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Lacquer poisoning  


Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...


Recent advances in research on lacquer allergy.  


Allergic contact dermatitis caused by contact with lacquer sap and lacquerware affects the welfare of lacquer workers and the lacquerware industry. Many studies of the mechanism of urushiol allergy, including animal models, have been carried out and have established several hypotheses. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of lacquer allergy, we review recent advances in the research on lacquer allergy including the chemical properties of lacquer lipid components, allergic mechanism analyses, immunological explanations, allergy medications, and the prevention combined with the research results from our laboratory. PMID:22015566

Ma, Xiao-ming; Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



Ciclopirox nail lacquer: a brush with onychomycosis.  


Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%, effective and safe for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild-to-moderate severity, covers a broad-spectrum of organisms and also may be effective in onychomycosis caused by Candida species and nondermatophyte molds. In addition, ciclopirox nail lacquer may be an important adjunct to oral antifungal therapy in certain presentations (eg, lateral onychomycosis, longitudinal spike, dermatophytoma, extensive onycholysis) that might respond poorly to oral antifungal therapy alone. Combination therapy with an oral antifungal agent may reduce the duration and cumulative dosage of oral therapy. In some cases, however, surgical therapies may be preferred or needed in addition to topical nail lacquer treatment. Ciclopirox nail lacquer also may be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection and relapse. Treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer for onychomycosis has a favorable risk-benefit ratio. Studies to determine the role of combination oral and topical nail lacquer therapy for the management of onychomycosis are needed. PMID:11665723

Gupta, A K



Lacquer polishing of X-ray optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for polishing figured X-ray optics by a lacquer-coating process are described. This acrylic lacquer coating has been applied with an optical quality of an eighth-wave in red light and very effectively covers surface roughness with spatial wavelengths less than about 0.2 mm. Tungsten films have been deposited on the lacquer coatings to provide highly efficient X-ray reflectivity.

Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Roethig, D. T.; Brookover, W. J.



Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8%.  


Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% (Penlac, Aventis Pharma) was approved by the US FDA in December 1999, as a component of a comprehensive management program, for use in immunocompetent patients who have mild to moderate onychomycosis of the fingers and toes without lunula involvement due to Trichophyton rubrum. The comprehensive management program includes removal of the unattached, infected nails as frequently as once per month, by a health care professional who has special competence in the diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, including minor nail procedures. The nail lacquer is not approved in Canada. PMID:11027420

Gupta, A K



Ciclopirox nail lacquer and podiatric practice.  


Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of mild-to-moderate dermatophytic onychomycosis not involving the lunula. Previously, the agents that were approved for the treatment of dermatophytic pedal onychomycosis--griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine--were administered orally. When ciclopirox nail lacquer is used, it is recommended that the infected nail undergo debridement by a health-care professional as frequently as monthly. It is important to be aware of the circumstances under which debridement of the mycotic nail may be considered medically necessary and therefore potentially eligible for reimbursement by third-party payers. For many nail presentations, nail debridement is an important component of a treatment protocol involving either the oral medications or the topical lacquer, as it serves to reduce the fungal load and ameliorate symptoms. With the availability of a new FDA-approved topical treatment alternative, it remains to be seen if podiatrists will embrace the definitive treatment of onychomycosis using the newer oral agents, the new nail lacquer, or both in combination with nail debridement to treat the disease. PMID:11107711

Gupta, A K; Malkin, K F



On the UV-induced polymeric behavior of Chinese lacquer.  


To dry Chinese lacquer rapidly for the protection and restoration of archeological findings coated by lacquer or excavated lacquer wares and the development of new application of this lacquer, we carried out UV curing technology to improve its curing rate using a high-pressure mercury lamp as a UV source in the absence of any additional photoinitiator. The effects of mainly specific components in Chinese lacquer sap and the role of each reactive group of urushiol, namely hydroxyl groups, hydrogen on the phenyl ring, and olefins in the side chain, in the course of UV exposure were well-investigated. The UV-cured Chinese lacquer films were also characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, TGA, and Py-GC/MS. The results showed that urushiol was the main component to form Chinese lacquer films, and decomposed to generate the urushiol semiquinone radicals, which sequentially induced the polymerization of Chinese lacquer by radical polymerization, as well as radical substitution under UV irradiation. In addition, the TG analysis suggested that polysaccharide and glycoproteins were integrated with the UV-cured films by covalent bonding. Furthermore, this method could be suitable to fast cure other phenol bearing long aliphatic unsaturated chain, such as CNSL. PMID:21190328

Xia, Jianrong; Lin, Jinhuo; Xu, Yanlian; Chen, Qinhui



Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in the 21st century.  


Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% has been shown to be effective in the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild to moderate severity Other studies report the effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer in onychomycosis caused by Candida sp and nondermatophyte molds. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection/relapse. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% may be an important adjunct to oral antifungal therapy in certain presentations that might be poorly responsive to oral antifungal therapy alone (eg, lateral onychomycosis, longitudinal spike, dermatophytoma, and extensive onycholysis). In some cases, surgical therapies may need to be considered in addition to, or in preference to, topical nail lacquer treatment. The use of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% as an adjunct to oral antifungal therapy may widen the spectrum of activity of the combination because of the broad spectrum of coverage provided by the lacquer. The use of combination therapy may be synergistic in terms of efficacy, enabling a reduction in the duration and cumulative dosage of oral therapy. This could result in a decrease in the frequency and severity of systemic adverse effects associated with the oral antimycotics and the need to be vigilant about drug interactions. Studies need to be conducted to determine the place of combination oral and topical lacquer therapy in the management of onychomycosis. PMID:11051138

Gupta, A K; Baran, R



Characterization of lipid components of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer sap.  


The lipid component of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer sap isolated by acetone was analyzed and compared to synthesized omega-phenylalkylcatechols and omega-phenylalkylphenols. In addition, laccol and urushiol analogues synthesized in our laboratory were used as standard materials to analyze the lipid component of the Myanmar lacquer sap. The GC and GC/MS measurements confirmed the results of Kumanotani and Du that neither omega-phenylalkylcatechol nor omega-phenylalkylphenol exist in the lacquer saps from Rhus vernicifera and R. succedanea. PMID:19071488

Rong, Lu; Yukio, Kamiya; Tetsuo, Miyakoshi



Applied analysis of lacquer films based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


Ancient lacquer film, a Nanban lacquer film, an old lacquer-ware object imported from an Asian country, and the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compared with the results of the natural lacquer film, it was revealed that the ancient lacquer film and Nanban lacquer film were made from Rhus vernicifera, and the old lacquer-ware imported from an Asian country was made from Melanorrhoea usitata. However, the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films obtained from the Doerner Institute in Munich, Germany were made from natural resins. 3-Pentadecylcatechol (MW=320) (urushiol), 3-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (laccol), and 4-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (thitsiol) were the main products of the pyrolysis of R. vernicifera, Rhus succedanea, and M. usitata. PMID:18970777

Lu, Rong; Kamiya, Yukio; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



Structural study of oriental lacquer films during the hardening process.  


Oriental lacquer is the natural resin obtained by tapping lac trees. It hardens into a tough and insoluble film. The extreme hardness and insolubility are some of the most important functions, which are required for industrial coating materials. In this study, two kinds of oriental lacquer films, traditionally named Kiurushi (raw urushi) and Kuromeurushi produced by two different pretreatments, were analyzed during hardening with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG/DTA-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to investigate their functional expression process. Typical functional groups of the lacquer films were detected by FT-IR. The TG/DTA-MS curves clarified that the thermal degradation of the lacquer films gradually began at around 200 degrees C, and reached the fastest rate at 400-500 degrees C. Apparently, FT-IR and TG/DTA-MS could not reveal any difference between the films. On the other hand, Py-GC/MS revealed differences between the films in the peak area ratios of 3-pentadecenylcatechol to 3-pentadecylcatechol and 3-pentadecadienylcatechol to 3-pentadecylcatechol. The ratios of Kiurushi lacquer film were higher than those of Kuromeurushi lacquer film. Both ratios, furthermore, decreased during hardening due to polymerization of the alkenylcatechols into an urushiol polymer skeleton comprising nucleus-side chain and side chain-side chain cross-linkages with 3-pentadecylcatechol at the terminal. The present results suggest that the reaction rate of these cross-linkages in Kuromeurushi lacquer film is faster than that in Kiurushi lacquer film. A good correlation was found between the peak area ratios obtained by Py-GC/MS and hardness obtained by pencil hardening testing. Oriental lacquer expresses the functions - an extreme hardness and insolubility - accelerating the nucleus-side chain and side chain-side chain cross-linkages. Furthermore, it has become clear that the traditional treatments called Nayashi and Kurome effectively accelerate the hardening rate by activating the cross-linkages. PMID:18970743

Niimura, Noriyasu; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



[Therapy with ciclopirox lacquer of onychomycoses caused by molds].  


60 patients, suffering from an onychomycosis produced by molds were treated for a maximum of 6 months with ciclopirox nail lacquer (8%). These molds determined by culture were Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (51 x), Aspergillus niger (6 x), Aspergillus fumigatus (2 x) and Hendersonula toruloidea. Anamnesis gave no hints, why molds were the causing fungi of onychomycosis. The achieved mycological cure rate was determined with 90% (culture) respectively 85% (KOH preparation). The local treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer was well tolerated by all patients during the entire treatment period of max. 6 months. No side effects occurred. The local therapy with ciclopirox nail lacquer proved to be as effective in the treatment of onychomycosis caused by molds as in the treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes and yeasts. PMID:7854374

Ulbricht, H; Wörz, K



Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.  


Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard



Tales in Sprinkled Gold: Japanese Lacquer for European Collectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the John Paul Getty Museum's online exhibits features Japanese lacquered objects from the Victoria and Albert Museum that were popular among European collectors in the 17th-19th centuries. The highlight of the exhibit is the Mazarin chest, which can be viewed as a slideshow by clicking on "Launch Slideshow", near the top far right hand side of the homepage. Visitors can view the chest from several different angles, use a zoom feature, and pan the images using the arrows below the slideshow images. However, dragging the cursor on the image, instead of using the arrows, allows for more control. Visitors can watch a video entitled "The Making of Japanese Lacquer", by clicking on the link on the far right hand side of the homepage, underneath "Launch Slideshow". For visitors lucky enough to visit the Getty Museum, a multitude of related events can be found under the "Events" tab near the top of the page. Those persons interested in further information on the topic of Asian lacquer can click on the "Publications" tab near the top of the page, which suggests two authoritative books on lacquer. Still more information can be found on the Victoria and Albert Museum website, accessible by the links in the "Learn More" box on the far right hand side of the homepage.


Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael



Influences of heat seal lacquer thickness on the quality of blister packages.  


A sealability of aluminium lidding foils against formable polymer materials of blister packages is usually achieved by a coating of aluminium with certain grammages of heat seal lacquers. To investigate influences of their thickness on quality of blister packages, lidding foils with different grammages of two lacquer types were manufactured. Sealing experiments (variation of temperature, pressure and sealing time) were performed. Sealed seam strengths were determined with mechanical tensile tests, tightness of cold form blisters were analysed by means of helium leakage tests. Time-dependent moisture uptake of stored blisters was monitored with micro-gas chromatography. By means of a simple calculation model the permeability coefficients of the heat seal lacquers were determined. Lidding foils with higher lacquer grammages showed significantly greater sealed seam strengths. Helium leakage tests showed only slight effects of heat seal lacquer grammage on tightness of blisters. But cold form blisters with lidding foils of higher lacquer grammages showed a significantly greater moisture uptake. Since the heat seal lacquers and the rigid polyvinyl chloride of the formable aluminium compound foils had similar permeability coefficients, the contribution of the lacquers to the total permeability of the investigated cold form blisters was only slightly. PMID:22108348

Mühlfeld, Lukas; Langguth, Peter; Häusler, Heribert; Hagels, Hansjörg



Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers.  


Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial. PMID:21995293

Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan



Formulation of non-lacquer (latex) PBX-9502  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization necessitates evaluation of current waste streams with regard to new processing methods and technology. PBX-9502 (95% TATB/5% Kel-F 800) uses an ethyl acetate solvent to dissolve the Kel-F 800 resin, creating a lacquer for coating TATB. This report describes a new latex polymer application method for PBX-9502, which eliminates the H{sub 2}O-to-ethyl acetate rinse-out and the resultant solvent-contaminated water waste stream and distillation air emissions.

Sadler, C.P.; Freer, J.E.



Chrome-free corrosion protective coating based on lacquer hybridized with silicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lacquer sap hybridized with a silicate oligomer was synthesized, and its characteristics as a chrome-free corrosion protective coating were examined. A new absorption due to a siloxane structure appeared at 6.6ppm in the NMR and at 1080 and 840cm?1 in the IR spectra. The hybrid lacquer dries faster due to the reaction between the alkoxy radical of the silicate

Takayuki Honda; Rong Lu; Tetsuo Miyakoshi



Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn’t affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.


Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-L-lysine.  


A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-L-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-L-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi



Hyposensitization to urushiol among Japanese lacquer craftsmen: results of patch tests on students learning the art of lacquerware.  


8 subjects learning the art of lacquerware were patch tested to urushiol before and after contact with lacquer, in order to document whether hyposensitization to urushiol occurred among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. Simultaneously, we performed patch tests on 2 urushiol-sensitized controls who had no contact with lacquer during the investigation. Lacquer is made from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree and raw lacquer is composed of 60-65% urushiol and its oligomer. 5 of the 8 subjects showed positive reactions to urushiol 1 month after their first contact. They became negative or less positive after prolonged (9 or 10 months) exposure to lacquer. As reactions to urushiol decreased, dermatitis became less severe. Controls showed consistently high reactions. However, 1 subject showed persistently strong reactions to urushiol. Unlike the other 7 subjects, he was previously sensitized to urushiol before the first contact with lacquer. The remaining 2 subjects showed no reaction throughout our investigation. These results strongly suggest that hyposensitization to urushiol does occur among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. PMID:1839723

Kawai, K; Nakagawa, M; Kawai, K; Liew, F M; Yasuno, H



The Influence of a Liquid Medium on the Service Life and the Friction Coefficients of Lubricating Lacquers Based on Molybdenum Disulfide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practicality of simultaneously using lubricating lacquers and a liquid lubricant was investigated. Water and oil (viscosity at 50 degrees 4.2 centistokes) were used as liquid phases. The lubricating lacquers were mixed with such adhesives as polysilox...

L. N. Sentyurichina E. M. Oparina V. A. Listov



Ciclopirox nail lacquer for the treatment of onychomycosis: an open non-comparative study.  


Onychomycosis is a relatively common disease accounting for up to 50% of all nail disorders. Topical treatment, although less effective than systemic, is usually preferred by patients. Topical antifungal nail lacquers have been formulated to provide better delivery of the antifungal agent to the nail unit. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis. Patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis (DLSO) and lateral subungual onychomycosis (LSO) were treated by ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 9 months. Every week the nail lacquer was removed using acetone. Clinical nail status, KOH examination and mycological culture were recorded by the same investigator at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months. Thirty-six patients completed the 9-month regimen. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen. At the end of the study, good improvement to complete cure was observed in 13 patients (36%), 12 patients showed only mild to moderate improvement and 11 patients (31%) had no clinical improvement. No adverse effects were noted throughout the treatment period. Ciclopirox nail lacquer seems to be slightly more effective than other topical modalities and could be used in patients who cannot or do not want systemic treatment. PMID:20175847

Shemer, Avner; Nathansohn, Nir; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz; Grunwald, Marcelo H



Dermatopharmacology of ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of onychomycosis.  


Ciclopirox is a synthetic hydroxypyridone antifungal agent. In contrast to the azoles, glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of ciclopirox; therefore interactions with drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system are unlikely Ciclopirox is also distinct from the common systemic agents, which interfere with sterol biosynthesis. In fact, ciclopirox chelates trivalent cations (such as Fe3+), inhibits metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for degradation of toxic metabolites in the fungal cells, and targets diverse metabolic (eg, respiratory) and energy producing processes in microbial cells. Ciclopirox is a broad spectrum antimicrobial with activity against all the usual dermatophytes as well as yeast and nondermatophyte molds. It has demonstrated activity against gram positive and negative bacteria, including resistant strains of Staphlococcus aureus. Ciclopirox exhibits fungal inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentration < 4 microg/mL for dermatophytes) as well as fungicidal activity; to date resistance to the drug has not been identified. Ciclopirox has been formulated in a nail lacquer delivery system. After evaporation of volatile solvents in the lacquer, the concentration of ciclopirox in the remaining lacquer film reaches approximately 35%, providing a high concentration gradient for penetration into the nail. Radiolabel data demonstrate penetration into infected nails after only 1 application of the lacquer. Ciclopirox nail lacquer is a topical product that provides an active fungicidal agent in a delivery system capable of promoting nail penetration. With repeated applications, the antifungal agent is homogeneously distributed through all layers of the toenail achieving concentrations of ciclopirox in excess of inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations for most pathogens. Although ciclopirox readily penetrates nails, very low levels of ciclopirox are recoverable systemically, even after chronic use. Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% is a topical product that provides an active fungicidal agent in a delivery system capable of penetrating nails. PMID:11051135

Bohn, M; Kraemer, K T



Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% for the treatment of onychomycosis: a Canadian perspective.  


Onychomycosis is prevalent in the Canadian population, and risk factors, such as old age and diabetes, are increasing. This condition has traditionally been treated using oral antifungal agents with varying degrees of success. Recently, ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% solution became the first topical agent approved in Canada for onychomycosis. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may be safe and effective for the treatment of onychomycosis, and certain candidates may benefit from therapy. Ciclopirox may be implicated for prophylactic use in order to prevent recurrent infection and may be used in combination with oral agents. PMID:16292454

Gupta, A K; Schouten, J R; Lynch, L E



Synthesis and properties of a lacquer wax-based quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant.  


Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA)% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 5 × 10?? mol·L?¹, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m?¹. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min. PMID:24662075

Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Lu, Li; Yang, Zhibing



Toxic leukoencephalopathy with atypical MRI features following a lacquer thinner fire.  


Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a structural alteration of the white matter following exposure to various toxic agents. We report a 49-year-old man exposed to an explosion of lacquer thinner with brain MRI features atypical from those of chronic toxic solvent intoxication. PMID:24291481

Kao, Hung-Wen; Pare, Laura; Kim, Ronald; Hasso, Anton N



Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenails in the United States.  


Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer has recently become the first topical antifungal agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of onychomycosis. This article reviews the results of the two pivotal clinical trials of this drug that have been performed in the United States as well as those that have been carried out in other countries. The two US studies were both double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter studies designed to determine the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer in the treatment of mild-to-moderate onychomycosis of the toenails caused by dermatophytes. The combined results show a 34% mycologic cure rate, as compared with 10% for the placebo. Data from the ten studies conducted worldwide show a meta-analytic mean (+/- SE) mycologic cure rate of 52.6% +/- 4.2%. As expected for a topical agent, ciclopirox nail lacquer was found to be extremely safe, with mild, transient irritation at the site of application reported as the most common adverse event. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also have potential for use in combination or adjunctive therapy. Further studies will help to better position this agent for the treatment of this widespread podiatric condition. PMID:11107710

Gupta, A K; Joseph, W S



Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi



Polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate) blend as selective sensor for acetone in lacquer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film of ?-naphthalene sulfonate-doped polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate), PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA, obtained from solution mixing was successfully used as sensing material for acetone vapor in lacquer with a high degree of selectivity based on electrical conductivity over acetic acid and a high degree of stability over the humidity change. Compared with pure PPy\\/?-NS?, the selectivity ratio of acetone\\/acetic acid response of PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA blend with

Ladawan Ruangchuay; Anuvat Sirivat; Johannes Schwank



Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes).  


Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were below 4 microg/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols suggesting that they would have an anticancer activity to human cancer cells. PMID:10615873

Hong, D H; Han, S B; Lee, C W; Park, S H; Jeon, Y J; Kim, M J; Kwak, S S; Kim, H M



Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree ( Rhus vernicifera stokes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were\\u000a below 4 ?g\\/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols\\u000a suggesting that they would

Dong Ho Hong; Sang Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Se Hyung Park; Young Jin Jeon; Myong-Jo Kim; Sang-Soo Kwak; Hwan Mook Kim



Analysis of organic compounds in a case of suicide by ignition with lacquer thinner.  


An autopsy case of suicide by ignition using lacquer thinner is presented. A wholly-charred body of a 54-year-old man and a can of lacquer thinner were found at the burnt driver's seat of a truck. Organic solvents in blood, urine, lung tissue, trachea and gastric contents and of the remaining clothes have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). High levels of toluene, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate were detected in his clothes. The concentrations of toluene in the left and right heart blood, urine, gastric contents, squeeze sample and a block of lung tissue were 0.309, 0.226, 0.018, 0.051, and 0.268 mg/ml, and 0.340 mg/g, respectively. The ethanol levels in these samples were 1.89, 1.71, 1.58, 13.88 and 1.39 mg/ml, and 1.49 mg/g, respectively, and the profile suggested that the source of the ethanol was mainly drinking. The carboxyhemoglobin concentration in the left and right heart blood was 43.3 and 36.1%, respectively. The GC/MS data on organic solvents are consistent with the idea that he used the lacquer thinner contained in the can found in his truck for ignition. The high levels of toluene in his blood suggest that not only burns but also toluene poisoning contributed to his death. PMID:8583691

Yoshida, M; Akane, A; Okii, Y; Yoshimura, S; Tokiyasu, T; Watabiki, T



Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study  

PubMed Central

In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38–70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48–89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0–21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27–61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis.

Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J



Contradictory results of the UVCON and saline immersion tests regarding the evaluation of some inhibitor\\/lacquer combinations on galvanised coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of inhibitors “with chromate” and “with phosphate” that accompany lacquer films applied on hot galvanised steel specimens has been studied using continuous immersion tests in 3% NaCl and UVCON tests in a climate cabinet. These tests, in combination with the EIS and XPS techniques, show that the behaviour of the inhibitor\\/lacquer system is dependent on the type of

S Feliu; V Barranco



Successful treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer: a case report.  


Onychomycosis commonly causes patients to seek medical care. Its unpleasant cosmetic appearance and negative impact on a patient's quality of life often prompt these visits. Onychomycosis rarely resolves spontaneously and has a high rate of recurrence. Although a variety of treatment options are available, inconsistent results and poor patient compliance have often hindered their success. We report the case of a 75-year-old man with moderate-to-severe onychomycosis who was treated successfully with ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%, the first topical antifungal agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of this disease. PMID:11665725

Galitz, J



Polymer films releasing nisin and\\/or natamycin from polyvinyldichloride lacquer coating: Nisin and natamycin migration, efficiency in cheese packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethylene films coated by commercially available polyvinyldichloride (PVdC) as well as nitrocellulose (NC) lacquer with addition of natamycin preparation Delvocid® (16.7% w\\/w of natamycin in lacquer) were studied at 6 and 23°C to determine the preservative migration into distilled water. The films released natamycin at maximal level 2.34±0.32mg\\/dm2. The diffusion coefficient of 0.79×10?10±0.29×10?10cm2\\/s and 1.03×10?10±0.17×10?10cm2\\/s was determined for natamycin transport

Kristýna Hanušová; Monika Š?astná; Lenka Votavová; Kamila Klaudisová; Jaroslav Dobiáš; Michal Vold?ich; Miroslav Marek



Pulse-radiolysis studies on the interaction of one-electron reduced species with blue oxidases. Reduction of native and type-2-copper-depleted Vietnamese-lacquer-tree and Japanese-lacquer-tree laccases.  

PubMed Central

The interactions of one-electron reduced metronidazole (ArNO2.-) and O2.- with native and Type-2-copper-depleted Vietnamese- and Japanese-lacquer-tree laccases were studied in aqueous solution at pH 6.0 and 7.4 by using the technique of pulse radiolysis. On reaction with ArNO2.-, in the absence of O2, the holo- and the Type-2-copper-depleted proteins accept, with reduction of Type 1 copper, 2 and 1 reducing equivalents respectively. On reaction with O2.- of both holo- and Type-2-copper-depleted Vietnamese-lacquer-tree laccase, almost complete reduction of Type 1 copper was observed and, after completion of the reaction, some (less than 20%) reoxidation of Type 1 copper occurs. Reduction of Type 1 copper of the laccases by these one-electron donors occurs via a bimolecular step; however, the rate of reduction of Vietnamese-lacquer-tree laccase is over 10 times that of Japanese-lacquer-tree laccase. It is inferred that electrons enter the protein via Type 1 copper with, in the case of the holoprotein, subsequent rapid intramolecular transfer of 1 reducing equivalent within the protein. Furthermore it is suggested that intra-molecular electron transfer to Type 3 copper atoms is slow and, in the case of Type-2-copper-depleted protein, may not occur. This slow process may partially account for the variation of the catalytic activities of 'blue' oxidases.

O'Neill, P; Fielden, E M; Morpurgo, L; Agostinelli, E



In vitro transungual permeation of ciclopirox from a hydroxypropyl chitosan-based, water-soluble nail lacquer.  


Commercial antimycotic nail lacquers are commonly based on water-insoluble resins. The present study was aimed at evaluating a novel, experimental nail lacquer (P-3051, Polichem SA, Lugano, Switzerland) based on the water-soluble film-forming agent hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH). The in vitro permeation of ciclopirox (CPX) from P-3051 and from a commercial, water-insoluble lacquer based on a vinyl resin (Penlac, Aventis Pharma), was investigated using thin membranes obtained from bovine hooves, an accepted model for human nails. Similar CPX permeation fluxes at steady state through the membranes, but significantly different lag times were observed for P-3051 and Penlac, when these were tested as dry films. The formulations thus appeared to influence only the time required by CPX to saturate the membrane, and not the final drug concentration gradient in the membrane. Permeation experiments performed on the same membranes and on hairless mouse skin with P-3051 and with a similar, HPCH-free vehicle (ERV), both tested in liquid form, disproved the possibility that HPCH might act as a permeation enhancer for CPX in either substrate. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of the HPCH vehicle in terms of CPX transfer from the vehicle itself to the keratin membrane are discussed. This effect might be tentatively attributed to a particular affinity of HPCH for the membrane, resulting in intimate contact and strong adhesion of the HPCH lacquer to the keratin substrate. PMID:15704853

Monti, Daniela; Saccomani, L; Chetoni, P; Burgalassi, S; Saettone, M F; Mailland, F



A multicenter, open-label study of the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% for the treatment of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes.  


This multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, noncomparative, observational, postmarketing study assessed the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in 3666 patients for the treatment of onychomycosis. Results of an analysis in a subset of 215 (5.9%) patients with diabetes are summarized here. Patients applied ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily to affected toenails and fingernails for 6 months. Efficacy parameters included the decrease from baseline of the affected area of the nail. Physicians rated the level of onychomycosis at 3 months and the efficacy of ciclopirox nail lacquer at 6 months. Treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer reduced the mean affected nail area from 64.3% at baseline to 41.2% at 3 months and 25.7% at 6 months. At 3 months, physicians rated onychomycosis as improved in 88.7% of patients. unchanged in 9.8%, and worse in 1.5%. The efficacy of ciclopirox nail lacquer was good in 62.0% of patients, satisfactory in 23.9%, and unsatisfactory in 14.1%. Adverse events were mild to moderate, with no serious events reported. Ciclopirox nail lacquer is safe and effective for the topical treatment of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes and produced results similar to those observed in the general population. PMID:11665724

Seebacher, C; Nietsch, K H; Ulbricht, H M



Polypyrrole and its composites with 3A zeolite and polyamide 6 as sensors for four chemicals in lacquer thinner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is an attempt to search for highly selective sensing elements for the chemical vapors in lacquer thinner. Chemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) and PPy composites with 3A zeolite (3A) and polyamide 6 (PA): i.e. PPy_3A50 pellet, PA20_PPy13_3A50 film, and PA20_PPy13_3A50 electrospun fiber bundle have been investigated as the sensing materials for four chemical vapors that are the common components

Ladawan Wannatong; Anuvat Sirivat



The use of the Er:YAG 2940nm laser associated with amorolfine lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common disease, accounting for up to 50% of all ungual pathologies. We have been developing a clinical trial ( NCT01528813) using a 2940nm Er:YAG laser to fractionally ablate human nails in vivo, aiming to increase topical amorolfine lacquer delivery to the nail unit, increasing the efficacy of topical treatment of distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Partial results have shown an increase in areas of nail plate free of disease. We believe that ablative lasers can increase the efficacy of topical onychomycosis treatment. PMID:24173203

Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Shinzato, Dayane Higa; Ayres, Guilherme Marreta Cavalcanti; Cardoso, Rayane Marques



Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8%: in vivo penetration into and through nails and in vitro effect on pig skin.  


This report presents original methods to assess the bioavailability of an antifungal drug from a varnish preparation in finger nails. For the studies with human volunteers a ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer was used to determine its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycoses. In vivo studies were performed on the fingernails of healthy volunteers by determining the total amount of ciclopirox penetrated per milligram of nail and the partition of the drug in the plate of the nails (technically divided into four layers). Ciclopirox concentrations were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of Candida pseudotropicalis growth in vitro. The ciclopirox concentration after 30 days treatment was determined as 3.35 +/- 0.82 micrograms/mg nail material. This is a sufficient amount to kill the fungal pathogens. In addition, in vitro penetration experiments were carried out with excised pig skin. Lacquer formulations from 0.5 to 8% were used to inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Formulations from 2 to 8% led to a strong to total inhibition of the dermatophyte after 30 min treatment time. PMID:1831626

Ceschin-Roques, C G; Hänel, H; Pruja-Bougaret, S M; Luc, J; Vandermander, J; Michel, G



Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.  


P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico



Enzymatic dehydrogenative polymerization of urushiols in fresh exudates from the lacquer tree, Rhus vernicifera DC.  


Fresh exudates from the lacquer tree, Rhus vernicifera DC, were extracted with acetone and the solution was chromatographed to isolate monomer, dimer, trimer, and oligomer fractions of urushiols. Constituents of the monomeric and dimeric fractions were then identified by two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC) NMR spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the monomeric fraction contained 3-[8'Z,11'E,13'Z-pentadecatrienyl]catechol (1), 3-[8'Z,11'Z,14'-pentadecatrienyl]catechol (2), and 3-pentadecanyl]catechol (3), which was verified by HPLC analysis. The dimeric fraction contained 8'-(3' ',4' '-dihydroxy-5' '-alkenyl)phenyl-3-[9'E,11'E,13'Z-pentadecatrienyl]catechol (4), 14'-(3' ',4' '-dihydroxy-5' '-alkenyl)phenyl-3-[8'Z,10'E,12'E-pentadecatrienyl]catechol (5), 2-hydroxyl-3- or -6-alkenylphenyl ethyl ether (6), 14'-(3' ',4' '-dihydroxy-2' '-alkenyl)phenyl-3-[8'Z,10'E,12'E-pentadeca-trienyl]catechol (7), 15'-(2' '-hydroxy-3' '- or -6' '-alkenyl)phenyloxy-3-[8'Z,11'Z,13'E)-pentadecatrienyl]catechol (8), 14'-(2' ',3' '-dihydroxy-4' '-alkenyl)phenyl-3-[8'Z,10'E,12'E-pentadecantrienyl]catechol (9), 1,1',2,2'-tetrahydroxy-6,6'-dialkenyl-4,3'-biphenyl (10), 1,1',2,2'-tetrahydroxy-6,6'-dialkenyl-4,4'-biphenyl (11), 1,1',2,2'-tetrahydroxy-6,6'-dialkenyl-5,4'-biphenyl (12), and 1,2,1'-trihydroxy-6,6'-dialkenyldibenzofuran (13) as constituents. In addition, dimeric ethers and peroxides, such as compounds 14 and 15, were produced by autoxidation of monomeric urushiols in atmospheric air. The possible reaction mechanisms for the dehydrogenative polymerization of urushiols by Rhus laccase present in the fresh raw exudates under the atmospheric oxygen are discussed on the basis of structures identified. This is of primary importance because the use of the urushi exudates as coating materials does not involve organic solvents and is an environmentally friendly process. PMID:17319686

Harigaya, Sayoko; Honda, Takayuki; Rong, Lu; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Chen, Chen-Loung



Comparative EIS and XPS studies of the protective character of thin lacquer films containing CR or P salts formed on galvanised steel, galvanneal and galfan substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to analyse variations during exposure to humidity and UV radiation (UVCON test) in the chemical composition of the outer surface of organic coatings (lacquers) containing phosphating or chromating reagents applied on galvanised steel, galvanneal and galfan substrates. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements the protective character of the coatings analysed by XPS

S Feliu; V Barranco



Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients.

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata



In vitro antibacterial and morphological effects of the urushiol component of the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on Helicobacter pylori.  


Eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, alternative anti-H. pylori or supportive antimicrobial agents with fewer disadvantages are necessary for the treatment of H. pylori. We investigated the pH-(5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0) and concentration (0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.514, and 1.024 mg/mL)-dependent antibacterial activity of crude urushiol extract from the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) against 3 strains (NCTC11637, 69, and 219) of H. pylori by the agar dilution method. In addition, the serial (before incubation, 3, 6, and 10 min after incubation) morphological effects of urushiol on H. pylori were examined by electron microscopy. All strains survived only within pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged from 0.064 mg/mL to 0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused mainly separation of the membrane, vacuolization, and lysis of H. pylori. Interestingly, these changes were observed within 10 min following incubation with the 1xminimal inhibitory concentrations of urushiol. The results of this work suggest that urushiol has potential as a rapid therapeutic against H. pylori infection by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane. PMID:20191039

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Uh, Young; Jang, In Ho; Kim, Soo Ki; Choi, Eung Ho; Kim, Myong Jo; Joo, Jung Soo; Baik, Soon Koo



In vitro Antibacterial and Morphological Effects of the Urushiol Component of the Sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, alternative anti-H. pylori or supportive antimicrobial agents with fewer disadvantages are necessary for the treatment of H. pylori. We investigated the pH-(5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0) and concentration (0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.514, and 1.024 mg/mL)-dependent antibacterial activity of crude urushiol extract from the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) against 3 strains (NCTC11637, 69, and 219) of H. pylori by the agar dilution method. In addition, the serial (before incubation, 3, 6, and 10 min after incubation) morphological effects of urushiol on H. pylori were examined by electron microscopy. All strains survived only within pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged from 0.064 mg/mL to 0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused mainly separation of the membrane, vacuolization, and lysis of H. pylori. Interestingly, these changes were observed within 10 min following incubation with the 1×minimal inhibitory concentrations of urushiol. The results of this work suggest that urushiol has potential as a rapid therapeutic against H. pylori infection by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane.

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Uh, Young; Jang, In Ho; Kim, Soo Ki; Choi, Eung Ho; Kim, Myong Jo; Joo, Jung Soo



Landscape in a Lacquer Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

Savage, Martha



Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  


Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...



EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...



Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the influence of gamma radiation and of ; neutrons on protective coatings of various filmforming materials, such as ; chlorinated rubber, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, copolymer ; of vinyl chloride and isobutyl ether or polyvinyl alcohol, alkyd resin, phenol-; formaldehyde resin and polymerized linseed oil. The radiation time was 3 mo ; (2,160 hr)

Z. Jedlinski; Z. Hippe; T. Uminski



Fluoride uptake in plaque-covered enamel after treatment with the fluoride lacquer Duraphat.  


The amount of alkali-soluble and alkali-insoluble fluoride was determined in human enamel after one- and six-hour treatments with Duraphat. The application was carried out on: (1) slightly demineralized enamel covered with artificial plaque, (2) cleaned, slightly demineralized enamel, and (3) sound enamel without pre-treatment. After a single Duraphat treatment lasting six hours, fluoride uptake was higher than after Duraphat treatment for just one hour in all experimental groups. More fluoride was acquired in both slightly demineralized, plaque-covered and slightly demineralized, cleaned enamel than in sound enamel. Plaque significantly hampered the formation of alkali-soluble fluoride precipitation on demineralized enamel, but its influence on the amount of fluoride taken up by the enamel was minor. PMID:3860541

Hellwig, E; Klimek, J; Schmidt, H F; Egerer, R



Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the ?+!?0e+?e decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-build detection apparatus (RASTA—radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source, cosmic muons

E. Frleÿz; Ch. Bronnimann; B. Krause; D. Poÿcanic; D. Renker; S. Ritt; P. L. Slocum; I. Supek; H. P. Wirtz


Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the ?+??0e+?e decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-built detection apparatus (RASTA – radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source,

E. Frlez; Ch. Broennimann; B. Krause; D. Pocanic; D. Renker; S. Ritt; P. L. Slocum; I. Supek; H. P. Wirtz



Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta



Law of similitude for the surface resistance of lacquered planes moving in a straight line through water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proof of the validity of the Reynolds law of similitude for the surface resistance of planes has been developed with an accuracy hitherto unattained and for a large range of lengths and speeds. It has been shown that, in addition to the form resistance, the resistance of the longitudinal edges must be taken into account.

Gebers, Friedrich



Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  


One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico



Studies of the Use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Assess the Performance of Lacquers Used to Protect Aluminum Sheet and Can Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involved investigating the feasibility of using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to assess the performance of coatings used to protect aluminum in beverage containers, and developing an accelerated testing procedure. In the preliminary investigation, tests were performed to ensure that the EIS systems at hand are capable, functional and consistent. This was followed by EIS testing of kitchen-aluminum foil and high-impedance epoxy polymer as a baseline for chemically-active and chemically-inert systems. The ability of EIS to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings was tested by investigating deliberately damaged coatings. The effects of varying the pH and oxygen content on the performance of the coated aluminum samples were also tested. From this investigation, it has been concluded that EIS can be used to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings and detect corrosion before it is visually observable. Signatures of corrosion have been recorded and a preliminary testing procedure has been drawn.

Ali, Mohammad


Gene expression profiling in the human keratinocyte cell line, hacat exposed to urushiol isolated from sap of korean lacquer tree ( Rhus verniciflua Stokes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is a common poison ivy that causes allergy dermatitis. However, RVS has been widely used in Korea as a traditional\\u000a food preservative and herb. RVS sensitization on skin involves the activation of Langerhans cells and keratinocytes, as well\\u000a as T cell-mediated reaction. While keratinocytes are the first line of immune defense against injury and infection on

Ju Youn Park; Jae Ho Chang; Myong Jo Kim; Ju Sung Kim; Soo-Ki Kim



49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description âPaintâ is the proper shipping name for paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac, varnish, liquid aluminum, liquid bronze, liquid gold, liquid wood filler, and liquid lacquer base. The...



Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) for Michigan: 52-Year-Old Female Janitor Dies as a Result of a Vapor Flashback While Using Flammable Lacquer Thinner to Remove Carpet Glue from Concrete Basement Floor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 17, 2004, a 52-year-old female janitor for a public housing commission died from burn injury complications sustained on September 9, 2004. The victim was removing carpet glue from a concrete floor in the basement 'den' area of a townhouse uni...



Analyte detection using an active assay  


Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Evanskey, Melissa R. (Potomac Falls, VA)



The Chemistry of Coatings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

Griffith, James R.



External Corrosion of Tinplate Ration Food Cans under Tropical Field Storage,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and extent of external corrosion on unlacquered and lacquered 05 tinplate ration pack cans, under two conditions of field storage in a tropical zone, were determined. The mean areas of rust on unlacquered and poorly lacquered can bodies were, r...

P. J. Cavanough P. W. Board



Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Missouri: Two Metal Refinishers Die when Fumes Ignite in Elevator Car.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two men died and one co-worker was injured when fumes ignited inside an elevator car the men were refinishing. The workers were using a lacquer stripper to remove the lacquer finish and polish the underlying brass metal elevator interior. The three worker...



Heat treatment of Japanese lacquerware renders it hypoallergenic.  


Japanese lacquer is made from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum), a member of the Anacardiacae plant family. Objects painted with this material are described collectively as lacquerware. Both fresh lacquer and lacquerware may evoke allergic contact reactions ascribable to the urushiols contained therein. In this study, we have examined the effects of heating on the ability of lacquerware to elicit an allergic contact reaction. Lacquer films prepared with and without heat treatment were tested on urushiol-sensitive subjects. Patch test reactions were strongest to untreated film and decreased with increasing level of heat treatment. Assays for free urushiol in the lacquer films demonstrated that free urushiol content decreased with increasing heat treatment and that urushiols with saturated and monounsaturated alk(en)yl chains predominated. PMID:1451490

Kawai, K; Nakagawa, M; Kawai, K; Miyakoshi, T; Miyashita, K; Asami, T



Studies on the reaction mechanism between urushiol and organic silane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lacquer hybridized with an organic silane compound has been synthesized, and the reaction mechanism between the urushiol and organic silane has been evaluated based on IR, NMR, TGA, and DSC measurements.

Ishimura Takahisa; Lu Rong; Miyakoshi Tetsuo



Method for Applying Photographic Resists to Otherwise Incompatible Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved method is described for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface. The incurred enamel paint surface is coated with noncuring lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cu...

W. Fuhr



77 FR 10512 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...G) Additive (G) Isosorbide for diester. lubricating oils. P-12-0151.................... 01...Water coatings, soluble stains, modified lacquers. linseed oil. P-12-0157.................... 01...2012 CBI............ (G) Pigment (G) Alkyl dispersant. acrylate, polymer with alkyl phenylalkoxy-...



76 FR 7534 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...value the following inputs: processed woods (e.g., particleboard, etc.), adhesives and finishing materials (e.g., glue, paints, sealer, lacquer, etc.), hardware (e.g., nails, staples, screws, bolts, knobs, pulls, drawer...



75 FR 72794 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...value the following inputs: Woods (e.g., pine, particleboard, etc.), adhesives and finishing materials (e.g., glue, paints, sealer, lacquer, etc.), hardware (e.g., nails, staples, screws, bolts, knobs, pulls, drawer...



75 FR 5952 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...value the following inputs: processed woods (e.g., particleboard, etc.), adhesives and finishing materials (e.g., glue, paints, sealer, lacquer, etc.), hardware (e.g., nails, staples, screws, bolts, knobs, pulls, drawer...



Impregnation of the refractory slabs for stopperless steel casting with carbon-containing substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

residue of the impregnation substance. The carbon-containin g substances used in the investigation were bakelite lacquer (GOST 901-71), bakelite BZh-3 (GOST 4559-71), prepared coal tar (Ferrous Metallurgy Technical Specifications 6-4569), and coal-tar pitch grades B (GOST 1038-65) and C (GOST 10200-73). The coke residue is 14-16% for bakelite lacquer, 20-25% for bakelite, up to 50% for coal tar and coal-tar

K. V. Simonov; G. A. Shubin



The Chemistry of Optical Discs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

Birkett, David



Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

Dallmeyer, H.



Molecular Structure of Urushiol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urushiol is a yellow oil comprised of a mixture of organic compounds containing a catechol (1,2-hydroxy benzene) and a pentadecyl or heptadecyl side chain; some side chains may be unsaturated. The earliest use of urushiol was in the art of ancient Asia, where works of art were coated in lacquer finishes derived from the trees Toxicodendron vernicifluum or Rhus verniciflua. In fact, the name urushiol is derived from urushi, the Japanese word for the lacquer prepared from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree ("kiurushi"). During the lacquering process, the phenols oxidize and polymerize with the help of enzymes to yield a coating that is hard and resistant to mechanical stress. Inhabitants of North America are familiar with the more malevolent side of urushiol-as the active ingredient of poison ivy and poison oak. Most people are highly allergic to urushiol and will develop redness, painful itching, and blistering of the skin if they touch even minute amounts of the oil. Interestingly, one of the most effective remedies for poison ivy comes also from a plant. The Jewelweed plant (Impatiens capensis) found in North American hardwood forests produces a chemical called Lawsone (a naphthoquinone) with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the effects of urushiol on the skin.



Testing polymeric coatings on metal and paper substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted migration test requirements for food and beverage cans with internal lacquer coatings and plastics paperboard composites against future EC legislation, are described. In a project currently in hand at Pira International on behalf of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, some of the problems which arise when migration testing food and beverage cans with the food

P. A. Tice



Migration from can coatings: Part 2. Identification and quantification of migrating cyclic oligoesters below 1000?Da  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal cans for food use can be coated with lacquers based on polyester resins. Recent research has focussed on the identification and quantification of migrants released by coatings that are potentially absorbable (below 1000?Da). The presented method describes a procedure that was optimized to hydrolyse the polyester migrants into their monomers, polyvalent acids and polyols. The polyols were identified by

A. Schaefer; V. A. Ohm; T. J. Simat




EPA Science Inventory

1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...


Materials for aerospace/large optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of carbon fiber composite technology mirrors for astronomical observations is briefly addressed. Technical developments needed to assure the performance of lacquer-coated optics are summarized. A 10-meter monolithic mirror and larger segmented mirrors could be made with this technology.

Ernst, W. W.



V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing…

Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.


Fujihokka: A high-emissivity approach to aluminum anodizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum treated with the new process offers obvious benefits in energy efficiency and exceptionally uniform temperature distribution for applications in heating, cooling, and drying. In addition, it shares the light weight, excellent corrosion, and abrasion resistance of conventional anodizing. Depending on the final application, the surface can be further enhanced with impregnation or further coating with Teflon and lacquers.

Phil Wade; Chris Preedy



46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



Urushiol-formaldehyde polymer microporous films with acid–alkali resistance property: Effects of formation conditions on surface morphologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese lacquer, a natural polymeric material, and its processing products have been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty with excellent physico-mechanical properties for centuries. The use of modified urushiol as functional materials, however, is rarely reported in the previous literature. To develop their potentially functional applications, the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde polymer (UFP) were fabricated

Yanlian Xu; Zhaoqiao Tong; Jianrong Xia; Binghuan Hu; Jinhuo Lin



UV-induced polymerization of urushiol without photoinitiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urushiol, the basis of lacquer, can be cured under UV irradiation without any photoinitiator in the presence of air. In this paper, we used a high-pressure mercury lamp as a light source to dry urushiol rapidly and to study the curing mechanism of urushiol under UV irradiation. The surface of the films has been characterized by pencil hardness method, Fourier

Jianrong Xia; Yanlian Xu; Jinhuo Lin; Binghuan Hu



Anti-biofouling behavior of natural unsaturated hydrocarbon phenols impregnated in PDMS matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some species of natural unsaturated hydrocarbon phenols have been reported to have anti-biofouling effect. They have potential industrial applications where bacterial contamination should be avoided. We fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrices impregnated with unsaturated hydrocarbon phenols: urushiol from the sap of natural lacquer tree and a mixture of cardol and cardanol from refined cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Their anti-fouling property

Young Hoon Choi; Jin Chul Kim; Jeong Keun Ahn; Soo Young Ko; Do Hyun Kim; Tai-yong Lee



Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1?s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific

J. Mulder; G. T. Nagy



Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1\\/s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific

J. Mulder; G. T. Nagy; P. Sustaric; T. Sustar; T. Rodic



Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva



Quantitative structure–activity relationships for estrogen receptor binding affinity of phenolic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinities of 25 compounds including 15 industrial phenolic chemicals, two phytoestrogens, three natural steroids and one man-made steroid were detected by a binding competition assay. The 17 industrial phenolic chemicals were selected as objective compounds because they are possibly released from epoxy and polyester–styrene resins used in lacquer coatings of concrete tank and lining of

Jian-Ying Hu; Takako Aizawa



NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Bisphenol A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80 05 7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat meta...



Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael



Development of a material with reproducible emission of selected volatile organic compounds - ?-Chamber study.  


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found indoors have the potential to affect human health. Typical sources include building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, etc. To address this risk, chemical emission testing is used to assess the potential of different materials to pollute indoor air. One objective of the European Joint Research Project "MACPoll" (Metrology for Chemical Pollutants in Air) aims at developing and testing a reference material for the quality control of the emission testing procedure. Furthermore, it would enable comparison of measurement results between test laboratories. The heterogeneity of the majority of materials makes it difficult to find a suitable reference sample. In the present study, styrene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-?-pyrrolidone, lindane, n-hexadecane, 1,2-dimethyl- and 1,2-di-n-butyl-phthalate were added to 12 commercially available lacquers (6 alkyd and 6 acrylic polymer based lacquers) serving as carrier substrate. After homogenization, the mixtures were loaded into a Markes Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (?-CTE™) for curing and investigation of the emission behavior for each compound. For almost all of the investigated chemicals, the preferred glossy acrylic lacquer showed emissions that were reproducible with a variation of less than 20% RSD. Such lacquer systems have therefore been shown to be good candidates for use as reference materials in inter-laboratory studies. PMID:24418066

Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Wiegner, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm



Heliostat structural stability as a function of solar heating and ambient temperature changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are indications that thermal expansion or distortions in heliostat elements may create pointing errors of the order of accuracy required for efficient heliostat operation. A numerical evaluation is, therefore, conducted regarding the effectiveness of various approaches intended to minimize such thermal expansion and distortion, taking into account the painting of machine elements with a white cellulose lacquer, the use

F. M. Cutting



25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed roof construction with lacquered finish, decorative cove molding at intersection of roof and walls, and interior framing details - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR


Material Damage Caused by Acidic Air Pollution in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric and laboratory corrosion tests were carried out to assess the intensity of air pollution in East Asia. Qualitative and quantitative atmospheric corrosion was estimated from the damage caused to bronze, copper, steel, marble, cedar, cypress and urushi (Japanese lacquer) plates, exposed to outdoor and indoor airs in some cities of East Asia. Brochantite and cuprite were formed on copper

Y. Maeda; J. Morioka; Y. Tsujino; Y. Satoh; Xiaodan Zhang; T. Mizoguchi; S. Hatakeyama



Pharmacoeconomic assessment of ciclopirox topical solution, 8%, oral terbinafine, and oral itraconazole for onychomycosis.  


Most pharmacoeconomic data available for antifungal agents are based on US or European cost parameters. Similar data have not been reported in a Canadian health care system. A pharmacoeconomic analysis was performed considering the costs of drug acquisition and medical management, which were representative of the Canadian health care system, for each of the therapies approved for use in toenail onychomycosis in Canada: continuous oral terbinafine, oral pulse itraconazole, and topical ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. A survey of provincial fee schedules was conducted to determine the representative costs of parameters relating to onychomycosis treatment, such as consultation visit cost, return visit cost, mycology testing, liver function testing, and complete blood count analysis. Manufacturers' costs were used to calculate representative drug acquisition costs. Meta-analysis was used to determine the average mycologic cure rates of each therapy, and the medical literature was consulted to determine the relapse rates for each therapy. Ciclopirox nail lacquer had the lowest drug acquisition costs compared with continuous terbinafine and pulse itraconazole ($197.89 vs $311.39 and $323.40, respectively). Using the pharmacoeconomic model with three 1-year treatment phases, in which failures or relapses were re-treated with the primary drug, the expected cost per patient was $601.52 with ciclopirox nail lacquer, $746.72 with oral terbinafine, and $938.42 with itraconazole. The main analysis assumed that two bottles of ciclopirox nail lacquer were required per treatment. The cost for the ciclopirox lacquer exceeded continuous terbinafine but remained lower than pulse itraconazole when three bottles of ciclopirox nail lacquer were considered in the calculation of cost per mycological cure. A variety of relapse rates were tested, and ciclopirox using two or fewer bottles remained cost-effective compared with continuous terbinafine or pulse itraconazole, regardless of the relapse rate. Where three bottles are required, the cost-effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer is less than that of continuous terbinafine but more cost-effective than that of pulse itraconazole. PMID:17204234

Gupta, Aditya K; Lynde, Charles W; Barber, Kirk



Absence of systemic in vivo genotoxicity after dermal exposure to ethyl acrylate and tripropylene glycol diacrylate in Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) mice.  


Acrylates may be polymerized to stable surface coatings (paints, lacquers, inks, etc.) by alkylation via the Michaelis-type addition reaction. Thus, acrylates have an inherent potential as electrophiles to be genotoxic, limited in their biological activity by their physicochemical properties. To evaluate their systemic genotoxicity, ethyl acrylate (EA), tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), or Lacquer A, an ultraviolet radiation curable lacquer containing TPGDA as the active ingredient, were applied dermally to Tg.AC mice (3 times a week for 20 weeks). Peripheral blood leukocytes were evaluated for DNA damage (single-strand breaks, alkali labile sites, DNA crosslinking) at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 by using the alkaline (pH: 13) single cell gel (SCG) assay. Peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were evaluated for the presence of micronuclei at week 20. The extent of DNA migration in leukocytes and the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was not significantly altered by treatment with TPGDA when administered alone or in Lacquer A or with EA, at doses that induced cell proliferation in keratinocytes. The absence of genotoxicity in these two cell populations suggests that these acrylates are not genotoxic or that they are not absorbed systemically when applied dermally. However, a significant, dose-dependent increase in the percentage of PCE relative to the vehicle control was present in mice treated with TPGDA, while a dose-dependent, but nonsignificant, increase in the percentage of PCE was observed in mice treated with Lacquer A. This observed increase in the rate of erythropoiesis may reflect bone marrow/blood toxicity, a homeostatic mechanism in response to the treatment-induced tumor burden, and/or a hematopoietic response to epidermal keratinocyte cytokines induced by tissue injury. PMID:9142166

Tice, R R; Nylander-French, L A; French, J E



Tripropylene glycol diacrylate but not ethyl acrylate induces skin tumors in a twenty-week short-term tumorigenesis study in Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) mice.  


The toxicity of the esters of acrylic acid are poorly understood even though significant human exposure occurs. To conduct rapid comparative short-term bioassays, we used the Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse model to determine the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) alone and in a reference formulated ultraviolet radiation curable lacquer (Lacquer A), which is used in the ultraviolet radiation curable surface coatings. For comparison, ethyl acrylate (EA) was used as a reference acrylate. Insertion of the zeta-globin promoted v-Ha-ras transgene into the FVB mouse genome (Tg.AC) introduced a defined genetic lesion, which is critical but insufficient by itself to induce benign or malignant tumors in the skin unless activated. Activation and expression of the transgenic ras oncoprotein in this mouse line induces a dose-related increase in papillomas (skin reporter phenotype) within weeks. Based on dose-related increases in skin hyperplasia following dermal exposure to EA, TPGDA, or Lacquer A (applied equimolar for TPGDA concentration), the dosing regimen was selected. Starting at 12 wk of age, the agents were administered topically (200 microliters of acetone vehicle) 3 times/wk for 20 wk to the shaved dorsal skin of female Tg.AC mice (n = 10/group). TPGDA and reference Lacquer A (equimolar for TPGDA) at 5 or 10 mumoles/mouse but not EA (60, 300, or 600 mumoles/mouse) or TPGDA or Lacquer A at 1 mumole/mouse induced a dose-related increase in papillomas between 6 and 12 wk of treatment that reached a maximum number of papillomas per mouse between 19 and 20 wk of treatment. These results indicate that TPGDA is significantly more potent than EA for inducing the skin reporter phenotype and may be predicted to be carcinogenic in long-term cancer bioassays at the site of contact. PMID:9715506

Nylander-French, L A; French, J E



The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection.



[Infrared spectrum characteristics of vehicle body paint].  


Two hundred eighty seven samples of vehicle paint were collected, and 940 spectra were obtained by Fourier transform infrared micro spectrometer. The spectral features of varnish, finish layer, and coated layers of different models and different color were analyzed, and the spectra similarities were compared. The results show that the varnish similarity on the same models with different color is 99.5%, and some similar model with the same manufacturer had high similarity. The finish spectra have remarkable differences with different model and different color, and the similarity degree is under 70%. The coated layer similarity varies between 83.33% and 96.91% among the common lacquer putty, and it ranges between 70.12% and 96.44% among the water-based lacquer putty. The metal components of paint will influence the spectrum characteristics. The spectra of the vehicle paint will change with the usage time. PMID:23016329

Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming



Management of onychomycosis: examining the role of monotherapy and dual, triple, or quadruple therapies.  


The high prevalence of onychomycosis warrants effective lasting treatment. Currently available monotherapeutic options in the United States include surgical or chemical nail avulsion/debridement, a topical antifungal nail lacquer, and systemic antifungal agents. Failure to respond to therapy and relapse rates of approximately 25% to 50% both point to the need for a shift in the approach to treating this chronic disease. In vitro data indicate synergistic and additive effects when combining certain antifungal agents, eg, ciclopirox and terbinafine. Clinical reports suggest that combining topical and oral antifungal agents (eg, ciclopirox nail lacquer and oral terbinafine), administered for a shortened duration compared with the standard regimen, may yield cure rates as good as, if not better than, the indicated oral monotherapy regimen. Drug penetration to different parts of the nail unit and complimentary modes of action may contribute to the success of combination therapy. PMID:15287394

Gupta, Aditya K; Lynch, Lindsay E



Thermal-oxidation stability of diesel fuels. Interim report, October 1983January 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) were used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel deposits formed on test surfaces at elevated temperatures was developed and applied to a variety of fuels, both with and without MIL-S-53021(additive stabilizer package).

L. L. Stavinoha; J. G. Barbee; D. M. Yost



Human Health Risk on Environmental Exposure to Bisphenol-A: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol-A (BPA), identified as an environmental hormone (i.e., endocrine disruptor), is an industrially important chemical that is being used as a primary raw material for the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polycarbonate\\/epoxy resins), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites\\/sealants. From the ecotoxicology, human health and regulatory points of view, it is urgent to restrict the emissions and releases




High throughput X-ray optics - An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for the production of high-throughput modular arrays of telescopes with net collecting areas exceeding 10 to the 5th sq cm and 20-arsec angular resolution are discussed. Techniques considered include the automated figuring of flats as parabolic reflectors, the replication of cylindrical shells, the alignment of thin lacquer-coated conical foils, electroforming, and the use of large diamond turning machines. High-throughput programs are described, and it is noted that future missions will emphasize high resolution spectroscopy.

