The antioxidant effects of extract are probably due to scavenging which was observed in in vitro experiments, which also indicated that gallic acid is the active principle of sumach. The animal experiments showed that sumach also causes protection in inner organs. Supplementation of the drinking water (0.02g/kg per animal) decreased the formation of oxidized DNA bases in colon, liver, lung and lymphocytes; also after gamma-irradiation pronounced effects were seen. PMID:19022266

  20. Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Flower Flower Flower Flower Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree Flower Sign Face Face Face Face Sign Sign Building Sign Water Sky Tree Building Building Building Sign Book Building Building Building Sign Bird Bird Road Tree Grass Road Road Bird Sky #12;Bird Bird Water Bird Grass

  1. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  2. Thermogelling hydrogels of cyclodextrin/poloxamer polypseudorotaxanes as aqueous-based nail lacquers: application to the delivery of triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2013-04-01

    This work investigated the use of in situ gelling hydrogels based on polypseudorotaxanes of Pluronic F-127 and partially methylated ?-cyclodextrin as aqueous nail lacquers. N-acetylcysteine and urea were incorporated as penetration enhancers. The formulations were tested for their ability to deliver ciclopirox and triamcinolone across human nail plate and bovine hoof. Simple aqueous solutions of the drugs with N-acetylcysteine provided measurable fluxes across hoof membranes but became quickly depleted of drug. Further, these solutions would have a short residence time upon nail application. Addition of Pluronic F-127 facilitated drug solubilization and provided the formulations with in situ gelling properties but drug entrapment into the micelles slowed down the delivery process. This was solved by addition of methylated ?-cyclodextrin; the formulations retained the thermogelling properties, drug solubilization was further increased, and drug delivery was accelerated. The polymer chains compete with the drugs for the cyclodextrin cavity forming polypseudorotaxanes, which facilitated drug release. The permeability of both drugs was higher across bovine hoof than human nail. The new polypseudorotaxanes formulation delivered more ciclopirox across human nail than a marketed organic lacquer which supports the growing hypothesis that aqueous-based nail lacquers represent a superior formulation strategy in nail topical delivery. PMID:23201053

  3. Antimicrobial effect of water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) on the growth of some food borne bacteria including pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nasar-Abbas, S M; Halkman, A Kadir

    2004-12-01

    The antimicrobial effect of water extracts of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/v), non-neutralized and after neutralization to pH 7.2+/-0.1, was studied on the growth of 12 bacterial strains (six Gram positive strains and six Gram negative strains), mostly food borne including pathogens. It was found to be effective against all the test organisms with Gram positive strains being more sensitive than Gram negative strains. Significant differences (P<0.01) were found among the bacteria and between the non-neutralized and neutralized extracts with non-neutralized being more effective against all the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract for each bacterial strain was studied by a gradient plate method. Among the Gram positive organisms, Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus thuringiensis) were found to be the most sensitive showing MICs of 0.25-0.32% (after 24 h incubation) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (0.49%), while Listeria monocytogenes was found to be the least sensitive demonstrating a MIC of 0.67%. Of the Gram negative organisms, Salmonella enteritidis was found to be the most resistant with a MIC of 0.67% followed by Escherichia coli Type I, E. coli O157:H7, Proteus vulgaris and Hafnia alvei having MICs of 0.63%, 0.60%, 0.55% and 0.45%, respectively; whereas Citrobacter freundii was found to be the least resistant surviving up to 0.42%. Some loss of antimicrobial activity was, however, observed after incubation for 3 days. Bacteriostatic/bactericidal effects of sumac, as studied by enumerating survival by the viable count technique after 1 h direct contact of each microorganism with various concentrations of sumac extract, revealed a 4-5 log cycle reduction in Bacillus spp. and 2-3 log cycle reduction in other bacteria tested with 1.0% sumac extract. PMID:15527919

  4. What is a Tree? Tree terminology

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    1 Trees · What is a Tree? · Tree terminology · Why trees? · What is a general tree? · Implementing trees · Binary trees · Binary tree implementation · Application of Binary trees #12;2 What is a Tree? · A tree, is a finite set of nodes together with a finite set of directed edges that define parent

  5. Colony-forming shrub to small tree.

    E-print Network

    , persistent, cone-shaped clusters. Reproduction Seeds and rhizomes. Staghorn sumac Rhus typhina L. Young winged leaf stems. Smooth sumac (R. glabra L.) Differs by having hairless stems and petioles and more

  6. Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees

    E-print Network

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements Decision Trees #12;Decision Trees Unpredictability Bias Improvements 1 Decision Trees Using Trees Learning 2 Unpredictability Entropy Entropy for datasets Information Gain 3 Bias Bias Occam's principle Overfitting 4 Improvements #12;Decision Trees

  7. Molecular Structure of Urushiol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-04-19

    Urushiol is a yellow oil comprised of a mixture of organic compounds containing a catechol (1,2-hydroxy benzene) and a pentadecyl or heptadecyl side chain; some side chains may be unsaturated. The earliest use of urushiol was in the art of ancient Asia, where works of art were coated in lacquer finishes derived from the trees Toxicodendron vernicifluum or Rhus verniciflua. In fact, the name urushiol is derived from urushi, the Japanese word for the lacquer prepared from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree ("kiurushi"). During the lacquering process, the phenols oxidize and polymerize with the help of enzymes to yield a coating that is hard and resistant to mechanical stress. Inhabitants of North America are familiar with the more malevolent side of urushiol-as the active ingredient of poison ivy and poison oak. Most people are highly allergic to urushiol and will develop redness, painful itching, and blistering of the skin if they touch even minute amounts of the oil. Interestingly, one of the most effective remedies for poison ivy comes also from a plant. The Jewelweed plant (Impatiens capensis) found in North American hardwood forests produces a chemical called Lawsone (a naphthoquinone) with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the effects of urushiol on the skin.

  8. Maple tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derek Ramsey (None; )

    2006-09-23

    Trees give animals shade and a place to live and hide. Trees give many animals food. They also take in carbon dioxide, which animals breathe out, and replace it with oxygen, which is what animals need to breathe.

  9. Validated high-throughput HPLC method for the analysis of flavonol aglycones myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in Rhus coriaria L. using a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Morteza; Zebardast, Mahnoosh; Abedi, Ghazaleh; Koupaei, Mitra Nouri; Rasouli, Hoda; Talebi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column was developed and validated for the separation and quantification of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in Rhus coriaria L. The method employed the isocratic mobile phase acetonitrile-10 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3.0 using orthophosphoric acid (38 + 62, v/v) at a flow rate of 4.0 mL/min; a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100 x 4.6 mm) monolithic column kept at 40 degrees C; and UV detection at 370 nm. Although the elution order was identical and the selectivity was equivalent, the comparison between monolithic and particulate columns showed that the monolithic column could reduce the separation time to < 1 min without sacrificing column efficiency and selectivity. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, linearity, range, specificity, LOQ, and robustness. The calibration curves were linear (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.88-88.3 micro/mL for myricetin, 0.95-95 microg/mL for quercetin, and 1.43-143.3 microg/mL for kaempferol. The recoveries for all three compounds were above 89%. Myricetin was found to be the major flavonol in the examined plant extracts, followed by minor quantities of quercetin and kaempferol. PMID:19714969

  10. Juvenile Rhus glabra leaves have higher temperatures and lower gas exchange rates than mature leaves when compared in the field during periods of high irradiance.

    PubMed

    Snider, John L; Choinski, John S; Wise, Robert R

    2009-05-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that stomatal development determines the timing of gas exchange competency, which then influences leaf temperature through transpirationally driven leaf cooling. To test this idea, daily patterns of gas exchange and leaflet temperature were obtained from leaves of two distinctively different developmental stages of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) grown in its native habitat. Juvenile and mature leaves were also sampled for ultrastructural studies of stomatal development. When plants were sampled in May-June, the hypothesis was supported: juvenile leaflets were (for part of the day) from 1.4 to 6.0 degrees C warmer than mature leaflets and as much as 2.0 degrees C above ambient air temperature with lower stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates than mature leaflets. When measurements were taken from July to October, no significant differences were observed, although mature leaflet gas exchange rates declined to the levels of the juvenile leaves. The gas exchange data were supported by the observations that juvenile leaves had approximately half the number of functional stomata on a leaf surface area basis as did mature leaves. It was concluded that leaf temperature and stage of leaf development in sumac are strongly linked with the higher surface temperatures observed in juvenile leaflets in the early spring possibly being involved in promoting photosynthesis and leaf expansion when air temperatures are cooler. PMID:18849091

  11. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:20013479

  12. Glycoprotein isolated from Rhus verniciflua Stokes inhibits inflammation-related protein and nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2007-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has traditionally been used for medical purpose, such as healing of inflammatory diseases in South Korea. Glycoprotein (36 kDa) was isolated from RVS fruit, purified and used to evaluate the inhibitory effect on inflammatory-related proteins and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 ng/ml)-stimulated RAW 264.7 (murine macrophage cell line). Our results were showed that RVS glycoprotein has a strong antioxidative activity against lipid peroxyl radicals in cell-free system, and inhibits NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the inhibitory effect of RVS glycoprotein on activities of inflammatory-related proteins, we firstly evaluated the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of intracellular protein kinase C (PKC), nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and activator protein-1 (AP-1). The results in the present study showed that RVS glycoprotein (200 microg/ml) inhibits ROS production and PKCalpha translocation, and down-regulates the expression of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Such upstream signals consequently inhibited the levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. Therefore, we speculate that RVS glycoprotein inhibits the inflammatory-related protein and can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:17202669

  13. INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota

    E-print Network

    Drmota, Michael

    INCREASING TREE FAMILIES Michael Drmota Inst. of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry Vienna · Recursive Trees · Plane Oriented Trees · General Increasing Trees · Degree Distribution · Conclusion #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12;Recursive Trees #12

  14. A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer for treatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

    PubMed

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht; Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Mirshams-Shahshahani, Mostafa; Jamshidi, Behrooz

    2012-12-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind study enrolling 70 patients with onychomycosis of the finger and toenails. Clinical and mycological efficacies as well as measures of safety were assessed monthly for a maximum of 6 months of treatment. The treatment regimens were: fluconazole 1% and fluconazole 1% with urea 40%. These results indicated topical treatment of onychomycosis with a combination of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% was more effective (82.8%) than fluconazole 1% (62.8%) nail lacquer alone in treatment of dermatophytic onychomycosis. Fluconazole was well tolerated and side effects were negligible. At the end of therapy and the end of the 6-month follow-up, fluconazole 1% and urea 40% demonstrated statistically significant superiority in clinical and mycological responses compared with fluconazole 1% alone. PMID:21781012

  15. TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES LIST FOR PINGREE PARK REGION Abies 1asiocarpa

    E-print Network

    Ribes inerme Rosa spp. Rubus deliciosus Rubus strigosus Salix spp. Shepherdia canadensis Symphoricarpos Mahonia repens Physocarpus monogynus Potentilla fruticosa Purshia tridentata Rhus trilobata Ribes cereum

  16. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  17. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  18. Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) Seeds on Reproductive Complications of Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin Induced Type-2 Diabetes in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Ehsan, Ghaedi; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seeds on the reproductive system of nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n=8): control; diabetic mice; diabetic mice administered glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg); diabetic mice who received the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds (200 and 400 mg/kg groups); and normal mice who received this extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) 15 minutes after an injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). Then, glibenclamide and the above mentioned extract were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, serum samples, the testes, and the cauda epididymis were removed immediately for hormonal, testis morphology, and sperm parameter assessments. Results Body and testicular weight, sperm count and viability, and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the diabetic mice (p<0.05). The diabetic mice treated with 400 mg/kg of the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds recovered from these reductions (p<0.05). Further, glibenclamide alleviated hormonal and sperm count depletion in diabetes-induced mice (p<0.05). Conclusions The present results indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds has anti-infertility effects in diabetic males. PMID:25606564

  19. The effect of water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and lactic acid on decontamination and shelf life of raw broiler wings.

    PubMed

    Gulmez, M; Oral, N; Vatansever, L

    2006-08-01

    In an attempt to improve the bacteriological quality and refrigerated shelf life of broiler meat, 10-min surface wash treatments with sterile distilled water (DW), 8% (wt/vol) water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (WES), and 2% (vol/vol) lactic acid (LA) were compared by using a broiler wing model. The aerobic plate counts (log10 cfu/g) of psychrotrophs, mesophilic aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and presumptive fecal coliforms on the samples were determined. Immediately after a 10-min decontaminaton, the mean count of all the bacterial groups was determined to be 3.9, 2.6, and 1.7 (log10 cfu/g) for DW, WES, and LA, respectively. Because the postdecontamination population level of psychrotrophs, mesophiles, and Enterobacteriaceae were low in the LA-treated group compared to the WES group, an equity between the 2 groups in the point of view of the 3 bacterial groups existed at d 10 of cold storage (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Shelf life was 7 and 14 d for wings treated with DW and WES, respectively, whereas the LA-treated wings did not spoil after 14 d of cold storage (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Nevertheless, an undesirable pale color and an acidulous odor occurred in the LA-treated wings. In contrast, a good color appeared on the WES-treated wings, which was also superior to the color of the DW-treated wings. Such advantages of WES may be important for poultry processors and for consumers. However, the immediate decontamination and refrigerated shelf life extension potential of WES should be intensively studied in antimicrobial interventions in poultry processing plants. PMID:16903480

  20. The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) powder on insulin resistance, malondialdehyde, high sensitive C-reactive protein and paraoxonase 1 activity in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahideh, Seyedeh Tayebeh; Shidfar, Farzad; Khandozi, Nafiseh; Rajab, Asadollah; Hosseini, Seyed Payam; Mirtaher, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) has been used in traditional treatment of some diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sumac (R. coriaria L.) powder on insulin resistance (IR), malondialdehyde (MDA), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial on 41 type 2 diabetic volunteers was conducted. Participants randomly assigned into 3 g per day sumac powder (n = 22) or placebo (n = 19) groups for 3 months. IR was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), which including measurement of insulin by immunoassay method and measurement of glucose by enzymatic method. MDA and PON1 activity were measured colorimetrically, hs-CRP turbidimetrically. Results: There were a significant increase in PON1 activity (from 84.72 ± 30.59 to 92.91 ± 32.63) and significant decrease in insulin (from 7.09 ± 4.28 to 5.32 ± 3.22), HOMA-IR (from 2.56 ± 1.58 to 1.67 ± 0.94), MDA (from 2.71 ± 0.73 to 1.97 ± 0.49), and also hs-CRP (from 18.49 ± 16.96 to 15.89 ± 16.70) in the sumac group at the end of study compared with initial values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant differences in MDA and PON1 between the two groups at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean of differences of insulin, HOMA-IR, MDA, hs-CRP and PON1 activity between groups were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that daily intake of 3 g sumac for 3 months may be beneficial for diabetic patients to make them less susceptible to cardiovascular disease. PMID:25538775

