Sample records for lacquer

  1. Lacquer work

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-07-30

    A short sequence of part of the final decoration of a lacquer object. The technique of applying gold dust to the black surface is extremely delicate, but suddenly Mount Fuji appears before our eyes....

  2. Lacquered tinplate: Corrosion resistance in the function of lacquering conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Do Nascimento; J. L. C. Dos Santos; I. C. P. Margarit; O. R. Mattos

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the pack tests normally used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of tinplate in the can industry are inadequate for routine work. In this paper, electrochemical impedance is presented as an alternative. Using this technique, it was possible to characterize the better lacquer between two “first line” products. Variables involved in the lacquering, such as number

  3. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or breathing in (sniffing) products to remove paint, lacquer , or varnish . This is for information only and ... Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers may contain the following poisonous ingredients: Benzyl alcohol Ethanol Formic acid Methyl alcohol Methylene ...

  4. Recent advances in research on lacquer allergy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-ming; Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by contact with lacquer sap and lacquerware affects the welfare of lacquer workers and the lacquerware industry. Many studies of the mechanism of urushiol allergy, including animal models, have been carried out and have established several hypotheses. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of lacquer allergy, we review recent advances in the research on lacquer allergy including the chemical properties of lacquer lipid components, allergic mechanism analyses, immunological explanations, allergy medications, and the prevention combined with the research results from our laboratory. PMID:22015566

  5. Surface finishing by lacquer-coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, M.; Inneman, A.; Franc, F.; Pina, L.

    1997-02-01

    A series of optically flat glass substrates with microroughness of a few nanometers prepared by standard mechanical polishing has been covered with acrylic lacquer coatings. The influence of lacquer concentration on the surface finish has been investigated by using X-ray reflectometry and optical interferometry. The surface microroughness of about 0.6 nm with simultaneous preservation of the underlying optical figure may be achieved in the case of optimal lacquer concentration.

  6. Lacquer polishing of X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Roethig, D. T.; Brookover, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for polishing figured X-ray optics by a lacquer-coating process are described. This acrylic lacquer coating has been applied with an optical quality of an eighth-wave in red light and very effectively covers surface roughness with spatial wavelengths less than about 0.2 mm. Tungsten films have been deposited on the lacquer coatings to provide highly efficient X-ray reflectivity.

  7. Determination of the type of lacquer on East Asian lacquer ware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimura, Noriyasu

    2009-07-01

    Simple and easy analytical methods, which are applicable to precious artistic objects, have long been desired to determine the type of lacquer on lacquer ware. Direct inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) were applied to the determination of the coating film on a lacquered wooden dish obtained in Okinawa. The above two-step mass spectrometry confirmed the coating film: the lacquer to be East Asian lacquer, or natural urushi derived from Rhus verniciflua. These two-step analyses are very useful for the determination of the type of lacquer on any lacquer ware. The first step analysis with DIMS is used to distinguish the natural urushi including the urushi-type lacquers from non-natural urushi: imitation urushi and lacquer containing synthetic resins. And the second step with Py-GC/MS is used to discriminate one type among the three natural urushi-type lacquers. These two-step analyses need only a small amount of sample ranging 0.01-0.5 mg without any pre-treatment so that these analyses can be used for precious lacquer ware with archeological interest.

  8. Lacquer Reveals Impact Damage in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Brittle lacquer unveils effects normally visible only by ultrasonic inspection. Laquer coating measures spread of cracking and delamination in graphite/epoxy panels subjected to cyclic compression loads after impact damage. Test specimen is coated with lacquer on side opposite surface at which projectile will be fired. Spalled area shows effect of impact without removing specimen from test fixture.