Gorenstein, Paul



Process for non-contact removal of organic coatings from the surface of paintings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

Banks, Bruce A. (inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (inventor)



Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)



Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of ethyl acrylate and tripropylene glycol diacrylate to normal human skin and lung cells.  


The potential for occupational exposure to the esters of acrylic acid (acrylates) is considerable, and, thus, requires a greater understanding of the their toxicity. Confluent (70-90%) cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). or bronchial epithelium (NHBE) were exposed to the monofunctional ethyl acrylate (EA), the multifunctional tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), or TPGDA monomer in a radiation curable lacquer (Lacquer A) at equimolar dosages in order to determine human in vitro cytotoxicity. Viability of the cells after 2-24-h exposure to the representative monofunctional or multifunctional acrylate or solvent control was used to calculate an index of acute cytotoxicity (50% inhibitory dose; ID50) and to determine the shape of the dose-response curves. TPGDA, Lacquer A, and EA were equally cytotoxic (ID50 is approximately equal to 0.1 micromol/cm2) to NHEK at equimolar doses. TPGDA or Lacquer A were more cytotoxic (is approximately equal to 100X) to NHDF or NHBE than EA. Sequential exposure of UV(A) and TPGDA to NHEK indicate the potential for a synergistic cytotoxic response. These findings are consistent with observed decreases in free sulfhydryl groups (e.g., glutathione or cysteine) that parallel the dose-response-related decreases in viability. logether, these data suggest possible differences in toxicity between the monofunctional EA and multifunctional TPGDA to NHEK, NHDF. or NHBE, possibly due to the difference in the number of functional acrylate groups and/or physicochemical differences (e.g., vapor pressure) between the acrylates investigated. PMID:11212146

Nylander-French, L A; French, J E



Analysis of Urushiols by Liquid Chromatography\\/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization?Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urushiol derivatives in a natural polymeric paint (urushi), obtained from Korean tapping lacquer trees were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and analyzed by on?line atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LC\\/APCI?ITMS). The molecular weight and molecular structure information for each peak were obtained from full scan spectrum and collision induced dissociation (CID) spectrum, respectively. Each urushiol isomer

Jong Oh Choi; Jeong Soo Yang; Dai Woon Lee



Urushiol\\/polyurethane–urea dispersions and their film properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of aqueous polyurethane–urea (PUU) dispersions having urushiol were synthesized by in situ step polymerization of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mn=1000g\\/mol), urushiol, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), and ethylene diamine (EDA). Urushiol was extracted with acetone from the purified lacquer of Toxicodendron vernicifluum and the different concentrations (0, 11.8, 17.6, and 22.2wt.% based on the total solids) of

Hyeon Seok Kim; Jeong Hyun Yeum; Sung Wook Choi; Jun Young Lee; In Woo Cheong



Numerical simulation of polyester coextrusion: Influence of the thermal parameters and the die geometry on interfacial instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymer coextrusion process is a new method of sheet metal lining. It allows to substitute lacquers for steel protection in food packaging industry. The coextrusion process may exhibit flow instabilities at the interface between the two polymer layers. The objective of this study is to check the influence of processing and rheology parameters on the instabilities. Finite elements numerical simulations of the coextrusion allow to investigate various stable and instable flow configurations.

Mahdaoui, O.; Agassant, J.-F.; Laure, P.; Valette, R.; Silva, L.



Special features of welding two-layer pipes produced from 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 20 steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that a promising technique for pipeline inner surface corrosion prevention is paint-and-lacquer materials and epoxy resin application. Pipe connection techniques are considered. It is established that to form a full-strength welded joint of the double-layer pipes steel 12X18H10T – steel 20 and metal main volume, it is necessary to use electrodes EA 395\\/9 or a combination of

S. F. Gnyusov; A. A. Khaidarova; B. F. Sovetchenko



Electrodeposited cerium film as chromate replacement for tinplate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerium film was prepared on tinplate by electrodeposition method. Sulfide-stain resistance of the Ce-passivated, unpassivated and Cr-passivated tinplates was evaluated using a cysteine tarnish test. Corrosion behavior of these tinplates in contact with 3.5% NaCl solution and 0.1 M citric–citrate buffer solution was investigated using Tafel measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, respectively. The adhesion of epoxyphenolic lacquer to the

Xingqiao Huang; Ning Li; Huiyong Wang; Hanxiao Sun; Shanshan Sun; Jian Zheng



Effect of pasteurisation on sensory quality of natural soursop puree under different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasteurisation effects on natural soursop (Annona muricata L.) puree were evaluated in terms of appearance, colour, flavour, odour, consistency and overall acceptability for 12 weeks. The packaging and storage temperature combinations used were laminated aluminium foil (LAF), lacquered can (LC) and high density polyethylene plastic bottle (HDPE) at ambient temperature (28–38°C), 15, 4 and ?20°C. Results showed pasteurisation at 79°C

A Umme; S. S Bambang; Y Salmah; B Jamilah



Curing of polyurethane coatings: Radiation curing. January 1980-November 1989 (A Bibliography from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the curing of urethane and polyurethane coatings by electromagnet radiation. This bibliography is specific to electric and/or magnetic curing as compared to photocuring or ultraviolet curing, which are treated as separate bibliographies. These coatings may be described as inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, or specialized coatings. Special applications of this technology in the magnetic recording media industry are presented. (Contains 98 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Proteomic Basis for the Increased Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis After Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used to produce a myriad of popular consumer goods, such as food and beverage containers,\\u000a the lacquer lining of canned food, infant formula bottles, and some dental sealants. Recent studies have shown BPA to leach\\u000a from these products in appreciable amounts, resulting in nearly ubiquitous exposure to humans. In this chapter, we review\\u000a two

Sarah Jenkins; Angela M. Betancourt; Jun Wang; James A. Mobley; Coral A. Lamartiniere


New anti-corona material for large-scale electric machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-linear electrical conduction property of ?-SiC micro-powder\\/epoxy ester lacquer composite was investigated. The ?-SiC micro-powder was synthesized under different temperature and has different particle size. Experiment shows that the non-linear electrical conduction becomes greater by increasing the ?-SiC powder particle size or synthesizing temperature. Under the same particle size conditions, the non-linear electrical conduction coefficient ? and corona voltage

Wang Xiaogang; He Enguang; Chen Shoutian



[Antitumor effects of a plant extract mixture].  


Cancer is the most common cause of death in Japan. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer were conducted from the viewpoint of Western medicine so far. However, a sustained complete remission has not been achieved yet. In order to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, some traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines) have been prescribed to cancer patients. We have been studying on antitumor substances in medicinal herbs and found an antitumor medicinal herb named Rhus verniciflua (lacquer, Urushi in Japanese). To investigate the antitumor effect in vitro, a plant extract mixture was prepared from six medicinal herbs containing lacquer. The plant extract mixture containing lacquer (Rv-PEM) inhibited the proliferation of several mouse and human tumor cell lines. Rv-PEM had more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human leukemia cell lines (MOLT-3, KG-1) than on other tumor cell lines. The IC50 values of Rv-PEM on MOLT-3 and KG-1 cells were 0.208 and 0.293 mg/mL, respectively. After treating Rv-PEM to the tumor cells, DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 and -9 activity increased in the treated cells. The mechanisms of the inhibitory proliferation activity of Rv-PEM would involve apoptosis of human leukemia cells (MOLT-3, KG-1, K-562) by the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23649388

Hiruma, Wataru; Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Ono, Nobufumi



Ciclopirox topical solution, 8% combined with oral terbinafine to treat onychomycosis: a randomized, evaluator-blinded study.  


This randomized, evaluator-blind, 3-arm parallel, comparator controlled, multicenter pilot study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution, 8% in combination with oral terbinafine for the treatment of moderate to severe toenail onychomycosis (> or =60% disease involvement of target nail and/or lunula/matrix involvement) (N = 73). Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms: ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 48 weeks plus 4 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day, followed by 4 weeks of rest (no terbinafine), then another 4 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day (PLs); ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 48 weeks plus terbinafine 250 mg/day for 12 weeks (PL12); or terbinafine 250 mg/day for 12 weeks (L12). At week 48, mycological cure (negative microscopy and culture) occurred in 66.7% (14/21) (PL8), 70.4% (19/27) (PL12), and 56.0% (14/25) (L12) of patients confirmed dermatophyte positive, respectively (P: not significant). At this time point, effective cure (simultaneous mycological cure and > or =90% reduction in the disease area) was observed in 40.0% (8/20), 33.3% (8/24), and 34.8% (8/23) of patients, respectively (P: not significant). The PLs regimen was well-tolerated and had high compliance. The data suggest that combination therapy (PL8) may be an alternative regimen to continuous terbinafine (L12) in the treatment of moderate to severe dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. PMID:16004022

Gupta, Aditya K



Lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in foods in welded cans.  


The levels of lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in fruit and vegetables in welded tinplate cans were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels found were compared with those in foods in soldered tinplate cans and fresh foods. The results show that the lead levels in foods in welded cans were much lower than those in similar foods in soldered cans. Foods in unlacquered welded cans contain much more lead, chromium and tin than foods in lacquered welded cans. The cadmium and iron levels in canned fruit and vegetables in welded cans were similar to those found in the corresponding fresh foods. PMID:3653455

Jorhem, L; Slorach, S



Mass transfer during dissolution of cadmium in hydrochloric acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the dissolution kinetics of cadmium tubes (d = 40, l = 90 mm) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions under natural and induced movement at 30/sub 0/C. The external surface and edges were insulated with an acid-resistant lacquer. The hydrochloric acid concentration over the range studied had little effect on the cadmium dissolution rate, the controlling step in the process being desorption of cadmium ions from the anodic sections and hydrogen ions from the cathodic sections. Based on theoretical and experimental studies we postulate a halide passivation of the anodic sections of the metal surface to produce dissolution curve inflections as a result of induced acid movement.

Dubynin, A.I.; Duda, B.I.; Berlin, A.A.



Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): American Chemical Services, Griffith, IN. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 36-acre American Chemical Services (ACS) site is a chemical manufacturing facility in Griffith, Indiana, which was formerly involved in solvent recovery. From the late 1960's to early 1970's, ACS manufactured barium naphtherate, brominated vegetable oil, lacquers and paints, liquid soldering fluid, and polyethylene solutions in polybutene. The ROD addresses a final remedy for the buried drums, as well as waste, contaminated soil, debris, and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available



Molecular Structure of Cyclohexane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyclohexane exists naturally in petroleum, but is also commercially produced by hydrolyzing benzene. It is relatively volatile with a boiling point lower than that of water. The ability of cyclohexane to assume different conformations lends itself to a vast array of chemistry. Cyclohexane is used as a solvent for lacquers and resins, as a paint intermediate and varnish remover, in the extraction of essential oils, and in analytical chemistry for molecular weight determination. Also it is used in the manufacture of adipic acid, benzene, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexyl chloride, nitrocyclohexane, solid fuel for camp stoves, in industrial recrystallization of steroids, and in fungicidal formulations. Cyclohexane is also used in the preparation of nylon.



Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

Espy, Samuel L.



Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.



Efinaconazole: first global approval.  


A non-lacquer 10% topical solution of efinaconazole, developed by Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, received its first global approval in Canada in October 2013 for the treatment of onychomycosis. The product is under regulatory review in the US and Japan. The mechanism of anti-fungal activity of efinaconazole, a small-molecule triazole compound, appears to be similar to that of other anti-fungal triazoles, namely ergosterol synthesis inhibition. In particular, it appears to inhibit 14? demethylase, an enzyme involved in the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, resulting in secondary degenerative changes. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of efinaconazole leading to this first approval for onychomycosis. PMID:24249649

Patel, Trina; Dhillon, Sohita



Onychomycosis: review of recurrence rates, poor prognostic factors, and strategies to prevent disease recurrence.  


Treatment of onychomycosis is associated with substantial disease reappearance rates. Identification of factors associated with therapeutic failure may help develop strategies to prevent recurrence of onychomycosis. Aspects of a patient's health and lifestyle, local factors involving the nail, therapeutic options, and environmental conditions are associated with poor therapeutic response. Strategies to reduce recurrence of disease involve the reduction of both relapse (delayed failure) and reinfection. The topical antifungal agent ciclopirox nail lacquer, may be a consideration for prophylaxis of this chronic disease. PMID:15287395

Gupta, Aditya K; Lynch, Lindsay E



Determination of the efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride nail solution in the topical treatment of dermatophytosis in a guinea pig model.  


Currently available topical antifungals are often not satisfactory for the treatment of nail infections, because of the inability to penetrate the nail plate. Terbinafine HCl nail solution is a novel antifungal formulation containing a nail penetration enhancer dodecyl-2-N,N-dimethylaminopropionate hydrochloride (DDAIP HCl, trade name NexACT-88). In this study, we used a guinea pig model of Trichophyton mentagrophytes dermatophytosis and evaluated the clinical and mycological efficacy of different terbinafine HCl nail solutions (TNS) formulated with or without DDAIP HCl. Ciclopirox (8%) nail lacquer (Penlac), the only Food and Drug Administration approved topical treatment for onychomycosis, was used as a comparator. Following the IACUC Guidelines, the skin of male albino guinea pigs was abraded under anaesthesia. Each animal was infected with T. mentagrophytes ATCC 24953 (cell suspension containing 1 x 10(7) conidia). The experimental animals were divided into 11 groups (five animals per group) and tested with the following formulations: vehicle control, 0.5% DDAIP HCl, 1%, 5% and 10% TNS (without DDAIP HCl), 1% TNS with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0% DDAIP HCl, 5% and 10% TNS with 0.5% DDAIP HCl, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and an untreated control group. Evaluation of clinical and mycological efficacy was performed 72 h after completion of a 7-day treatment regimen. Skin biopsy samples were processed for histopathological examination. The infected untreated control guinea pigs showed patches of hair loss and ulcerated or scaly skin and fungal invasion of hair roots. The vehicle and 0.5% DDAIP HCl treated groups showed minimal clinical efficacy (only 11% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, all three concentrations of TNS (1%, 5% and 10% terbinafine HCl) formulated with or without 0.5% DDAIP HCl showed 100% mycological efficacy by the hair root invasion test. Clinical efficacy of the 5% and 10% TNS improved with addition of 0.5% DDAIP HCl (47.4% and 73.8% vs. 68.4% and 89.5%, respectively). In addition, no fungal elements were detected in the treated guinea pig skin. All formulations of TNS resulted in a higher clinical and mycological efficacy compared with the 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer (P = 0.0444). In conclusion, TNS containing 1%, 5% and 10% terbinafine HCl formulated with and without DDAIP HCl demonstrated high antifungal efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis. Addition of 0.5% DDAIP HCl to 5% and 10% TNS significantly enhanced the clinical and mycological efficacy of these formulations which were superior compared with the 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Evaluation of the 1%, 5% and 10% TNS in clinical trials for the treatment of dermatophytosis and onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:18498299

Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Long, Lisa; Pfister, William R



Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period.

Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.



PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.



Optimization of propranolol hydrochloride sustained-release pellets using box-behnken design and desirability function.  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate three process parameters for the application of ethylcellulose films from organic solutions to obtain multi-particulate controlled drug delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. The coating process was developed in a classical coating pan. A Box-Behnken central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of the film thickness (expressed as the amount of lacquer applied on pellets' surface unit), concentration of lacquer in the coating dispersion, and the plasticizer concentration on the independent variables. Those were t85, the degree of sticking in the coating pan, and the duration of the coating process. Contour and response surface plots were depicted based on the equation given by the model. Because the results were competitive, i.e., improving one response had an opposite effect on another one, an overall desirability function was described to ameliorate the interpretation of the results. The optimization procedure generated the maximum overall desirability value. A formulation was prepared under the optimized conditions yielding response values which were close to the predicted values. To understand the mechanism of drug release from the optimized pellets various models were used to fit the dissolution data. The Higuchi model appears to provide the best correlation. PMID:15605444

Bodea, A; Leucuta, S E



Comparison of dust released from sanding conventional and nanoparticle-doped wall and wood coatings  

PubMed Central

Introduction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into traditional surface coatings (e.g., paints, lacquers, fillers) may result in new exposures to both workers and consumers and possibly also a new risk to their health. During finishing and renovation, such products may also be a substantial source of exposure to ENPs or aggregates thereof. This study investigates the particle size distributions (5.6?nm–19.8??m) and the total number of dust particles generated during sanding of ENP-doped paints, lacquers, and fillers as compared to their conventional counterparts. In all products, the dust emissions from sanding were found to consist of five size modes: three modes under 1??m and two modes around 1 and 2??m. Corrected for the emission from the sanding machine, the sanding dust, was dominated by 100–300?nm size particles, whereas the mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the micrometer modes. Adding ENPs to the studied products only vaguely affected the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes in the sanding dust when compared to their reference products. However, we observed considerable differences in the number concentrations in the different size modes, but still without revealing a clear effect of ENPs on dust emissions from sanding.

Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Schneider, Thomas



New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.



Comparison of the Antifungal Efficacy of Terbinafine Hydrochloride and Ciclopirox Olamine Containing Formulations against the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an Infected Nail Plate Model.  


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C



Establishment of a novel model of onychomycosis in rabbits for evaluation of antifungal agents.  


We developed a novel model of onychomycosis in which we observed fungi in the deep layer of the nail, and we used the model to evaluate the efficacy of two topical antifungal drugs. To establish an experimental, in vivo model of onychomycosis, we applied Trichophyton mentagrophytes TIMM2789 to the nails of the hind limbs of rabbits that underwent steroid treatment. The nails were taken from the rabbits' feet at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after a 2-week infection. The localization of the fungi was evaluated histopathologically. Some fungi were seen to penetrate to the nail bed, and the infection rate in the sample at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after infection was 57, 87, and 93%, respectively. In addition, fungi proliferated and moved proximally into the nail plate in a manner that depended on the duration of infection. Second, using this model we evaluated antifungal efficacy both by the culture recovery method and histopathological examination. Two topical antifungal drugs, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer, were applied to the nail for 4 weeks in each group. On histopathological examination, two antifungal treatment groups showed no significant difference against the nontreated control group. However, there were a significantly low fungus-positive rate and intensity of the recovery of fungi on culture between antifungal treatment and nontreated control groups. We therefore suggest that we have established an in vivo model of onychomycosis that is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:21555762

Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Saori; Suzuki, Taku; Mukai, Hideki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi



Review of treatment for onychomycosis: consideration for special populations.  


This article provides a brief discussion of onychomycosis treatment in special populations such as children, the elderly, and patients with diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or Down syndrome. These subjects are generally not included in clinical trials, and few data on antifungal therapy are available in the literature. Issues with onychomycosis infection and treatment affecting each group are discussed, and where treatment reports exist, efficacy and safety data are presented. The discussion is restricted to agents approved for use in onychomycosis in Canada: oral terbinafine, oral itraconazole, and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Although sparse, the literature demonstrates that onychomycosis therapies can be used safely and effectively in these special populations, although it is likely that the appropriateness of such treatment would have to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Typically, oral medications are used reluctantly in these groups as the potential for adverse liver or kidney effects and medication interactions may be significant. Ciclopirox nail lacquer has recently become available for use and may offer an alternative to oral therapy in the future for mild to moderate cases of onychomycosis; however, the efficacy in these patients has not typically been reported. It remains to be seen what impact this medication will have for special populations. More knowledge of treatment in special populations must be accumulated in the literature before more formal treatment guidelines may be formulated. PMID:17204233

Barber, Kirk; Claveau, Joël; Thomas, Richard



Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn



Thermal-oxidation stability of diesel fuels. Interim report, October 1983-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) were used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel deposits formed on test surfaces at elevated temperatures was developed and applied to a variety of fuels, both with and without MIL-S-53021(additive stabilizer package). The utility of this technique greatly expands the capability for exploring and defining diesel-fuel thermal stability with respect to both material and kinetic studies. Correlation of IFBT and JFTOT type tests including definitions of temperature, flow, test-surface metallurgy and fuel additive effects can now be performed to better understand diesel thermal stability and provide test methodology/test limit information for fuel-specification consideration.

