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Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox – lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis  

PubMed Central

Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy.

Szewczyk, Anna E.; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej



Influences of heat seal lacquer thickness on the quality of blister packages.  


A sealability of aluminium lidding foils against formable polymer materials of blister packages is usually achieved by a coating of aluminium with certain grammages of heat seal lacquers. To investigate influences of their thickness on quality of blister packages, lidding foils with different grammages of two lacquer types were manufactured. Sealing experiments (variation of temperature, pressure and sealing time) were performed. Sealed seam strengths were determined with mechanical tensile tests, tightness of cold form blisters were analysed by means of helium leakage tests. Time-dependent moisture uptake of stored blisters was monitored with micro-gas chromatography. By means of a simple calculation model the permeability coefficients of the heat seal lacquers were determined. Lidding foils with higher lacquer grammages showed significantly greater sealed seam strengths. Helium leakage tests showed only slight effects of heat seal lacquer grammage on tightness of blisters. But cold form blisters with lidding foils of higher lacquer grammages showed a significantly greater moisture uptake. Since the heat seal lacquers and the rigid polyvinyl chloride of the formable aluminium compound foils had similar permeability coefficients, the contribution of the lacquers to the total permeability of the investigated cold form blisters was only slightly. PMID:22108348

Mühlfeld, Lukas; Langguth, Peter; Häusler, Heribert; Hagels, Hansjörg



Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John



Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi



Corrosion behavior of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with cockles (cardium edulis) in brine solution  

SciTech Connect

Tinplate cans internally coated with an epoxyphenolic plus zinc oxide (ZnO) lacquer were studied. The relationship between lacquer adhesion and total chromium, metallic chromium, and chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) in the passivated layer was analyzed. The thickness of the CrO{sub x} layer is a controlling parameter of adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), direct current (DC) polarization, and atomic absorption (AA) experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. EIS, DC, and AA results indicated that the passivation treatment with the lowest chromium content (Type 1) showed slightly worse corrosion behavior, with substantial iron dissolution and sulfur staining of the tinplate, than passivation treatments Types 2 and 3, which behaved similarly to each other. A fully opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell in contact with canned cockles (a mollusc, Cardium edulis).

Bastidas, J.M.; Cabanes, J.M.; Catala, R.



Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study  

PubMed Central

In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38–70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48–89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0–21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27–61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J



[Investigation on comparison method of chromatographic fingerprints of lacquer coat of cars and its application].  


The comparison method of fingerprints of the lacquer coat of cars (LCC) was established by using thermal desorption instrument with gas chromatography. The actual LCC samples were also analyzed. The samples were cut out to proper size and placed in the desorption furnace of the thermal desorption instrument. The volatile organic compounds in LCC were desorbed from the lacquer coat samples in the furnace under the chosen temperature, then separated in the capillary column and detected on a flame ionization detector of gas chromatography. The incipient judgment whether the two fingerprints of LCC were the same can be made from the contour and figure of the chromatograms. To make farther study of the two similar fingerprints, the overlap ratio of the peaks and relative retention values were given in the article. The two LCC samples can be regarded as the same if the overlap ratio of peaks was more than 90%, and the similarity of the ratio of relative retention times r(t2) and r(t1) and relative peak areas r(A2) and r(A1) in the two fingerprints were more than 99% and 70%, respectively. The method is good in repeatability and is easily carried out. The peaks in the fingerprint can be readily recognized. The fingerprint was characterized quantitatively. The method can be used in the department of traffic police and the comparison result can be used as material evidence in the court. PMID:16499002

Li, Chen; Liang, Bing; Shi, Yanping; Jiang, Shengxiang; Ou, Qingyu



Lacquer poisoning  


... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.


Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.  


Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas



The development results of the microwave-based device for defect exposure in multi-layer fiberglass plastic structures, polymer and lacquer-and-paint coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the development results of a device for defect exposure in flaky multi-layer fiber-glass plastic structures (e.g. airborne radomes) and polymeric and lacquer-and-paint protective coatings. A defects disclosure criterion is based on the analysis of amplitude and phase parameters of incident and reflected waves with the use of special algorithm in non-defect and defective materials. The range of working frequencies

V. R. Dzhala; Ya. M. Kempa; O. B. Lyashchuk; N. A. Naumets; Ya. N. Rybak; G. V. Tsukomyk



Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata



Test method for measuring non-visible set-off from inks and lacquers on the food-contact surface of printed packaging materials.  


The main objective was to develop a technique to expose spots of invisible set-off of inks and lacquers on the food-contact surface of food-packaging materials. Set-off is the unintentional transfer of components of printing inks from the outer printed surface onto the food-contact surfaces. The target sensitivity was 20 microg cm(-2) and the technique should be capable of examining large areas of printed substrate for no more than 4% coverage by set-off. These requirements equate to an ability to detect a worst-case migration potential of less than 50 microg kg(-1). Other objectives were the industrial requirements that the equipment should be inexpensive, should be easy to use by existing personnel and should preferably be non-destructive with a clear criterion for pass or fail. The approaches investigated included chemical analysis of solvent extracts, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and microbeam analytical techniques, but these were found to be cumbersome and had only limited success. The objectives were achieved using an optical approach to excite and observe luminescence from invisible set-off. In model experiments, resins were applied to different substrates (plastic, paper and cartonboard). For a given resin on a given material, the key to success was to maximize the discrimination between the luminescence from the resin and that from the substrate by selecting the optimal combination of exciting wavelength and viewing goggles with selective wavelength filters. The required level of detection (20 microg cm(-2)) was achieved or exceeded for all ten resins tested on three different plastics. It was also achieved for two different papers and in all but four cases of the resins on three different cartonboards. Quantitation was achieved by the use of a calibration palette prepared using different quantities of resin spotted onto the relevant blank packaging material. PMID:16019822

Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Dines, T J; Fitzgerald, A G; Gonzalez Tunon, P; Jickells, S M; Johns, S M; Layfield, E S; Mountfort, K A; Onoh, H; Ramsay, I A



Landscape in a Lacquer Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

Savage, Martha



Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  


... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.


Pigments, Paints, Polymer Coatings, Lacquers, and Printing Inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change is constant in the coatings market. As mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships take shape, consolidation and globalization remain prominent. The 80/20 rule (20% of the firms accounting for 80% of business) takes effect as the need for regulatory and environmental compliance continues to plague the market. In 1975, the United States alone supported about 2000 coatings companies. Today, there are less than half that many.

Ryntz, Rose A.


Drying and curing of stains and lacquers used in furniture finishing 1 DRYING AND CURING OF STAINS AND LACQUERS USED IN  

E-print Network

, "blistering" and "blooming". The expensive rework necessary when conditions are conducive to either. In cold or humid weather white milky patches may appear in the surface fin- ish. This is known as blooming

Stokes, Yvonne


Ability of Hydroxypropyl Chitosan Nail Lacquer To Protect against Dermatophyte Nail Infection.  


The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 ?m at day 9 versus 275 ?m in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F




EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...


Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  


One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico



Law of similitude for the surface resistance of lacquered planes moving in a straight line through water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proof of the validity of the Reynolds law of similitude for the surface resistance of planes has been developed with an accuracy hitherto unattained and for a large range of lengths and speeds. It has been shown that, in addition to the form resistance, the resistance of the longitudinal edges must be taken into account.