  1. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Playground

    2009-07-29

    This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

  2. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

  3. Anti-ischemic activity and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of hydrolysable tannins from the leaves of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) in isolated rabbit heart and thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Santagati, Natale Alfredo; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of hydrolysable gallotannins from Rhus coriaria L. leaves extract (RCLE) in isolated rabbit heart preparations, submitted to low-flow ischemia/reperfusion damage. RCLE induces a dose-dependent normalization of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), reducing left ventricular contracture during ischemia, and improving left ventricular developed pressure and the maximum rate of rise and fall of left ventricular pressure at reperfusion. Creatinine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) outflow were significantly reduced during reperfusion. In parallel there was a rise in the release of the cytoprotective 6-ketoprostaglandin F (1alpha) (6-keto-PGF (1alpha)) and a decrease of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), both significant only at the highest RCLE concentrations (150-500 microg/mL). The vasorelaxant activity of RCLE was studied in isolated rabbit aorta rings precontracted with norepinephrine (NE) with and without endothelium. The vasorelaxation induced by RCLE was predominantly endothelium-dependent as demonstrated by the loss of RCLE vasorelaxant ability in i) de-endothelized rings and ii) in intact aortic rings after pretreatment with NG-monomethyl- L-arginine (L-NMMA) and 1 H-[1.2.4]oxadiazolo[4.3- A]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). The inhibition of vasorelaxation in intact rings by indomethacin (INDO) demonstrates the ability of RCLE to modulate the coronary endothelium cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. The K-ATP channel antagonist glibenclamide (GLIB) was ineffective. The antioxidant activity of RCLE, investigated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model and in living cell systems (rat erythrocytes), was stronger than that of gallic acid, ascorbic acid and trolox. The structure of its main bioactive constituents, profiled by HPLC-ESI-HR-S, comprised a mixture of polygalloylated D-glucopyranose with different degrees of galloylation and 3- O-methylgallic acid. The cardiovascular protective effect of RCLE seems to be due to an interplay of different factors: COX pathway activation, TNF-alpha inhibition, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation, and free radical and ROS scavenging. PMID:19548191

  4. Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    1 Community Trees Community Tree Steward Program ...and justice for all The U.S. Department, Iowa February, 2001 Jeff Iles Department of Horticulture Iowa State University Most tree managers realize dead trees should be removed as soon as they are detected. But living trees also can be a threat

  5. Community Trees Power Lines and Trees

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Community Trees Power Lines and Trees Introduction Trees serve many purposes in urban and rural trees near power lines. Most high voltage lines are not insulated, and contact will result in electric areas. To assure safe and reliable electric service, trimming or removal of trees is sometimes necessary

  6. Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees

    E-print Network

    Martens, Wim

    Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees Wim Martens Joachim Niehren Minimizing Tree Automata for Unranked Trees ­ p.1/20 #12;What and Why? To study the minimization problem for deterministic automata over unranked trees. Bottom-up deterministic: theoretical interest. E.g. do results from deterministic automata

  7. Shrinking Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hastie; Daryl Pregibon

    Tree-based models provide an alternative to linear models for classification and regres- sion data. They are used primarily for exploratory analysis of complex data or as a diagnostic tool following a linear model analysis. They are also used as the end prod- uct in certain applications, such as speech recognition, medical diagnoses, and other instances where repeated fast classifications are

  8. Shade trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Cook

    1984-01-01

    Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The

  9. Tree Decline Shade trees often gradually lose

    E-print Network

    Tree Decline Shade trees often gradually lose vigor and may show off-color, small leaves, poor several years and is often re- ferred to as "tree decline," because it is a gradual loss of growth observed in the aboveground parts of the plant usually begin in the root system. Stress Factors Trees

  10. Tree Torture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2002-06-10

    The San Pedro River is one of the only free-flowing waterways in Arizona. Though it's more of a small stream than a river, it nourishes a vibrant ecosystem known as a riparian area. Full of tall trees, it serves as a major flyway for migrating birds and provides a ribbon of green in an otherwise barren landscape. In this Science Update, you'll hear about the research being done to keep the San Pedro flowing.

  11. Tree Troubles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth explores some of the diseases and other threats that certain trees must contend with to remain healthy and vital. The first website (1), from the USDA Forest Service-St. Paul Field Office, contains a collection of archived publications designed to help people diagnose, control, and identify various threats to different types of trees. Examples of these publications include: How to Control Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple; How to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease From Elm Phloem Necrosis; How to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir; and How to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil, to name few. The second (2) site, Forest & Shade Tree Pathology, is an online textbook that was developed by Dr. James J. Worrall, a plant pathologist for the USDA Forest Service, and former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York. Dr. Worrall's site contains information about rusts, foliage and root diseases, parasitic plants, cankers, abiotic diseases, and wilts as well as disease profiles for Swiss Needle Cast; Oak Wilt, Chestnut Blight, Armillaria Root Disease, and more. The third (3) site, Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species, was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robert's concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. The fourth (4) site, from the California Oak Mortality Task Force, contains images, publications, maps, and information about Sudden Oak Death-related research, management recommendations, nursery issues, and regulations. The final three websites come from the USDA Forest Service and contain information about different insect threats. The fifth (5) site offers information about the emerald ash borer. The sixth (6) site provides information about the gypsy moth, and the final (7) site contains information about the Asian longhorned beetle.

  12. Extrapolating Tree Transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Bouajjani; Tayssir Touili

    2002-01-01

    We consider the framework of regular tree model checking where sets of configurations of a system are represented by regular tree languages and its dynamics is modeled by a term rewriting system (or a regular tree transducer). We focus on the computation of the reachability set R?(L) where R is a regular tree transducer and L is a regular tree

  13. On generalized fat trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine R. Öhring; Maximilian Ibel; Sajal K. Das; Mohan J. Kumar

    1995-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a new family of multiprocesser interconnection networks, called generalized fat trees, which include as special cases the fat trees used for the connection machine architecture CM-5, pruned butterflies, and various other fat trees proposed in the literature. The generalized fat trees provide a formal unifying concept to design and analyse a fat tree based architecture. The

  14. American Chestnut Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KET

    2008-09-02

    This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

  15. Trees and Air Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students describe the positive effects that trees have on air quality and determine how to landscape a home with trees to decrease energy use. Students will draw a map of their yard or school site showing the location of trees and check a leaf of each tree for particulates. They will then make observations on several different days to determine which trees save energy and draw on their map where more trees should be planted to save energy.

  16. Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures

    E-print Network

    Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

  17. Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1

    E-print Network

    Jin, Renling

    Essential Kurepa Trees Versus Essential Jech Kunen Trees1 Renling Jin2 & Saharon Shelah3 Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of cardinality !1 and height !1. An !1 tree is called a Kurepa tree if all its levels are countable and it has more than !1 branches. An !1 tree is called a Jech Kunen tree if it has

  18. Tree Comparison Contest: TreeJuxtaposer

    E-print Network

    Munzner, Tamara

    Tree Comparison Contest: TreeJuxtaposer James Slack, Tamara Munzner (UBC) François Guimbretière Tasiran, Li Zhang, Yunhong Zhou, SIGGRAPH 2003 · Entry: http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~tmm/papers/contest03 · Visit our interactive poster for demonstration #12;

  19. A tree-to-tree model for statistical machine translation

    E-print Network

    Cowan, Brooke A. (Brooke Alissa), 1972-

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we take a statistical tree-to-tree approach to solving the problem of machine translation (MT). In a statistical tree-to-tree approach, first the source-language input is parsed into a syntactic tree ...

  20. Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees

    E-print Network

    Janson, Svante

    Limit Laws for Functions of Fringe trees for Binary Search Trees and Recursive Trees Cecilia of binary search trees and random recursive trees. In particular, we give simple new proofs of the fact that the number of fringe trees of size k = kn in the binary search tree and the random recursive tree (of total

  1. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  2. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  3. A dynamic fault tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko ?epin; Borut Mavko

    2002-01-01

    The fault tree analysis is a widely used method for evaluation of systems reliability and nuclear power plants safety. This paper presents a new method, which represents extension of the classic fault tree with the time requirements. The dynamic fault tree offers a range of risk informed applications. The results show that application of dynamic fault tree may reduce the

  4. Tree Lines: Discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Jarvis; J. Grace; N. Hutchings; J. L. Monteith; W. J. Shuttleworth; D. Fowler; J. Corlett; J. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Trees do not generally grow in places where the mean temperature of the warmest month is less than about 10 ^circ C. At their limit, trees are often short and crooked, the condition known as krummholz; and the transition from tall forest to dwarf shrubby vegetation is often abrupt, forming a distinct tree line. Tree lines fluctuate with climatic change.

  5. Random Trees and Applications

    E-print Network

    Durrett, Richard

    Random Trees and Applications Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall1 Notes prepared for the Cornell Summer School;2 #12;Chapter 1 From Discrete to Continuous Trees In this chapter, we first explain how discrete random trees can be coded by discrete paths called the height function and the contour function of the tree. We

  6. Tree Rings as Environmental

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    359 Tree Rings as Environmental Indicators year to year throughout the life of a tree. This pattern, recog- nized that trees form new rings of growth each year, but the modern development. Because he knew that plant growth was affected by changes in cli- mate, he thought that the size of a tree

  7. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  8. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  9. COMPONENT User's Guide Random trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 6 Random trees COMPONENT can generate a variety of trees at "random," and for small numbers of leaves it can generate all possible trees. These trees have several uses: n as user trees for phylogeny programs that lack the facility to examine all trees or sets of random trees (e

  10. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  11. From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Louxin

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

  12. Become "Tree Detectives": Identifying Broadleaf Trees...

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Forest and ShadeTrees of Iowa. Peter J. van der Linden & Donald R. Farrar, Iowa State University Press for loan, ISU Forestry Extension at 515-294-6739 or Trees Forever at 1-800-369-1269. needles seed cone Pine species have needles in a bundle. Fir species have flat shaped needles and cones that sit upright

  13. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePLUS

    From the National Institutes of Health ... main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health Follow ... Tea Tree Oil Common Names: Australian tea tree oil, tea ...

  14. Pine tree forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    The pine tree demonstrates the differences among gymnosperms and bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. Pine trees have separate cones with pollen and ovulates. Wind blows the pollen onto the ovulate cone and seeds are produced.

  15. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  16. Minimal locked trees

    E-print Network

    Ballinger, Brad

    Locked tree linkages have been known to exist in the plane since 1998, but it is still open whether they have a polynomial-time characterization. This paper examines the properties needed for planar trees to lock, with a ...

  17. Graph homomorphisms between trees

    E-print Network

    Csikvari, Peter

    In this paper we study several problems concerning the number of homomorphisms of trees. We begin with an algorithm for the number of homomorphisms from a tree to any graph. By using this algorithm and some transformations ...

  18. RECURSIVE TREES Michael Drmota

    E-print Network

    Drmota, Michael

    copies of ancient texts · convex hull algorithms · ... #12;Enumeration of Recursive Trees All recursive Combinatorial Description · labelled rooted tree · labels are strictly increasing · no left-to-right order (non-planar

  19. Binary Search Trees Page 1 Binary Search Trees

    E-print Network

    Allan, Vicki H.

    Binary Search Trees Page 1 Chapter 4 Trees Binary Search Trees · Definition o All keys are distinct subtree is greater than the root. o Left and right subtrees are binary search trees. · Figure 1 is an example: Figure 1 Binary Search Tree · Where would you add X, B, and E? · At seats, build tree from

  20. Tree SelectionTree Selection Why is selection important?

    E-print Network

    Tree SelectionTree Selection #12; Why is selection important? What happens when we think it's not important? Not all trees grow alike Incompatible situation Average life span of city tree is 7-13 years end up with a tree in the wrong location. #12;Tree Selection Style I Let's Try Another Selection

  1. 8-ary tree. Overview of B-Trees

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    Page Page Figure A.1 8-ary tree. APPENDIX A Overview of B-Trees Tree-based searching methods large, we find that often the tree is too large to fit in memory at once. Therefore, the tree is stored. In such an environment, the branches in the tree contain disk addresses, and it is not uncommon for a comparison

  2. Kids for Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides references for students about the importance of trees to people and the environment. It discusses the interactions between trees and other organisms, how trees provide for their food and water needs, and how people use and work with trees. A teacher's guide provides background information, project and activity ideas, evaluation questions, and extensions that correspond with each student reference page. Links to related resources are included.

  3. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  4. Pecan tree biomass estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allometric equations were developed for orchard-grown pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees. Trees, ranging in size from 22 to 33 cm in trunk diameter 1.4 m above the ground, were destructively harvested from two sites. The entire above-ground portion of the trees was harvested and...

  5. Fault Tree Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liudong Xing; Suprasad V. Amari

    In this chapter, a state-of-the-art review of fault tree analysis is presented. Different forms of fault trees, including\\u000a static, dynamic, and non-coherent fault trees, their applications and analyses will be discussed. Some advanced topics such\\u000a as importance analysis, dependent failures, disjoint events, and multistate systems will also be presented.

  6. RC trees revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehinet A. Cirit

    1988-01-01

    RC tree approximation is a computationally simple method for calculating the signal delay of MOS circuits with several states of fanout. The author derives a formal solution of RC tree equations. Based on this solution, it is shown that even though waveforms found using RC tree approximation are inaccurate, delays are exact. The author derives the dependence of the delays

  7. Representing Trees with Constraints 

    E-print Network

    Curry, Benjamin; Wiggins, Geraint; Hayes, Gillian

    This paper presents a method for representing trees using constraint logic programming over finite domains. We describe a class of trees that is of particular interest to us and how we can represent the set of trees belonging to that class using...

  8. Boosting Decision Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harris Drucker; Corinna Cortes

    1995-01-01

    A new boosting algorithm of Freund and Schapire is used to improve the performance of decision trees which are constructed usin: the information ratio criterion of Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm. This boosting algorithm iteratively constructs a series of decision tress, each decision tree being trained and pruned on examples that have been filtered by previously trained trees. Examples that have been

  9. The Effect of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.)Powder on Serum Glycemic Status, ApoB, ApoA-I and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Farzad; Rahideh, Seyedeh Tayebeh; Rajab, Asadollah; Khandozi, Nafise; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is used as an herbal remedy in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sumac (R. coriaria) on serum glycemic status, apolipoprotein (apo) B, apoA-I and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in type 2 diabetic patients. This double blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 41type 2 diabetic volunteers randomly assigned into 3g/day sumac powder (n=22) or placebo (n=19) groups over 3 months. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention. Serum glucose and HbA1c were measured using enzymatic and turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay methods, respectively. ApoB, apoA-I and TAC were determined using turbidimetric immunoassay and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. There were signi?cant decreases in serum glucose and HbA1c and also apoB levels at the end of study compared with initial values (P< 0.0001, P= 0.002 and P< 0.0001,respectively). Also, there was a significant difference in HbA1c and TAC levels between placebo and sumac groups at the end of study (P< 0.05).In sumac group, there were significant increase in apoA-I and TAC(P< 0.0001) compared with initial values. The mean of differences of serum glucose, HbA1c, apoB, apoA-I, apoB/apoA-I ratio and TAC between groups were significant (P< 0.05). In conclusion, these results showed the favorite effect of sumac consumption on serum glycemic status, apoB, apoA-I and TAC levels in in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25587314

  10. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes #12;Spanning trees

  11. From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  12. Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees

    E-print Network

    Degnan, James

    Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which

  13. From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  14. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes #12;Spanning trees of graphs

  15. The cut-tree of large recursive trees Jean Bertoin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The cut-tree of large recursive trees Jean Bertoin Abstract Imagine a graph which is progressively destroyed by cutting its edges one after the other in a uniform random order. The so-called cut-tree records with a natural probability mass. In this work, we show that the cut-tree of a random recursive tree of size n

  16. Friends of Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Portland, Oregon, the Friends of Trees organization is dedicated to restoring urban forests around the country, with a particular emphasis on the Portland metropolitan area. As their Web site notes, "Trees are an essential part of the urban ecosystem. They help keep our water and air clean, prevent erosion, provide wildlife habitat, and make neighborhoods greener, more beautiful places to live." On the site, visitors can read about their ongoing planting activities and browse the newsletter they publish three times a year. For most visitors, the most helpful area of the site will be the Tree Resources section. Here, users can look through a fact sheet on the benefits of trees in urban environments, the care and maintenance of trees, and a large tree database.