  9. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Robert Baran

    2000-01-01

    Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% has been shown to be effective in the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild to moderate severity. Other studies report the effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer in onychomycosis caused by Candida sp and nondermatophyte molds. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection\\/relapse. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%

  10. Specific biological activities of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lu; T Yoshida; H Nakashima; M Premanathan; R Aragaki; T Mimura; Y Kaneko; N Yamamoto; T Miyakoshi; T Uryu

    2000-01-01

    The specific biological activities such as blood coagulant, anti-tumor, anti-HIV, and anticoagulant activities of a Chinese lacquer polysaccharide, a branched acidic polysaccharide, before and after sulfonation were investigated. The lacquer polysaccharide at a concentration of 0.016mg\\/ml was found to shorten the coagulation time of bovine plasma more than 1min by comparison with that of a blank, 5min and 25s, suggesting

  11. Applied analysis of lacquer films based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Yukio Kamiya; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Ancient lacquer film, a Nanban lacquer film, an old lacquer-ware object imported from an Asian country, and the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Compared with the results of the natural lacquer film, it was revealed that the ancient lacquer film and Nanban lacquer film were made from Rhus vernicifera, and the old lacquer-ware imported

  12. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Lacquer Cracks in Pathologic Myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Ohno-Matsui; Naoto Morishima; Mutsuko Ito; Takashi Tokoro

    1998-01-01

    Lacquer cracks are thought to represent healed mechanical breaks in the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch’s membrane, and choriocapillaris complex. In this study, we analyzed the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic features of lacquer cracks and compared them with findings using fluorescein angiography. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, fluorescein angiography, and ICG angiography were performed in 29 consecutive patients (37 eyes) with lacquer cracks.

  13. Development of a fast drying lacquer based on raw lacquer sap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Sayoko Harigaya; Takahisa Ishimura; Kisuke Nagase; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2004-01-01

    A series of new lacquers, based on the raw lacquer sap that drying fast in the natural environment, has been developed using a repeated-kurome process. Fast drying occurred due to the repeated-kurome process from K-0 to K-4, and the 982cm?1 for the dienes decreased and the 993cm?1 for the trienes increased in the IR measurement. In addition, the polymerization of

  14. Lacquer crack lesions in experimental chick myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Hirata; Akira Negi

    1998-01-01

    • Background: Lacquer crack lesion (LCL) is a complication of human pathologic myopia, accompanied by loss of retinal pigment\\u000a epithelium (RPE) and break of Bruch’s membrane. The present paper describes comparable lesions occurring in prolonged experimental\\u000a myopia in the chick. • Methods. Form-deprivation myopia was induced by unilateral eyelid suturing on the 1st day after hatching.\\u000a Bruch’s membrane in NaOH

  15. Structural study of oriental lacquer films during the hardening process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyasu Niimura; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Oriental lacquer is the natural resin obtained by tapping lac trees. It hardens into a tough and insoluble film. The extreme hardness and insolubility are some of the most important functions, which are required for industrial coating materials. In this study, two kinds of oriental lacquer films, traditionally named Kiurushi (raw urushi) and Kuromeurushi produced by two different pretreatments, were

  16. On the UV-induced polymeric behavior of Chinese lacquer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianrong; Lin, Jinhuo; Xu, Yanlian; Chen, Qinhui

    2011-02-01

    To dry Chinese lacquer rapidly for the protection and restoration of archeological findings coated by lacquer or excavated lacquer wares and the development of new application of this lacquer, we carried out UV curing technology to improve its curing rate using a high-pressure mercury lamp as a UV source in the absence of any additional photoinitiator. The effects of mainly specific components in Chinese lacquer sap and the role of each reactive group of urushiol, namely hydroxyl groups, hydrogen on the phenyl ring, and olefins in the side chain, in the course of UV exposure were well-investigated. The UV-cured Chinese lacquer films were also characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, TGA, and Py-GC/MS. The results showed that urushiol was the main component to form Chinese lacquer films, and decomposed to generate the urushiol semiquinone radicals, which sequentially induced the polymerization of Chinese lacquer by radical polymerization, as well as radical substitution under UV irradiation. In addition, the TG analysis suggested that polysaccharide and glycoproteins were integrated with the UV-cured films by covalent bonding. Furthermore, this method could be suitable to fast cure other phenol bearing long aliphatic unsaturated chain, such as CNSL. PMID:21190328