Gebers, Friedrich



Lacquered Words: The Evolution of Vietnamese under Sinitic Influences from the 1st Century B.C.E. through the 17th Century C.E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As much as three quarters of the modern Vietnamese lexicon is of Chinese origin. The majority of these words are often assumed to have originated in much the same manner as late Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese borrowed forms: by rote memorization of reading glosses that were acquired through limited exposure to spoken Sinitic. However, under closer…

Phan, John Duong



Studies of the Use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Assess the Performance of Lacquers Used to Protect Aluminum Sheet and Can Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involved investigating the feasibility of using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to assess the performance of coatings used to protect aluminum in beverage containers, and developing an accelerated testing procedure. In the preliminary investigation, tests were performed to ensure that the EIS systems at hand are capable, functional and consistent. This was followed by EIS testing of kitchen-aluminum foil and high-impedance epoxy polymer as a baseline for chemically-active and chemically-inert systems. The ability of EIS to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings was tested by investigating deliberately damaged coatings. The effects of varying the pH and oxygen content on the performance of the coated aluminum samples were also tested. From this investigation, it has been concluded that EIS can be used to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings and detect corrosion before it is visually observable. Signatures of corrosion have been recorded and a preliminary testing procedure has been drawn.

Ali, Mohammad


Analyte detection using an active assay  


Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Evanskey, Melissa R. (Potomac Falls, VA)



7-Feb-2007 Status New Imaging Methods Applied to  

E-print Network

paper recorder · 1877 Thomas Edison invents sound reproduction on tin foil Phonograph · 1885 Bell Orthophonic (electrical) system end of the "Acoustic Era" · 1929 Edison production ends, lacquer transcription


Imaging the Voices of the Past: Using Physics to Restore Early Sound Recordings  

E-print Network

· 1859 Leon Scott invents Phonoautograph paper recorder · 1877 Thomas Edison invents sound reproduction) system, ends the "Acoustic Era" · 1929 Edison production ends, lacquer transcription disc introduced


Particle Physics CDF Detector Precision Tracker  

E-print Network

Phonoautograph paper recorder · 1877 Thomas Edison invents sound reproduction on vertically embossed tin foil" · 1929 Edison production ends, lacquer transcription disc introduced · 1947 Magnetic tape in production


The Chemistry of Coatings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

Griffith, James R.



Benzene poisoning  


... be found in: Additives to gasoline and diesel fuel Many industrial solvents Various paint, lacquer , and varnish ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...


46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...L-P-375 C (April 23, 1970), entitled “Plastic Film, Flexible, Vinyl Chloride...141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials...Method 6141 “Washability of Paints”, and Method 6142 “Scrub...



Connections and activities of interest between the State of Ohio and Japan Prepared by the Institute for Japanese Studies at The Ohio State University,  

E-print Network

of bonsai, the Japanese art of miniature trees, in the Old World setting of German Village's historic possesses important examples in metalwork, lacquer, sculpture, painting, and ceramics from both Japan

Jones, Michelle


Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. A 3-generation study of isomer effects on reproductive and developmental parameters in rats.  

E-print Network

. This makes it useful for a wide variety of solvent applications in the manufacture of lacquers, paints, dyes, inks, cleaning agents and liquid soaps, etc. Commercial PGME typically contains at least 98.5% 1

Boyer, Edmond


Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.



Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.



Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael



PLATE LUNCH Kalua Pig...............................................$  

E-print Network

$ 5.50 Lacquered Korean BBQ chicken served with rice and kimchi. Vegan Kalbi Tofu ................................$ 6.00 Vegan kalbi tofu served with rice and Asian slaw. Fried Rice.... Large $5.50/Small $3 Lemonade, Coke, Diet Coke (all in the can) and Dasani bottled water www

Washington at Seattle, University of


Molecular Structure of Urushiol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urushiol is a yellow oil comprised of a mixture of organic compounds containing a catechol (1,2-hydroxy benzene) and a pentadecyl or heptadecyl side chain; some side chains may be unsaturated. The earliest use of urushiol was in the art of ancient Asia, where works of art were coated in lacquer finishes derived from the trees Toxicodendron vernicifluum or Rhus verniciflua. In fact, the name urushiol is derived from urushi, the Japanese word for the lacquer prepared from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree ("kiurushi"). During the lacquering process, the phenols oxidize and polymerize with the help of enzymes to yield a coating that is hard and resistant to mechanical stress. Inhabitants of North America are familiar with the more malevolent side of urushiol-as the active ingredient of poison ivy and poison oak. Most people are highly allergic to urushiol and will develop redness, painful itching, and blistering of the skin if they touch even minute amounts of the oil. Interestingly, one of the most effective remedies for poison ivy comes also from a plant. The Jewelweed plant (Impatiens capensis) found in North American hardwood forests produces a chemical called Lawsone (a naphthoquinone) with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the effects of urushiol on the skin.



46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wooden or fiber reinforced plastic vessel must be installed...must be sealed. (d) Paint and flammable provided. (g) Paint. Nitrocellulose or...noxious fume producing paints or lacquers must not...i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the...



46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wooden or fiber reinforced plastic vessel must be installed...must be sealed. (d) Paint and flammable provided. (g) Paint. Nitrocellulose or...noxious fume producing paints or lacquers must not...i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the...



46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wooden or fiber reinforced plastic vessel must be installed...must be sealed. (d) Paint and flammable provided. (g) Paint. Nitrocellulose or...noxious fume producing paints or lacquers must not...i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the...



46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...wooden or fiber reinforced plastic vessel must be installed...must be sealed. (d) Paint and flammable provided. (g) Paint. Nitrocellulose or...noxious fume producing paints or lacquers must not...i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the...



Danish Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment Riso  

E-print Network

flooring. Different methods of cleaning and maintenance as well as economic aspects are discussed. Careful of a Wax Emulsion 8 >t.·». Re-establishing of the Finish 9 4.5. Cleaning by Machine 9 4.6. Lacquering A PERFORMANCE TEST OF WOOD-PLASTIC PARQUET FLOORING by Klaus Singer and Arne Vinther August 1972 AvaftaMo en


ENGINEERING PROGRAM Advancing health through technology  

E-print Network

, and programmable systems. What can we build for you? 3D Printing 3D printing produces high resolution prototypes research/patients benefit from 3D models? #12; from a wide range of materials including plaster, lacquered paper, bio-compatible plastics, metals


The Chemistry of Optical Discs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

Birkett, David



4 February 2011 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R002 1 of 2 ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION  

E-print Network

-I-720-0A29Z-001-R002 2 of 2 4. Specific Hazards or Special Machine Operations Lead Beryllium Cyanides Nickel, chromium, or other heavy metal Welding or soldering Paint or lacquer Nanoparticle Ladder: 4-10 ft with Class 3b or Class 4 lasers (253 ME) LEAD: Works with lead materials (240 ME and 406 ME) NANOPARTICLE

Wechsler, Risa H.


42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...atomizing a mixture of one volume of clear cellulose nitrate lacquer and one volume of...26505-2888. (6) The concentration of cellulose nitrate in the test aerosol will be 95-125...samples taken during testing, weighed as cellulose nitrate, shall not exceed 5...



Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva



Jeweled Boxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

Coy, Mary



Volume 2, Chapter 11: Bringing Out the Shine and Making It Bright  

E-print Network

it into sesame seed oil and then immerse it in the powder. Then use the cloth to rub the ch'in and bring out already prepared. #12; pigment and gradually mix it up in the lacquer. The color is best when it is like

Binkley, Jim


Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.


46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....



Development of a material with reproducible emission of selected volatile organic compounds - ?-Chamber study.  