  17. COMPONENT User's Guide Working with trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 2 Working with trees This chapter gives you information on basic tree operations. The topics covered include: n reading and writing files of trees n editing trees n displaying and printing trees n selecting subsets of trees n pruning trees n rooting trees n computing tree

  18. Recursively Imputed Survival Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose recursively imputed survival tree (RIST) regression for right-censored data. This new nonparametric regression procedure uses a novel recursive imputation approach combined with extremely randomized trees that allows significantly better use of censored data than previous tree based methods, yielding improved model fit and reduced prediction error. The proposed method can also be viewed as a type of Monte Carlo EM algorithm which generates extra diversity in the tree-based fitting process. Simulation studies and data analyses demonstrate the superior performance of RIST compared to previous methods. PMID:23125470

  19. COMPONENT User's Guide Comparing trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 5 Comparing trees This chapter describes the tree comparison measures available in COMPONENT, and the various ways you can compare trees using the program. Among the possible uses of tree comparison measures are: n comparing trees for the same taxa computed from different

  20. TREE RISK ASSESSMENT Importance of

    E-print Network

    TREE RISK ASSESSMENT #12;Importance of Assessing The Risk Trees provide significant benefits to our homes and cities, but when trees fall and injure people or damage property, they are liabilities. Taking care of tree hazards makes your property safer and prolongs the life of the tree. (ISA

  1. Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Rooting for Trees: Volunteers to Plant 20 Trees, Mark Tree Campus USA Honor March 22, 2013 Event at The University of Texas at Austin will join the university urban forestry team in planting 20 large trees on the grounds of the Dell Pediatric Research Institute. Volunteers will also mulch more than 100 existing trees

  2. Tree height measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees

    E-print Network

    Chave, Jérôme

    Tree height measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Tree height is a fundamental geometrical variable for trees. Unfortunately, most measures are based on visual inspection

  3. Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Apple Tree, NH Big Tree for May By Anne Krantz, NH Big Tree Team, UNH Cooperative Extension The explosion of apple blossoms in May transforms the most gnarled old tree into a delicate cloud of beauty (1817-1862) in his essay "The Wild Apple Tree," described the blossoms perfectly: `The flowers

  4. Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-09-14

    In this interactive activity, learners analyze seashells to explore phylogeny and evolution. Learners identify similar and dissimilar seashells to create a phylogenetic tree. The Teacher Guide includes pre-activity video clip suggestions and a pre-activity sorting exercise. The Teacher Guide also includes instructions on how learners can draw a phylogenetic tree instead of using the online interactive.

  5. Fault tree handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

  6. Total tree chips story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A Minneapolis company, Total Tree Chips, Inc., originally formed to chip city trees killed by Dutch elm disease, has expanded to include operations such as clearing land for parks and shopping centers and selling some of the chipped material back to the owners for trails and landscaping. Excess chips are sold to civic and commercial developments for landscaping, to a

  7. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including information…

  8. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  9. Survival of Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation

    In this video a scientist explains how DNA extracted from ancient tree remains provides insights about how trees/plants have adapted, over time, to changes in CO2 in the atmosphere. Her lab research investigates changes in plant genotypes under experimental conditions that simulate potential changes in CO2 levels in the future.

  10. Tree ring analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayet Laggoune; Sarifuddin; V. Guesdon

    2005-01-01

    Tree ring analysis provides useful data for dendrochnologists that can help them for better understanding of climatic and environmental changes. Yet detection and counting of rings in cross section of tree were realized manually which is time consuming and tedious work. Our research was motivated by the need of a fast and accurate method. This paper describes a semi automatic

  11. Shrinking Trees Trevor Hastie

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    Shrinking Trees Trevor Hastie Daryl Pregibon AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray shrinking. The shrinking process is parameterized by a scalar which ranges from zero to one. A value of zero implies shrinking all fitted values to that of the root of the tree, whereas a value of one

  12. Trees From Helicopters, Continued

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2009-04-01

    Maples are very interesting trees with lots of variation in form. They provide us with a view of diversity in plants as well as a chance to look at natural phenomena that is very common to anyone who has had a maple tree near them. The main purpose is to

  13. Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny Roderic for nine vertebrate genes (aldolase, -feto- protein, lactate dehydrogenase, prolactin, rhodopsin with currently accepted vertebrate relationships. 2000 Academic Press INTRODUCTION ``Regarding the analysis

  14. binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling based location

    E-print Network

    Ooi, Beng Chin

    #12;#12;#12;binary-tree B-tree Hashing Space-Filling Quad-tree based location keys R -tree+ PLOP Hashing EXCELL R-tree Grid-files kd-tree kd-B-treeBD-tree 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 LSD-tree GBD-tree skd-tree Packed R-tree multi-level GF Cell-tree hB-tree R-files GGF mkd-tree 4d-tree 4d-tree

  15. Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do if you think you have the ash-killing Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in your ash tree Verify the signs of EAB: 1 activity Educate Yourself: Emerald Ash Borer information and links can be found at http://nyis.info Report

  16. On reconfiguring tree linkages: Trees can lock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese C. Biedl; Erik D. Demaine; Martin L. Demaine; Sylvain Lazard; Anna Lubiw; Joseph O'rourke; Steve Robbins; Ileana Streinu; Godfried T. Toussaint; Sue Whitesides

    1998-01-01

    It is an open problem to determine whether a polygonal chain can be "straightened" inthe plane if its links are not allowed to cross. This problem been raised independently byseveral researchers, including J. Mitchell, and W. Lenhart and S. Whitesides [LW95]. In thispaper we propose a related question: whether a tree linkage can always be "straightened" inthe plane, without allowing

  17. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  18. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University in St. Louis October 20, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color

  19. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 Mathematics Colloquium New Mexico State University October 20, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  20. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Discrete CATS seminar University of Kentucky March 30, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  1. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Mathematics Seminar Reed College April 28, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  2. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 April 21, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes

  3. Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within

  4. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 of Mississippi March 2, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful

  5. 44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY -MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    44 TREE CARE INDUSTRY - MARCH 2002 Tree&Landscape 44 II nstallation of underground irrigation green in more ways than one. From keeping trees healthy to providing a viable source of income to their clients. Improved soil con- ditions for tree growth can be achieved using irrigation, and state

  6. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  7. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  8. The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

    1982-01-01

    The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

  9. Carbon Sequestration in Campus Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert S. Cole

    In this activity, students use a spreadsheet to calculate the net carbon sequestration in a set of trees; they will utilize an allometric approach based upon parameters measured on the individual trees. They determine the species of trees in the set, measure trunk diameter at a particular height, and use the spreadsheet to calculate carbon content of the tree using forestry research data.

  10. A future with broadleaved trees

    E-print Network

    A future with broadleaved trees A strategy for the Improvement of broadleaved trees in Britain and Ireland 2013-2025 Supported by #12;2 A future with broAdleAved trees Many people and organisations from and highlights areas where we believe further consideration is required. Future Trees Trust, Earth Trust

  11. COMPONENT User's Guide Consensus trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 4 Consensus trees Consensus trees are a convenient way to summarise the agreement between two or more trees. This chapter describes the consensus methods available in COMPONENT subtree (Kubicka et al, 1992; also called the common pruned tree [Finden and Gordon, 1985]). This method

  12. Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees

    E-print Network

    , resulting in blockage of water movement from the roots to the foliage. The tree responds to infection recurrence of the trouble. NOTE: Yews and conifers are resistant to Verticillium wilt. Redbud and smoke tree Sassafras Boxwood Horse chestnut Serviceberry Brambles Japanese pagoda tree Smoke tree Buckeye Lilac Sumac

  13. Tree of Hexagons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    In this activity students use measuring skills and follow directions to make a three-dimensional ornament. Learners construct hexagons of graduated sizes from circles and assemble them into a tree. Complete instructions are provided.

  14. Life of a Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

  15. Combining Binary Search Trees

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik D.

    We present a general transformation for combining a constant number of binary search tree data structures (BSTs) into a single BST whose running time is within a constant factor of the minimum of any “well-behaved” bound ...

  16. Generalized constructive tree weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  17. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  18. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  19. Peach Tree Pruning.

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Calvin G.

    1986-01-01

    Pa..e ln ~O~BldletinJ . -/., .~ . :~. ' .:' .; f.' ):, . ~- :: ; ',': } . .. ~ '::, PEACH TREE PRUNING Calvin G. Lyons* Peaches are pruned in several ways in the U.S. depending on the area, rainfall, grower preference and tradition...

  20. Tree nut allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne S. Teuber; Sarah S. Comstock; Shridhar K. Sathe; Kenneth H. Roux

    2003-01-01

    Tree nuts are clinically associated with severe immunoglobulin E-mediated systemic allergic reactions independent of pollen\\u000a allergy and with reactions that are usually confined to the oral mucosa in patients with immunoglobulin E directed toward\\u000a cross-reacting pollen allergens. The latter reactions can progress to severe and life-threatening episodes in some patients.\\u000a Many patients with severe tree nut allergy are co-sensitized to

  1. Core Based Trees (CBT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Ballardie; Paul Francis; Jon Crowcroft

    1993-01-01

    One of the central problems in one-to-many wide-area communications is forming the delivery tree - the collection of nodes and links that a multicast packet traverses. Significant problems remain to be solved in the area of multicast tree formation, the problem of scaling being paramount among these.In this paper we show how the current IP multicast architecture scales poorly (by

  2. The Ubiquitous B-Tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Comer

    1979-01-01

    B-trees have become, de facto, a standard for file organization. File indexes of users, dedicated database systems, and general-purpose access methods have all been proposed and implemented using B-trees. This paper reviews B-trees and shows why they have been so successful. It discusses the major variations of the B-tree, especially the W-tree, contrasting the relative merits and costs of each

  3. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  4. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

    PubMed

    Szöll?si, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  5. In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.

    E-print Network

    Monk, Don

    8. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

  6. In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are Konig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees.

    E-print Network

    Monk, Don

    14. Trees In this chapter we study infinite trees. The main things we look at are K¨onig's tree theorem, Aronszajn trees, and Suslin trees. A tree is a partially ordered set (T, t T, the set {s T : s tree

  7. Nearest tree Always go to the closest

    E-print Network

    Nearest tree Always go to the closest tree Largest tree Always go to the tree with the most apples Optimal 1-step forager Maximize rate (= ratio of apples to travel time), but only consider one tree at a time # apples travel time Optimal 2-, 3-step forager Maximize rate over 2-tree (or 3-tree) paths

  8. Alternate Species Taxonomic Name: Rhus typhina `Laciniata'

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    are produced in early summer. Plants are dioecious, meaning male and female plants are separate. This cutleaf cultivar selection is a female plant. Fruit: Bright crimson hairy drupes are clustered together in a terminal cone-shaped fruit on the female plant. The fruit will persist into winter. Bark: Pale gray

  9. A Parallel Tree Code

    E-print Network

    John Dubinski

    1996-03-18

    We describe a new implementation of a parallel N-body tree code. The code is load-balanced using the method of orthogonal recursive bisection to subdivide the N-body system into independent rectangular volumes each of which is mapped to a processor on a parallel computer. On the Cray T3D, the load balance in the range of 70-90\\% depending on the problem size and number of processors. The code can handle simulations with $>$ 10 million particles roughly a factor of 10 greater than allowed in vectorized tree codes.

  10. The Tree of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David R. Maddison

    2007-12-12

    The Tree of Life is a collection of about 2000 World Wide Web pages containing information about the diversity of life. These pages are authored by biologists from around the world... Each page contains information about one group of organisms. The pages are linked one to another in the form of the evolutionary tree of organisms, with the pages branching off from a group's page being about subgroups. This vast site contains a large collection of biological images, most of which can be reproduced and used for educational purposes. Since some of the topics are controversial in nature, an attempt is made to present all sides of the issue. References are included.

  11. Gene trees and species trees are not the same

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Nichols

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between species is usually represented as a bifurcating tree with the branching points representing speciation events. The ancestry of genes taken from these species can also be represented as a tree, with the branching points representing ancestral genes. The time back to the branching points, and even the branching order, can be different between the two trees. This

  12. Classify the trees/Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Walsh

    This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

  13. Hierarchy and Tree Visualization

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jing

    Vis 01 #12;6 3D Approach 2 - Cone Tree 11 Robertson, Mackinlay, Card CHI `91 Advantages vs. Limitations-3 generations from current node Smooth animation for change in focus Don't draw objects when far enough from on the surface of a hemisphere like sprinkles on an ice creamhemisphere like sprinkles on an ice cream cone. 24

  14. Tree Unification Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a lexicalized grammar formalism which can be seen as a variant of multi-component tree adjoining grammar (TAG). This formalism is well-suited for describing the syntax of German because it relates a syntactic dependency graph with a hierarchy of topological domains. The topological phrase structure encodes the placement of verbal and nominal elements in the (ordered) field structure,

  15. Arbutus unedo, Strawberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Strawberry tree or madrone is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) with a relict population in Ireland, as well as in North Ameri...

  16. Tree Nut Allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth H. Roux; Suzanne S. Teuber; Shridhar K. Sathe

    2003-01-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins,

  17. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  18. Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis

    E-print Network

    Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

  19. Digging Deeper with Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)

  20. Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

  1. Induction of decision trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ross Quinlan

    1986-01-01

    The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

  2. The Sacred Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).

    Designed as a text for high school students and adults, this illustrated book presents ethical concepts and teachings of Native societies throughout North America concerning the nature and possibilities of human existence. The final component of a course in self-discovery and development, the book begins with the legend of the "Sacred Tree

  3. Sizing Up Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Don

    1995-01-01

    Presents a way for teachers to capitalize on children's intrinsic fascination with big things by measuring the world's largest living plants--trees. Students develop an appreciation of nature, work together cooperatively, and practice science process skills. Outlines the procedure and equipment including pencils, metersticks, and string. (NB)

  4. Umdhlebi Tree of Zululand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Parker

    1882-01-01

    There are two species, in both the leaf is lanceolate, dark green, glossy, hard, and brittle, and from both a thick milky juice exudes, while the fruit is like a long black pod, red at the end. One species is a tree with large leaves, and peculiar looking stem, the bark hanging down in large flakes, showing a fresh growth

  5. Game Trees for Decision Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shenoy, Prakash P.

    1998-04-01

    Game trees (or extensive-form games) were first defined by von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944. In this paper, we examine the use of game trees for representing Bayesian decision problems. We propose a method for solving game trees using local...