  17. Drying and curing of stains and lacquers used in furniture finishing 1 DRYING AND CURING OF STAINS AND LACQUERS USED IN

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Yvonne

    Drying and curing of stains and lacquers used in furniture finishing 1 DRYING AND CURING OF STAINS AND LACQUERS USED IN FURNITURE FINISHING Y.M. Stokes1 and P. Pendleton2 1. Problem description Nexus Pty Ltd. The furniture is finished with a stain and two lacquer coatings which give it a semi-gloss surface. In 1997

  18. Perianal contact dermatitis caused by nail lacquer allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Lazarov

    1999-01-01

    Background: Allergy to nail cosmetics is relatively infrequent compared with other cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis from nail lacquer typically affects the eyelids, cheeks, sides of the neck, hands and periungual areas, and less frequently another areas.Objective: We report on a patient who developed nail lacquer-related allergic contact dermatitis in an infrequent location, namely the perianal area.Methods: A patient with perianal

  19. Lacquered polymer-ceramic composite dielectric film for capacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Simamoto; Y. Sakata; J. Kojima; N. Kume; Y. Tsujimoto

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of increasing the dielectric constant of lacquered thin film for capacitors was studied using a polymer-ceramic composite film consisting of polyphenylene oxide (PPO) polymer and TiO2 fine particle filler Basic electrical characteristics of the composite film were investigated with a simple capacitor composed of aluminum foil lacquered with a composite dielectric layer 0.9 ?m in thickness. Stacked capacitors

  20. Structure of silica in matt water-based lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royall, C. P.; Donald, A. M.

    2002-08-01

    A model for the structure of silica matting agent in water-based lacquers is presented. It is assumed that, during film formation, the air that lies between the silica particles in the dry powder is replaced by polymer. At a critical concentration this leads to a silica structure similar to that of the dry powder. We assume the bulk volume occupied by the dry silica powder (silica and air) equals the dried lacquer film (polymer, silica, and residual air). Since the silica structure in the dry powder percolates, the silica in the dried lacquer is tested for percolation. Experimentally, a percolation threshold is found close to the critical concentration predicted by the model. Two further silica structures are also seen under different conditions. At low silica concentrations, the silica particles are suspended in the lacquer matrix and isolated. Above the percolation threshold, where the bulk volume of the dry silica exceeds that of the film, the silica structure can undergo collapse. This is caused by volume reduction in the lacquer as water evaporates. The lacquer is imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy, to produce three-dimensional images of the bulk of the 50-?m film. Resolution is enhanced with image reconstruction via deconvolution. Computational image analysis is then used to investigate the structure quantitatively.

  1. In-situ phosphatizing coatings I: An air-dried lacquer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaohua Wang; Yi-Yuan Chuang; Chhiu-Tsu Lin

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of in-situ phosphatizing coatings (ISPCs) was successfully performed for lacquer systems using a commercial\\u000a nitrocellulose lacquer and an optimum amount of in-situ phosphatizing reagents (ISPRs). The in-situ phosphatizing lacquer\\u000a (ISPL) system is stable, and shows no change in surface appearance and drying speed as compared to the unmodified lacquer\\u000a (UML). The ISPLs are applied on pine, poplar, and

  2. Urushi (oriental lacquer) — a natural aesthetic durable and future-promising coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Kumanotani

    1995-01-01

    What is oriental lacquer? This article attempts an answer to this question from the viewpoint of materials chemistry and coatings technology of the lacquer in Japan and also describes a strategy for developing oriental lacquers in harmony with the natural environment.