Stavinoha, L.L.; Barbee, J.G.; Yost, D.M.



Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 2: Experimental determination of internal damage growth in unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates is investigated in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. The damage may take the form of longitudinal yielding and splitting in the matrix as well as stable transverse damage consisting of broken fibers and matrix yielding ahead of the notch. A brittle lacquer coating is used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques are used to detemine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the experimental specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model.

Goree, J. G.



Laser and light therapy for onychomycosis: a systematic review.  


More than just a cosmetic concern, onychomycosis is a prevalent and extremely difficult condition to treat. In older and diabetic populations, severe onychomycosis may possibly serve as a nidus for infection, and other more serious complications may ensue. Many treatment modalities for the treatment of onychomycosis have been studied, including topical lacquers and ointments, oral antifungals, surgical and chemical nail avulsion, and lasers. Due to their minimally invasive nature and potential to restore clear nail growth with relatively few sessions, lasers have become a popular option in the treatment of onychomycosis for both physicians and patients. Laser or light systems that have been investigated for this indication include the carbon dioxide, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, 870/930-nm combination, and femtosecond infrared 800-nm lasers, in addition to photodynamic and ultraviolet light therapy. This systematic review will discuss each of these modalities as well as their respective currently published, peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23179307

Ledon, Jennifer A; Savas, Jessica; Franca, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Nouri, Keyvan



Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.



Fungal testing of diode laser collimators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of laser systems in adverse environment conditions imposes several project restrictions. In our application, the design of laser collimators was developed according not only with the specified optical, mechanical and electronic parameters, but also, taking into account the specific environment characteristics in which the equipment was to be used, namely, climate, physical elements and biological agents. The utilization of several kinds of materials, like silicone, rubber, PVC, nitro-cellulose lacquers and oil varnishes, may facilitate the attack by fungi and in some special cases by bacteria in humid environments. In this paper the behavior of laser collimators after a severe essay with optimal conditions of humidity and temperature appropriated to growth of fungi is described.

de Lourdes Quinta, Maria; Freitas, Jose C. A.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; Silva, Jeronimo A.



Synthesis of complex and diverse compounds through ring distortion of abietic acid.  


Many compound screening collections are populated by members that possess a low degree of structural complexity. In an effort to generate compounds that are both complex and diverse, we have developed a strategy that uses natural products as a starting point for complex molecule synthesis. Herein we apply this complexity-to-diversity approach to abietic acid, an abundant natural product used commercially in paints, varnishes, and lacquers. From abietic acid we synthesize a collection of complex (as assessed by fraction of sp(3) -hybridized carbons and number of stereogenic centers) and diverse (as assessed by Tanimoto analysis) small molecules. The 84 compounds constructed herein, and those created through similar efforts, should find utility in a variety of biological screens. PMID:24273016

Rafferty, Ryan J; Hicklin, Robert W; Maloof, Katherine A; Hergenrother, Paul J



Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm 2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 ?gcm -2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method of lacquering a surface of distilled water with a solution of Formvar in 1,2-dichlorethane. The thicknesses of the foils are determined with various methods. Their rupture strength and gas permeability are investigated. The differential energy loss as well as the energy-loss straggling in these foils are measured for 16O-ions using the 4 MV tandem accelerator in Bochum.

Gassel, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Freiesleben, H.; Kiesewetter, J.



Fabrication of imaging X-ray optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and performance of optics for X-ray astronomy and laboratory applications are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and sample images. Particular attention is given to the Wolter I telescope developed for spectroscopic observation of 8-30-A cosmic X-ray sources from a rocketborne X-ray Objective Grating Spectrometer; this instrument employs three nested paraboloid-hyperboloid mirrors of 5083 Al alloy, figured by diamond turning and covered with a thin coating of acrylic lacquer prior to deposition of a 40-nm-thick layer of Sn. In calibration tests at NASA Marshall, the FWHM of the line-spread function at 1.33 nm was found to be 240 microns, corresponding to 21 arcsec. Also presented are the results of reflectivity measurements on C and W multilayers sputtered on Si and fusion glass substrates.

Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Brookover, W. J.



[Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].  


Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

Baur, X



Measurement of surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films by a combination of optical shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shearography techniques were applied again to measure the surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films on a metallic substrate. The coatings were ACE premium-grey enamel (spray coating), a yellow Acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a carbon steel substrate. The investigation was focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings by shearography between 20 and 60 °C. Then, the alternating current (AC) impedance (resistance) of the same coated samples was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.0% NaCl solution at room temperature. As a result, the proportionality constant (resistivity or conductivity = 1/surface resistivity) between the determined AC impedance and the in-plane displacement was obtained. The obtained resistivity of all investigated coatings, 40:15 × 106-24:6 × 109?cm, was found in the insulator range.

Habib, Khaled



Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

Xu, Yanlian; Bai, Weibin; Luo, Zhen; Jin, Yao; Peng, Bichen; Feng, Lixia; Hu, Binghuan; Lin, Jinhuo



Assessment of occupational doses from internal contamination with 241Am.  


A group of workers with occupational intakes of 241Am, which occurred a long time ago, has been followed for some time. Results of in vivo measurement and bioassay of excreta are compared with the values predicted by the ICRP Publication 78 model. The observed skeletal content is, as a rule, higher than the predicted one. The ratio of excreted activity in urine to that in faeces is in very good agreement with the model prediction. Another group of workers from a waste management department, who were internally contaminated in July 2001, has also been followed. In some cases, there is quite a large difference in calculated intake between excretion by urine and that by faeces. The contaminant was presumably the same as that in the group of workers with old intakes, but its physical and chemical form could be influenced by a fixating lacquer used to prevent the spread of contamination. PMID:14526979

Malátová, I; Foltánová, S; Becková, V; Filgas, R; Pospísilová, H; Hölgye, Z



Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)



Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols  

PubMed Central

Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110?kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted.

Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



Another grain boundary corrosion process in sensitized stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

This work investigates the intergranular corrosion of a sensitized Type 430 stainless steel in 1N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. Once the grain boundary groove is formed by dissolution of the Cr-depleted material, a second form of localized corrosion commences within minutes and replaces the Cr-depletion mechanism. The second mechanism attacks both the bulk grains (of normal Cr content) and the Cr-depleted alloy. This is shown by groove widths that are much larger than the Cr-depleted zone widths. Gas bubbles, deduced to be hydrogen, egress from the grain boundary grooves, indicating a sizable potential drop within the grooves and the likelihood that the second corrosion process is caused by the IR phenomenon recently found to account for crevice corrosion in iron. The IR mechanism could also account for the observed corrosion under the lacquer at the sample edges.

Kelly, W.K.; Iyer, R.N.; Pickering, H.W. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)



Exposure to organic solvents--I. A survey on the use of solvents.  


Organic solvent neurotoxicity is a serious occupational health problem in Denmark. To obtain a precise description of the use of solvents, a questionnaire investigation of a random sample of 1000 companies was made. Information about 2000 liquid products, in particular various kinds of degreasers, paints and lacquers, was collected. Approximately two-thirds of all products contained more than 1% of organic solvents, and of these two-thirds contained more than 20%. A total of 93 different solvents were used, ethanol, industrial gasoline, toluene, isopropyl alcohol and acetone being the commonest. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are not often used now, owing to the replacement of organic solvent-based products by water-based products. PMID:2240991

Seedorff, L; Olsen, E



Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): G and H Industrial Landfill Site, Macomb County, MI. (First remedial action), December 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 70-acre G and H Landfill site is an inactive landfill in Shelby Township, Macomb County, Michigan. The site overlies two ground water aquifers, the uppermost of which is the source of drinking water for some eastern area residences and industries. From 1955 to 1973, G and H landfill accepted municipal refuse, and solid and liquid industrial wastes including solvents, paints, varnishes, and lacquers. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminated soil, sediment, and landfill material (OU1); and the contaminated ground water plume, landfill leachate, and oil seep. The selected remedial action for the site includes constructing a subsurface barrier wall around the perimeter of the landfill areas and oil seeps; instituting leachate collection and treatment; and excavating soil and sediment.

Not Available



Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (inventors)



Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick



Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.



Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)



Directional emittance surface measurement system and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)



Efinaconazole solution 10%: topical antifungal therapy for toenail onychomycosis.  


Toenail onychomycosis is a common disease with limited treatment options, as treatment failures and relapses frequently are encountered. Many patients experience long-term disease that affects multiple toenails and causes substantial discomfort and pain. Although many patients prefer topical therapies, treatment efficacy with ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers has been disappointing. Efinaconazole solution 10% is a new triazole antifungal agent specifically developed for the treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole has shown a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in vitro and is more potent than ciclopirox against common onychomycosis pathogens. It has lower keratin binding and quicker drug release from keratin than ciclopirox and amorolfine and exhibits remarkably greater in vivo activity. Efinaconazole has limited or no potential for drug interactions and a low resistance potential. Efinaconazole provides a viable alternative to oral therapy for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. PMID:24195094

Tosti, Antonella



Canadian perspectives on antifungal treatment for onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common nail disease caused by dermatophytes, yeasts, and nondermatophyte molds affecting approximately 6.5% of the Canadian population. Approved therapies for onychomycosis in Canada are terbinafine 250 mg once daily for 6 to 12 weeks; itraconazole 200 mg twice daily given for two to three pulses (one pulse = 200 mg daily for 1 week, with 3 weeks off the drug before the next pulse); and ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% used once daily for up to 48 weeks. These medications can be used for dermatophyte onychomycosis of toenails or fingernails. Liver enzyme monitoring should be performed when prescribing the oral medications. Ciclopirox is one of the newest antifungal agents and is the only topical therapy specifically indicated for onychomycosis in Canada. Topical therapy for onychomycosis provides an advantage over oral treatment in safety and cost, giving ciclopirox wide potential for use. It remains to be seen what future role ciclopirox will have in the Canadian onychomycosis spectrum. PMID:17204230

Gupta, Aditya K; Poulin, Yves; Lynde, Charles W



Biomonitoring of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols by analysing urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids.  


2-Methoxyacetic and 2-ethoxyacetic acids are well known toxic metabolites of 2-alkoxyethanols. The use of 2-alkoxyethanols is now restricted, and the regulations have forced manufacturers to find substitutive solvents, 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols. 2-(2-Alkoxyethoxy)ethanols resemble 2-alkoxyethanols, and their most hazardous similarity is their ability to metabolize to the 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. In the present study, floor lacquerers' (n = 22) inhalation and total exposure to 2-(2-alkoxy)ethoxyethanols was measured. The measurements of inhalation exposure were done with charcoal tubes, and total exposure was biomonitored by urinalysis of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. The 8h inhalation exposures of floor lacquerers to 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGME), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGEE) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGBE) were in average 0.23 +/- 0.07 ppm (average+/-S.D., n = 3), 0.08 +/- 0.07 ppm (n = 16), and 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm (n = 16), respectively. The excretions of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)acetic acid (EEAA) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)acetic acid (BEAA) were in average 4.9 +/- 4.3 mmol/mol creatinine, 9.3 +/- 8.0 mmol/mol creatinine and 9.2 +/- 7.4 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acid concentrations and the preceding 8-h occupational exposure to 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol. PMID:15705492

Laitinen, J; Pulkkinen, J



Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers.  


Abstract Context: Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail plate and bed that affects up to 14% of the population and can have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected. Objective: This study compared the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ciclopirox dissolved in novel lipid diffusion enhancers with that of a commercial ciclopirox nail lacquer using the in vitro finite dose model. Materials and methods: The penetration rate of ciclopirox was determined by applying doses of topical formulation twice daily to human nail plates for 11?d. Drug absorption was then measured by monitoring its rate of appearance in each nail layer and in the cotton pad/nail supporting bed. Results: After a multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ciclopirox formulated with lipid enhancers in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of the commercial ciclopirox lacquer (p?

Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Selner, Marc; Rosenthal, Bert; Maibach, Howard



An in situ study on the comparison of fluoride uptake and bond strength of composite resin on fluoridated enamel.  


The aim of this in situ study was to compare the fluoride uptake and composite resin bond strength on enamel fluoridated with Duraphat (2.26 wt% fluoride). Six enamel specimens were prepared from the labial surfaces of 39 bovine incisors. The enamel samples were embedded into epoxy resin, and ground flat (800 grit). One specimen served as negative control (no fluoride treatment). The other samples were fluoridated with Duraphat for 24 hours under moist conditions, and one of them served as positive control. The remaining four samples were inserted in both buccal aspects (with a total of 12 samples originating from 3 teeth) of 13 intraoral mandibular appliances. The appliances were worn by 13 persons for a period of 6 days, 24 hours per day. The samples were also brushed twice a day, in situ, with a fluoride-free toothpaste. During meals, the appliances were stored in saline. After in situ periods of 36, 72, 108, and 144 hours, three samples each were remounted. One specimen was used for analysis of both alkali-soluble and acquired fluoride. The other two specimens served for shear bond strength testing of a light-cured composite resin. While the KOH-soluble fluoride increased significantly (p < 0.001, ANOVA) after application of the fluoride lacquer and decreased slowly with time, both the acquired fluoride and bond strengths of the composite resin did not differ significantly from the non- and fluoridated controls. The application of highly concentrated fluoride lacquers results in an increase of alkali-soluble fluoride, but does not adversely affect enamel bond strength of composite resin. PMID:11460291

Kielbassa, A M; Wrbas, K T; Gurkmann, S; Schulte-Mönting, J



Survey of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.  


2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to find out if there is migration of BADGE from can coatings into foods, a 'worst case' sampling exercise has been conducted to survey those canned foods where the propensity for migration of BADGE was judged to be highest. The foods surveyed include canned fish in oil, meat and milk and, altogether, BADGE was determined in 181 retail samples. Analysis for BADGE was conducted, in duplicate, by HPLC with fluorescence detection with confirmation of BADGE identity by GC/MS analysis using selected ion monitoring. BADGE was found at levels exceeding 1 mg/kg in seven of the 15 canned anchovy samples and five of the 22 sardine samples purchased during the period September 1995-July 1996. Infrared analysis of the can coatings provided strong evidence that the higher BADGE levels found were associated with use of PVC organosol lacquers, although in some cases cans coated with organosols gave low BADGE results. For canned sardine samples found to contain greater than 0.5 mg/kg BADGE in the total contents, a replicate can was opened and separate analyses performed on the drained fish and the oil. The results clearly showed that BADGE concentrations in the oil were about 20 times higher than in the drained fish. Further samples of canned sardines and anchovies were purchased in June/July 1997 and, in all cases, BADGE levels were found to be below 1 mg/kg. In the other retail canned foods, BADGE was not detectable (DL = 0.02 mg/kg) or detected at concentrations well below the temporary SML of 1 mg/kg. PMID:10211191

Summerfield, W; Goodson, A; Cooper, I



Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (?>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.



Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

Ziejewski, M.



Electron beams in research and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

Mehnert, R.



Styrene and ethylene glycol have a synergetic effect on lipid peroxidation that is better protected than repaired by CoQ10.  


Previous study of a group of 22 workers occupationally exposed to styrene, ethylene glycol and their mixture at a paint and lacquer industry indicated significantly elevated concentration of malondialdehyde with 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA+4-HNE) in the blood plasma, successfully decreased with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation. The aim of present study is to evaluate whether the exposure to styrene or/and ethylene glycol could be responsible for the increase in MDA level. The mechanism of a single solvent action and the mixture was examined, specially whether it is connected with hydroxyl radical (*OH) generation. It was also investigated whether coenzyme Q10 could be considered as a protective (given before the solvents) or repairing (given after the solvents) agent in oxidative stress caused by the solvents. The results indicate that ethylene glycol nor styrene increase MDA and *OH, but as a mixture give synergetic interaction, elevating MDA and *OH concentration to a statistically significant extent. Coenzyme Q10 at a dose of 3.0 microg/ml only protects, but does not repair increased lipid peroxidation caused by ethylene glycol with styrene. In order to obtain both a protective and repairing effect, a concentration of 12.0 microg/ml CoQ is needed. PMID:15896551

D?ugosz, A; Sawicka, E; Marchewka, Z



Analysis of the Henze precipitate from the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henze precipitate, a peculiar blue-green microparticulate obtained by lysis of the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Protochordata), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The precipitate was collected from the Henze solution, an unstable red-brown product obtained by treating blood with distilled water, whose degradation yields a characteristic blue-green product. The microparticulates measured 50-100 µm in diameter and appeared irregular in shape. SEM examination showed smooth, roughly round boundaries. The microparticulate surface examined with AFM appeared as an irregular matrix formed by 70-320-nm-wide mammillate composites, including and embedding small (500-800 nm wide) crystal-like multilayered formations. X- ray analysis showed that the elements present in these same precipitates were mainly C, Si, Al and O. The microparticulate composition appeared close to those of natural waxes or lacquers, embedding amorphous silicates and/or other Si-Al components. The unusual occurrence of Si in ascidian blood and its role are discussed.

Ciancio, Aurelio; Scippa, Silvia; Nette, Geoffrey; De Vincentiis, Mario


Temperature and humidity influences on inactivation kinetics of enteric viruses on surfaces.  


Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are pathogenic enteric viruses responsible for public health concerns worldwide. The viral transmission occurs through fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, or direct contact. However, the difficulty in cultivating these viruses makes it a challenge to characterize the resistance to various environmental stresses. In this study, we characterized the inactivation rates of murine norovirus (MNV), MS2, and HAV on either lacquer coating rubber tree wood or stainless steel under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The viruses were analyzed at temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C, 32 °C, and 40 °C and at RHs of 30%, 50%, and 70% for 30 days. Overall, they survived significantly longer on wood than on steel at lower temperature (P < 0.05). The inactivation rate of MS2 and MNV increased at higher RH levels, whereas HAV survived the best at a medium RH level (50%). The effect of RH was significant only for MS2 (P < 0.05). MS2 persisted longest under all of the environmental conditions examined. Both a linear and a nonlinear Weibull model were used to describe the viral inactivation data in this study. The data produced a better fit to the survival curves that were predicted by the Weibull model. PMID:23152976

Kim, Su Jung; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo



Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.



Onychomycosis Caused by Chaetomium globosum.  


Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. The genus Chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. We report the first Korean case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. The patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th). Direct microscopic examination of scraping on the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed septate hyphae and repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide slants showed the same fast-growing colonies, which were initially velvety white then turned to dark gray to brown. However, there was no growth of colony on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Brown-colored septated hyphae, perithecia and ascospores were shown in the slide culture. The DNA sequence of internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of C. globosum strain ATCC 6205 (GenBank accession number EF524036.1). We confirmed C. globosum by KOH mount, colony, and light microscopic morphology and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated with 250 mg oral terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. PMID:23717019

Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Myung Hoon; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo; Choi, Jong Soo



[Determining the occupational risk of skin diseases at the chemical plant "G. Genov" in Ruse].  