  6. Selecting Trees for Community Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry D. Gerhold; William Porter

    Selecting the most appropriate trees for various kinds of planting sites is crucial for the success of a municipal tree program. A properly selected tree will appreciate in value for a long time and will be cherished by many people. Conversely, an improper choice might soon become unhealthy or die. Even worse, problems could appear years later when a remedy

  7. Trees and Dags An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Chapter 5 Trees and Dags An Introduction to Separation Logic c #2007 John C. Reynolds February 28, 2007 In this chapter, we consider various representations of abstract tree­like data. In general­expressions are the initial lawless algebra with an infinite number of constants and one binary operation.) 5.1 Trees We use

  8. Qualitative Tree Languages Arnaud Carayol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative Tree Languages Arnaud Carayol LIGM (Univ. Paris Est & CNRS) Arnaud) Olivier.Serre@liafa.jussieu.fr Abstract--We study finite automata running over infinite binary trees) of non-accepting branches. In this qualitative setting, a tree is accepted by the automaton

  9. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  10. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  11. Bag Context Tree Grammars # Sigrid Ewert

    E-print Network

    Drewes, Frank

    or string, but evolves on its own during a derivation. Motivation for investigating bag context tree an investigation into random context in tree gram­ mars and tree transducers. A random context tree grammar G, of course, is that in developing a path of a tree, one has to be aware of the whole of the evolving tree

  12. Binary search trees of bounded balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürg Nievergelt; Edward M. Reingold

    1972-01-01

    A new class of binary search trees, called trees of bounded balance, is introduced. These trees are easy to maintain in their form despite insertions and deletions of nodes, and the search time is only moderately longer than in completely balanced trees. Trees of bounded balance differ from other classes of binary search trees in that they contain a parameter

  13. Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yangjun

    Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

  14. PoInTree: a polar and interactive phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Marco; Marco, Cerreras; Gianti, Eleonora; Eleonora, Gianti; Sartori, Luca; Luca, Sartori; Plyte, Simon Edward; Edward, Plyte Simon; Isacchi, Antonella; Antonella, Isacchi; Bosotti, Roberta; Roberta, Bosotti

    2005-02-01

    PoInTree (Polar and Interactive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar interactive and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented. Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species. The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software). PMID:16144524

  15. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence. PMID:24429523

  16. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD) vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case. PMID:23167951

  17. From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem Roderic The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylog- enies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from

  18. Hasse Diagrams for Classes of Deterministic Bottom-Up Tree-to-Tree-Series

    E-print Network

    Reyle, Uwe

    Hasse Diagrams for Classes of Deterministic Bottom-Up Tree-to-Tree-Series Transformations Andreas The relationship between classes of tree-to-tree-series and o-tree-to-tree-series trans- formations, which are computed by restricted deterministic bottom-up weighted tree transducers, is investigated. Essentially

  19. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  20. 2-4 Trees and B-Trees To know what a 2-4 tree is (9.1).

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    809 CHAPTER 9 2-4 Trees and B-Trees Objectives · To know what a 2-4 tree is (§9.1). · To design the Tree24 class that implements the Tree interface (§9.2). · To search an element in a 2-4 tree (§9.3). · To insert an element in a 2-4 tree and know how to split a node (§9.4). · To delete an element from a 2

  1. PALM TREE GROVE COLLEGEAVE.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    PALM TREE GROVE LAKE LAKE COLLEGEAVE. SW 30th ST. DAVIEROAD DAVIEROAD ACCESS RD. ACCESSRD. SW64thAVE. LAKE LAKE LAKE BC54 BC50 BC49 27 36 BC52 BC53 BC51 BC17 BC90 BC91 COLLEGEAVE. POOL POOL 3200 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314 LEGEND BLDG. # BUILDING NAME BC17 (LY) BC49 (LA) BC50 (CH) BC51 (WL) BC52 (ES) BC

  2. Optimal search in trees

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Asher, Y.; Newman, I. [Haifa Univ. (Israel); Farchi, E. [IBM Research Center, Haifa (Israel)

    1997-06-01

    It is well known that the optimal solution for searching in a finite total order set is the binary search. In binary search we divide the set into two {open_quotes}halves{close_quotes}, by querying the middle element, and continue the search on the suitable half. What is the equivalent of binary search, when the set P is partially ordered? A query in this case is to a point x {element_of} P, with two possible answers:{open_quote}yes{close_quote}, indicates that the required element is {open_quotes}below{close_quotes} x, or {open_quote}no{close_quote} if the element is not bellow x. We show that the problem of computing an optimal strategy for search in Posets that are tree-like (or forests) is polynomial in the size of the tree, and requires at most O(n{sup 2} log{sup 2} n) steps. Optimal solutions of such search problems are often needed in program testing and debugging, where a given program is represented as a tree and a bug should be found using a minimal set of queries.

  3. The fault-tree compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  4. Pseudo-Gilbert-Steiner trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Trietsch; J. F. Weng

    1999-01-01

    The Gilbert network problem is a generalization of the Steiner minimal tree problem derived by adding flow-dependent weights to the edges. In this paper, we define a special class of minimum Gilbert networks, called pseudo-Gilbert-Steiner trees, and we show that it can be constructed by Gilbert's generalization of Melzak's method. Besides, a counterexample, a pseudo-Gilbert-Steiner tree, is con- structed to

  5. Tree Induction over Perennial Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaigham Faraz Siddiqui; Myra Spiliopoulou

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a We study the tree induction over a stream of perennial objects. The perennial objects are dynamic in nature and cannot be forgotten. The objects come from a multi-table stream, e.g., streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions arrive, the perennial Customers’ profiles grow and accumulate over time. To perform tree induction, we propose a tree induction algorithm that can

  6. Polymer oxidation and water treeing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Bulinski; J.-P. Crine; B. Noirhomme; R. J. Densley; S. Bamji

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not oxidation of polymer influences water treeing, more than 200 vented and bow-tie trees from 31 field-aged cables were investigated. Micro-IR spectroscopy analysis has not shown any consistent excess of carbonyl content in water trees as compared with the adjacent non-treed regions of the insulation. Although the levels of carbonyl content of the bulk

  7. Compositional Temporal Fault Tree Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Walker; Leonardo Bottaci; Yiannis Papadopoulos

    2007-01-01

    HiP-HOPS (Hierarchically-Performed Hazard Origin and Propaga- tion Studies) is a recent technique that partly automates Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) by constructing fault trees from system topologies annotated with component-level failure specifications. HiP-HOPS has hitherto created only classical combinatorial fault trees that fail to capture the often significant temporal ordering of failure events. In this paper, we propose temporal extensions to

  8. Collapse of loaded fractal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Smalley, R. F.; Solla, Sara A.

    1985-02-01

    Mandelbrot1 has argued that a wide range of natural objects and phenomena are fractals; examples of fractal trees include actual trees, plants such as a cauliflower, river systems and the cardiovascular system. Here we apply the renormalization group approach2 to the collapse of fractal trees, which may be applicable to a variety of problems including cardiac arrest, failure of bronchial systems, failure of electrical distribution systems and the instability resulting in earthquakes.

  9. Cellular automata on Cayley tree

    E-print Network

    Hasan Akin

    2012-11-30

    In this paper, we study cellular automata on Cayley tree of order 2 over the field $\\mathbb Z_p$ (the set of prime numbers modulo $p$). We construct the rule matrix corresponding to finite cellular automata on Cayley tree. Further, we analyze the reversibility problem of this cellular automata for some given values of $a,b,c,d\\in \\mathbb{Z}_{p}\\setminus {0}$ and the levels $n$ of Cayley tree. We compute the measure-theoretical entropy of the cellular automata which we define on Cayley tree.

  10. Random Tree Generation for Genetic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Iba

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a random tree generation algorithm for GP (Genetic Programming). Generating random trees is an essential part of GP. However, the recursive method commonly used in GP does not necessarily generate random trees, i.e the standard GP initialization procedure does not sample the space of possible initial trees uniformly. This paper proposes a truly random tree generation procedure

  11. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF URBAN TREE REPLACEMENT DECISIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessie L. Scott; David R. Betters

    2000-01-01

    A critical decision facing urban foresters, arborists, and planners involves deciding when an existing tree should be removed and replaced with a new plant- ing. Tree removal decisions are often based on an evaluation of the tree's health and condition as well as safety concerns. A tree may be retained, but nor- mally this requires a tree maintenance program and

  12. COMPONENT User's Guide Maps between trees

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 7 Maps between trees This chapter describes tree mapping routines in COMPONENT. These routines allow you to map gene trees onto species trees, parasite phylogenies onto host phylogenies, and taxon cladograms onto area cladograms. Overview This section introduces some basics of tree

  13. Exploring Trees and Ponds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trees and Ponds is a collection of activities to be implemented with middle school youth in out-of-school environments. The website provides a rationale and goal of the activities, curriculum activities and resources such as relevant digital photos. Available for free as downloadable PDFs, these activities provide a structure for youth in out-of-school programs to carry out long-term observations of natural objects. This project uses a qualitative approach, where changes over time are studied, recorded (by youth through writing, drawing, and digital photography), and discussed.

  14. Save a Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1999-10-01

    Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

  15. Tree Level Gauge Mediation

    E-print Network

    Marco Nardecchia; Andrea Romanino; Robert Ziegler

    2009-11-27

    We propose a new scheme in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the MSSM sfermions by GUT gauge interactions at the tree level. The (positive) contribution of MSSM fields to $\\text{Str}(\\mathcal{M}^2)$ is automatically compensated by a (negative) contribution from heavy fields. Sfermion masses are flavour universal, thus solving the supersymmetric flavour problem. In the simplest SO(10) embedding, the ratio of different sfermion masses is predicted and differs from mSugra and other schemes, thus making this framework testable at the LHC. Gaugino masses are generated at the loop level but enhanced by model dependent factors.

  16. Ice Roads: Steiner Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tim Bell

    1998-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners use pegs (like tent pegs) and string or elastic to simulate drill sites and roads in Northern Canada. Learners are challenged with figuring out how to connect the roads to all the drill sites while keeping the total road length to a minimum. They'll discover that intersections or "Steiner" points provide efficiency between points within a network. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including Steiner trees, algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

  17. Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

  18. Do Invasive Trees have a Hydraulic Advantage over Native Trees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R B Pratt; R A Black

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that invasive trees have hydraulic traits that contribute to their invasive nature. Five pairs of co-occurring invasive and native trees, in mesic habitats, were selected: (1) Tamarix ramosissima and Salix amygdaloides; (2) Robinia pseudoacacia and Alnus rhombifolia (3) Schinus terebinthifolius and Myrica cerifera; (4) Ligustrum sinense and Acer negundo; and (5) Sapium sebiferum and Diospyros virginiana,

  19. A note on reconfiguring tree linkages: trees can lock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese C. Biedl; Erik D. Demaine; Martin L. Demaine; Sylvain Lazard; Anna Lubiw; Joseph O'rourke; Steve Robbins; Ileana Streinu; Godfried T. Toussaint; Sue Whitesides

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that any polygonal chain in the plane can be reconfigured to lie on a straight line, and any polygon can be reconfigured to be convex. This result cannot be extended to tree linkages: we show that there are trees with two configurations that are not connected by a motion. Indeed, we prove that an N-link

  20. TREE SPACING AND CONTROL OF AVOCADO TREE GROWTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Platt

    Spacing, training, control of tree growth and orchard thinning are subjects that have been debated by avocado growers for many years. The variability in tree response resulting from the differences between varieties and the influences of soil and climate make broad generalizations difficult. Each situation must be evaluated on its individual requirements. The primary objective of the avocado grower is

  1. Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Paola Bonizzoni

    E-print Network

    Della Vedova, Gianluca

    Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Cost Model Paola Bonizzoni Gianluca from evolutionary trees representing the relationships between distinct gene families is of great of minimum tree that reconciles a gene tree and a species tree is correct. We answer affirmatively

  2. iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees ETHAN M. JEWETT and NOAH A. ROSENBERG ABSTRACT Several methods have been designed to infer species trees from gene trees while taking into account gene tree/species tree discordance. Although some of these methods

  3. Non-crossing Trees are Almost Conditioned Galton-Watson trees1

    E-print Network

    Marckert, Jean-François

    Non-crossing Trees are Almost Conditioned Galton-Watson trees1 Jean-Fran¸cois Marckert Alois-10, A - 1040 Wien, Austria alois.panholzer@tuwien.ac.at ABSTRACT: A non-crossing tree (NC-tree) is a tree drawn seg- ments that do not cross. In this paper, we show that NC-trees with size n are conditioned Galton

  4. Distributed Merge Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  5. 7 CFR 1214.3 - Christmas tree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information...

  6. 7 CFR 1214.3 - Christmas tree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Christmas tree. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information...

  7. 7 CFR 1214.3 - Christmas tree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information...

  8. Genetic conservation of native trees

    E-print Network

    Genetic conservation of native trees Scott McG. Wilson1 and C. J. A. Samuel Over recent years, the genetic conservation of British native tree populations has become an increasingly important part policy-makers in the genetic basis of forest biodiversity conservation, both at the UK and, more

  9. Elemental composition of tree nuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Keith Furr; Laurence H. MacDaniels; Leigh E. St. John; Walter H. Gutenmann; Irene S. Pakkala; Donald J. Lisk

    1979-01-01

    Growing nut trees is becoming ever more popular among home gardeners and publications dealing with their culture have recently appeared (JAYNES 1969, MACDANIELS 1976). Data on the elemental composition of nuts is very limited with values reported for only a few elements (LISK 1972). Several other publications have dealt with the detection of elements in various tree parts but not

  10. Tree health update Sarah Green

    E-print Network

    of the park in November 2010 revealed: · 63 dead Lawson cypress · 19 dying Lawson cypress · 8 dead yew trees · 19 dying yew trees · 20+ hedgerow yew dead · Need for rapid diagnosis #12;25/03/20119 Basal lesions stem kill phloem and disrupt xylem, cause crown death · Less than 2200 Ha of commercially grown Lawson

  11. Water treeing and polymer oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Densley; S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski; J.-P. Crine

    1990-01-01

    The influence of oxidation on water tree degradation is examined. Studies of the thermal oxidation of cable-grade PE (polyethylene) and XLPE (cross-linked PE) and also of PE and XLPE immersed in hot aqueous solutions in the absence of an electric field are reviewed. The data are compared with the results of oxidation studies of water trees in PE and XLPE.

  12. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Bereg; Kathryn Bean

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method of constructing a phylogenetic network from a given phylogenetic tree. It is based on a procedure that locally improves the tree. The procedure is quite general and can be applied to phylogenetic networks. By repeating local improvements user can introduce a given number of recombination cycles. A sequence of networks with decreasing distance deviation can

  13. Cellular Tree Classifiers Gerard Biau

    E-print Network

    Biau, Gérard

    Cellular Tree Classifiers G´erard Biau Universit´e Pierre et Marie Curie1 & Ecole Normale Sup The cellular tree classifier model addresses a fundamental problem in the design of classifiers for a parallel a consistent classifier as no cell knows the "original data size", n. However, we show that this is not so

  14. Looking/Learning Drawing: Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Al; Blume, Sharon

    1985-01-01

    Secondary students are asked to study and compare three reproductions--Van Gogh's "Grove of Cypresses," Da Vinci's "Study of a Tree," and Mondrian's "Tree II." The activity will help students develop their powers of observation and analysis, powers that can be applied to their own drawings. (RM)

  15. Hazard Tree Management for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Earl

    2002-01-01

    The principles behind a camp's hazard tree program are, first, identifying and removing those hazards that offer a clear, immediate threat, and then creating a management plan for the other trees. The plan should be written and contain goals and objectives, field evaluations, and treatments. Follow-up evaluations should be done annually and after…

  16. Trees and Dags An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    is (the root of) a tree representing the S-expression " -- by structural induction on : tree a (i) iff emp(i) then {isatom() emp i = } {isatom() ((emp i = ) (emp i = ))} j := i {isatom() ((emp i = ) (emp j representation (and are therefore the same S-expression). But we have dropped emp from the base case, so that dag

  17. In Search of Moon Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phillips, Tony.

    2002-01-01

    In 1971, hundreds of tree seedlings germinated aboard NASA's Apollo 14 mission to the moon. A few years later, they were planted around the nation, often with much fanfare. However, no one kept a systematic record of these plantings, and as a result, the whereabouts of most of the trees remains a mystery. Visitors can read or listen to an account of the history and current status of them at this Web site, and follow links to access additional information relating to the story or to learn the location of known Moon trees. NASA scientist Dave Williams continues to search for the remaining trees and encourages readers to contact him if they believe they know of trees not currently mentioned on his list. What this site lacks in colorful, interactive features is more than made up for by its engaging feature story.

  18. How Monkeys Use Energy to Leap from Tree to Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David E Watson

    The representation is a diagram with accompanying text, showing conversions as energy goes from the sun (electromagnetic) to the tree (chemical) to the monkey; describes how the monkey converts chemical energy into motion and heat.