  3. Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox - lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Anna E; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy. PMID:25821426

  4. Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox – lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Anna E.; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy. PMID:25821426

  5. Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard

    2013-11-18

    Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

  6. Scheduling lacquer production by reachability analysis - A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Behrmann; Ed Brinksma; Martijn Hendriks; Angelika Mader

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case study on lacquer production scheduling that was performed in the European IST-project AMETIST and was provided by one of the industrial partners. The approach is to derive schedules by means of reachability analysis: with this technique the search mechanism of model checkers, in our case here Uppaal, is used to find feasible or optimal schedules. The

  7. Tales in Sprinkled Gold: Japanese Lacquer for European Collectors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the John Paul Getty Museum's online exhibits features Japanese lacquered objects from the Victoria and Albert Museum that were popular among European collectors in the 17th-19th centuries. The highlight of the exhibit is the Mazarin chest, which can be viewed as a slideshow by clicking on "Launch Slideshow", near the top far right hand side of the homepage. Visitors can view the chest from several different angles, use a zoom feature, and pan the images using the arrows below the slideshow images. However, dragging the cursor on the image, instead of using the arrows, allows for more control. Visitors can watch a video entitled "The Making of Japanese Lacquer", by clicking on the link on the far right hand side of the homepage, underneath "Launch Slideshow". For visitors lucky enough to visit the Getty Museum, a multitude of related events can be found under the "Events" tab near the top of the page. Those persons interested in further information on the topic of Asian lacquer can click on the "Publications" tab near the top of the page, which suggests two authoritative books on lacquer. Still more information can be found on the Victoria and Albert Museum website, accessible by the links in the "Learn More" box on the far right hand side of the homepage.

  8. Choroidal Thickness and Biometric Markers for the Screening of Lacquer Cracks in Patients with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chou, Chai Lin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Chao, An-Ning; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. Methods Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks). Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. Results Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%). Conclusions This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia. PMID:23349728

  9. Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

  10. Some Properties of Laccase from the Latex of Lacquer Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Keilin; T. Mann

    1940-01-01

    WE have previously shown1 that laccase, the oxidizing enzyme present in the latex of the Indo-Chinese lacquer tree (Rhus succedanea), is a copper-protein compound. Our purest preparation of this enzyme, which catalyses the oxidation of polyphenols and diamines, contained 0.154 per cent copper and 6.45 per cent nitrogen, corresponding to about 45 per cent protein. The remaining fraction of the

  11. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers.

    PubMed

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial. PMID:21995293

  12. Monitoring of Curing of Urushi Lacquer Using Speckle Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Masataka; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hideaki

    2009-09-01

    The curing of urushi lacquer is investigated by analyzing the dynamic behavior of speckle images with cross-correlation function between the frames at an area of 40×40 pixels in the image. The cross-correlation value was plotted using the maximum value of the cross-correlation function. There is no inconsistency between the experimental results and the curing phenomena. Moreover, the method is also suggested to be suitable for observing the transition from sol to gel. The transition in various types of material will be analyzed by digital speckle correlation.

  13. Formulation of non-lacquer (latex) PBX-9502

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, C.P.; Freer, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    Waste minimization necessitates evaluation of current waste streams with regard to new processing methods and technology. PBX-9502 (95% TATB/5% Kel-F 800) uses an ethyl acetate solvent to dissolve the Kel-F 800 resin, creating a lacquer for coating TATB. This report describes a new latex polymer application method for PBX-9502, which eliminates the H{sub 2}O-to-ethyl acetate rinse-out and the resultant solvent-contaminated water waste stream and distillation air emissions.