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found indoors have the potential to affect human health. Typical sources include building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, etc. To address this risk, chemical emission testing is used to assess the potential of different materials to pollute indoor air. One objective of the European Joint Research Project "MACPoll" (Metrology for Chemical Pollutants in Air) aims at developing and testing a reference material for the quality control of the emission testing procedure. Furthermore, it would enable comparison of measurement results between test laboratories. The heterogeneity of the majority of materials makes it difficult to find a suitable reference sample. In the present study, styrene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-?-pyrrolidone, lindane, n-hexadecane, 1,2-dimethyl- and 1,2-di-n-butyl-phthalate were added to 12 commercially available lacquers (6 alkyd and 6 acrylic polymer based lacquers) serving as carrier substrate. After homogenization, the mixtures were loaded into a Markes Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (?-CTE™) for curing and investigation of the emission behavior for each compound. For almost all of the investigated chemicals, the preferred glossy acrylic lacquer showed emissions that were reproducible with a variation of less than 20% RSD. Such lacquer systems have therefore been shown to be good candidates for use as reference materials in inter-laboratory studies. PMID:24418066

Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Wiegner, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm



The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979



Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih



Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1970-December 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the processes and formulations sensitive to radiation curing in polyester resins. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also included. Applications in paints, coatings, lacquers, printing inks, laminates, photoresists, and other substrates are discussed. (Contains 166 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1973-December 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the formulations and processes for radiation curing on polyester resins. Effects of radiation curing on polyester resins are also discussed. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also examined. Applications in adhesives, coatings, lacquers, and printing inks are included. (Contains 200 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Removal of Synthetic Textile Dyes From Wastewaters: A Critical Review on Present Treatment Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of industrial colorants. These are no longer used only for the coloration of textiles, plastics, paints, inks, and lacquers, but rather serve as key components in high-tech applications such as optical data storage, reprographics, display devices, dye-sensitized solar cells, energy transfer cascades, light-emitting diodes, laser welding processes, or heat management systems. Azo dyes are

Kamaljit Singh; Sucharita Arora



Proteomic Basis for the Increased Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis After Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used to produce a myriad of popular consumer goods, such as food and beverage containers,\\u000a the lacquer lining of canned food, infant formula bottles, and some dental sealants. Recent studies have shown BPA to leach\\u000a from these products in appreciable amounts, resulting in nearly ubiquitous exposure to humans. In this chapter, we review\\u000a two

Sarah Jenkins; Angela M. Betancourt; Jun Wang; James A. Mobley; Coral A. Lamartiniere


New concept of failure of thin organic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings was determined by a nondestructive\\u000a technique (NDT) known as laser shearography. The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premium-grey enamel, a yellow acrylic\\u000a lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20–60\\u000a °C. The

Khaled Habib



Molecular Structure of Cyclohexane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyclohexane exists naturally in petroleum, but is also commercially produced by hydrolyzing benzene. It is relatively volatile with a boiling point lower than that of water. The ability of cyclohexane to assume different conformations lends itself to a vast array of chemistry. Cyclohexane is used as a solvent for lacquers and resins, as a paint intermediate and varnish remover, in the extraction of essential oils, and in analytical chemistry for molecular weight determination. Also it is used in the manufacture of adipic acid, benzene, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexyl chloride, nitrocyclohexane, solid fuel for camp stoves, in industrial recrystallization of steroids, and in fungicidal formulations. Cyclohexane is also used in the preparation of nylon.



Nanomaterials Transform Hairstyling Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Dennis Morrison, a former scientist at Johnson Space Center, conducted research on microcapsules that were developed in space and designed to deliver drugs to cancerous tumors. This work led to research on nanoceramic materials, and in 2001, Morrison shared his expertise with Farouk Shami, the owner of Farouk Systems Inc., of Houston, Texas. After learning more, Shami developed a ceramic composite for his CHI (Cationic Hydration Interlink) hairstyling irons, brushes, nail lacquers, and hair dryers. Morrison also used his NASA research expertise as a platform to incorporate nanosilver and near-infrared light into the products.



Matting Agent Concentration and its Effect on the Colour and the Rheology of Matted Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matting of polymeric pigmented coatings not only decreases the gloss of surfaces but also affects their colour and rheological properties. For this reason, it is important to study the changes in colour and rheology of coatings caused by adding a matting agent. Blue, green and white alkyd lacquers and pure silica as matting have been investigated regarding this purpose. The obtained results showed that after a saturation point, the alterations in colour and rheology change their direction. The optical processes effecting these alterations are discussed.

Nsib, Faouzi; Ayed, Naceur; Chevalier, Yves


Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.



Treatment of onychomycosis: an update.  


Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

Shirwaikar, A A; Thomas, T; Shirwaikar, A; Lobo, R; Prabhu, K S



Electrochemical reaction mechanisms for hydrogen at highly disperse tungsten carbide  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic parameters of the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen ionization and evolution of tungsten carbide were compared and these reactions were described in terms of a unified reaction scheme. Two types of electrodes were used, a rotating disk electrode with a thin catalyst layer of disperse tungsten carbide and the second model was a floating gas-diffusion electrode. Fluoropolymer lacquer was used as the binder. The kinetic parameters were determined by measuring steady-state polarization curves and potentiodynamic curves. A hypothesis for a hydrogen ionization reaction scheme was developed which may serve in future investigations and the authors suggest prior deprotonation of the hydrogen molecules.

Boikova, G.V.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Tarasevich, M.R.



Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn



Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.  


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C



Establishment of a Novel Model of Onychomycosis in Rabbits for Evaluation of Antifungal Agents ?  

PubMed Central

We developed a novel model of onychomycosis in which we observed fungi in the deep layer of the nail, and we used the model to evaluate the efficacy of two topical antifungal drugs. To establish an experimental, in vivo model of onychomycosis, we applied Trichophyton mentagrophytes TIMM2789 to the nails of the hind limbs of rabbits that underwent steroid treatment. The nails were taken from the rabbits' feet at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after a 2-week infection. The localization of the fungi was evaluated histopathologically. Some fungi were seen to penetrate to the nail bed, and the infection rate in the sample at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after infection was 57, 87, and 93%, respectively. In addition, fungi proliferated and moved proximally into the nail plate in a manner that depended on the duration of infection. Second, using this model we evaluated antifungal efficacy both by the culture recovery method and histopathological examination. Two topical antifungal drugs, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer, were applied to the nail for 4 weeks in each group. On histopathological examination, two antifungal treatment groups showed no significant difference against the nontreated control group. However, there were a significantly low fungus-positive rate and intensity of the recovery of fungi on culture between antifungal treatment and nontreated control groups. We therefore suggest that we have established an in vivo model of onychomycosis that is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:21555762

Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Saori; Suzuki, Taku; Mukai, Hideki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi



EuroGeoMars mission and techniques: First results for geology and geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EuroGeoMars expedition forms part of the European Space Agency's ExoGeoLab research project and is a test campaign at the MDRS (Mars Desert Research Station), which is operated by the Mars Society, in the Utah desert, US. MDRS has yet been used by research groups of various interest as an analogue site to the Martian environment. The goal of this expedition is to simulate the employment of various instruments and sample return under Martian conditions, while carrying out several geological and biological investigations. In this paper we present our methods and first results for the geological and geochemistry investigations. Two main geological investigations have been carried out, of which one includes mapping of the sequence stratigraphy and internal structure of Quaternary alluvial fan deposits, 5 km South-West of the MDRS. Alluvial fans are formed when a stream gradient decreases over a relatively small area and therefore coarse-grained sediments are being deposited. Alluvial fans on Mars are of particular interest because they may have formed, as they do on Earth, a niche for life at deposition time. If any was present, the sediments may contain detritus that was transported by the river from the hinterland. Furthermore, the internal structure and lithology represent the depositional environment, water activity, and climatological perturbations. These three factors provide main implications for the conditions and possibilities of maintaining life. Mineralogical variations represent changes in the source area of the sediments and hence possible tectonic activity. The fan that we investigated measures 1.5 x 1.5 km and is made up of several stratigraphic sequences that we defined by classic geological methods. We followed the sedimentary sequences laterally using a Ground Penetrating Radar system (GPR) and taking samples for ground truth by drilling. All samples were analyzed on mineral content using Raman spectroscopy and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for mineralogical and elemental analysis respectively. We created lacquer peels from several sequences in order to sample and study sedimentary structures. The procedure to make lacquer peels is to poor lacquer over an outcrop and sticking the unconsolidated sediments to a piece of cloth, which is subsequently pasted upon a hardboard plank. Another investigation that was carried out focuses on the possibilities and restrictions to the geologist for future fieldwork on Mars. Hence the investigators did similar type of experiments as for the alluvial fan, wearing spacesuits and spending restricted time outside as they would on a Martian base. The EuroGeoMars expedition is the first in a series of manned planetary mission simulations.

Peters, S. T. M.; Borst, A.; Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Slob, E.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B.



Temperature stability of transit time delay for a single-mode fibre in a loose tube cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature on the transit-time delay of a loose-tube-type single-mode optical-fiber cable is investigated experimentally. A 1058-m length of cable was placed loosely coiled in an oven and used to connect a 820-nm single-mode laser diode to a high-speed avalanche-photodiode detector feeding a vector voltmeter; the signal was provided by a high-stability frequency-synthesized generator. Measurements were made every 2 C from -50 to 60 C and compared to those obtained with a 200-m lacquered bare fiber. The phase change of both fibers varied with temperature at a positive slope of 6-7 ppm/C. This value is significantly better than those reported for other cable types, suggesting the application of loose-fiber cables to long-haul gigabit digital transmissions or precision time-base distribution for VLBI.

Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.; Johnston, A. R.



Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): G and H Industrial Landfill Site, Macomb County, MI. (First remedial action), December 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 70-acre G and H Landfill site is an inactive landfill in Shelby Township, Macomb County, Michigan. The site overlies two ground water aquifers, the uppermost of which is the source of drinking water for some eastern area residences and industries. From 1955 to 1973, G and H landfill accepted municipal refuse, and solid and liquid industrial wastes including solvents, paints, varnishes, and lacquers. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminated soil, sediment, and landfill material (OU1); and the contaminated ground water plume, landfill leachate, and oil seep. The selected remedial action for the site includes constructing a subsurface barrier wall around the perimeter of the landfill areas and oil seeps; instituting leachate collection and treatment; and excavating soil and sediment.

Not Available



The allergens in cosmetics.  


The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]). PMID:3421728

de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W



Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)



Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.



Directional emittance surface measurement system and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)



Fabrication of imaging X-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabrication, and performance of optics for X-ray astronomy and laboratory applications are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and sample images. Particular attention is given to the Wolter I telescope developed for spectroscopic observation of 8-30-A cosmic X-ray sources from a rocketborne X-ray Objective Grating Spectrometer; this instrument employs three nested paraboloid-hyperboloid mirrors of 5083 Al alloy, figured by diamond turning and covered with a thin coating of acrylic lacquer prior to deposition of a 40-nm-thick layer of Sn. In calibration tests at NASA Marshall, the FWHM of the line-spread function at 1.33 nm was found to be 240 microns, corresponding to 21 arcsec. Also presented are the results of reflectivity measurements on C and W multilayers sputtered on Si and fusion glass substrates.

Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Brookover, W. J.


Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew



Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols  

PubMed Central

Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110?kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted. PMID:22545205

Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



Materials processing with a high power diode laser  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on work exploring the feasibility of a range of materials processing applications using a Diomed 60W diode laser delivered through a 600{mu}m diameter optical fibre to a 3 axis CNC workstation. The applications studied include: marking/engraving natural stones (marble and granite), marking ceramic tiles, sealing tile grouts, cutting and marking glass, marking/engraving wood, stripping paint and lacquer, and welding metallic wires. The study shows that even at the present limited power level of diode lasers, many materials processing applications can be accomplished with satisfactory results. Through the study an initial understanding of interaction of high power diode laser (HPDL) beam with various materials has been gained. Also, within the paper basic beam characteristics, and current R&D activities in HPDL technology and materials processing applications are reviewed.

Li, L.; Lawrence, J. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Spencer, J.T. [BNFL, Lancashire (United Kingdom)



Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)



Survey of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.  


2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to find out if there is migration of BADGE from can coatings into foods, a 'worst case' sampling exercise has been conducted to survey those canned foods where the propensity for migration of BADGE was judged to be highest. The foods surveyed include canned fish in oil, meat and milk and, altogether, BADGE was determined in 181 retail samples. Analysis for BADGE was conducted, in duplicate, by HPLC with fluorescence detection with confirmation of BADGE identity by GC/MS analysis using selected ion monitoring. BADGE was found at levels exceeding 1 mg/kg in seven of the 15 canned anchovy samples and five of the 22 sardine samples purchased during the period September 1995-July 1996. Infrared analysis of the can coatings provided strong evidence that the higher BADGE levels found were associated with use of PVC organosol lacquers, although in some cases cans coated with organosols gave low BADGE results. For canned sardine samples found to contain greater than 0.5 mg/kg BADGE in the total contents, a replicate can was opened and separate analyses performed on the drained fish and the oil. The results clearly showed that BADGE concentrations in the oil were about 20 times higher than in the drained fish. Further samples of canned sardines and anchovies were purchased in June/July 1997 and, in all cases, BADGE levels were found to be below 1 mg/kg. In the other retail canned foods, BADGE was not detectable (DL = 0.02 mg/kg) or detected at concentrations well below the temporary SML of 1 mg/kg. PMID:10211191

Summerfield, W; Goodson, A; Cooper, I



Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (? > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri



Biomonitoring of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols by analysing urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids.  


2-Methoxyacetic and 2-ethoxyacetic acids are well known toxic metabolites of 2-alkoxyethanols. The use of 2-alkoxyethanols is now restricted, and the regulations have forced manufacturers to find substitutive solvents, 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols. 2-(2-Alkoxyethoxy)ethanols resemble 2-alkoxyethanols, and their most hazardous similarity is their ability to metabolize to the 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. In the present study, floor lacquerers' (n = 22) inhalation and total exposure to 2-(2-alkoxy)ethoxyethanols was measured. The measurements of inhalation exposure were done with charcoal tubes, and total exposure was biomonitored by urinalysis of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. The 8h inhalation exposures of floor lacquerers to 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGME), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGEE) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGBE) were in average 0.23 +/- 0.07 ppm (average+/-S.D., n = 3), 0.08 +/- 0.07 ppm (n = 16), and 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm (n = 16), respectively. The excretions of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)acetic acid (EEAA) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)acetic acid (BEAA) were in average 4.9 +/- 4.3 mmol/mol creatinine, 9.3 +/- 8.0 mmol/mol creatinine and 9.2 +/- 7.4 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acid concentrations and the preceding 8-h occupational exposure to 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol. PMID:15705492

Laitinen, J; Pulkkinen, J



Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures used in the paint and varnish production.  