  19. Can These Trees Be Saved? 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-19

    ER-039 5-06 Can These Trees Be Saved? Eric L. Taylor, Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System A storm or other disaster can leave trees... it over. Remember that time is on your side. After careful pruning of broken branches, give the tree some time to recover. A final decision can be made later. Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, The Texas A&M System Extension publications...

  20. Tree Search and Quantum Computation

    E-print Network

    Luís Tarrataca; Andreas Wichert

    2015-02-06

    Traditional tree search algorithms supply a blueprint for modeling problem solving behaviour. A diverse spectrum of problems can be formulated in terms of tree search. Quantum computation, in particular Grover's algorithm, has aroused a great deal of interest since it allows for a quadratic speedup to be obtained in search procedures. In this work we consider the impact of incorporating classical search concepts alongside Grover's algorithm into a hybrid quantum search system. Some of the crucial points examined include: (1) the reverberations of contemplating the use of non-constant branching factors; (2) determining the consequences of incorporating an heuristic perspective into a quantum tree search model.

  1. On Wavelet Tree Construction German Tischler

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    On Wavelet Tree Construction German Tischler Lehrstuhl f¨ur Informatik 2, Universit¨at W¨urzburg, Germany CPM 2011 On Wavelet Tree Construction (1) German Tischler #12;Table of contents Definitions General Balanced wavelet tree Huffman shaped wavelet tree Stable bit key sorting In place Using additional

  2. How To Select and Plant a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin furnishes information about selecting and planting trees. The tree selection process includes being aware of the physical characteristics of bare root seedlings, containerized seedlings, balled and burlapped, or potted trees and determining the proper size and root ball proportions. The section on tree planting discusses how to: (1)…

  3. Trees, soil and water : Journey to Forever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keith Addison

    2001-01-01

    Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - healthcare for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification This article discusses the interdependence between trees, soil, and water from a biological and conservationist standpoint.

  4. A Tool for Displaying Syntactic Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jerry L.

    A computer program for drawing syntactic phrase markers as trees is described. The program was developed for use on Texas Instruments Explorer Lisp machines. The tree is drawn by recursive descent, left to right. The tree-drawing function takes two arguments: (1) an atom constituting the tree, and (2) a font specification to be used in drawing the…

  5. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Nai Fovino; Marcelo Masera; Alessio De Cian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction

  6. Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

  7. A Novel Approach for Compressing Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tiffani

    A Novel Approach for Compressing Phylogenetic Trees Suzanne J. Matthews, Seung-Jin Sul, and Tiffani,sulsj,tlw}@cse.tamu.edu Abstract. Phylogenetic trees are tree structures that depict relation- ships between organisms. Popular analysis techniques often produce large collections of candidate trees, which are expensive to store. We

  8. Action trees and moral judgment Joshua Knobe

    E-print Network

    Knobe, Joshua

    1 Action trees and moral judgment Joshua Knobe Yale University [Forthcoming in Topics in Cognitive of an action tree. A question now arises about the relationship between this action tree representation of the action tree and then go on to use this representation in making moral judgments. The present paper argues

  9. Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees Street trees can have an important role. Health and well-being objectives have been elements of each country's forest strategy, and street trees This research aimed to: o Assess recent economic evidence of the health benefits provided by street trees

  10. Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    E-print Network

    FNR-214-W Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center North Central Research Station USDA of Tree Planting William L. Hoover Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University Trees and timber production. Altruism motivates many landowners to plant trees. There are, however, those who plant

  11. TREE MAINTENANCE AND REMOVAL 31. A GENERAL

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Jun 13 SECTION 31 TREE MAINTENANCE AND REMOVAL 31. A GENERAL 31.A.01 References. a, and Distribution; d. ANSI A300 ­ American National Standard for Tree Care Operations ­ Tree, Shrub, and Other Woody- Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices. 31.A.02 Tree maintenance or removal shall be performed

  12. Tunnel of the California Tunnel Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, the tunnel through the California Tunnel Tree may be seen. The tunnel was cut through the giant sequoia tree in 1895 to allow coaches, and eventually cars, to drive through the tree as part of a marketing stunt. The California Tunnel Tree is the only living giant sequoia with a t...

  13. TIMCHAMPION 11055 Painted Tree Road

    E-print Network

    Bodner, George M.

    edited by TIMCHAMPION 11055 Painted Tree Road Charlone. NC 28226 An Alternativeto Halogenated coefficientfor the extrac- tion of iodine between CCla and water. Glasstone (3)reports values of 85.1-87.5for

  14. Summing tree graphs at threshold

    E-print Network

    Lowell S. Brown

    1992-09-01

    The solution of the classical field equation generates the sum of all tree graphs. We show that the classical equation reduces to an easily solved ordinary differential equation for certain multiparticle threshold amplitudes and compute these amplitudes.

  15. Simplicial matrix-tree theorems

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art M; Martin, Jeremy L

    2008-01-01

    We generalize the definition and enumeration of spanning trees from the setting of graphs to that of arbitrary-dimensional simplicial complexes $\\Delta$, extending an idea due to G. Kalai. We prove a simplicial version of the Matrix-Tree Theorem that counts simplicial spanning trees, weighted by the squares of the orders of their top-dimensional integral homology groups, in terms of the Laplacian matrix of $\\Delta$. As in the graphic case, one can obtain a more finely weighted generating function for simplicial spanning trees by assigning an indeterminate to each vertex of $\\Delta$ and replacing the entries of the Laplacian with Laurent monomials. When $\\Delta$ is a shifted complex, we give a combinatorial interpretation of the eigenvalues of its weighted Laplacian and prove that they determine its set of faces uniquely, generalizing known results about threshold graphs and unweighted Laplacian eigenvalues of shifted complexes.

  16. If a Tree Falls in the Forest ...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students explore the role that forests play in their own lives by listing everyday products made from trees. They use the Internet to find as many uses for trees as possible in order to develop a class list that should include foods from trees, products derived from all parts of a tree, environmental benefits of trees, and recreational uses of trees. Students are then asked to imagine a day in their lives without trees and consider how their routine would differ and how their environment would change. This site also contains ideas for assessment and ways of extending the lesson.

  17. Centennial Celebration of the Gift of Trees to Columbus, OH Cherry Tree Planting Ceremony

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    Centennial Celebration of the Gift of Trees to Columbus, OH Cherry Tree Planting Ceremony Friday in Detroit Planting of the Cherry Blossom Trees Sakura ­ sung by Fort Hayes Arts & Academic High for students · The trees were provided by American Forests. · Pictures of Cherry Trees were provided

  18. Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010 branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree

  19. Revised slightly from Arborist News 14 (2) 24-26, 2005. Tree Biology and Problem Trees

    E-print Network

    Revised slightly from Arborist News 14 (2) 24-26, 2005. Tree Biology and Problem Trees By Kevin T. Smith, USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH 03824 USA Modern Arboriculture and Problem Trees: Have you met any problem trees? Have you created any problem trees? Can you spot them early or even prevent them

  20. A SIMPLE BIJECTION BETWEEN A SUBCLASS OF 2-BINARY TREES AND TERNARY TREES

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    NOTE A SIMPLE BIJECTION BETWEEN A SUBCLASS OF 2-BINARY TREES AND TERNARY TREES HELMUT PRODINGER We consider the subclass of 2-binary trees, where · nodes are labelled black or white, · the root is labelled] that these trees are in bijection with ternary trees (and henceforth enumerated by 1 2n+1 3n n ). In this note we

  1. High-Dimensional Structure Learning of Graphical Models: Trees, Latent Trees & Beyond

    E-print Network

    Anandkumar, Animashree

    High-Dimensional Structure Learning of Graphical Models: Trees, Latent Trees & Beyond Anima Tan, and Alan Willsky. UIUC Seminar Anima Anandkumar (UCI) Trees, Latent Trees & Beyond 11/08/2010 1 / 52 #12;Graphical Models: Motivation Example: Contextual Object Recognition SKY ROAD AREA TREE CAR CAR

  2. ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical: {zmasek,eddy}@genetics.wustl.edu Key words: tree display, tree viewer, phylogenetic tree, java

  3. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests...PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of...

  4. reference to a tree with full foliage under local conditions (the `local tree' method). Usually this

    E-print Network

    reference to a tree with full foliage under local conditions (the `local tree' method). Usually this method involves selecting the tree with the greatest amount of foliage in the general vicinity of a survey plot to serve as a standard against which the plot trees are assessed. The same local tree

  5. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests...PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of...

  6. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests...PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of...

  7. Quantum Simulation of Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Demosthenes Ellinas; Peter Jarvis

    2011-05-09

    Quantum simulations constructing probability tensors of biological multi-taxa in phylogenetic trees are proposed, in terms of positive trace preserving maps, describing evolving systems of quantum walks with multiple walkers. Basic phylogenetic models applying on trees of various topologies are simulated following appropriate decoherent quantum circuits. Quantum simulations of statistical inference for aligned sequences of biological characters are provided in terms of a quantum pruning map operating on likelihood operator observables, utilizing state-observable duality and measurement theory.

  8. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  9. Self-adjusting binary search trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Dominic Sleator; Robert Endre Tarjan

    1985-01-01

    The splay tree, a self-adjusting form of binary search tree, is developed and analyzed. The binary search tree is a data structure for representing tables and lists so that accessing, inserting, and deleting items is easy. On an n-node splay tree, all the standard search tree operations have an amortized time bound of O(log n) per operation, where by “amortized

  10. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model was divided into three sections to separate parts with different moisture (heartwood and sapwood) or empty space (decays). For easier manipulation with the antenna we developed a special ruler for measuring the distance along the scans. Instead of the surveying wheel we read the distance with a camera, which was fixed on the antenna and focused on the ruler with a binary pattern. Hence, during whole measurement and the data processing we were able to identify an accurate position on the tree in view of the scan. Some preliminary measurements on the trees were also conducted. They were performed using a GSSI 900 MHz antenna. Several tree species (beech, horse-chestnut, birch, ...) in Louvain-la-Neuve and Brussels, Belgium, have been investigated to see the internal structure of the tree decays. The measurements were carried out mainly by circumferential measurement around the trunk and also by vertical measurement along the trunk for approximate detection of the cavity. The comparison between the numerical simulations, simplified tree trunk model and real data from trees is presented. This research is funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and benefits from networking activities carried out within the EU COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  11. A Model In Which There Are Jech Kunen Trees But There Are No Kurepa Trees 1

    E-print Network

    Jin, Renling

    A Model In Which There Are Jech Kunen Trees But There Are No Kurepa Trees 1 Saharon Shelah2 and Renling Jin Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of power !1 and height !1. We call an !1 tree a Jech Kunen tree if it has many branches for some strictly between !1 and 2!1 . In this paper we construct

  12. DataTree and UniTree: software for file and storage management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. McClain

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities and advantages of DataTree and UniTree (hierarchical file- and storage-management systems for networked, multivendor computing environments) are discussed. DataTree is an advanced centralized MVS-based system; UniTree is a Unix-based file-server product. DataTree is the commercial version of the common file system (CFS) developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The DataTree server platform is built upon the MVS

  13. Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

  14. Cloning, expression, and spectroscopic characterization of Cucumis sativus stellacyanin in its nonglycosylated form.

    PubMed Central

    Nersissian, A. M.; Mehrabian, Z. B.; Nalbandyan, R. M.; Hart, P. J.; Fraczkiewicz, G.; Czernuszewicz, R. S.; Bender, C. J.; Peisach, J.; Herrmann, R. G.; Valentine, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the 182 amino acid long precursor stellacyanin from Cucumis sativus was isolated and characterized. The protein precursor consists of four sequence domains: I, a 23 amino acid hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide with features characteristic of secretory proteins; II, a 109 amino acid copper-binding domain; III, a 26 amino acid hydroxyproline- and serine-rich peptide characteristic of motifs found in the extension family, extracellular structural glycoproteins found in plant cell walls; and IV, a 22 amino acid hydrophobic extension. Maturation of the protein involves posttranslational processing of domains I and IV. The copper-binding domain (domain II), which shares high sequence identity with other stellacyanins, has been expressed without its carbohydrate attachment sites, refolded from the Escherichia coli inclusion bodies, purified, and characterized by electronic absorption, EPR, ESEEM, and RR spectroscopy. Its spectroscopic properties are nearly identical to those of stellacyanin from the Japanese lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, the most extensively studied and best characterized stellacyanin, indicating that this domain folds correctly, even in the absence of its carbohydrate moiety. The presence of a hydroxyproline- and serine-rich domain III suggests that stellacyanin may have a function other than that of a diffusible electron transfer protein, conceivably participating in redox reactions localized at the plant cell wall, which are known to occur in response to wounding or infection of the plant. PMID:8931137

  15. Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  16. Laccase versus laccase-like multi-copper oxidase: a comparative study of similar enzymes with diverse substrate spectra.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term "laccase-like multi-copper oxidase" (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  17. Decision Tree Induction Based on Efficient Tree Restructuring 1 Paul E. Utgoff utgoff@cs.umass.edu

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Decision Tree Induction Based on Efficient Tree Restructuring 1 Paul E. Utgoff utgoff to restructure a decision tree efficiently enables a variety of ap­ proaches to decision tree induction incremental tree induction (ITI), and the other being non­incremental tree induction using a measure of tree

  18. Decision Tree Induction Based on Efficient Tree Restructuring1 Paul E. Utgoff utgoff@cs.umass.edu

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Decision Tree Induction Based on Efficient Tree Restructuring1 Paul E. Utgoff utgoff to restructure a decision tree efficiently enables a variety of ap- proaches to decision tree induction incremental tree induction (ITI), and the other being non-incremental tree induction using a measure of tree

  19. Genealogical trees from genetic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prignano, L.; Serva, M.

    2009-06-01

    In a population with haploid reproduction any individual has a single parent in the previous generation. If all genealogical distances among pairs of individuals (generations from the closest common ancestor) are known it is possible to exactly reconstruct their genealogical tree. Unfortunately, in most cases, genealogical distances are unknown and only genetic distances are available. The genetic distance between two individuals is measurable from differences in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) since in the case of humans or other complex organisms mtDNA is transmitted in a haploid manner. An analogous distance can be also computed for languages where it may be measured from lexical differences, in this case, nevertheless, haploid reproduction is only a raw approximation. Assuming a constant rate of mutation, these genetic distances are random and proportional only on average to genealogical ones. The reconstruction of the genealogical tree from the available genetic distances is forceful imprecise. In this paper we try to quantify the error one may commit in the reconstruction of the tree for different degrees of randomness. The errors may concern both topology of the tree (the branching hierarchy) and, in case of correct topology, the proportions of the tree (length of various branches).

  20. Superstable groups acting on trees

    E-print Network

    Houcine, Abderezak Ould

    2008-01-01

    We study superstable groups acting on trees. We prove that an action of an $\\omega$-stable group on a simplicial tree is trivial. This shows that an HNN-extension or a nontrivial free product with amalgamation is not $\\omega$-stable. It is also shown that if $G$ is a superstable group acting nontrivially on a $\\Lambda$-tree, where $\\Lambda=\\mathbb Z$ or $\\Lambda=\\mathbb R$, and if $G$ is either $\\alpha$-connected and $\\Lambda=\\mathbb Z$, or if the action is irreducible, then $G$ interprets a simple group having a nontrivial action on a $\\Lambda$-tree. In particular if $G$ is superstable and splits as $G=G_1*_AG_2$, with the index of $A$ in $G_1$ different from 2, then $G$ interprets a simple superstable non $\\omega$-stable group. We will deal with "minimal" superstable groups of finite Lascar rank acting nontrivially on $\\Lambda$-trees, where $\\Lambda=\\mathbb Z$ or $\\Lambda=\\mathbb R$. We show that such groups $G$ have definable subgroups $H_1 \\lhd H_2 \\lhd G$, $H_2$ is of finite index in $G$, such that if $H...