  14. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  15. Preparation of lacquer polysaccharide sulfates and their antioxidant activity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Zou; Yumin Du; Yan Li; Jianhong Yang; Tao Feng; Le Zhang; John F. Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated and purified from the sap of the lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Five sulfated lacquer polysaccharide (LPS), with various molecular weights (Mw) and degrees of sulfation (DS) were prepared by the reaction of LP with sulfur trioxide–pyridine complex (SO3·Py) in DMSO. The structure of LPS was analyzed by GPC, UV–vis, FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy; the

  16. Alteration of Asian lacquer: in-depth insight using a physico-chemical multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Duhamel, Chloé; Daher, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Paris, Céline; Regert, Martine; Sablier, Michel; André, Guilhem; Desroches, Jean-Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Oriental lacquer has been used in Asian countries for thousands of years as a durable and aesthetic coating material for its adhesive, consolidating, protective and decorative properties. Although these objects are made from an unusual material in Occident, Western museum collections host many lacquerwares. Curators, restorers and scientists are daily confronted with questions of their conservation and their alteration. The characterization of their conservation state is usually assessed through visual observations. However deterioration often starts at the microscopic level and cannot be detected by a simple visual inspection. Often, ageing and deterioration of artworks are connected to physical, mechanical and chemical transformations. Thus new insight into alteration of lacquer involves the monitoring of macro-, microscopic and molecular modifications, and this can be assessed from physico-chemical measurements. Non-invasive (microtopography and Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM) and micro-invasive (infrared micro-spectroscopy using a synchrotron source - SR-?FTIR) investigations were performed to study the degradation processes of lacquers and evaluate their level of alteration. In particular, spectral decomposition and fitting procedure were performed in the 1820-1520 cm(-1) region to follow the shift of the C=O and C=C band positions during lacquer ageing. The present work proves the potential of this physico-chemical approach in conservation studies of lacquers and in the quantification of the state of alteration. It evidences chemical phenomena of alteration such as oxidation and decomposition of a lacquer polymeric network. It also demonstrates for the first time the degradation front of artificially aged lacquer and the chemical imaging of a more than 2000 years old archaeological lacquer by using SR-?FTIR. PMID:23897515

  17. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  18. Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-10-15

    A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-L-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-L-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

  19. Hyposensitization to urushiol among Japanese lacquer craftsmen: results of patch tests on students learning the art of lacquerware.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Nakagawa, M; Kawai, K; Liew, F M; Yasuno, H

    1991-11-01

    8 subjects learning the art of lacquerware were patch tested to urushiol before and after contact with lacquer, in order to document whether hyposensitization to urushiol occurred among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. Simultaneously, we performed patch tests on 2 urushiol-sensitized controls who had no contact with lacquer during the investigation. Lacquer is made from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree and raw lacquer is composed of 60-65% urushiol and its oligomer. 5 of the 8 subjects showed positive reactions to urushiol 1 month after their first contact. They became negative or less positive after prolonged (9 or 10 months) exposure to lacquer. As reactions to urushiol decreased, dermatitis became less severe. Controls showed consistently high reactions. However, 1 subject showed persistently strong reactions to urushiol. Unlike the other 7 subjects, he was previously sensitized to urushiol before the first contact with lacquer. The remaining 2 subjects showed no reaction throughout our investigation. These results strongly suggest that hyposensitization to urushiol does occur among Japanese lacquer craftsmen. PMID:1839723

  20. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  1. Effect of passivation treatment and storing on adhesion and protective properties of lacquered tinplate cans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bastidas; J. M. Cabañes; R. Catalá

    1997-01-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with three commercial lacquer systems were studied. The relationship found between lacquer\\u000a adhesion, metallic chromium (CrM), chromium oxide (CrOx), and total chromium (CrT) existing in the passivated layer was: adhesion=CrM+10\\u000a (CrOx\\/CrT). The study was completed by conducting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and direct current (DC) polarization\\u000a experiments up to 410 days. A dilute acetic acidsodium chloride

  2. Toxic leukoencephalopathy with atypical MRI features following a lacquer thinner fire.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Pare, Laura; Kim, Ronald; Hasso, Anton N