A study is performed on workers from some productions of a Chemical Plant--H-acid, phthalic anhydride, ferrum-oxidate dyes and lacquers, in view of estimating the occupational risk of skin diseases. It is established that the highest occupational risk of skin diseases to which workers are exposed is in the production "H-acid"--25.8%, followed by "Phthalic anhydride"--13.2% and "Ferrum-oxidate dyes"--13%. The epicutaneous test shows positivation of the samples with phthalic-anhydride in 20% of the examined. In those engaged in the production of ferrum-oxidate dyes positive tests are observed in 23.2% of the examined; the highest relative part is taken by the potassium--56.2% and the sodium-bichromate--37.5%. The study of immunoglobulin A, M and G in workers from the lacqueur shop proved the irritating effect of the noxae, and established statistical significant higher values of immunoglobulin "A". The study of some functional investigations--pH and alkaline resistance of the skin give no significant deviations, save single cases. The authors consider the necessity of technological improvement of the production processes in the production "H-acid" where the workers are exposed to the highest occupational risk of skin diseases. PMID:2534536

Madzhunov, N; Berova, N; Khinkova, L



Alkaline transition of phytocyanins: a comparison of stellacyanin and umecyanin.  

PubMed Central

The effect of pH on Cu(I) and Cu(II) forms of the isolated soluble domain of the stellacyanin from Rhus vernicifera (SCu), the Japanese lacquer tree, has been studied by electronic and NMR spectroscopy and using direct electrochemical measurements. A pK(a) value of 10.1-10.4 is observed for the alkaline transition in this oxidized phytocyanin and results in a slightly altered active-site structure, as indicated by changes in the visible and paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectra. Electrochemical studies show that the pK(a) value for this transition in SCu(I) (reduced SCu) is 11.0. These results are compared with those recently obtained for other phytocyanins, and in particular umecyanin. In all cases, the alkaline transition is caused by the deprotonation of the surface lysine residue adjacent to the axial ligand. This lysine residue is completely conserved in known phytocyanin sequences. Also highlighted in these studies are the remarkable active-site similarities between stellacyanin and umecyanin.

Dennison, Christopher; Harrison, Mark D; Lawler, Anne T



Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the Met86Gln mutant of Achromobacter cycloclastes pseudoazurin.  


The mutant replacing the Met86 ligand of Achromobacter cycloclastes pseudoazurin (Ac-pAz) with Gln has been prepared and spectroscopically and electrochemically characterized. Ac-pAz has four ligands (2His, Cys, and Met) and donates one electron to its cognate Cu-containing nitrite reductase (Ac-NIR). The mutant ([Met86Gln]pAz) shows the electronic absorption and CD spectra considerably similar to those of zucchini mavicyanin (Mv) and lacquer and cucumber stellacyanins (St) having 2His, Cys, and Gln. The EPR signal of the mutant has an axial character, although those of Mv and St show rhombic signals. The findings indicate that the Cu site having Gln might be a distorted trigonal geometry. The half-wave potentials (E(1/2)) of [Met86Gln]pAz and the intermolecular electron-transfer rate constant (kET) from the mutant to Ac-NIR were determined by cyclic voltammetry at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. The E(1/2) is +134 mV (versus NHE) and the coordination of Gln instead of Met negatively shifts the E(1/2) of Ac-pAz (+260 mV (versus NHE)). The kET of [Met86Gln]pAz (1.2x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) is larger than that of the recombinant Ac-pAz (7.5x10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). PMID:11132642

Kataoka, K; Kondo, A; Yamaguchi, K; Suzuki, S



Treatment of severe nail psoriasis with acitretin: an impressive therapeutic result.  


Nail psoriasis is common in adult psoriatic patients. Although several new drugs have recently been introduced for the treatment of skin psoriasis, treatment of nail psoriasis still remains a challenge. Topical treatments (e.g., corticosteroids, tazarotene, 5-fluorouracil, calcipotriol) are the first line in the management of skin psoriasis. The efficacy of these drugs in nail disease, however, is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in penetrating the nail bed and nail matrix. In cases of nail disease resistant to topical treatment, methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin, or biological agents can be used. The present authors introduce a 73-year-old patient affected by impressive psoriatic nail disease involving all her fingernails and toenails treated by acitretin, a traditional systemic treatment. After 2 months of treatment there was a marked improvement. The clinical improvement of the nails was progressive and 6 months later it was stable and satisfactory. The remarkable response to treatment in this case suggests that oral acitretin, in association to urea nail lacquer, might be useful in the management of disabling severe nail psoriasis even in absence of severe cutaneous involvement. PMID:23384024

Ricceri, F; Pescitelli, L; Tripo, L; Bassi, A; Prignano, F



Failure of thin organic films by a combination of shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: the new concept of resistivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical (steady state) value of the resistivity of different organic coatings was determined by a combination of optical shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premiumgray enamel, white enamel, beige enamel (spray coatings), a yellow acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20-60 °C. The value of the resistivity of coatings was determined by correlating the in-plan displacement of the coating (by shearography over a temperature range of 20- 60 °C) and the value of the alternating current (A.C) impedance of the coating by EIS in 3% NaCl solution. The integrity of the coatings with respect to time was assessed by comparison the measured value of resistivity to the critical (steady state) or asymptotic value of resistivity. In other words, by shearography, measurement of coating properties could be performed independent of parameters such as UV exposure, humidity, presence of chemical species, and other parameters which may normally interfere with conventional methods of the assessing of the integrity of coatings. Therefore, one may measure the resistivity of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Also, the obtained shearography data were found to be in a reasonable trend with the data of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3%NaCl solution.

Habib, Khaled



New concept of failure of thin organic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings was determined by a nondestructive technique (NDT) known as laser shearography. The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premium-grey enamel, a yellow acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20-60 °C. The value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings was derived from the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature. The integrity of the coatings with respect to time was assessed by comparison the measured coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) to the critical (steady state) or asymptotic value of CTE. By shearography, measurement of coating properties could be performed independent of parameters such as UV exposure, humidity, presence of chemical species, and other parameters which may normally interfere with conventional methods of the assessing of the integrity of coatings. Therefore, one may measure CTE of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Also, the obtained shearography data were found to be in a reasonable trend with the data of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3%NaCl solution.

Habib, Khaled



Composite plastic coatings and face rolled materials technology, energy- and environment-saving, based on irradiation of liquid monomers by broad and high-current electron beams in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology is based on the well-known process of hardening some organic liquid monomers and oligomers (resins and lacquers) under the action of ionizing radiation, i.e. electron, ion, ultra-violet, laser, and X-ray beams. The main mechanism of hardening is 3D polymerization of initial monomers induced by irradiation. First of all 1D polymer chains are created. And the next stage is cross-linking of them. Numerical attempts to apply such a process for plastic materials production met some earnest difficulties. Our decision to perform the whole processing in vacuum changed radically the main properties of radiation induced hardening technology. The inhibition of polymerization by reactive oxygen became unessential. The output window foil of accelerator became unnecessary. Application of super broad beams such as 1 sq.m became possible. The entire efficiency of grid electricity was increased to 60% and it was not the limit. One of the main advantages is that the processing carried out in vacuum may satisfy the highest ecological standards. The technology developed is contamination free and environment-saving.

Vaisburd, David



Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel



NIOSH certified equipment list as of December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The publication listed products certified as of December 31, 1990 for use as safe personal protective devices and reliable industrial hazard measuring instruments. NIOSH has been authorized to develop improved performance regulations, test and certify such devices. The report contained tables of useful information concerning certified coal mine dust personal sampler units and respirators, updated the lists of approval applicants, and listed some of the more common cautions and limitations for specific respirator classes. The names and addresses of manufacturers and distributors were included for coal mine dust personal sampler units. Types of self contained breathing apparatus described include open circuit pressure demand, open circuit demand, closed circuit, closed circuit pressure demand for entry into and escape, for escape only, or combined self contained and supplied air respirators. Protective devices for use during exposure to the following agents were discussed: ammonia (7664417), chlorine (7782505), sulfur-dioxide (7446095), acid gases, organic vapors, carbon-monoxide (630080), pesticides, dusts, mists, methylamine (74895), hydrogen-chloride (7647010), paints, lacquers and enamels, vinyl-chloride (75014), and other gases and vapors.

Not Available



The byssus of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. II: Structure and polymorphism of byssal polyphenolic protein families.  


The byssus of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is the key element of its adhesive strategy. It consists of a bundle of threads tipped by adhesive plaques and attached to the mussel at the base of its byssal-synthesizing organ, the foot. Two polyphenolic protein precursors of the byssus have been purified from the foot. These precursors, Dpfp-1 and Dpfp-2 (Dreissena polymorpha foot protein), with apparent M(r) values of 76 and 26 K, respectively, contain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) integrated into their primary sequence, but differ from previously characterized polyphenolic proteins from marine mussels. The related quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.?) has homologous proteins with significantly different compositions. The zebra mussel DOPA proteins are tandemly repetitive with unique oligopeptide motif sequences, contain tryptophan, and are O-glycosylated primarily on threonine residues. Galactosamine was the only carbohydrate detected after hydrolysis. Dpfp-1 constitutes a polymorphic family of polypeptides with, unusually, an acidic range of pI values between 5.3 and 6.5. The detection of carbohydrate in the thread and in the juncture between thread and plaque suggests that these two proteins are localized in those regions where they may function as lacquers or structural elements. PMID:8180628

Rzepecki, L M; Waite, J H



Effects of the Acrylic Polyol Structure and the Selectivity of the Employed Catalyst on the Performance of Two-Component Aqueous Polyurethane Coatings  

PubMed Central

Two kinds of aqueous acrylic polyols (single step and multi step synthesis type) have been investigated for their performance in the two-component aqueous polyurethane application, by using more selective catalysts. The aliphatic polyfunctional isocyanates based on hexamethylen diisocyanates have been employed as suitable hardeners. The complex of zirconium, commercially known as K-KAT®XC-6212, and manganese (III) complexes with mixed ligands based on the derivative of maleic acid have been used as catalysts in this study. Both of the aqueous polyols give good results, in terms of application and hardness, when elevated temperatures and more selective catalysts are applied. A more selective catalyst promotes the reaction between the isocyanate and polyol component. This increases the percentage of urethane bonds and the degree of hardness in the films formed from the two components of aqueous polyurethane lacquers. The polyol based on the single step synthesis route is favourable concerning potlife and hardness. The obtained results show that the performance of the two-component aqueous polyurethane coatings depends on the polymer structure of the polyols as well as on the selectivity of the employed catalyst.

Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Stamenkovic, Jakov; Ristic, Nikola; Takic, Ljiljana; Barac, Miroljub; Gligoric, Miladin



A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.  


The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients. PMID:15606656

Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko



Determination of nitrocellulose by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.  


The industrial application of nitrocellulose depends on its nitrogen content. When nitrocellulose presents high nitrogen content is used in the manufacture of explosives whereas nitrocellulose with low nitrogen content is used to make a wide range of daily and non-explosive products (e.g. cigarettes, paints, lacquers). This fact makes really important to develop a method for the determination and discrimination of nitrocellulose samples. This work reports, for the first time, the qualitative determination of nitrocellulose previously derivatized with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) by capillary electrophoresis (CE-LIF) with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). APTS-labeled nitrocellulose was determined in lowly and highly nitrated nitrocellulose samples present in collodions and smokeless gunpowders, respectively, after their pulverization in liquid nitrogen. The method described enables the visual discrimination of different nitrocelluloses on the basis of the different electrophoretic profiles obtained, and provides a useful tool to determine nitrocellulose. Additionally, the use of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) enabled enhanced sample detection, which made it possible to determine nitrocellulose contained in ?15 ?g of gunpowder. PMID:22938620

de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; Torre, Mercedes; García-Ruiz, Carmen



Results of a community-university partnership to reduce deadly hazards in hardwood floor finishing.  


A community-university partnership used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to design, implement, and evaluate a multi-cultural public health campaign to eliminate flammable products and reduce use of products high in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in hardwood floor finishing in Massachusetts. Leading participants were Vietnamese-American organizations and businesses. Following the public health campaign, a multi-lingual survey of self-reported experiences with fires, product use, exposure to outreach activities, and changes made, was conducted with floor finishers. One hundred nine floor finishers responded. Over 40% reported fires at their companies' jobs, mostly caused by lacquer sealers. Over one third had heard radio or TV shows about health and safety in floor finishing, and over half reported making changes as a result of outreach. Exposure to various outreach activities was associated with reducing use of flammable products, increasing use of low-VOC products, and greater knowledge about product flammability. However, most respondents still reported using flammable products. Outreach led by community partners reached large proportions of floor finishers, was associated with use of safer products, and adds to recent work on CBPR with immigrant workers. Continued use of flammable products supports the belief that an enforceable ban was ultimately necessary to eradicate them. PMID:21267640

Azaroff, Lenore S; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Do, Tuan; Gore, Rebecca; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy



Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

Echt, A.



Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1/s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific issues to be solved are polymer hairs in the process and scuffing or scraping of the coating. A realistic simulation of the wall ironing process is needed to understand the processing conditions that influence these phenomena. The Arruda-Boyce model proved to be a good constitutive model for PET in the as supplied state as well as the deformed state of the coating. An improvement can be made by a full thermomechanical coupling of strain rate, temperature and pressure. The major factor of influence in the wall ironing process is the entry angle of the ironing die. To overcome issues with the required small entry angle and high expansion forces in the die a special die profile has been patented.

Mulder, J.; Nagy, G. T.; Šuštari?, P.; Šuštar, T.; Rodi?, T.



Onychomycosis Caused by Chaetomium globosum  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. The genus Chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. We report the first Korean case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. The patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th). Direct microscopic examination of scraping on the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed septate hyphae and repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide slants showed the same fast-growing colonies, which were initially velvety white then turned to dark gray to brown. However, there was no growth of colony on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Brown-colored septated hyphae, perithecia and ascospores were shown in the slide culture. The DNA sequence of internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of C. globosum strain ATCC 6205 (GenBank accession number EF524036.1). We confirmed C. globosum by KOH mount, colony, and light microscopic morphology and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated with 250 mg oral terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months.

Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Myung Hoon; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo; Choi, Jong Soo



Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically.

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun



Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)



Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.



Controlled nail delivery of a novel lipophilic antifungal agent using various modern drug carrier systems as well as in vitro and ex vivo model systems.  


The penetration behavior into human nails and animal hoof membranes of a novel antifungal agent (EV-086K) for the treatment of onychomycosis was investigated in this study. The new drug provides a high lipophilicity which is adverse for penetration into nails. Therefore, four different formulations were developed, with particular focus on a colloidal carrier system (CCS) due to its penetration enhancing properties. On the one hand, ex vivo penetration experiments on human nails were performed. Afterwards the human nail plates were cut by cryomicrotome in order to quantify the drug concentration in the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail layer using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. On the other hand, equine and bovine hoof membranes were used to determine the in vitro penetration of the drug into the acceptor compartment of an online diffusion cell coupled with Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. In combination, both results should exhibit a correlation between the EV-086K penetration behavior in human nail plates and animal hoof membranes. The investigations showed that the developed CCS could increase drug delivery through the human nail most compared to other formulations (nail lacquer, solution and hydrogel). Using animal hooves in the online diffusion cell, we were able to calculate pharmacokinetic data of the penetration process, especially diffusion and permeability coefficients. Finally, a qualitative correlation between the penetration results of human nails and equine hooves was established. PMID:24560884

Naumann, Sandy; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Kiesow, Andreas; Mrestani, Yahya; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H



Airplane dopes and doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

Smith, W H



Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick



Multitherapy approach to onychomycosis therapy.  


New medications and new formulations have provided an increase in the cure rates for onychomycosis. Many cases of infection, however, are still not cured. It is not always obvious which factors are most relevant to reduction of cure, and factors may vary with each patient. For these reasons, a multitherapy approach to onychomycosis may be needed to individualize treatment to each patient's specific condition. Different presentations and severity levels of onychomycosis may respond differently to treatment modalities and require varying amounts of intervention. Nail débridement may be used to lessen the burden of infection in cases in which drug penetration may not occur adequately otherwise, such as dermatophytoma, onycholysis, or lateral infection. Ciclopirox nail lacquer has been approved for use in conjunction with regular débridement and represents the first approved multitherapy approach. Topical antifungals may be combined with oral antifungals to provide dual fronts of drug penetration. Similarly, two oral medications may be combined to provide a wider spectrum of antifungal activity and differential mode of action against the organisms, which may increase fungistatic or fungicidal action. There is a nonclinical component of therapy, represented by patient education on onychomycosis infection and treatment, which should be used to ensure that patient expectations are realistic and to encourage patient compliance with the chosen regimens. PMID:17204232

Claveau, Joël; Vender, Ronald B; Gupta, Aditya K



Systematic review of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis: diagnosis, clinical types, epidemiology, and treatment.  


Nondermatophyte mold (NDM) onychomycosis is difficult to diagnose given that NDMs are common contaminants of the nails and of the mycology laboratory. Diagnostic criteria and definition of cure are inconsistent between studies, which may affect the quality of published data. We identified 6 major criteria used in the literature: identification of the NDM in the nail by microscopy (using potassium hydroxide preparation), isolation in culture, repeated isolation in culture, inoculum counting, failure to isolate a dermatophyte in culture, and histology. Most studies used 3 or more of these (range = 1-5). We recommend using at least 3 of the criteria to rule out contamination; these should include potassium hydroxide preparation for direct microscopy and isolation of the organism in culture. We review geographic distribution and clinical presentations associated with different NDMs. The treatment with the greatest quantity of data and highest reported cure rates is terbinafine, for the treatment of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus species infections. Topicals such as ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be effective (data originating from Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Acremonium species infections), especially when combined with chemical or surgical avulsion of the nail. We recommend that future studies use (and clearly indicate) at least 3 of the main criteria for diagnosis, and report the clinical type of onychomycosis and the isolated organism. When evaluating different treatments, we suggest that authors clearly define their efficacy outcomes. PMID:21820203

Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Brintnell, William; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella



Ultraviolet C inactivation of dermatophytes: implications for treatment of onychomycosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Onychomycosis responds to systemic antifungals and sometimes to topical lacquers, but alternative treatments are desirable. Topical application of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) C radiation may be an acceptable and effective therapy for infected nails. Objectives To test the ability of UVC to inactivate dermatophyte suspensions in vitro and to sterilize a novel ex vivo model of nail infection. Methods Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis suspensions were irradiated with UVC (254 nm) at a radiant exposure of 120 mJ cm?2 and surviving colony-forming units quantified. T. rubrum infecting porcine hoof slices and human toenail clippings was irradiated with UVC at radiant exposures of 36–864 J cm?2. Results In vitro studies showed that 3–5 logs of cell inactivation in dermatophyte suspensions were produced with 120 mJ cm?2 UVC irradiation. Depending on factors such as the thickness and infectious burden of the ex vivo cultures, the radiant exposure of UVC needed for complete sterilization was usually in the order of tens to hundreds of J cm?2. Resistance of T. rubrum to UVC irradiation did not increase after five cycles of subtotal inactivation in vitro. Conclusions UVC irradiation may be a less invasive treatment option for onychomycosis, when the appropriate consideration is given to safety.