  1. The most parsimonious tree for random data.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mareike; Galla, Michelle; Herbst, Lina; Steel, Mike

    2014-11-01

    Applying a method to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree from random data provides a way to detect whether that method has an inherent bias towards certain tree 'shapes'. For maximum parsimony, applied to a sequence of random 2-state data, each possible binary phylogenetic tree has exactly the same distribution for its parsimony score. Despite this pleasing and slightly surprising symmetry, some binary phylogenetic trees are more likely than others to be a most parsimonious (MP) tree for a sequence of k such characters, as we show. For k=2, and unrooted binary trees on six taxa, any tree with a caterpillar shape has a higher chance of being an MP tree than any tree with a symmetric shape. On the other hand, if we take any two binary trees, on any number of taxa, we prove that this bias between the two trees vanishes as the number of characters k grows. However, again there is a twist: MP trees on six taxa for k=2 random binary characters are more likely to have certain shapes than a uniform distribution on binary phylogenetic trees predicts. Moreover, this shape bias appears, from simulations, to be more pronounced for larger values of k. PMID:25079136

  2. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Woese, C R

    2000-07-18

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist. PMID:10900003

  3. Parking on a Random Tree

    E-print Network

    H. Dehling; S. R. Fleurke; C. Kuelske

    2007-11-26

    Consider an infinite tree with random degrees, i.i.d. over the sites, with a prescribed probability distribution with generating function G(s). We consider the following variation of Renyi's parking problem, alternatively called blocking RSA: at every vertex of the tree a particle (or car) arrives with rate one. The particle sticks to the vertex whenever the vertex and all of its nearest neighbors are not occupied yet. We provide an explicit expression for the so-called parking constant in terms of the generating function.

  4. Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

  5. Tree rings and rockfall -Anatomic tree reactions and

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    dem depArtement für GeowissenschAften - GeoGrAphie universität freiburG (schweiz) Tree rings Universität Freiburg in der Schweiz vorgelegt von Dominique Manuel SCHNEUWLY aus Liebistorf FR (Schweiz - Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Freiburg, Schweiz, im August 2009 aufgrund der Gutachten von Prof. Michel

  6. Profiles of random trees: Plane-oriented recursive trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-kuei Hwang

    2007-01-01

    We derive several limit results for the profile of random plan e-oriented recursive trees. These include the limit distribution of the normalized profi le, asymptotic bimodality of the variance, asymptotic approximation to the expected width and the correlation coefficients of two level sizes. Most of our proofs are based on a method of moments. We also discover an unexpected connection

  7. AncesTrees: ancestry estimation with randomized decision trees.

    PubMed

    Navega, David; Coelho, Catarina; Vicente, Ricardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Wasterlain, Sofia; Cunha, Eugénia

    2014-07-23

    In forensic anthropology, ancestry estimation is essential in establishing the individual biological profile. The aim of this study is to present a new program-AncesTrees-developed for assessing ancestry based on metric analysis. AncesTrees relies on a machine learning ensemble algorithm, random forest, to classify the human skull. In the ensemble learning paradigm, several models are generated and co-jointly used to arrive at the final decision. The random forest algorithm creates ensembles of decision trees classifiers, a non-linear and non-parametric classification technique. The database used in AncesTrees is composed by 23 craniometric variables from 1,734 individuals, representative of six major ancestral groups and selected from the Howells' craniometric series. The program was tested in 128 adult crania from the following collections: the African slaves' skeletal collection of Valle da Gafaria; the Medical School Skull Collection and the Identified Skeletal Collection of 21st Century, both curated at the University of Coimbra. The first step of the test analysis was to perform ancestry estimation including all the ancestral groups of the database. The second stage of our test analysis was to conduct ancestry estimation including only the European and the African ancestral groups. In the first test analysis, 75 % of the individuals of African ancestry and 79.2 % of the individuals of European ancestry were correctly identified. The model involving only African and European ancestral groups had a better performance: 93.8 % of all individuals were correctly classified. The obtained results show that AncesTrees can be a valuable tool in forensic anthropology. PMID:25053239

  8. The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Haake, Claus-Jochen; Kashiwada, Akemi; Su, Francis Edward

    2008-04-01

    Every weighted tree corresponds naturally to a cooperative game that we call a tree game; it assigns to each subset of leaves the sum of the weights of the minimal subtree spanned by those leaves. In the context of phylogenetic trees, the leaves are species and this assignment captures the diversity present in the coalition of species considered. We consider the Shapley value of tree games and suggest a biological interpretation. We determine the linear transformation M that shows the dependence of the Shapley value on the edge weights of the tree, and we also compute a null space basis of M. Both depend on the split counts of the tree. Finally, we characterize the Shapley value on tree games by four axioms, a counterpart to Shapley's original theorem on the larger class of cooperative games. We also include a brief discussion of the core of tree games. PMID:17805545

  9. DATA TRANSFORMATION FOR DECISION TREE ENSEMBLES

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gavin

    of Random Linear Oracle Framework and Its Extensions 67 4.1 Diverse Linear Multivariate Decision Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.7.7 Extremely Randomized Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.7.8 The Random Oracle Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.8 Conclusion

  10. Wavelet tree quantization for copyright protection watermarking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-hao Wang; Yuan-pei Lin

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a wavelet-tree-based blind watermarking scheme for copyright protection. The wavelet coefficients of the host image are grouped into so-called super trees. The watermark is embedded by quantizing super trees. The trees are so quantized that they exhibit a large enough statistical difference, which will later be used for watermark extraction. Each watermark bit is embedded in perceptually

  11. RELT - Visualizing Trees on Mobile Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Hao; Kang Zhang; Mao Lin Huang

    2007-01-01

    The small screens on increasingly used mobile devices challenge the traditional visualization methods designed for desktops.\\u000a This paper presents a method called “Radial Edgeless Tree” (RELT) for visualizing trees in a 2-dimensional space. It combines\\u000a the existing connection tree drawing with the space-filling approach to achieve the efficient display of trees in a small\\u000a geometrical area, such as the screen

  12. Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria in Forest Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironari Izumi

    \\u000a A group of studies on the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees is presented in terms of host plant species variety\\u000a and the number of reports. Many host tree species are underrepresented in these studies: Trees in the tropics as well as some\\u000a important temperate tree species, such as those belonging to the genera of Alnus and Fagus, have

  13. Exploring Syntactic Structural Features for Sub-Tree Alignment using Bilingual Tree Kernels

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    Exploring Syntactic Structural Features for Sub-Tree Alignment using Bilingual Tree Kernels Jun Sun translational equivalences and apply BTKs to sub-tree alignment along with some plain features. Our study reveals that the struc- tural features embedded in a bilingual parse tree pair are very effective for sub

  14. Effect of tree channel conductivity on electrical tree shape and breakdown in XLPE cable insulation samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangrong Chen; Yang Xu; Xiaolong Cao; S. J. Dodd; L. A. Dissado

    2011-01-01

    The results of an investigation into electrical tree growth in XLPE cable insulation using an embedded needle electrode are reported for a range of voltages from 9 kV rms to 27 kV rms. The partial discharge (PD) activity and tree structures were measured simultaneously throughout the tree growth and the trees were recorded from initiation up to and including the

  15. The probability distribution of ranked gene trees on a species tree James H. Degnan a,

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    The probability distribution of ranked gene trees on a species tree James H. Degnan a, , Noah A and the sequence of coalescences for a random gene tree are considered. We derive the probability distribution reserved. 1. Introduction Recent studies have investigated the probability distribution of random gene tree

  16. RELATING TREE PHYSIOLOGY TO PAST AND FUTURE CHANGES IN TROPICAL RAINFOREST TREE COMMUNITIES

    E-print Network

    Coley, Phyllis

    RELATING TREE PHYSIOLOGY TO PAST AND FUTURE CHANGES IN TROPICAL RAINFOREST TREE COMMUNITIES THOMAS. Predicting future changes in tropical rainforest tree communities requires a good under- standing of past to which tropical rainforest tree communities have changed during the last few thousand years has been

  17. DOES TREE HARDNESS INFLUENCE NEST-TREE SELECTION BY PRIMARY CAVITY NESTERS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAKE SCHEPPS; STEVE LOHR; THOMAS E. MARTIN

    may vary among bird species, causing nest-tree selection to vary among excavator species. We examined use of quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides) for nest trees as a function of tree hardness in four species of woodpeckers: Williamson's Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus), Red-naped Sapsucker (S. nuchalis), Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus). Hardness of trees was measured at 95 nest

  18. TREE2TREE: NEURON SEGMENTATION FOR GENERATION OF NEURONAL Saurav Basu1

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    datasets. Current automatic state of the art algorithms for neuron tracing fail to work in neuron images Tree2Tree, a robust automatic neuron segmentation and morphology generation algorithm. It uses a localTREE2TREE: NEURON SEGMENTATION FOR GENERATION OF NEURONAL MORPHOLOGY Saurav Basu1 , Alla Aksel1

  19. Plastic Trees: Interactive Self-Adapting Botanical Tree Models Sren Pirk1

    E-print Network

    Deussen, Oliver

    ). The same tree species that has a well-developed crown when grown in an open space might have a longer trunk and only a small tree crown when standing in a forest. The variety of plant shapes can be capturedPlastic Trees: Interactive Self-Adapting Botanical Tree Models Sören Pirk1 Ondrej Stava2 Julian

  20. Combining dynamic fault trees and event trees for probabilistic risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Xu; Joanne Bechta Dugan

    2004-01-01

    As system analysis methodologies, both event tree analysis (ETA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) are used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), especially in identifying system interrelationships due to shared events. Although there are differences between them, ETA and FTA, are so closely linked that fault trees (FT) are often used to quantify system events that are part of event tree

  1. Totally Tree-mendous Activities: Projects To Discover the Beauty and Benefits of Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Sarah

    This teacher's guide supplies information and hands-on activities to teach about trees from several disciplines. Activities are grouped into six areas that cover botany, social studies, arts and literature (aesthetics), and trees as a resource. Sections include: (1) Tree Identification, which defines trees and leaves and presents activities that…

  2. Box-Trees and R-trees with Near-Optimal Query Time Pankaj K. Agarwaly

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.

    Box-Trees and R-trees with Near-Optimal Query Time Pankaj K. Agarwaly Mark de Bergz Joachim Gudmundssonx Mikael Hammarx Herman J. Haverkortz Abstract A box-tree is a bounding-box hierarchy that uses axis-aligned boxes as bounding volumes. The stab- bing number of a box-tree with respect to a given type of query

  3. Monitoring amenity tree health in England The Condition Survey of Non-woodland Amenity Trees

    E-print Network

    36 Monitoring amenity tree health in England The Condition Survey of Non-woodland Amenity Trees)-led survey which enables us to monitor the condition of amenity trees in parks, city streets and stately countries since 1987 (Hendry, 2005). Whilst the Forest Condition Survey concentrates on forest trees

  4. A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees James H. Degnan, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Tanja Stadler Abstract--Ranked gene trees, which consider both the gene tree topology and the sequence in which gene lineages separate, can potentially provide a new source

  5. Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full framework for estimating species trees and species demograph- ics from genetic markers. However, practical trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes

  6. trees.sty: A Macro for Drawing Binary or Ternary Trees

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    trees.sty: A Macro for Drawing Binary or Ternary Trees april 1990 The following macros let you draw a (binary or ternary) tree of any size. For each will give you some ideas on designi* *ng similar things for, e.g., digital circuits. Trees

  7. Optimizing tree and character compatibility across several phylogenetic trees Simone Linza,b

    E-print Network

    St. John, Katherine

    Optimizing tree and character compatibility across several phylogenetic trees Simone Linza, Bronx, NY, United States. Abstract Given a set R of rooted phylogenetic trees on overlapping taxa, it takes polynomial time to decide whether or not there exists a rooted phylogenetic tree

  8. TreeDT: Tree Pattern Mining for Gene Mapping Petteri Sevon, Hannu Toivonen, and Vesa Ollikainen

    E-print Network

    Toivonen, Hannu

    TreeDT: Tree Pattern Mining for Gene Mapping Petteri Sevon, Hannu Toivonen, and Vesa Ollikainen Abstract--We describe TreeDT, a novel association-based gene mapping method. Given a set of disease-associated haplotypes and a set of control haplotypes, TreeDT predicts likely locations of a disease susceptibility gene

  9. A TREE OBSCURED BY VINES: HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE MEDIAN TREE

    E-print Network

    Kim, Junhyong

    1 A TREE OBSCURED BY VINES: HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE MEDIAN TREE METHOD OF ESTIMATING University New Haven, CT 06520, USA junhyong.kim@yale.edu, ben@aya.yale.edu A phylogeny is a tree graph the phylogeny of whole organisms (species trees) using bio-molecular sequences. When multiple sequences

  10. Street tree valuation systems The Capital Asset Value for Amenity Trees (CAVAT) scheme provides a method

    E-print Network

    Street tree valuation systems The Capital Asset Value for Amenity Trees (CAVAT) scheme provides a method for managing trees as public assets in London. A literature and methodological review was commissioned to assess approaches to estimating the amenity value of street trees to feed into Forestry

  11. Trees of Our National Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  12. TREE FAILURES AND ACCIDENTS IN

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , and other categories of information. Use of this system allows site managers to control hazard at lower cost. A data management system has been developed for storage and retrieval of tree failure and hazard data reduction; recreation areas; safety standards; data management; computer programs. #12;INTRODUCTION

  13. The Gift of the Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marla Wagner Jones

    2009-09-01

    A piece of children's literature can be a powerful tool for teaching and learning science; however, it takes more than reading about a topic to qualify as "doing science." Inspired by the book, The Gift of the Tree , the author developed an in-dep

  14. Feathered Hollow in Living Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hollow in living tree in gallery forest of tributary to Tebicuary river. Grey feathers stuck along bottom of entrance suggest that it may be used by a bird. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensi...

  15. Throughfall Variation under Tree Crowns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin B. Stout; Richard J. McMahon

    1961-01-01

    It is suggested that the experimental design for sample measurement of through- fall may be improved. Specifically, distance and direction from trunk may constitute a signifi- cant source of variation that could be separated in analysis of variance from the unexplained variation. Throughfall was measured at three positions and four directions under the crowns of four trees during the summer

  16. MORINGACEAE Martinov Drumstick Tree Family

    E-print Network

    Olson, Mark

    ); ovules anatropous; style 1 (hollow, with a gaping stigmatic aperture). Fruits capsular, valvate, laxly ducts are present in the pith and also on trauma in the bark, and exudes a straw- or pinkish-colored gum, alluding to young fruit] Trees or shrubs, [massive pachycauls, baobab-like with water-storing trunk

  17. Dating the Tree of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Benton; Francisco J. Ayala

    2003-01-01

    The relative merits of molecular and paleontological dates of major branching points in the tree of life are currently debated. In some cases, molecular date estimates are up to twice as old as paleontological dates. However, although it is true that paleontological dates are often too young (missing fossils), molecular dates are often too old (statistical bias). Intense study of

  18. MYCOTOXINS IN EDIBLE TREE NUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) are an exceptionally valuable crop, especially in California, with an aggregate value approaching $3.5 billion. Much of this economic value comes from overseas markets, with up to 60% of the crop being exported. The product can be contaminated with aflat...

  19. Chopping Down the Cherry Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Attempts once again to put to rest the infamous "I cannot tell a lie" episode involving George Washington and a downed cherry tree. Appends an editor's note that states that William Bennett's "The Children's Book of Virtues" which perpetuates this infamous piece of "fakelore." (RS)

  20. Cedar Tree in Bryce Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cedar tree in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandstone that forms their ba...