    2014-05-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a structural alteration of the white matter following exposure to various toxic agents. We report a 49-year-old man exposed to an explosion of lacquer thinner with brain MRI features atypical from those of chronic toxic solvent intoxication. PMID:24291481

  3. Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Philip Fleckman; Robert Baran

    2000-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a relatively common condition affecting toenails more than fingernails. It is caused predominantly by dermatophytes. Onychomycosis can cause pain and discomfort and has the potential to be a source of morbidity. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% used to treat onychomycosis of the toe in the United States and in

  4. Pharmacoeconomic applications of meta-analysis for single groups using antifungal onychomycosis lacquers as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Einarson

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for summarizing clinical success rates across studies or arms of studies. Topical lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis are used to illustrate the approach. A modification of Cochran's method, later modified by Der-Simonian and Laird, is presented in a stepwise fashion. A summary point estimate weighted by both within- and between-study variance is produced, along

  5. Study on the adhesion of different types of lacquers used in food packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Barilli; R Fragni; S Gelati; A Montanari

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of the durability and quality of a coating used to protect against corrosion is a practical problem that in the specific case canned food packaging, both canmaker and the food industry must consider carefully. In this work we discuss three methods for evaluating the adhesion of three types of lacquers (stoving and UV curing) applied on different

  6. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

  7. Synthesis and properties of a lacquer wax-based quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Lu, Li; Yang, Zhibing

    2014-01-01

    Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA)% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 5 × 10?? mol·L?¹, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m?¹. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min. PMID:24662075

  8. Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2012-11-01

    Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

  9. Preparation and characterization of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer film based on pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Lu; Yukio Kamiya; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2007-01-01

    3-(10-Phenyldecyl)catechol was synthesized by the reaction of catechol and 1-phenyl-10-iododecane, followed by de-protection of the hydroxyl groups of catechol; it was then polymerized into synthetic lacquer film by laccase enzyme, and characterized using pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py–GC\\/MS) in order to reveal the polymerization mechanism of Melanorrhoea usitata lacquer. The molecular weight and molecular structure information for each peak in the

  10. Seasonal variations in yields of Hwangchil lacquer and major sesquiterpene compounds from selected superior individuals of Dendropanax morbifera Lév

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Cheul Ahn; Sung Ho Kim; Min Young Kim; Ok Tae Kim; Kwang Soo Kim; Baik Hwang

    2003-01-01

    We studied fluctuations in the production of Hwangchil lacquer and major essential oils byDendropanax morbifera Lev. Considerable seasonal as well as intraspecific (individual-tree) variations were observed. Yields of Hwangchil lacquer\\u000a as well as ß-elemene, ?-selinene, ß-selinene, germacrene D, and ?-cadinene also depended on harvesting time, with levels being\\u000a generally higher in July and August.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of replicated and lacquer-coated grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, M.P. (Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (US)); Haidle, R.; Altkorn, R. (Northwestern Univ., Basic Industry Research Lab., Evanston, IL (US)); Georgopoulos, P. (Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Material Science, Evanston, IL (US)); Rodricks, B. (Argonne National Lab., Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (US)); Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Instrumentation Div., Upton, NY (US))

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the fabrication and testing of electroformed replica Wolter I optics made from gold-coated lacquered mandrels. The authors also discuss testing of gold- and palladium-coated lacquered test flats. X-ray (5 keV for Wolter I mirror and 8 to 40 keV for test flats) and optical (Wyko NCP-1000 profiler) measurements were used to evaluate the mirrors.

  12. Method and apparatus for cleaning used air from spray booths wherein articles are lacquered

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, R.; Wagner, H.

    1981-03-24

    For cleaning a flow of used air from a spray booth wherein articles are lacquered, a duct is provided with a first constriction where the flow of used air is brought into contact with washing fluid so as to wet lacquer particles in the used air. Downstream of the first constriction a guide conduit, which has a bend therein deflects the flow of used air and the washing fluid. The guide conduit is provided with a second constriction and after the flow of used air and the washing fluid have been deflected they pass through the second constriction, which is narrower than the first. Turbulence is thus created and the washing fluid is atomized and intimately mixed with the used air.