The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system. PMID:8972166

Indulski, J A; Si?czuk-Walczak, H; Szymczak, M; Weso?owski, W



Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (?>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.



Onychomycosis Caused by Chaetomium globosum  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. The genus Chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. We report the first Korean case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. The patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th). Direct microscopic examination of scraping on the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed septate hyphae and repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide slants showed the same fast-growing colonies, which were initially velvety white then turned to dark gray to brown. However, there was no growth of colony on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Brown-colored septated hyphae, perithecia and ascospores were shown in the slide culture. The DNA sequence of internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of C. globosum strain ATCC 6205 (GenBank accession number EF524036.1). We confirmed C. globosum by KOH mount, colony, and light microscopic morphology and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated with 250 mg oral terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. PMID:23717019

Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Myung Hoon; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo; Choi, Jong Soo



Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra  

PubMed Central

Laccases (EC are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda



Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop  

SciTech Connect

This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering



Electron beams in research and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

Mehnert, R.



Identification of formaldehyde releasers and occurrence of formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers in registered chemical products.  


Substances referred to as formaldehyde releasers were identified on review of the literature. Information on product categories and typical concentrations for chemical products containing formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers was obtained from the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS). As of February 1992, 62,000 products were registered in PROBAS, 30,900 of these with information on composition and product category. Among the components of these products, 19 of the 22 identified formaldehyde releasers were found. The number of products registered with each formaldehyde releaser varied from 4 to 171, with cleaning agents, soaps, shampoos, paint/lacquers, and cutting fluids as the most frequent product categories. The most frequently registered formaldehyde releasers were bromonitropropanediol, bromonitrodioxane, and chloroallylhexaminium chloride. Formaldehyde itself was registered in 1,781 products, and was found in all product categories included in the study. It is concluded that products for industrial use as well as household and personal care products should be considered as sources of formaldehyde exposure. The use of unsystematic chemical names in literature is discussed. PMID:8266930

Flyvholm, M A; Andersen, P



Biotic and abiotic degradation behaviour of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME).  


Glycol ethers are widely used in many processes in the chemical industry. Their high water solubility means they are used as solvents for different purposes (e.g. lacquers and varnishes). Since glycol ethers are known to produce toxic metabolites such as the teratogenic methoxyacetic acid during biodegradation, the biological treatment of glycol ethers can be hazardous. However, using oxidizing agents like hydrogen peroxide could be a feasible option for treating wastewater containing glycol ether. In this study, both-, biodegradation and abiotic oxidation experiments with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) as contaminant were performed. The biodegradation experiments were conducted with a synthetic model wastewater containing 15 wt% NaCl and 5000 mgl(-1) of EGME. While experiments with the fungus Aspergillus versicolor resulted in the exhaustive biotic degradation of EGME, the toxic metabolite methoxyacetic acid (MAA) was produced as a 'dead end' product. Sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the decreasing pH caused by the production of MAA. In abiotic degradation experiments with EGME, other degradation products--organic acids and toxic aldehydes, e.g. methoxy acetaldehyde (MALD)--were detected. It must be taken into account that EGME and its biotic and abiotic degradation products are usually not analysed in routine wastewater measurements owing to their physical properties. PMID:15878604

Fischer, A; Hahn, C



Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick



Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)



Laccase versus laccase-like multi-copper oxidase: a comparative study of similar enzymes with diverse substrate spectra.  


Laccases (EC are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term "laccase-like multi-copper oxidase" (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda



Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.



Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  


Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun



Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

Echt, A.



Laccase from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Polymerizes Monolignols  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of the final oxidative steps leading to lignin deposition in trees and other higher plants is limited with respect to what enzymes are involved, where they are localized, how they are transported, and what factors regulate them. With the use of cell suspension cultures of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), an in-depth study of laccase, one of the oxidative enzymes possibly responsible for catalyzing the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols in the extracellular matrix, was undertaken. The time course for secretion of laccase into suspension culture medium was determined with respect to age and mass of the cells. Laccase was completely separated from peroxidase activity by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and its purity was assessed with different types of gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing-, native-, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Amino acid and glycosyl analyses of the purified enzyme were compared with those reported from previous studies of plant and fungal laccases. The specific activity of laccase toward several common substrates, including monolignols, was determined. Unlike a laccase purified from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera), laccase from sycamore maple oxidized sinapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols to form water-insoluble polymers (dehydrogenation polymers). ImagesFigure 3 PMID:16668984

Sterjiades, Raja; Dean, Jeffrey F. D.; Eriksson, Karl-Erik L.



Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.

Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.



Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.



Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin: A Novel Transungual Permeation Enhancer for Development of Topical Drug Delivery System for Onychomycosis  

PubMed Central

The treatment of onychomycosis is a challenging task because of unique barrier properties of the nail plate which hampers the passage of antifungal drugs in a concentration required to eradicate the deeply seated causative fungi in the nail bed. In present investigation, application of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was established as an effective and nail friendly transungual drug permeation enhancer especially for poorly water soluble drugs using terbinafine hydrochloride as a poorly soluble drug. HP-?-CD significantly improves hydration of nail plates and increases solubility of terbinafine hydrochloride in the aqueous environment available therein, which leads to uninterrupted drug permeation through water filled pores of hydrogel-like structure of hydrated nail plates. A nail lacquer formulation was designed with an objective to deliver the drug in an effective concentration across nail plates, using HP-?-CD as a permeation enhancer. The formulations containing HP-?-CD showed higher flux than the control formulation in in vitro drug permeation study. The formulation containing 10%?w/v of HP-?-CD showed maximum flux of 4.586 ± 0.08??g/mL/cm2 as compared to the control flux of 0.868 ± 0.06??g/mL/cm2. This finding supports application of HP-?-CD as an effective permeation enhancer for transungual delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride and possibly other poorly water soluble drugs where HP-?-CD can act as a solubilizer. PMID:25177500

Saini, T. R.



Airplane dopes and doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

Smith, W H



Determination of bisphenol a and bisphenol B residues in canned peeled tomatoes by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) concentrations were determined in peeled canned tomatoes of different brands bought in Italian supermarkets. Tomato samples analyzed were packaged in cans coated with either epoxyphenolic lacquer or low BADGE enamel. A solid phase extraction (SPE) was performed on C-18 Strata E cartridge followed by a step on Florisil cartridge. Detection and quantitation were performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with both UV and fluorescence detection (FD). On the total of 42 tested tomato samples, BPA was detected in 22 samples (52.4%), while BPB was detected in 9 samples (21.4%). BPA and BPB were simultaneously present in 8 of the analyzed samples. The levels of BPA found in this study are much lower than the European Union migration limits of 3 mg/kg food and reasonably unable to produce a daily intake exceeding the limit of 0.05 mg/kg body weight, established by European Food Safety Authority. PMID:18959420

Grumetto, Lucia; Montesano, Domenico; Seccia, Serenella; Albrizio, Stefania; Barbato, Francesco



After the Day of Infamy: 'Man-on-the-Street' Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress presents this seasonal collection of field recordings of over 200 ordinary Americans' reactions to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. Made between December 8, 1941, and February 1942, the original recordings used a technology called direct-to-disk, which created fragile, lacquer-coated, aluminum disks that could be played at 33 1/3 or 78 RPMs. The site includes transcripts and audio of the recordings, biographies of the people who conducted the interviews, and information on how the disks have been preserved since the 1940s (in the 1960s, most of the collection was copied onto magnetic tape). There are also a few documents, primarily letters and communications between Alan Lomax, "assistant in charge" of the Library of Congress Archive of American Folk Song, who managed the project, and field workers. The interview transcripts can be searched by keyword, and browsing by names, subjects, titles, and geographic locations is possible. In addition, the interviews have been arranged into series, or sets, of recordings made by one interviewer in a particular location, for example five 8-inch discs recorded in Bloomington and Mishawaka, Indiana, by Robert E. Barton Allen.


Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.  


Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market. PMID:22554646

Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G



The Alcan fluidized bed decoater: A new generation of decoating technology  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that removal of organic material such as lacquer, paint, plastic prior to melting improves aluminum recovery. In addition to being ail important economically, decoating of aluminum scrap has a positive impact on the environment, through better control of gaseous emissions. Most of the existing thermal decoaters for aluminum have been designed to operate with scrap containing a level of organic material lower than 10%. The main field of their present application is for recycling of used aluminum can, where levels of organic material are lower than 4%. Alcan has recently developed a new thermal decoating system in order to extend applications of this process to a much wider variety of aluminum scrap. The new decoater efficiently processes aluminum scrap with a level of organic material LIP to 50%. This new technology features the use of fluidized bed technology to thermally control the process. This innovative feature improves both performance and control over conventional delacquering systems based on hot air convection. This paper describes the basic principles of the technology and the design of the first industrial unit commissioned by the Alcan Recycling plant in Shelbyville (TN) at the beginning of 1994. Typical applications in operating advantages are discussed.

Tremblay, F.; Litalien, M. [Alcan International Ltd., Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Centre; Stephens, D. [Alcan Recycling, Shelbyville, TN (United States)



Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

Huang, C.-P. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Robin Y. [Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Kan, L.-S. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.-B. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:



Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.  


Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99+/-5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. PMID:12324843

Perring, Loïc; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija



XIIth international meeting on radiation processing Avignon 25-30 March 2001 (Polymer irradiation: past-present and future)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiations are used efficiently and economically for the production of new or modified polymers. The following processes are considered: Radiation curing; Radiation cross-linking; Radiation grafting. These processes are commonly used today in industry and provide a broad range of new potential applications in various fields. The history of their development is briefly reported. The chemical reactions underlying these processes are described. (1) Radiation curing is used commercially on a large scale for the production of improved coatings, lacquers and inks. The process can be conducted at very high speeds. Curing of magnetic formulations leads to particularly stable products, which compete favourably with more conventional materials. (2) Radiation cross-linking is an established technology in the wire and cable industry. It emparts to the modified insulators improved resistance to solvents, to ageing and to elevated temperatures. The resulting cross-linked network also reduces the migration of fillers and thereby stabilizes in time any message imprinted with magnetic or colored pigments dispersed in a polymer. (3) Radiation grafting is a powerful method for modifying more profoundly the properties of a polymer and for creating numerous, entirely new materials. The chemical modification can be applied at will into the bulk of the material or limited to a surface zone of any desired depth. This method can be used for instance, for introducing polar groups in the bulk or on the surface of non-polar polymers, for increasing or reducing the wettability of a polymer, for imparting a better compatibility of a polymer to a specific coating and the like. The irradiation of water-soluble polymers in aqueous solutions, with or without the addition of another monomer gives rise to a variety of cross-linked gels which find useful applications in the biomedical field. Other promising applications will be considered.

Chapiro, Adolphe



Cyclohexane produces behavioral deficits associated with astrogliosis and microglial reactivity in the adult hippocampus mouse brain.  


Cyclohexane is a volatile substance that has been utilized as a safe substitute of several organic solvents in diverse industrial processes, such as adhesives, paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, and rubber industry. A number of these commercial products are ordinarily used as inhaled drugs. However, it is not well known whether cyclohexane has noxious effects in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cyclohexane inhalation on motor behavior, spatial memory, and reactive gliosis in the hippocampus of adult mice. We used a model that mimics recreational drug use in male Balb/C mice (P60), divided into two groups: controls and the cyclohexane group (exposed to 9,000 ppm of cyclohexane for 30 days). Both groups were then evaluated with a functional observational battery (FOB) and the Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, the relative expression of AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), and the number of astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were quantified in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings indicated that cyclohexane produced severe functional deficits during a recreational exposure as assessed by the FOB. The MWM did not show statistically significant changes in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory. Remarkably, a significant increase in the number of astrocytes and microglia cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of these cells were observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of cyclohexane-exposed mice. This cellular response was associated with an increase in the expression of APE1 in the same brain regions. In summary, cyclohexane exposure produces functional deficits that are associated with an important increase in the APE1 expression as well as the number of astrocytes and microglia cells and their cytoplasmic complexity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the adult hippocampus. PMID:25433657

Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Zarate-Lopez, David; Galvez-Contreras, Alma Y; Moy-Lopez, Norma; Guzman-Muniz, Jorge; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar



Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.



Critical assessment of the integrity of thin organic films by shearography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the temperature versus thermal deformation (strain) with respect to time, of different coating films were studied by a non-destructive technique (NDT) known as shearography. An organic coating, i.e., epoxy, a white enamel, and a yellow Acrylic Lacquer on a metallic alloy, i.e., carbon steels, were investigated at a temperature range simulating the severe weather temperatures in Kuwait especially between the daylight and the night time temperatures, 20-60 °C. The investigation focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings, which amounts to the thermal deformation (strain) with respect to the applied temperature range. Furthermore, the investigation focused on determining the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature range. In other words, one could determine, from the decreasing value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, a critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, in which the integrity of the coatings can be assessed with respect to time. In fact, determination of critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings could be accomplished independent of parameters, i.e., UV exposure, Humidity, exposure to chemical species, and so on, normally are considered in conventional methods of the assessment of the integrity of coatings. In other words, with the technique of shearography, one would need only to determine the critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Furthermore, results of shearography indicate that the technique is very useful NDT method not only for determining the critical value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings, but also the technique can be used as a 2D- microscope for monitoring the deformation of the coatings in realtime at a submicroscopic scale.

Habib, K.



Multi-analyte methods for the detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in food contact materials and foodstuffs--part I: HPLC-DAD screening of materials.  


The objective of this work was to develop a HPLC-DAD method suitable for the screening of food contact materials for a total of 63 monomeric and polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists. Such multi-analyte methods are worthwhile for official control laboratories, where normally no information about the composition of the applied inks or varnishes on the printed or lacquered materials is available and thus target analyses are not feasible. The polymeric analytes were each separated in a multitude of substance peaks, which largely overlaid those of the other compounds. Thus, for 13 polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists a hydrolysis method was developed that reduced the number of ultraviolet (UV) detectable peaks to only one. This allowed easier identification and--preliminary--semi-quantification of these polymeric substances with adequate limits of detection. The remaining 50 photoinitiators and amine synergists were combined in one HPLC-DAD method. But since many of these substances are structurally related, partly retention times and spectra did not differ significantly. Thus selectivity was enhanced by preparing a database containing all spectra and retention times of the investigated compounds. Furthermore, the retention times of those 50 substances were calculated relative to two internal standards to overcome variances of retention from run to run or due to matrix effects. The developed method was tested for the analysis of food contact materials. Extractions of these were performed with acetonitrile and partially the extracts were subsequently concentrated in a steam of nitrogen. Limits of detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in concentrated packaging extracts were in the range between 0.02 and 5.5 µg dm(-2). PMID:24405406