Dai, T.; Tegos, G.P.; Rolz-Cruz, G.; Cumbie, W.E.; Hamblin, M.R.



Dermatophyte infections.  


Dermatophytes are fungi that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails. Dermatophytes are spread by direct contact from other people (anthropophilic organisms), animals (zoophilic organisms), and soil (geophilic organisms), as well as indirectly from fomites. Dermatophyte infections can be readily diagnosed based on the history, physical examination, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Diagnosis occasionally requires Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture or histologic examination. Topical therapy is used for most dermatophyte infections. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical fungicidal allylamines than with fungistatic azoles. Oral therapy is preferred for tinea capitis, tinea barbae, and onychomycosis. Orally administered griseofulvin remains the standard treatment for tinea capitis. Topical treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer has a low cure rate. For onychomycosis, "pulse" oral therapy with the newer imidazoles (itraconazole or fluconazole) or allylamines (terbinafine) is considerably less expensive than continuous treatment but has a somewhat lower mycologic cure rate. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be confirmed by KOH microscopy, culture, or histologic examination before therapy is initiated, because of the expense, duration, and potential adverse effects of treatment. PMID:12537173

Hainer, Barry L



Evaluating costs for onychomycosis treatments: a practitioner's perspective.  


Onychomycosis is a common problem. The desired outcome of treatment for patients and clinicians is complete cure (negative culture and negative potassium hydroxide examination results plus a completely normal nail). This cost analysis sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of treatments for onychomycosis using complete cure as a unit of effectiveness. A simplified cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using complete cure rates from randomized, blinded clinical trials involving at least 50 participants. Trials were identified by searching the literature, manually searching for review articles, and reviewing medication package inserts. For each trial that met the entry criteria, three levels of cost were used to calculate medication cost per complete cure: commercial price, average wholesale price, and Veterans Affairs pharmacy price. In addition, a computerized economic model was used to determine total cost per complete cure, including all medical costs. The most cost-effective treatments were those that involved terbinafine: pulse, continuous, or in combination with other agents. Itraconazole, griseofulvin, and fluconazole were less cost-effective. Ciclopirox nail lacquer was at least three times more expensive than all other agents when evaluating total costs per complete cure. Overall, the lowest cost per complete cure resulted from terbinafine treatment, with most evidence supporting 3 months of continuous therapy. PMID:16415282

Warshaw, Erin M



Assessing treatment outcomes in toenail onychomycosis clinical trials.  


Several oral and topical medications are available for the treatment of onychomycosis, a widespread fungal infection of the nail. Since efficacy criteria vary greatly among clinical trials for onychomycosis treatment, it is difficult for physicians to compare outcomes and determine the appropriate therapy for a given patient. The present analysis evaluates the efficacy criteria used in intention-to-treat clinical trials of itraconazole, terbinafine, and 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, drugs approved by the US FDA for the treatment of onychomycosis. Efficacy parameters often appear to use subjective assessment tools and may not include the actual size measurement of the affected target nail as an efficacy variable. Parameters, which assess both mycologic and clinical cure, are frequently omitted from clinical trials. Not surprisingly, clinical trials with stringent efficacy criteria, which assess both mycologic and clinical response/cure without use of subjective methods, appear to have the lowest rates for both therapeutic response and complete cure. Thus, an evaluation of treatment options for onychomycosis cannot solely compare success/failure rates in clinical trials, but requires a critical appraisal of the efficacy criteria utilized in those trials. PMID:15186193

Werschler, W Philip; Bondar, George; Armstrong, David



Root and canal morphology of mandibular second molar in an Iranian population by clearing method.  


Statement of Problem: The knowledge of the pulp anatomy plays an important role in the success of endodontic treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the root and canal morphology of the mandibular second molar teeth in an Iranian population. Material and Methods: One hundred intact human mandibular second molars were collected. The teeth were examined visually and the number of their roots were recorded. The teeth were covered using of lacquer. Access cavities were prepared and the pulp tissue was dissolved by sodium hypochlorite. The apices were covered with the glue and the root canals were injected with the methylene blue and were decalcified with 10% nitric acid, dehydrated with ascending concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The following remarks were evaluated: (i) number of root canals per tooth; (ii) number of canals per root; (iii) canal configuration in each root. Results: Of 100 examined teeth; 6% had one root, 89% had two roots, 2% had three roots and 3% had C-shaped roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals: 3 % had single canal, 6 % two canals, 54% three canals, 34% four canals, whilst 3 % had C-shaped roots. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configuration in the mesial root was type II and in the distal root was type I. Conclusion : Iranian mandibular second molar teeth exhibit features which are similar to the average Jordanian, Caucasian and Burmese root and canal morphology. PMID:24724124

Zare Jahromi, M; Jafari Golestan, F; Mashhadi Esmaeil, M; Moouavizahed, Sh; Sarami, M



Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)



Risk factor analysis of 167 patients with high myopia  

PubMed Central

AIM To analyze the risk factors of age, sex, course, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), diopter and fundus features of high myopes with progressive high myopia. METHODS A total of 167 patients with high myopes were categorized into four groups: group 1, age 10-29 years; group 2, age 30-49 years; group 3, age 50-69 years and group 4, age 70-89 years. The refractive errors of all patients were measured without cycloplegia with an autorefractometer. Data of the spherical equivalent (SE) of the refractive errors in diopters (D) and fundus examined by direct ophthalmoscope were used in statistical analysis. RESULTS The number of female was statistically larger than that of male (P<0.01), also the disease course was correlated to the age. The visual acuity of high myopes significantly decreased as they grew older including the higher incidence of lacquer cracker, submacular hemorrhage, Fuchs spots, chorioretinal atrophy. CONCLUSION Female maybe a risk factor of high myopia, advanced age is an important factor of visual acuity decreased. High myopes ought to be treated early to delay the progress of myopia and development of macular degeneration.

Mo, Ya; Wang, Ming-Fang; Zhou, Lu-Lu



Modification of lignin for the production of new compounded materials.  


The cell walls of woody plants are compounded materials made by in situ polymerization of a polyphenolic matrix (lignin) into a web of fibers (cellulose), a process that is catalysed by polyphenoloxidases (laccases) or peroxidases. The first attempt to transform the basic strategy of this natural process for use in human craftsmanship was the ancient lacquer method. The sap of the lacquer tree (Rhus verniciflua) contains large amounts of a phenol (urushiol), a polysaccharide and the enzyme laccase. This oil-in-water emulsion solidifies in the presence of oxygen. The Chinese began using this phenomenon for the production of highly creative artwork more than 6,000 years ago. It was the first example of an isolated enzyme being used as a catalyst to create an artificial plastic compound. In order to apply this process to the production of products on an industrial scale, an inexpensive phenol must be used, which is transferred by an enzyme to active radicals that react with different components to form a compounded material. At present, the following approaches have been studied: (1) In situ polymerization of lignin for the production of particle boards. Adhesive cure is based on the oxidative polymerization of lignin using phenoloxidases (laccase) as radical donors. This lignin-based bio-adhesive can be applied under conventional pressing conditions. The resulting particle boards meet German performance standards. By this process, 80% of the petrochemical binders in the wood-composite industry can be replaced by materials from renewable resources. (2) Enzymatic copolymerization of lignin and alkenes. In the presence of organic hydroperoxides, laccase catalyses the reaction between lignin and olefins. Detailed studies on the reaction between lignin and acrylate monomers showed that chemo-enzymatic copolymerization offers the possibility to produce defined lignin-acrylate copolymers. The system allows control of the molecular weights of the products in a way that has not been possible with chemical catalysts. This is a novel attempt to enzymatically induce grafting of polymeric side chains onto the lignin backbone, and it enables the utilization of lignin as part of new engineering materials. (3) Enzymatic activation of the middle-lamella lignin of wood fibers for the production of wood composites. The incubation of wood fibers with a phenol oxidizing enzyme results in oxidative activation of the lignin crust on the fiber surface. When such fibers are pressed together, boards are obtained which meet the German standards for medium-density fiber boards (MDF). The fibers are bound together in a way that comes close to that by which wood fibers are bound together in naturally grown wood. This process will, for the first time, yield wood composites that are produced solely from naturally grown products without any addition of resins. PMID:11398916

Hüttermann, A; Mai, C; Kharazipour, A



Ciclopirox: recent nonclinical and clinical data relevant to its use as a topical antimycotic agent.  


Ciclopirox is a topical antimycotic agent belonging to the chemical class of hydroxypyridones and not related to azoles or any other class of antifungal agents. Its antimicrobial profile includes nearly all of the clinically relevant dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds, and is therefore broader than that of most other antimycotics. It is also active against certain frequently azole-resistant Candida species and against some bacteria. The mechanism of action of ciclopirox is different from that of other topical antifungal drugs, which generally act through ergosterol inhibition. The high affinity of ciclopirox for trivalent metal cations, resulting in inhibition of the metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for the degradation of peroxides within the fungal cell, appears to be the major determinant of its antimicrobial activity. This unique and multilevel mechanism of action provides a very low potential for the development of resistance in pathogenic fungi, with cases of resistance rarely reported. Ciclopirox also displays mild anti-inflammatory effects in biochemical and pharmacological models; effects also shown in small clinical studies. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species released from inflammatory cells is a likely contributor to these anti-inflammatory effects. Ciclopirox, and its olamine salt, is available in multiple topical formulations, suitable for administration onto the skin and nails and into the vagina. The pharmaceutical forms most widely investigated are 1% ciclopirox olamine cream and 8% ciclopirox acid nail lacquer, but lotion, spray, shampoo, pessary, solution, gel and douche formulations have also been used. Ciclopirox penetrates into the deep layers of the skin, mucosal membranes and nail keratin, reaching concentrations exceeding the minimal fungicidal concentrations for most medically important fungi. A large number of clinical trials were and are still being performed with ciclopirox, starting in the early 1980s. Ciclopirox was first developed for fungal skin infections and vaginal candidiasis, and is currently well established in these indications. More recently, the drug has been clinically investigated in seborrhoeic dermatitis and onychomycosis, showing good efficacy and excellent tolerability. Emphasis in this review is given to a ciclopirox medicated nail lacquer, which is based on an original technology and has superior properties in terms of its affinity to keratin and nail permeation. It has been found to have superior efficacy and safety to another commercially available formulation in the treatment of onychomycosis. The safety features of ciclopirox are well known. The topical drug is devoid of systemic adverse reactions. Mild local reactions characterized by a burning sensation of the skin, irritation, redness, pain or pruritus, generally in less than 5% of treated patients, can be observed following skin and vaginal application. With nail application, the most common adverse event is the appearance of mild erythema in 5% of the treated population. As a general conclusion, although less effective than some oral antimycotic agents in various indications, ciclopirox compares very well in terms of the benefit/risk ratio due to its excellent tolerability and complete absence of serious adverse effects. PMID:20964457

Subissi, Alessandro; Monti, Daniela; Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico



Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.  


Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99+/-5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. PMID:12324843

Perring, Loïc; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija



Heterogeneity of the covalent structure of the blue copper protein umecyanin from horseradish roots.  

PubMed Central

The covalent structure of umecyanin has been determined by a combination of classical Edman degradation sequence analysis and plasma desorption, laser desorption, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The preparation appeared to contain two isoforms having either a valine (75%) or an isoleucine (25%) residue at position 48. The polypeptide chain of 115 amino acids is strongly heterogeneous at its C-terminal end as a result of proteolytic cleavages at several places within the last 10 residues. The major fraction of the umecyanin preparation is only 106 residues long. The C-terminal tail 107-115 contains mainly alanine and glycine residues and a single hydroxyproline residue. In the native protein there is a disulfide bridge between Cys 91 and Cys 57, but in the apoprotein there is a disulfide shift that involves Cys 91 and one of the four copper binding residues (Cys 85). The three other ligand binding residues are His 44, His 90, and Gln 95. This tetrad of amino acids is the same as occurs in other type 1 copper proteins from plants such as cucumber peeling cupredoxin and lacquer tree stellacyanin. The umecyanin isoforms are glycoproteins with a glycan core having the same carbohydrate composition as that of horseradish peroxidase, a fact that is convincingly supported thanks to the high accuracy of the electrospray mass spectrometric technique. We suggest that the glycan may play a role in the association of the protein to the cellular membrane, but the precise functional role of umecyanin remains to be determined. We also discuss the evolutionary position of umecyanin in relation to the type 1 copper proteins in general.

van Driessche, G.; Dennison, C.; Sykes, A. G.; van Beeumen, J.



Evaluation of the drug treatment and persistence of onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common nail disease responsible for approximately 50% of diseases of the nail. It occurs more in the elderly, though several cases have been reported among children. Several factors influence, such as climate, geography, and migration. The two dermatophytes most commonly implicated in onychomycosis are Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, accounting for more than 90% of onychomycoses. Nonetheless, several other toxigenic molds have been implicated. For convenience, onychomycosis is divided into four major clinical presentations: distal subungal, which is the most common form of the disease; proximal subungal, which is the most common form found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; superficial; and total dystrophic onychomycosis. Epidemiology of onychomycosis in adults and children is evaluated and the most common clinical symptoms addressed. Although the risk factors are discussed, the multifactorial nature of onychomycosis makes this inexhaustible. The diagnosis and treatments are difficult and the choice of appropriate antifungal drugs complex and require the knowledge of the chemical structures of the metabolites of the molds that cause onychomycosis and their interaction with the antifungal drugs. This is true because most of the antifungal drugs are derived from mold/fungal metabolism. Treatment with griseofulvin and amphotericin is displaced by the use of newer drugs from azole compounds, pyrimidines, and allylamines derivatives. Amorolfine, itraconazole, and ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8 have gained support globally, but the side effects, drug resistance, and persistence of the disease are still a serious concern to the patients, just as economics and quality of life. Hence, the search for safer and more efficacious drug treatments are continuing. PMID:15349516

Campbell, Andrew W; Anyanwu, Ebere C; Morad, Mohammed



Multi-analyte methods for the detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in food contact materials and foodstuffs--part I: HPLC-DAD screening of materials.  


The objective of this work was to develop a HPLC-DAD method suitable for the screening of food contact materials for a total of 63 monomeric and polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists. Such multi-analyte methods are worthwhile for official control laboratories, where normally no information about the composition of the applied inks or varnishes on the printed or lacquered materials is available and thus target analyses are not feasible. The polymeric analytes were each separated in a multitude of substance peaks, which largely overlaid those of the other compounds. Thus, for 13 polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists a hydrolysis method was developed that reduced the number of ultraviolet (UV) detectable peaks to only one. This allowed easier identification and--preliminary--semi-quantification of these polymeric substances with adequate limits of detection. The remaining 50 photoinitiators and amine synergists were combined in one HPLC-DAD method. But since many of these substances are structurally related, partly retention times and spectra did not differ significantly. Thus selectivity was enhanced by preparing a database containing all spectra and retention times of the investigated compounds. Furthermore, the retention times of those 50 substances were calculated relative to two internal standards to overcome variances of retention from run to run or due to matrix effects. The developed method was tested for the analysis of food contact materials. Extractions of these were performed with acetonitrile and partially the extracts were subsequently concentrated in a steam of nitrogen. Limits of detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in concentrated packaging extracts were in the range between 0.02 and 5.5 µg dm(-2). PMID:24405406

Jung, T; Browatzki, C; Simat, T J



Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 ?g/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 ?g/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.



Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

Huang, C.-P. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Robin Y. [Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Kan, L.-S. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.-B. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:



The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.  


Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan



Critical assessment of the integrity of thin organic films by shearography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the temperature versus thermal deformation (strain) with respect to time, of different coating films were studied by a non-destructive technique (NDT) known as shearography. An organic coating, i.e., epoxy, a white enamel, and a yellow Acrylic Lacquer on a metallic alloy, i.e., carbon steels, were investigated at a temperature range simulating the severe weather temperatures in Kuwait especially between the daylight and the night time temperatures, 20-60 °C. The investigation focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings, which amounts to the thermal deformation (strain) with respect to the applied temperature range. Furthermore, the investigation focused on determining the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature range. In other words, one could determine, from the decreasing value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, a critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, in which the integrity of the coatings can be assessed with respect to time. In fact, determination of critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings could be accomplished independent of parameters, i.e., UV exposure, Humidity, exposure to chemical species, and so on, normally are considered in conventional methods of the assessment of the integrity of coatings. In other words, with the technique of shearography, one would need only to determine the critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Furthermore, results of shearography indicate that the technique is very useful NDT method not only for determining the critical value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings, but also the technique can be used as a 2D- microscope for monitoring the deformation of the coatings in realtime at a submicroscopic scale.

Habib, K.



Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener.  


Polyfunctional aziridine (PFA) is increasingly used as a water-based cross-linker in 2-component paints, paint primers, lacquers, topcoats and other protective coatings. The cross-linker (PFA hardener) is made by reacting multifunctional acrylic monomer with a highly reactive aziridine compound. During 1992-1993, we came across 2 patients with allergic patch test reactions provoked by PFA hardener. One of the patients was a parquet layer, and the other a printer. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was diagnosed by positive allergic patch test reactions to PFA hardener in a dilution series in pet.:0.3%-1% gave ++ to allergic reactions in both patients, whereas 0.1% gave a weak (+) or questionable reaction (?+), respectively. The methacrylate patch test series was negative in both patients, although gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that PFA hardener contained 0.3% of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), a multifunctional acrylic monomer. One of the patients also had symptoms of contact urticaria, and a prick test with PFA hardener (1% aq.) induced a histamine-sized prick test reaction. The positive reactions with the PFA hardener and the negative reactions with the starting chemicals and additives in PFA, namely acrylates, propyleneimine and dimethylethanolamine, indicate that PFA caused ACD. This is in accordance with our previous observations, but differs from the reports of others, whose patients had been sensitized to acrylates present as remnants in the PFA hardener. As test substance, 0.5% PFA hardener in pet. is recommended for patch testing. Testing should be performed in patients with contact dermatitis if exposure to PFA has occurred. Skin prick tests may be of help to detect contact urticaria. PMID:8565484

Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K



Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.



Common fungal infections of the feet in patients with diabetes mellitus.  


Superficial fungal infections of the foot (tinea pedis and onychomycosis) are common among elderly patients. Although most authorities believe that patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased predisposition to dermatophytic infections, some controversies still remain. Because these infections disrupt the skin integrity and provide an avenue for bacterial superinfection, elderly diabetic patients with dermatophytic infection should be promptly treated with an antifungal agent. For most dermatophytic infections of the foot, topical agents are usually effective and less expensive than oral agents. Laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection prior to institution of therapy is recommended. Proper technique for obtaining the specimen is important to ensure a higher chance of isolating the infecting fungus. Commonly used anti-dermatophytic agents that are also active against the yeasts include the imidazoles, the allylamines-benzylamines and the hydroxypyridones, which are also effective against most of the moulds. Oral therapy for tinea pedis, although not well studied, should be limited to patients with more extensive infections, such as vesicobullous and moccasin type, resistant infections or chronic infections. In addition, oral agents should also be considered in diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, treatment of onychomycosis of the foot usually requires systemic therapy. Griseofulvin is the least effective agent when compared with the newer agents. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole have been shown to have acceptable cure rates. More recently, topical treatment of the nail with 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, bifonazole with urea and amorolfine have been reported to be successful. Over the past decade, fungal foot infections of the skin and nail are more effectively treated with the introduction of numerous topical and oral agents. PMID:14960127

Tan, James S; Joseph, Warren S



Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.  


Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of <0.5, 161, 264 and 529 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato juice in 20 volunteers (Study 1) and tin migrated from packaging at concentrations of <0.5, 201 and 267 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (<1000 Da) tin species in the soluble fraction of food products. Results show that the chemical form of tin and not the elemental concentration per se determines the severity of AEs. A clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563391

Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre



Decomposition of 1,4-dioxane by photo-Fenton oxidation coupled with activated sludge in a polyester manufacturing process.  


The cyclic ether 1,4-dioxane is a synthetic industrial chemical that is used as a solvent in producing paints and lacquers. The EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) classified 1,4-dioxane as a GROUP B2(probable human) carcinogen. 1,4-dioxane is also produced as a by-product during the manufacture of polyester. In this research, a polyester manufacturing company (i.e. K Co.) in Gumi, Korea was investigated regarding the release of high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane (about 600 mg/L) and whether treatment prior to release should occur to meet with the level of the regulation standard (e.g., 5 mg/L in 2010). A 10 ton/day pilot-scale treatment system using photo-Fenton oxidation was able to remove approximately 90% of 1,4-dioxane under the conditions that concentrations of 2800 ppm H(2)O(2) and 1,400 ppm FeSO(4) were maintained along with 10 UV-C lamps (240 microW/cm(2)) installed and operated continuously during aeration. However, the effluent concentration of 1,4-dioxane was still high at about 60 mg/L where TOC concentration in the effluent had been moreover increased due to decomposed products such as aldehydes and organic acids. Thus, further investigation is needed to see whether the bench scale (reactor volume, 8.9 L) of activated sludge could facilitate the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane and their by-products (i.e., TOC). As a result, 1,4-dioxane in the effluent has been decreased as low as 0.5 mg/L. The optimal conditions for the activated sludge process that were obtained are as follows: DO, 3-3.5 mg/L; HRT, 24 h; SRT 15 d; MLSS, 3,000 mg/L. Consequently, photo-Fenton oxidation coupled with activated sludge can make it possible to efficiently decompose 1,4-dioxane to keep up with that of the regulation standard. PMID:19273900

So, M H; Han, J S; Han, T H; Seo, J W; Kim, C G



Sorting out meandering and braiding: discriminating formative conditions and stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For various river channel patterns, the necessary formative conditions differ, but how is not entirely understood. Furthermore, not only the morphology and dynamics differ, but also the resulting stratigraphy differs, of which understanding is required to infer past environmental conditions and predict reservoir behaviour. Our objective is to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for forming dynamic meandering and braided rivers. We reproduced both patterns experimentally and with a physics-based numerical model, and produced synthetic stratification from bed elevation maps and control lacquer peels for the experiments. Experimental meandering was produced using a mixture of poorly sorted sediment and silt-sized silica flour and a transversely moving inflow boundary. Braiding was produced in exactly the same conditions but without the silica flour. These experiments represent gravel-bed rivers in nature, where both experimental meandering and braiding channels were close to the transition between the types. Onset meandering was also produced in the numerical model (Delft3D) with a similar transversely moving inflow boundary, whilst braided rivers formed with fixed inflow or some noise on the transverse discharge distribution at the inflow boundary. The silica flour deposited on crevasse splays and in chute channels, forming new floodplain. This caused much less chute cutoffs and stronger banks. The resulting meandering river formed multiple sets of scroll bars forming pointbars, overlain by splays and floodplain. The braided river, in contrast, showed mid-channel bars and multiple active channels, faster and more haphazard bar and channel migration, and frequent chute cutoffs. Apart from the floodplain, stratification in meandering rivers consisted of sigmoidally stratified units formed by scroll bars and channel fills, usually formed after chute cutoff. Braided rivers had similar units but much smaller and more. In both cases the highest preservation potential is in the deepest channels. We conclude that some floodplain-filling sediment or vegetation is required for meandering to prevent chute cutoffs to lead to weak braiding, but, more importantly, that some dynamics are required at the upstream boundary, where periodic perturbation causes meandering whilst stochastic perturbation causes braiding. Furthermore, morphology and stratification in braided gravel-bed rivers have much smaller morphological and stratigraphic units relative to average channel width than the meandering rivers, even though active bar dimensions are comparable.

Kleinhans, M. G.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Schuurman, F.; Van Dijk, W. M.



Runoff Triggering at the Plot Scale: from Indices of Structural and Functional Connectivity to the Hydrograph Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural connectivity refers to continuum properties of state variables (such as altitude or soil properties) in space, whereas functional connectivity is process-based and reflects the capacity (or the rate of transfer) of water (and associated particles or molecules) to move in the system in response to a boundary stimulus. Although connectivity is conceptually acknowledged as a key factor of catchment hydrological behavior, a meaningful quantitative evaluation of it is still in development, especially in surface hydrology. Based on numerical runoff experiments, we found that, among a number of structural connectivity indices (namely the semivariogram, the bivariate entropy, the n-point rectilinear connectivity, the connectivity function integral scale, the percolation probability and the Euler number) and a recently proposed functional connectivity index (namely the relative surface connection function, that is the ratio of surface connected as a function of the surface storage filling), the functional connectivity index was the most robust and directly linkable to the runoff dynamic. The relative surface connection function is evaluated using elevation data and a depression filling algorithm, considering a spatially uniform effective rain (rain - infiltration). This connectivity function only depends on the depression storage and the interconnection between the depressions. In order to use the connectivity function to generate real hydrographs, one must also take into account the friction forces acting on the runoff and the resulting backwater effects, which determines surface detention. Therefore, a corrective procedure is implemented where the simplified (i.e. without surface detention) hydrograph produced by the relative surface connection function is adjusted by convolving its derivative with a theoretical hydrograph for a similar flat plane. This indirect method allows to efficiently mimic the global hydraulic behavior of a small plot and to describe the effect of the micro-topography on runoff triggering by few (1 or 2) effective parameters implementable in hillslope models. In order to validate the methodology, we developed a fast and cheap in-situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates stable and almost impermeable reproductions of the soil micro-topography, to within 1 mm. Ten molds (0.5 m2) were made, representing different stages of erosion of a bare soil in field conditions. We measured their elevation fields with a laser scanner, to determine their respective relative surface connection function. Then we subjected the molds to various artificial rainfall intensities. The resulting hygrographs were directly measured and compared with the ones generated with the relative surface connection function, to assess the level of discrepancy of the method.

Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C.



Migration from can coatings: part 3. Synthesis, identification and quantification of migrating epoxy-based substances below 1000 Da.  


Bisphenol A-derived glycidyl ethers as well as its reaction products with other lacquer components can migrate into the packed food from epoxy-based can coatings. A sensitive and selective method is presented using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet light, fluorescence and electrospray ionization-mass selective detection for the identification and quantification of all migrants with a bisphenol A backbone and a molecular weight below 1000 Da, an estimated boundary for the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The identification of migrants was confirmed by microreactions of technical bisphenol A diglycidyl ether with solvents and phenols, which provided the fragmentation pattern of the mass selective detection and relative retentions of 42 different bisphenol A-related substances. It was shown by calibration of different isolated and synthesized bisphenol A derivatives that the fluorescence response relies on the amount of bisphenol A moiety in the respective molecule. Therefore, all migrating bisphenol A-related substances below 1000 Da were determined as bisphenol A diglycidyl ether equivalents using a calibration (fluorescence detection) of the commercially available bisphenol A diglycidyl ether monomer. The limit of quantification was set at 5 microg bisphenol A diglycidyl ether equivalents kg(-1) (or 0.8 microg dm(-2)). This method was validated for epoxy coatings (0.1 microg dm(-2) limit of detection and 24 microg bisphenol A-related substances below 1000 Da dm(-2) standard deviation, corresponding to 4.4% relative standard deviation). The quantification could be extended by combining the fluorescence response and structural information gained from the mass spectra, which provides more accurate results for each migrant. The calculation is based on the calibration of the bisphenol A chromophore content of the molecule. According to this method, the amount of migrating bisphenol A-related substances below 1000 Da in the acetonitrile extract (assuming a worst case) varied from about 0.4 to 0.7 mg dm(-2) in the examined coatings. The determined amounts comply with about 50% of the total migrate below 1000 Da. PMID:15204563

Schaefer, A; Simat, T J



Migration from can coatings: part 2. Identification and quantification of migrating cyclic oligoesters below 1000 Da.  


Metal cans for food use can be coated with lacquers based on polyester resins. Recent research has focussed on the identification and quantification of migrants released by coatings that are potentially absorbable (below 1000 Da). The presented method describes a procedure that was optimized to hydrolyse the polyester migrants into their monomers, polyvalent acids and polyols. The polyols were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection GC-FID and the acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet and an electrospray ionization-mass selective detector (HPLC-ESI-MSD/UVD), respectively. With the knowledge of the polyester monomers, it was possible--at least tentatively--to identify the main components in the migrate as cyclic oligoesters by HPLC-ESI-MSD/UVD. A cyclic oligomer, CYCLO [3IPA (isophthalic acid) 3EG (ethylene glycol)] was synthesized and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry as well as by elementary analysis for further confirmation. To determine the amount of migrating cyclic oligoesters, the response of the migrating substances was compared using different detectors, UVD, MSD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). The response of the ELSD was dependent on the molecular weight of the analytes that reduced the accuracy of this detection type. The wavelength with the same absorption coefficient for IPA and terephthalic acid (TPA) was obtained at 232 nm. The UV(232nm) response of an oligoester is proportional to the number of its IPA/TPA moieties, which was verified for several TPA/IPA esters. The amount of the migrating oligoesters was determined using an UV(232nm) calibration of a commercially available TPA ester and the number of IPA/TPA moieties molecules gained from the ESI-MSD spectra. According to this method, the amount of migrating oligoesters below 1000 Da in the 95% ethanol migrate varied from 0.1 to 0.6 mg dm(-2) (0.6-3.6 mg kg(-1) food) in the examined coatings. The determined amounts account for about 50% of the total migrate below 1000 Da. PMID:15204562

Schaefer, A; Ohm, V A; Simat, T J



10?(Z),13?(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrated that 10?(Z), 13?(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications.

Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen



Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 ? cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 k?/square to 1 M?/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred k?/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred k?/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine (Grafica Flextronica, Vasai, India) using the screen printing ink viz. CARBO PASTE DC-1000M and DC-20 (Dozen Tech, Korea). A surface resistivity of a few hundred k?/square was obtained on a 100 mm thick polyester sheet of dimension 0.7 M×1.2 M. Curing was done for ˜30 minutes at 150 °C. We are planning to test this film on a glass RPC very soon.

Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.



Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (?= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.



Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.  


The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan



Onychomycosis in the elderly.  


Onychomycosis is found more frequently in the elderly, and in more males than females. Onychomycosis of the toes is usually caused by dermatophytes, most commonly Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. The most common clinical presentations are distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (which usually affects the great/first toe) and white superficial onychomycosis (which generally involves the third/fourth toes). Only about 50% of all abnormal-appearing nails are due to onychomycosis. In the remainder, trauma to the nail, psoriasis and conditions such as lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Therefore, the clinical impression of onychomycosis should be confirmed by mycological examination, whenever possible. The management of onychomycosis may include no therapy, palliative treatment with mechanical or chemical debridement, topical antifungal therapy, oral antifungal agents or a combination of treatment modalities. In the US, the only new oral agents approved for treatment of onychomycosis are terbinafine and itraconazole. Fluconazole is approved for onychomycosis in some other countries. Ciclopirox nail lacquer has recently been approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis. In some other countries topical agents such as amorolfine are also used. Griseofulvin and ketoconazole are no longer preferred for the treatment of onychomycosis. The new oral antifungal agents are effective and well tolerated in the elderly. Patient selection should be based on the history (including systems review and medication record), examination and baseline monitoring, if indicated. Laboratory monitoring during therapy for onychomycosis varies among physicians. A combination of removal of the diseased nail plate or local measures and oral antifungal therapy may be optimal in certain instances, e.g. when lateral onychomycosis or dermatophytoma are present. For dermatophyte toe onychomycosis the recommended duration of therapy with terbinafine is 250 mg/day for 12 weeks. For itraconazole (pulse) the regimen is 200 mg twice daily for 1 week on, 3 weeks off, repeated for 3 consecutive pulses and with fluconazole the regimen is 150 to 300 mg once weekly given for a usual range of 6 to 12 months or until the nail plate has grown out. In some instances, if extra therapy is required, one suggestion is that 4 weeks of terbinafine or an extra pulse of itraconazole are given between months 6 and 9 from the start of therapy. Once cure has been achieved, it is important to counsel patients on the strategies of reducing recurrence of disease. PMID:10939306

Gupta, A K



EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station: Preparing for Future Mars Landers and Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Surface science is one of the prime objectives of current and future Mars, Moon, or planetary missions and encompasses a wide range of activities from global mapping via specific studies of localised regions until microscopic scales. The studies of rocks and soil in situ, or with sample return missions, require the development of systematic multi-instruments protocols, characterisation diagnostics, and merging of data from various techniques. Both photogeology and mineralogical wide scale mapping have been performed to some extent previously so significant new surface science results may only come from co-ordinated multi-instrument operations operating from the surface. EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign: The goal of the mission (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) is to demonstrate and validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science. This chain begins with characterisation of the local surface and close sub-surface environment, before moving on to sample extraction and analysis. The characterisation stage involves a survey of a sample area in the vicinity of the MDRS site by our geologists and other team members. This utilises satellite and aerial photography to inform the overallmorphology and geological unit distribution, with the specific geological and geochemical context being provided through the use of imagers and spectrometers. Further reconnaissance is used to plan sample-extraction EVAs at sites of geochemical and astrobiological significance. Characterisation of larger-scale features is conducted in-situ (for example using ground penetrating radar to investigate the close sub-surface). Results from these sorties inform the choice and planning of sites for surface and sub-surface sampling. The sample extraction step - the nature of which is dependent on the identified areas of interest - involves standard geological tools such as rock drills and scoops etc, as well as more specific techniques such as lacquer peels. These samples are returned to the MDRS for analysis using microscopes and other analysis techniques. These documented samples are afterward taken to ESTEC and collaborators institutes for analysis by various techniques.

Foing, B. H.; Pletser, V.; Stoker, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.



Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.  


Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are produced and filled in Europe per annum, about 20% of these having plain internal (unlacquered) tin-coated steel bodies. Worldwide, the total for food packaging is approximately 80,000 million cans. Tinplate is also extensively used for the production of beverage cans. Europe produces and fills over 15,000 million tinplate beverage cans per annum all of which are internally lacquered. The use of tinplate for food and beverage packaging, will result in some tin dissolving into the food content, particularly when plain uncoated internal surfaces are used. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for tin is 14 mg/kg body weight and recommended maximum permissible levels of tin in food are typically 250 mg/kg (200 mg/kg UK) for solid foods and 150 mg/kg for beverages. However, the question arises as to whether evidence exists that such elevated levels of tin in food in any way constitute a risk to human health. This review considers the factors affecting the dissolution of tin, the reported measurements/surveys of actual levels of tin in canned foods and the studies and reports of acute (short term) toxicity relating to the ingestion of elevated levels of tin in food products. Chronic studies are mentioned, but are not covered in detail, since the review is mainly concerned with possible effects from the ingestion of single high doses. From published data, there appears to be a small amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of food or beverages containing tin at concentrations at or below 200 ppm has caused adverse gastrointestinal effects in an unknown but possibly small proportion of those exposed. However, the evidence supporting this assertion is derived from reports of adverse effects which offer data that are limited, incomplete or of uncertain veracity. Clinical studies provide greater confidence regarding the effects of exposure concentration and dose, but few relevant studies have been made. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were observed in limited clinical studies at concentrations of 700 ppm or above, although no adverse gastrointestinal effects were also reported in two studies at higher concentrations. Overall, therefore, the published data do not present a particularly comprehensive profile on the toxic hazard to man of acute exposure to divalent inorganic tin. A food survey suggested that the contents of almost 4% of plain internal tinplate food cans contain over 150 mg/kg of tin and over 2.5 million such cans are consumed every year in the UK alone. Despite this, in the last 25 years, there have been no reports of acute effects attributable to tin contamination in the range 100-200 ppm. These facts strongly suggest that there is little evidence for an association between the consumption of food containing tin at concentrations up to 200 ppm and significant acute adverse gastrointestinal effects. Clearly though, only further clinical studies will generate unequivocal evidence that current legislative limits provide safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563390

Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony



Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.



An updated review of environmental estrogen and androgen mimics and antagonists.  


For the last 40 y, substantial evidence has surfaced on the hormone-like effects of environmental chemicals such as pesticides and industrial chemicals in wildlife and humans. The endocrine and reproductive effects of these chemicals are believed to be due to their ability to: (1) mimic the effect of endogenous hormones, (2) antagonize the effect of endogenous hormones, (3) disrupt the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous hormones, and (4) disrupt the synthesis and metabolism of hormone receptors. The discovery of hormone-like activity of these chemicals occurred long after they were released into the environment. Aviation crop dusters handling DDT were found to have reduced sperm counts, and workers at a plant producing the insecticide kepone were reported to have lost their libido, became impotent and had low sperm counts. Subsequently, experiments conducted in lab animals demonstrated unambiguously the estrogenic activity of these pesticides. Man-made compounds used in the manufacture of plastics were accidentally found to be estrogenic because they fouled experiments conducted in laboratories studying natural estrogens. For example, polystyrene tubes released nonylphenol, and polycarbonate flasks released bisphenol-A. Alkylphenols are used in the synthesis of detergents (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and as antioxidants. These detergents are not estrogenic; however, upon degradation during sewage treatment they may release estrogenic alkylphenols. The surfactant nonoxynol is used as intravaginal spermicide and condom lubricant. When administered to lab animals it is metabolized to free nonylphenol. Bisphenol-A was found to contaminate the contents of canned foods; these tin cans are lined with lacquers such as polycarbonate. Bisphenol-A is also used in dental sealants and composites. We found that this estrogen leaches from the treated teeth into saliva; up to 950 microg of bisphenol-A were retrieved from saliva collected during the first hour after polymerization. Other xenoestrogens recently identified among chemicals used in large volumes are the plastizicers benzylbutylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, the antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole, the rubber additive p-phenylphenol and the disinfectant o-phenylphenol. These compounds act cumulatively. In fact, feminized male fish were found near sewage outlets in several rivers in the U.K.; a mixture of chemicals including alkyl phenols resulting from degradation of detergents during sewage treatment seemed to be the causal agent. Estrogen mimics are just a class of endocrine disruptors. Recent studies identified antiandrogenic activity in environmental chemicals such as vinclozolin, a fungicide, and DDE, and insecticide. Moreover, a single chemical may produce neurotoxic, estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects. It has been hypothesized that endocrine disruptors may play a role in the decrease in the quantity and quality of human semen during the last 50 y, as well as in the increased incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in males and breast cancer incidence in both females and males in the industrialized word. To explore this hypothesis it is necessary to identify putative causal agents by the systematic screening of environmental chemicals and chemicals present in human foods to assess their ability to disrupt the endocrine system. In addition, it will be necessary to develop methods to measure cumulative exposure to (a) estrogen mimics, (b) antiandrogens, and (c) other disruptors. PMID:9699867

Sonnenschein, C; Soto, A M



NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.  


The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website ( See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site ( and in printed text or CD from CERHR. PMID:19407859

Shelby, Michael D