  1. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for any landscape plan. They set the stage for the entire home grounds design. The type usedSelecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia. Many will live and enhance the landscape for 100 or more years if they are given a chance. Because

  2. The Ordered Core Based Tree Protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clay Shields; J. J. Garcia-luna-aceves

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new protocol, the Ordered Core Based Tree(OCBT) protocol, which remedies several shortcomings of the CoreBased Tree (CBT) multicast protocol. We show that the CBT protocolcan form loops during periods of routing instability, and that itcan consistently fail to build a connected multicast tree, even whenthe underlying routing is stable. The OCBT protocol provably eliminatesthese deficiencies and

  3. Case Study: Visualizing Sets of Evolutionary Trees

    E-print Network

    Amenta, Nina

    , "Which strain of anthrax is this?". More fundamentally, evolutionary trees provide a framework in which relationships of the taxa. If, on the other hand, the set of trees contains subsets which differ consid- erably from each other, the consensus tree of the whole set will contain very few internal nodes, all of high

  4. Persistent search trees and maxima finding

    E-print Network

    Collins, Carol Esther

    1987-01-01

    . Ordinarily, a search tree changes over time as elements are inserted and deleted. Such a tree is said to be ephemera/since making a change destroys the old structure and replaces it with a new one. A persistent or partially persistent search tree is one...

  5. Cache-oblivious dynamic search trees

    E-print Network

    Kasheff, Zardosht, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    I have implemented a cache-oblivious dynamic search tree as an alternative to the ubiquitious B-tree. I use a binary tree with a "van Endcle Boas" layout whose leaves point to intervals in a "packed memory structure". We ...

  6. Self-organized criticality in electrical treeing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Noskov; A. S. Malinovski; M. Sack; A. J. Schwab

    2001-01-01

    Self-organized criticality aspects of electrical treeing in solid dielectric under ac voltage are considered. The sandpile model of self-organized criticality is modified to describe partial discharge activity from electrical treeing. A comparison of avalanche statistics simulated by the modified sandpile model and partial discharge data obtained in experiments confirms the existence of self-organized criticality in electrical treeing.

  7. Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

    1997-01-01

    Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

  8. Improving decision trees for acoustic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariane Lazaridès; Yves Normandin; Roland Kuhn

    1996-01-01

    In the last few years, the power and simplicity of classification trees as acoustic modeling tools have gained them much popularity. In (1), we studied ''tree units'', which cluster parameters at the HMM level. Building on this earlier work, we examine some new variants of Young et al's ''tree states'', which cluster parameters at the state level (2). We have

  9. Original article Carbon balance and tree growth

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    from leaf to crown and to tree scale, 2) to determine the pro- portion of assimilated carbon used crown classes (dominant, codominant and intermediate trees). A nonlinear relationship between net CO2Original article Carbon balance and tree growth in a Fagus sylvatica stand Stéphanie Lebaubea, Noël

  10. "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety

    E-print Network

    "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety Norman Dandy Forest Research #12;Urban trees against immediate threats to human health and safety, but weak governance to protect against longer are removed for health and safety reasons" (London Assembly 2007: 4) · falling branches / trees, · tripping

  11. Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Automated Proof and Discovery #12;Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Automated Proof and Discovery #12;Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Outline 1 Avoiding

  12. Generating trees and proper Riordan Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donatella Merlini; M. Cecilia Verri

    2000-01-01

    We use an algebraic approach to study the connection between generating trees andproper Riordan Arrays deriving a theorem that, under suitable conditions, associatesa Riordan Array to a generating tree and vice versa. Thus, we can use results fromthe theory of Riordan Arrays to study properties of generating trees. In particular, wecan find, in a general and easy way, the generating

  13. Responses of tree populations to climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda B. Brubaker

    1986-01-01

    The influence of climate on the population dynamics of trees must be inferred from indirect sources of information because the long lifespans of trees preclude direct observation of population growth and decline. Important insights about these processes come from 1) observations of the life histories and ecologies of trees in contemporary forests, 2) evidence of recent treeline movements in remote

  14. Diagnostic expert systems from dynamic fault trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Assaf; Joanne Bechta Dugan

    2004-01-01

    A methodology for developing a diagnostic map for systems that can be analyzed via a dynamic fault tree is proposed in this paper. This paper shows how to automatically design a diagnostic decision tree from a dynamic fault tree used for reliability analysis. In particular the methodology makes use of Markov chains since they are mathematical models used for reliability

  15. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rasoul Safavian; David Landgrebe

    1991-01-01

    A survey is presented of current methods for decision tree classifier (DTC) designs and the various existing issues. After considering potential advantages of DTCs over single-state classifiers, the subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed. The relation between decision trees and neutral networks (NN) is also discussed

  16. Fault Tree Analysis Using Bit Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean B. Wheeler; Jason S. Hsuan; Ralph R. Duersch; Glenn M. Roe

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient technique for computerized fault-tree analysis. The technique is based upon binary coding of events and bit manipulation for tree reduction, reducing both computation time and computer storage requirements. The operations include generation of minimal cut sets for trees containing arbitrary AND and OR logic, and determination of top event existence probability for s-independent minimal cut

  17. Formal Fault Tree Analysis: Practical Experiences

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AVoCS 2006 Formal Fault Tree Analysis: Practical Experiences Frank Ortmeier Gerhard Schellhorn spread safety analysis methods: fault tree analysis (FTA). Formal FTA allows to rigorously reason about FTA by using model checking. Keywords: fault tree analysis, dependability, safety analysis, formal

  18. A data structure for dynamic trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Dominic Sleator; Robert Endre Tarjan

    1981-01-01

    We propose a data structure to maintain a collection of vertex-disjoint trees under a sequence of two kinds of operations: a link operation that combines two trees into one by adding an edge, and a cut operation that divides one tree into two by deleting an edge. Our data structure requires O(log n) time per operation when the time is

  19. CSCI2010U Laboratory #8 Binary Trees

    E-print Network

    Bradbury, Jeremy S.

    CSCI2010U ­ Laboratory #8 Binary Trees Introduction This lab has one activity that relates to programming binary trees. To complete this lab you will need to visit the course website and download the required Lab 8 resources: · BTNode.java · BinaryTree.java · Demo.java Activity 1: Add a new method called

  20. EXCEPTIONALLY SMALL BALLS IN STABLE TREES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXCEPTIONALLY SMALL BALLS IN STABLE TREES Thomas Duquesne Guanying Wang November 14, 2011 Abstract The -stable trees are random measured compact metric spaces that appear as the scaling limit of Galton-Watson trees whose offspring distribution lies in a -stable domain, (1, 2]. They form a specific class

  1. On some varieties associated with trees

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On some varieties associated with trees F. Chapoton March 3, 2014 Abstract This article considers some affine algebraic varieties attached to finite trees and closely related to cluster algebras. Their definition involves a canonical coloring of vertices of trees into three colors. These varieties are proved

  2. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  3. Large-Scale Inference of Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Poirazi, Yiota

    Large-Scale Inference of Phylogenetic Trees Alexandros Stamatakis Institute of Computer Science Trees Alexandros Stamatakis As of July 1st 2006 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics at Lausanne #12 Tree-of-life New insights in medical & biological research #12;© Alexandros Stamatakis, March 2006 7

  4. Aronszajn Trees and the SCH Itay Neeman

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Aronszajn Trees and the SCH Itay Neeman and Spencer Unger February 28, 2009 1 Introduction such that the Singular Cardinal Hypothesis fails at and the tree property holds at + . The purpose of these notes. We begin with a discussion of trees, which are natural objects in infinite combinatorics. One topic

  5. TREE MAINTENANCE AND REMOVAL Table Of Contents

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 31 TREE MAINTENANCE AND REMOVAL Table Of Contents Section: Page 31.A General................... ......................................................31-1 31.B Tree Climbing.................................31-14 #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 31-1 SECTION 31 TREE MAINTENANCE AND REMOVAL 31. A GENERAL 31.A.01

  6. Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    E-print Network

    FNR-213 Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center North Central Research Station USDA Forest Service Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University Designing Hardwood Tree Woody plants can be of value to many wildlife species. The species of tree or shrub, or the location

  7. Generating Production Rules from Decision Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ross Quinlan

    1987-01-01

    Many inductive knowledge acquisition algorithms generate clas­ sifiers in the form of decision trees. This paper describes a tech­ nique for transforming such trees to small sets of production rules, a common formalism for expressing knowledge in expert systems. The method makes use of the training set of cases from which the decision tree was generated, first to generalize and

  8. Malcolm Guite The Magic Apple Tree

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Stephen

    Malcolm Guite The Magic Apple Tree Someday make a journey through the rain Through sodden streets in darkening December A journey to the magic apple tree. And journey also, darkling, through your past Journey records. You glimpsed it once within the garden wall, The image of an ancient apple tree, The fall

  9. Fault tree analysis with fuzzy gates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HanSuk Pan; WonYoung Yun

    1997-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is an important tool analyzing system reliability. Fault trees consist of gates and events. Gates mean relationships between events. In fault tree analysis, AND, OR gates have been used as typical gates but it is often difficult to model the system structure with the two gates because in many cases we have not exact knowledge on system

  10. Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Make Money Fast!

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Trees Make Money Fast! Stock Fraud Ponzi Scheme Bank Robbery #12;Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia What is a Tree In computer science, a tree is an abstract model of a hierarchical structure A tree consists of nodes with a parent-child relation (at most one parent!) Applications

  11. RECONCILED TREES 1 Submitted to Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    RECONCILED TREES 1 Submitted to Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution Please address all correspondence trees From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem RODERIC of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, U.K. #12;RECONCILED TREES 2

  12. Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

  13. Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

  14. Planting Kurepa Trees And Killing Jech Kunen Trees In a Model By Using One Inaccessible Cardinal 1

    E-print Network

    Jin, Renling

    Planting Kurepa Trees And Killing Jech Kunen Trees In a Model By Using One Inaccessible Cardinal 1 Saharon Shelah2 and Renling Jin Abstract By an !1 tree we mean a tree of power !1 and height !1 . Under CH and 2!1 !2 we call an !1 tree a Jech Kunen tree if it has many branches for some strictly between !1

  15. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  16. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Extremal properties of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2001-09-01

    We investigate extremal statistical properties such as the maximal and the minimal heights of randomly generated binary trees. By analyzing the master evolution equations we show that the cumulative distribution of extremal heights approaches a traveling wave form. The wave front in the minimal case is governed by the small-extremal-height tail of the distribution, and conversely, the front in the maximal case is governed by the large-extremal-height tail of the distribution. We determine several statistical characteristics of the extremal height distribution analytically. In particular, the expected minimal and maximal heights grow logarithmically with the tree size, N, hmin~vmin ln N, and hmax~vmax ln N, with vmin=0.373365... and vmax=4.31107..., respectively. Corrections to this asymptotic behavior are of order O(ln ln N).

  18. Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

  19. Factoring with the Factor Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet presents a composite number, and prompts you to factor it -- one step at a time. Enter one factor, prime or another composite; the applet calculates the remaining factor, and branches two boxes below any composite factor so that you may proceed factoring until you obtain the full factorization into primes, which the applet colors in green. Click the "Repeat problem" button to see that different factor trees for a given number still result in the same prime factorization.

  20. Binomial trees as dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeeva, Roza

    2001-03-01

    One of the simplest and very popular techniques for pricing an option or other derivative involves constructing what is known as a binomial tree. This is a tree which represents the possible paths, that might be followed by the underlying assets price. We will view this tree as a dynamical system, which means that we specify a space, and a map acting on it. Here the space will be the space of all possible paths, and the corresponding map will be the shift on each path. Such approach reveals a dynamical nature of certain financial terms and financial principles. For example, returns along a path could be defined by a potential, and the price on each path is expressed in a very “dynamical” fashion. Using this interpretation, we introduce a new characteristic as the pressure of the potential of returns. Under the conditions of no arbitrage, the pressure has to be equal to be the interest rate. This gives a new formulation of the no arbitrage principle: the expected price has to be finite: a smaller or greater discount would give either very small (zero at the limit), or very large (at the limit infinity) price. Therefore, the presented work links the discrete models of option pricing to the thermodynamical formalism and multifractal analysis of invariant sets in dynamical systems.

  1. Phytoremediation of trichloroethene (TCE) using cottonwood trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.A.; Lee, R.W.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cottonwood trees for phytoremediation was studied on aerobic shallow groundwater containing TCE. Cottonwood trees were planted over a 0.2-ha area at the Naval Air Station at Fort Worth, TX, in April 1996. Two years later, groundwater chemistry in the terrace alluvial aquifer was changing locally. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations declined at the southern end of the whip plantings while total iron concentration increased. Groundwater chemistry near a mature cottonwood tree ~ 60 m from the caliper trees was different from that observed elsewhere. Anaerobic conditions near the mature cottonwood tree were evident. Reductive dechlorination of TCE occurred in the aquifer near the mature tree, as demonstrated by very small concentration of TCE in groundwater, a small median ratio of TCE to the degradation product cis-1,2-DCE and the presence of vinyl chloride.

  2. Alternative fire resistance strategies in savanna trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Gignoux; Jean Clobert; Jean-Claude Menaut

    1997-01-01

    Bark properties (mainly thickness) are usually presented as the main explanation for tree survival in intense fires. Savanna\\u000a fires are mild, frequent, and supposed to affect tree recruitment rather than adult survival: trunk profile and growth rate\\u000a of young trees between two successive fires can also affect survival. These factors and fire severity were measured on a sample\\u000a of 20

  3. Decision Tree Induction from Numeric Data Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Nishimura; Masahiro Terabe; Kazuo Hashimoto

    2008-01-01

    Hoeffding Tree Algorithm is known as a method to induce decision trees from a data stream. Treatment of numeric attribute\\u000a on Hoeffding Tree Algorithm has been discussed for stationary input. It has not yet investigated, however, for non-stationary\\u000a input where the effect of concept drift is apparent. This paper identifies three major approaches to handle numeric values,\\u000a Exhaustive Method, Gaussian

  4. Faster algorithm for optimum Steiner trees

    E-print Network

    Vygen, Jens

    deterministic algorithm for the Steiner tree prob- lem in weighted graphs. Its running time is O(nk2k+log2 k log previously known algorithms if 2 log n(log log n)3 log2 n)/2. Our algorithm is based on a new tree Subject Classification: 90C27, 90C39, 05C05 1 Introduction We consider the well-known Steiner tree problem

  5. q-gram matching using tree models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prahlad Fogla; Wenke Lee

    2006-01-01

    q-gram matching is used for approximate substring matching problems in a wide range of application areas, including intrusion detection. In this paper, we present a tree-based model to perform fast linear time q-gram matching. All q-grams present in the text are stored in a tree structure similar to trie. We use a tree redundancy pruning algorithm to reduce the size

  6. Immunological Analysis of Allergenic Tree Nut Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LeAnna N. Willison

    2009-01-01

    Allergies are a growing problem in industrialized countries, with food allergies affecting 6% of children and 3-4% of adults. Tree nuts are a common cause of food-induced allergy and include walnut, cashew, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, chestnut, and Brazil nut. Tree nut allergy, in particular, affects 0.5% of the US population. Unlike other food allergies, tree nut allergy persists throughout

  7. Hibernation by tree-roosting bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Turbill; Fritz Geiser

    2008-01-01

    In summer, long-eared bats (Nyctophilus spp.) roost under bark and in tree cavities, where they appear to benefit from diurnal heating of roosts. In contrast, hibernation\\u000a is thought to require a cool stable temperature, suggesting they should prefer thermally insulated tree cavities during winter.\\u000a To test this prediction, we quantified the winter thermoregulatory physiology and ecology of hibernating tree-roosting bats,

  8. Phillips goes subsea trees in Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Bryngelson, R.H.

    1982-11-15

    Describes installation of 3 wet, diver-assist trees, in the Espoir field offshore Ivory Coast, as part of Phillips Petroleum's plans to use 5 satellite wells with downhole completion equipment and subsea production trees. Simplicity in design and attention to training has resulted in an installation time of about 3 weeks for one of the largest subsea trees in the industry. Presents diagram showing the converted jackup, Dan Duke drilling unit, which supports equipment to handle production from subsea wells.