Jung, T; Browatzki, C; Simat, T J



The Low Keratin Affinity of Efinaconazole Contributes to Its Nail Penetration and Fungicidal Activity in Topical Onychomycosis Treatment  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan



Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria



Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K



Obtainment of pellets using the standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: The standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul is an alternative for the treatment of vitiligo. There is a shortage of solid oral dosage forms developed from standardized extracts of this plant specie. Objective: This study is aimed to obtain pellets with a standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii. Results: The standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii was obtained through maceration and percolation with a 55% ethanol-water solution (v/v). Pellets were obtained through a mixture of extract of 500 g of B. gaudichaudii standardized extract, 500 g of microcrystalline cellulose PH101 and 10 g of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100. The pellets obtained presented a homogeneity yield of 92%, aspect ratio of 1.16 ± 0.65, shape fator eR of 0.35 ± 0.09 and Feret diammeter of 0.87 ± 0.27. These pellets were coated with a suspension composed of titanium dioxide, aluminum red lacquer, ethyl cellulose, talc and magnesium stearate. Before the photostability test, the uncoated pellets showed psoralen content equal to 0.13 ± 0.01% and to the 5-MOP was 1.40 ± 0.27%. After exposure to one level (3 of UVB irradiation the uncoated pellets presented a degradation of 2.16% of psoralen and 8.1% of 5-MOP. After exposure to three levels (10, 20 and 30 of UVA irradiation the uncoated pellets exhibited photodegradation of 9.78, 17.64, 24.21% of psoralen and 18.95, 23.68, 28.48% for 5-MOP. The coated pellets where unaffected after photostability test. Conclusion: Pellets were obtained with the standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii and coating is a technological alternative to ensure the stability of the formula. PMID:25709229

Filho, Omar Paulino Silva; Oliveira, Leandra Almeida Ribeiro; Martins, Frederico Severino; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Freitas, Osvaldo; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso



Phenol-induced in vivo oxidative stress in skin: evidence for enhanced free radical generation, thiol oxidation, and antioxidant depletion.  


A variety of phenolic compounds are utilized in industry (e.g., for the production of phenol (PhOH)-formaldehyde resins, paints and lacquers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals). They can be toxic to skin, causing rash, dermal inflammation, contact dermatitis, depigmentation, and cancer promotion. The biochemical mechanisms for the dermal toxicity of phenolic compounds are not well understood. We hypothesized that topical PhOH exposure results in the generation of radicals, possibly via redox-cycling of phenoxyl radicals, which may be an important contributor to dermal toxicity via the stimulation of the induction and release of inflammatory mediators. To test this hypothesis, we (1) monitored in vivo the formation of PBN-spin-trapped radical adducts by ESR spectroscopy, (2) measured GSH, protein thiols, vitamin E, and total antioxidant reserves in the skin of B6C3F1 mice topically treated with PhOH, and (3) compared the responses with those produced by PhOH in mice with diminished levels of GSH. We found that dermal exposure to PhOH (3.5 mmol/kg, 100 microL on the shaved back, for 30 min) caused oxidation of GSH and protein thiols and decreased vitamin E and total antioxidant reserves in skin. The magnitude of the PhOH-induced generation of PBN-spin-trapped radical adducts in the skin of mice with diminished levels of GSH (pretreated with BCNU, an inhibitor of glutathione reductase, or BSO, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase) was markedly higher compared to radical generation in mice treated with PhOH alone. Topical exposure to PhOH resulted in skin inflammation. Remarkably, this inflammatory response was accelerated in mice with a reduced level of GSH. Epidermal mouse cells exposed to phenolic compounds showed the induction of early inflammatory response mediators, such as prostaglandin E 2 and IL-1beta. Since dermal exposure to PhOH produced ESR-detectable PBN spin-trapped signals of lipid-derived radicals, we conclude that this PhOH-induced radical formation is involved in oxidative stress and dermal toxicity in vivo. PMID:17922553

Murray, A R; Kisin, E; Castranova, V; Kommineni, C; Gunther, M R; Shvedova, A A



Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan



Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort addresses reported traces of BPA detected using different analytical techniques. In this study, the presence of BPA in different baby feeding bottles was determined. In general, the concentration of BPA released increased with increasing time of heating and longer use. The experimental results also showed that BPA is present in those plastic containers, even though labeled " BPA free". Research and studies done by scientists and other health organizations have agreed to measure BPA levels in human tissue, and determine its negative effects to human health. At this time the source and level of exposure to BPA is unknown. For this reason, much more research is needed to uncover more evidence of this toxic chemical.

Bidabadi, Fatemeh


Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (?= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.



Migration of epoxidised soya bean oil into foods from retail packaging materials and from plasticised PVC film used in the home.  


Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser and heat stabiliser in a number of feed contact materials, in particular in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and gaskets. The level of ESBO migration into foods has been determined using a combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analytical procedure. The study has included both the use of ESBO-containing materials for retail packaged foods and the domestic use of plasticised PVC films for applications such as wrapping food and covering food for re-heating in a microwave oven. Levels of ESBO in fresh retail meat samples wrapped in film ranged from less than 1 to 4 mg/kg, but were higher (max. 22 mg/kg) in retail cooked meat. Migration into sandwiches and rolls from 'take-away' outlets ranged from less than 1 to 27 mg/kg depending on factors such as the type of filling and the length of the contact time prior to analysis. The levels of migration of ESBO into cheese and cakes were consistent with previous experience with plasticiser migration--direct contact with fatty surfaces leading to the highest levels. When the film was used for microwave cooking in direct contact with food, levels of ESBO from 5 to 85 mg/kg were observed, whereas when the film was employed only as a splash cover for re-heating foods, ESBO levels ranged from 0.1 to 16 mg/kg. For a variety of baby foods there was no significant difference in ESBO levels between foods packaged in glass jars with PVC gaskets and foods in cans containing ESBO in the can lacquer. In both cases ESBO levels were low, ranging from less than 0.1 to 7.6 mg/kg. It is not clear for these retail samples, if the low levels observed (average 1.9 mg/kg) result solely from migration or contain some contribution from naturally occurring epoxides. PMID:2307263

Castle, L; Mayo, A; Gilbert, J



Proof of efficacy of different modified sonic scaler inserts used for debridement in furcations--a dummy head trial.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of different scaling instruments for surgical removal of hard and soft bacterial deposits and for the removal of soft accretions only for maintenance treatment within furcations. 12 upper and 12 lower plastic replicated molars, with through-and-through furcations, were instrumented 3 x with 4 different types of instruments: (1) hand instruments; (2) a conventional sonic scaler insert; (3) a set of 3 modified sonic scaler inserts with budded tips and different angulated shafts; (4) a set of 3 sonic scaler inserts with a plastic-coating and different angulated shafts. The plastic replicas were fixed in a dummy head without any replicated soft tissues. In the furcation area, an easily removable surface coating material was applied to the teeth to represent the "plaque" and a second, more stubborn lacquer layer representing "calculus/cementum". Following instrumentation, the following parameters were recorded to assess efficacy; time required for instrumentation, loss of weight, depth of substance removal at the furcation entrance, % of furcation area instrumented, whereby removal of these 2 layers was judged separately. Only minor differences were observed between hand instruments, conventional and budded sonic scaler inserts as to loss of weight, depth of substance loss and area instrumented. The plastic-coated sonic scaler inserts were just as effective in surface layer removal representing "plaque" as the 3 other instruments, but resulted in less loss of weight and less depth of substance removal. In conclusion, the more aggressive hand instruments, the conventional and budded sonic scaler insert, are preferably used for the surgical phase to increased ease of entry into the furcation dome. An effective debridement of the furcation roof seems only possible with an odontoplastic, for which a furcation is fitted to the instrument by means of an intensive instrumentation, thus leading to weight loss and pronounced substance removal. The plastic-coated sonic scaler inserts seems to be a reasonable choice for maintenance treatment within furcation, since this treatment phase is usually restricted to removal of soft bacterial deposits. PMID:8841899