  9. Reconciliation with Non-Binary Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|VG| · (kS + hS)) time, where |VG| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, hS is the height of the species tree and kS is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in Notung, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets. PMID:18808330

  10. Quantum Verification of Minimum Spanning Tree

    E-print Network

    Mark Heiligman

    2011-12-05

    Previous studies has shown that for a weighted undirected graph having $n$ vertices and $m$ edges, a minimal weight spanning tree can be found with $O^*(\\sqrt{mn})$ calls to the weight oracle. The present note shows that a given spanning tree can be verified to be a minimal weight spanning tree with only $O(n\\bigr)$ calls to the weight oracle and $O(n+\\sqrt{m}\\log n)$ total work.

  11. Tutorial: Advanced fault tree applications using HARP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Boyd, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Several advanced fault tolerant computer systems are described, and fault tree models for their analysis are presented. HARP (Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor) is a software package developed at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center that is capable of solving the fault tree models presented.

  12. LISP-based fault tree development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated graphical environment which can be used to build, modify, and analyze fault trees on a stand-alone work-station. The environment is written in LISP, utilizing graphics and menu features commonly found on LISP workstations. A unique fault tree solution algorithm is presented that efficiently utilizes a list-based tree structure and search space, and rule-based pruning to allow for rapid analysis of larger trees. Design and efficiency issues are discussed. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Why are so many trees hollow?

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-11-01

    In many living trees, much of the interior of the trunk can be rotten or even hollowed out. Previously, this has been suggested to be adaptive, with microbial or animal consumption of interior wood producing a rain of nutrients to the soil beneath the tree that allows recycling of those nutrients into new growth via the trees roots. Here I propose an alternative (non-exclusive) explanation: such loss of wood comes at very little cost to the tree and so investment in costly chemical defence of this wood is not economic. I discuss how this theory can be tested empirically. PMID:25392312

  14. Progress in the biotechnology of trees.

    PubMed

    Hammatt, N

    1992-07-01

    An increasing world population and rise in demand for tree products, especially wood, has increased the need to produce more timber through planting more forest with improved quality stock. Superior trees are likely to arise from several sources. Firstly, forest trees can be selected from wild populations and cloned using macropropagation techniques already being investigated for fruit tree rootstocks. Alternatively, propagation might be brought aboutin vitro through micropropagation or sustained somatic embryogenesis, with encapsulation of the somatic embryos to form artificial seeds. Tree quality could be improved through increased plant breeding and it is likely that experienced gained, to date, in the breeding of fruit species will be useful in devising strategies for forest trees. Since the development of techniques to regenerate woody plants from explant tissues, cells and protoplasts, it is now feasible to test the use of tissue culture methods to bring about improvements in tree quality. Success has already been achieved for tree species in the generation of somaclonal and protoclonal variation, the formation of haploids, triploids and polyploids, somatic hybrids and cybrids and the introduction of foreign DNA through transformation. This review summarizes the advances made so far in tree biotechnology, and suggests some of the directions that it might take in the future. PMID:24425505

  15. University of Oregon Atlas of Trees

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    University of Oregon MAP DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Jim Meacham, Ken Kato, Grace Gardner, Jacob Blair, Erik Howard PRODUCTION Printing and Mailing Services University of Oregon TREE SILHOUETTE ILLUSTRATIONS

  16. Magnetic Measurements on Maple and Sequoia Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunther Kletetschka

    \\u000a Magnetic measurements of soil and tree bark adjacent to a busy highway revealed a significant variation in the concentration\\u000a of magnetic particles with distance from the highway. Furthermore, forest-facing tree-bark contains significantly more magnetic\\u000a particles than road-facing tree-bark. Magnetic particles were detected both on the bark of the maple trees and in the first\\u000a centimeter of the soil cover (O\\/A

  17. Photographic sensing of boron and chloride toxicities of citrus trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cardenas; A. Paynado; H. W. Gausman; A. H. Gerbermann; R. L. Bowen

    1971-01-01

    Film density measurements were used to discriminate between healthy Red Blush grapefruit trees and trees whose foliage exhibited boron (B) and chloride (Cl⁻) toxicity symptoms (affected). Citrus trees were photographed from an aircraft (3000 ft altitude) and a Truco's aerial lift (9 ft above trees) with a Hasselblad camera. Light reflectance of foliage of B⁻ and Cl⁻-affected trees produced pinkish

  18. Time Optimal Left to Right Construction of Position Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kempf; Rudolf Bayer; Ulrich Güntzer

    1987-01-01

    In the following paper we are presenting a new algorithm for the on-line construction of position trees. Reading a given input string from left to right we are generating its position tree with the aid of the general concept of infix trees. An additional chain structure within the trees, called tail node connection, enables us to construct the tree within

  19. Identifying species of individual trees using airborne laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Holmgren; Åsa Persson

    2004-01-01

    Individual trees can be detected using high-density airborne laser scanner data. Also, variables characterizing the detected trees such as tree height, crown area, and crown base height can be measured. The Scandinavian boreal forest mainly consists of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous trees. It is possible to separate coniferous from deciduous trees

  20. Hierarchical Minimum Spanning Trees for Lossy Image Set Compression

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Howard

    tree is significantly lower than the previous minimum spanning tree algorithms. 1 Introduction spanning tree algorithms have been proposed for the lossy compression of image sets. In these algorithms spanning tree algorithm in which the minimum spanning tree algorithm is first applied to clusters

  1. 41TREE CARE INDUSTRY -DECEMBER 2001 Plant Health Care

    E-print Network

    41TREE CARE INDUSTRY - DECEMBER 2001 Plant Health Care Why Do Trees Vary in Suitability to Insects relationships among tree food quality to in- sects and pathogens, the environment and tree growth rates. The articles are based on a paper presented at "Trees 2000: Challenges for the future," a conference or

  2. Scalable Tree Aggregation for Multicast Alexandre GUITTON and Joanna MOULIERAC

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Scalable Tree Aggregation for Multicast Alexandre GUITTON and Joanna MOULIERAC IRISA. In this paper, we propose an algorithm called STA (Scalable Tree Aggrega- tion) which reduces the number of trees by allowing several groups to be aggregated to the same tree: the less trees, the less forwarding

  3. Connected tree-width Reinhard Diestel and Malte Muller

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Reinhard

    Connected tree-width Reinhard Diestel and Malte M¨uller November 8, 2014 Abstract The connected tree-width of a graph is the minimum width of a tree- decomposition whose parts induce connected subgraphs. Long cycles are examples of graphs that have small tree-width but large connected tree-width. We

  4. The Trade-offs of Multicast Trees and Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Wei; Deborah Estrin

    1995-01-01

    Multicast trees can be shared across sources (shared trees) or may be source-specific (shortest pathtrees). Inspired by recent interests in using shared trees for interdomain multicasting, we investigate thetrade-offs among shared tree types and source specific shortest path trees, by comparing performanceover both individual multicast group and the whole network. The performance is evaluated in termsof path length, link cost,

  5. Estimating tree height and tree crown properties using airborne scanning laser in a boreal nature reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Næsset; Tonje Økland

    2002-01-01

    Tree height, the height from the ground surface to the tree crown, and the crown length as a proportion of tree height of individual trees were derived from various canopy height metrics measured by a small-footprint airborne laser scanner flown over a boreal forest reserve. The average spacing on the ground of the laser pulses ranged from 0.66 to 1.29

  6. Tree rings in the tropics: a study on growth and ages of Bolivian rain forest trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel Jacobus Wilhelmus Brienen

    2005-01-01

    Detailed information on long-term growth rates and ages of tropical rain forest trees is important to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term growth or ages of tropical forest trees, due to a supposed lack of annual tree rings in most tropical tree species. Aim of this PhD thesis was

  7. Transpiration and whole-tree conductance in ponderosa pine trees of different heights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Ryan; Barbara J. Bond; Beverly E. Law; Robert M. Hubbard; David Woodruff; Emil Cienciala; Jiri Kucera

    2000-01-01

    Changes in leaf physiology with tree age and size could alter forest growth, water yield, and carbon fluxes. We measured tree\\u000a water flux (Q) for 14 ponderosa pine trees in two size classes (12 m tall and ?40 years old, and 36 m tall and ? 290 years old) to determine\\u000a if transpiration (E) and whole-tree conductance (g\\u000a t) differed

  8. Understory plant communities and the functional distinction between savanna trees, forest trees, and pines.

    SciTech Connect

    Veldman, Joseph, W., Mattingly, Brett, W., Brudvig, Lars, A.

    2013-04-01

    Abstract. Although savanna trees and forest trees are thought to represent distinct functional groups with different effects on ecosystem processes, few empirical studies have examined these effects. In particular, it remains unclear if savanna and forest trees differ in their ability to coexist with understory plants, which comprise the majority of plant diversity in most savannas. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and data from 157 sites across three locations in the southeastern United States to understand the effects of broadleaf savanna trees, broadleaf forest trees, and pine trees on savanna understory plant communities. After accounting for underlying gradients in fire frequency and soil moisture, abundances (i.e., basal area and stem density) of forest trees and pines, but not savanna trees, were negatively correlated with the cover and density (i.e., local-scale species richness) of C4 graminoid species, a defining savanna understory functional group that is linked to ecosystem flammability. In analyses of the full understory community, abundances of trees from all functional groups were negatively correlated with species density and cover. For both the C4 and full communities, fire frequency promoted understory plants directly, and indirectly by limiting forest tree abundance. There was little indirect influence of fire on the understory mediated through savanna trees and pines, which are more fire tolerant than forest trees. We conclude that tree functional identity is an important factor that influences overstory tree relationships with savanna understory plant communities. In particular, distinct relationships between trees and C4 graminoids have implications for grass-tree coexistence and vegetation-fire feedbacks that maintain savanna environments and their associated understory plant diversity.

  9. The Tree of Animal Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stan Braude

    2007-09-01

    The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal groups in a general way. Though the activity doesn't teach about each animal group's characteristics in great detail, the process of sorting of atypical examples (e.g., bat, octopus) does spark interesting discussions among students on the differences between animals and how scientists classify them. I've conducted the activity with students of various ages.

  10. Selective limb pruning, tree removal, and paclobutrazol growth retardant for crowding pecan trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray E. Worley; Ben G. Mullinix; Jeff W. Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Selective limb pruning, tree thinning, and the combination of selective limb pruning and paclobutrazol application as a basal drench were used to reduce overcrowding of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees. Thinning increased yield per tree for the cultivar ‘Desirable’ and did not significantly reduce yield per hectare during the 7 year period of the study. None of the

  11. Trees in Bangladesh paddy fields. 2. Survival of trees planted in crop fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hocking; K. Islam

    1995-01-01

    The design and methods are described of farmer-managed action-research to test the survival and performance of trees planted in paddy fields of private farms in Bangladesh. Farmers received seedlings of indigenous and exotic trees with extension advice on planting methods and care. Planting was done in systematically designed randomized modules involving twelve thousand trees up to the end of 1990.

  12. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 2: Alaska Trees and Common Shrubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr.

    This volume is the second in a series of atlases describing the natural distribution or range of native tree species in the United States. The 82 species maps include 32 of trees in Alaska, 6 of shrubs rarely reaching tree size, and 44 more of common shrubs. More than 20 additional maps summarize environmental factors and furnish general…

  13. The relation between tree size complexity and probability for Boolean functions generated by uniform random trees.$

    E-print Network

    Gittenberger, Bernhard

    The relation between tree size complexity and probability for Boolean functions generated Abstract We consider a probability distribution on the set of Boolean functions in n variables which the tree size complexity and the probability of a function. This is done by first expressing trees

  14. LS(Graph & Tree): A Local Search Framework for Constraint Optimization on Graphs and Trees

    E-print Network

    Deville, Yves

    LS(Graph & Tree): A Local Search Framework for Constraint Optimization on Graphs and Trees Pham University Providence, RI 02912, USA pvh@cs.brown.edu ABSTRACT LS(Graph & Tree) is a local search framework which aims at simplifying the modeling of Constraint Satisfaction Opti- mization Problems on graphs

  15. BlobTree Trees Callum Galbraith Peter MacMurchy Brian Wyvill

    E-print Network

    Wyvill, Brian

    BlobTree Trees Callum Galbraith Peter MacMurchy Brian Wyvill Department of Computer Science branches, and not all of the observed phenom- ena can be represented by current methods. Many tree types exhibit non-smooth features such as branch bark ridges and collars. In this research a hierarchical

  16. Figure 1a. A tree that is not pruned when young may grow into an unattractive tree.

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Figure 1a. A tree that is not pruned when young may grow into an unattractive tree. Figure 1b. A tree that is pruned when young grows into a strong, attractive tree. Division of Agricultural Sciences available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Proper pruning when a tree is young will ultimately

  17. Street tree valuation systems Street trees and urban woodlands provide a number of environmental and social benefits, including contributing to

    E-print Network

    Street tree valuation systems Street trees and urban woodlands provide a number of environmental value of street trees: CAVAT, Helliwell and i-Tree. The review showed that the three valuation systems low field data requirements. At the opposite end of the spectrum i-Tree requires data collected from

  18. What is i-TREE? i-TREE is a software suite that is designed to integrate

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    What is i-TREE? i-TREE is a software suite that is designed to integrate three Forest Service urban Community Tree Inventory (MCTI), and the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban forest Managers (STRATUM). UFORE and STRATUM facilitate urban forest analysis at the ecosystem and street tree levels

  19. NatioNal tree Safety Group Guidance on trees and public safety in the uK

    E-print Network

    N T S G NatioNal tree Safety Group Guidance on trees and public safety in the uK for owners, managers and advisers Common sense risk management of trees #12;2 © Crown Copyright 2011 You may re eH12 7At. the National tree Safety Group Common sense risk management of trees Forestry Commission

  20. Parallel analog neural networks for tree searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Janet; Stork, David G.

    1986-08-01

    We have modeled parallel analog neural networks designed such that their evolution toward final states is equivalent to finding optimal (or nearly optimal) paths through decision trees. This work extends that done on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)[1] and sheds light on the conditions under which analog neural networks can and cannot find solutions to discrete optimization problems. Neural networks show considerable specificity in finding optimal solutions for tree searches; in the cases when a final state does represent a syntactically correct path, that path will be the best path 70-90% of the time—even for trees with up to two thousand nodes. However, it appears that except for trivial networks lacking the ability to ``think globally,'' there exists no general network architecture that can strictly insure the convergence a state that represents a single, continuous, unambiguous path. In fact, we find that for roughly 15% of trees with six generations, 40% of trees with eight generations, and 70% of trees with ten generations, networks evolve to ``broken paths,'' i.e., combinations of the beginning of one and the end of another path through a tree. Tree searches illustrate well neural dynamics because tree structures make the effects of competition and positive feedback apparent. We have found that 1) convergence times for networks with up to 2000 neurons are very rapid, depend on the gain of neurons and magnitude of neural connections but not on the number of generations or branching factor of a tree, 2) all neurons along a ``winning'' path turn on exponentially with the same exponent, and 3) the general computational mechanism of these networks appears to be the pruning of a tree from the outer branches inward, as chain reactions of neurons being quenched tend to propagate along possible paths.