Kocher, T; Rühling, A; Herweg, M; Plagman, H C



EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station: Preparing for Future Mars Landers and Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Surface science is one of the prime objectives of current and future Mars, Moon, or planetary missions and encompasses a wide range of activities from global mapping via specific studies of localised regions until microscopic scales. The studies of rocks and soil in situ, or with sample return missions, require the development of systematic multi-instruments protocols, characterisation diagnostics, and merging of data from various techniques. Both photogeology and mineralogical wide scale mapping have been performed to some extent previously so significant new surface science results may only come from co-ordinated multi-instrument operations operating from the surface. EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign: The goal of the mission (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) is to demonstrate and validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science. This chain begins with characterisation of the local surface and close sub-surface environment, before moving on to sample extraction and analysis. The characterisation stage involves a survey of a sample area in the vicinity of the MDRS site by our geologists and other team members. This utilises satellite and aerial photography to inform the overallmorphology and geological unit distribution, with the specific geological and geochemical context being provided through the use of imagers and spectrometers. Further reconnaissance is used to plan sample-extraction EVAs at sites of geochemical and astrobiological significance. Characterisation of larger-scale features is conducted in-situ (for example using ground penetrating radar to investigate the close sub-surface). Results from these sorties inform the choice and planning of sites for surface and sub-surface sampling. The sample extraction step - the nature of which is dependent on the identified areas of interest - involves standard geological tools such as rock drills and scoops etc, as well as more specific techniques such as lacquer peels. These samples are returned to the MDRS for analysis using microscopes and other analysis techniques. These documented samples are afterward taken to ESTEC and collaborators institutes for analysis by various techniques.

Foing, B. H.; Pletser, V.; Stoker, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.



200,000 historic recordings are making their way to the Library of Congress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Universal Music Donating 200K Master Recordings to Library of Congress Digital Library Race, and Playing Catch-Up [Free registration may be required] Arts Encyclopedia for the Nation Indian Music the nation's repository for published works small and large (and in-between), the Library of Congress remains one of the greatest cultural assets in the United States. This venerable institution received an excellent piece of news this week when the Universal Music Group announced that it would be giving the Library approximately 200,000 metal, glass, and lacquer master discs from 1926 to 1948. Many of these rare items have been stored at Iron Mountain, a former limestone mine in Pennsylvania which holds various government and corporate records. This tremendous archive contains songs from just about every genre, including jazz, blues, light classical, and some spoken-word numbers. As part of the agreement negotiated between the Library of Congress and Vivendi (the parent company of Universal), the Library has been granted ownership of the physical discs, while Vivendi will retain the formal copyright to the music recorded on the discs. Over the coming years, the Library of Congress will preserve and digitize many of these recordings, and curious parties will be able to eventually listen to them online. Gene DeAnna, head of the recorded sound section of the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division of the Library, remarked, "This is going to be the gift that keeps giving, that keeps our engineers and staff here busy for years. Our challenge right now is to decide where to start, because the sheer numbers are just staggering."The first link will take visitors to a New York Times article from Monday about this recent gift to the Library of Congress. The second link leads to a similar piece from the Hollywood Reporter. Moving along, the third link will take interested parties to a thoughtful piece from this Saturday's New York Times about the race to create an effective digital library in the United States and other nations. The fourth link leads to the Library of Congress's Performing Arts Encyclopedia. Here visitors can view digitized music collections, look over special presentations, and learn about upcoming concerts at the Library. The fifth link will take users to the Music for the Nation collection. This collection is part of the Library's American Memory Project, and visitors can peruse over 62,000 pieces of historical sheet music from 1820 to 1885. Finally, the last link leads to the remarkable Omaha Indian Music collection from the American Memory Project. Here visitors can listen to songs and speeches from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration and listen to historic wax cylinder recordings recorded between 1892 and 1897.

Grinnell, Max



Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor concentrations using a Licor LI-7000 and dew point (Buck Research Instruments model CR-1A). A suite of experiments was conducted in which the; (i) Aerosol particle composition was varied (4 chemical compounds) (ii) Aerosol particle GMD was varied (40-80 nm) (iii) Aerosol particle total number concentration was varied (2 orders of magnitude) (iv) Tree type was varied (using a range of species and alternately lacquering the trees to prevent active uptake) (v) Light, water vapor content and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber were varied in order to mimic the range of conditions observed at our experimental particle flux site in southern Indiana (see related abstract by Pryor and Hornsby that describes the in situ flux estimates). The results of these laboratory experiments are used to quantify the relative importance of these factors in dictating aerosol particle uptake and specifically the importance of the foliage collection mechanisms at the leaf scale and deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements.

Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.



NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Trichloroethylene (Without Epichlorohydrin) (CAS No. 79-01-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent used for vapor degreasing and cold cleaning of fabricated metal parts. TCE has also been used as a carrier solvent for the active ingredients of insecticides and fungicides, as a solvent for waxes, fats, resins, and oils, as an anesthetic for medical and dental use, and as an extractant for spice oleoresins and for caffeine from coffee. Trichloroethylene may be found in printing inks, varnishes, adhesives, paints, lacquers, spot removers, rug cleaners, disinfectants, and cosmetic cleansing fluids. TCE may also be used as a chain terminator in polyvinyl chloride production and as an intermediate in the production of pentachloroethane. Trichloroethylene is no longer used with food, drugs, or cosmetics. NTP Carcinogenesis studies of epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Dosage levels were 500 and 1,000 mg/kg for rats and 1,000 mg/kg for mice. Trichloroethylene was administered five times per week for 103 weeks, and surviving animals were killed between weeks 103 and 107. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same schedule and served as vehicle controls. Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were used as untreated controls. The dosage levels selected for the 2-year study were based on the results of the 13-week studies. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats received TCE by gavage at doses of 125 to 2,000 mg/kg (males) and 62.5 to 1,000 mg/kg (females) for 13 weeks. Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice received gavage doses of 375 to 6,000 mg/kg of TCE for 13 weeks. Survival, body weight gains, and previous experience with TCE were used to select doses for the 2-year study. All rats survived the 13-week study, but males receiving 2,000 mg/kg exhibited a 24% difference in final body weight. At the 1,000 mg/kg dose, final body weights for males (-3%) and for females (-2%) were similar to those of controls. The doses selected for the 2-year study in rats were 500 and 1,000 mg/kg for both sexes. The initial doses used in the earlier bioassay in Osborne-Mendel rats were 549 and 1,097 mg/kg for both sexes. A total of 8/10 male mice and 10/10 female mice receiving doses of TCE as high as 1,500 mg/kg survived the 13-week experimental period. The single dosage level selected for the 2-year study in mice was 1,000 mg/kg for both sexes. This dose was less than the high dose used in the earlier bioassay in B6C3F1 mice (2,339 mg/kg for males and 1,739 for females) and was similar to the previous low doses (1,169 mg/kg for males and 869 for females). In the 2-year study, the survival of both low and high dose male rats and dosed male mice was less (P