  13. Corrosion behavior of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with cockles (cardium edulis) in brine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bastidas, J.M.; Cabanes, J.M.; Catala, R.

    2000-04-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with an epoxyphenolic plus zinc oxide (ZnO) lacquer were studied. The relationship between lacquer adhesion and total chromium, metallic chromium, and chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) in the passivated layer was analyzed. The thickness of the CrO{sub x} layer is a controlling parameter of adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), direct current (DC) polarization, and atomic absorption (AA) experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. EIS, DC, and AA results indicated that the passivation treatment with the lowest chromium content (Type 1) showed slightly worse corrosion behavior, with substantial iron dissolution and sulfur staining of the tinplate, than passivation treatments Types 2 and 3, which behaved similarly to each other. A fully opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell in contact with canned cockles (a mollusc, Cardium edulis).

  14. Characterization of Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquer films and their pyrolysis mechanisms studied using two-stage pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyasu Niimura; Tetsuo Miyakoshi; Jun Onodera; Tetsuo Higuchi

    1996-01-01

    Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquers, which are used as a surface coating for wood, porcelain and metalware in Japan, were investigated using two-stage pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS). Urushiol and laccol components were detected in each lacquer film by pyrolysis at 400 °C. These are the monomers, and are characteristic of Rhus vernicifera and Rhus succedanea lacquer films. In

  15. Chemical modification, characterization and structure-anticoagulant activity relationships of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Ronghua Huang; Yunyang Wan; Tianyu Li

    2002-01-01

    A natural lacquer polysaccharide with complex branches was separated into two fractions, LPH (MW 16.9×104) and LPL (MW 6.85×104). Results of 13C NMR and FT-IR indicated they had the same structure. The treatment of LPL with sodium periodate led to a partial cut-off of side chains with 4-O-methyl--d-glucuronic acid in the terminal. These polysaccharides were sulfated in the presence of

  16. Evaluation of prolonged exposure of lacquered tinplate cans to a citrate buffer solution using electrochemical techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bastidas; J. M. Cabañes; R. Catalá

    1997-01-01

    Four lots of tinplate cans, internally coated with water- and organic solvent-based epoxyphenolic lacquer, were studied. A 0.1 M citric-citrate test buffer solution (pH 3.5) was packed at 90 °C, sterilised at 121 °C and stored at room temperature. A full opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell. Electrochemical a.c. and d.c. experiments were conducted after

  17. Bénard convection ZnO\\/resin lacquer coating — a new approach to electrostatic dissipative coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoi Kitano; Makoto Shiojiri

    1997-01-01

    Coating of ZnO\\/resin composite films has been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electromeasurement. Poly(vinyl chloride)\\/poly(methyl methacrylate) lacquer mixed with either needle-like (N-) or tetrapod-like (T-) ZnO particles is spread in a 200 ?m thick layer on a glass sheet. Bénard convection occurs in the coating. N-ZnO particles flow along the convection streams, and are then dispersively fixed

  18. Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree ( Rhus vernicifera stokes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ho Hong; Sang Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Se Hyung Park; Young Jin Jeon; Myong-Jo Kim; Sang-Soo Kwak; Hwan Mook Kim

    1999-01-01

    Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were\\u000a below 4 ?g\\/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols\\u000a suggesting that they would

  19. Micro-cells beneath organic lacquers: a study using scanning Kelvin probe and scanning acoustic microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Doherty; J. M. Sykes

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of degradation of epoxy-phenolic lacquer coated thin electro-chrome-coated mild steel (food can material) has been investigated in brine using a novel combination of experimental techniques. A scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) was used to map electrochemical potential distributions beneath the coating at several stages of exposure to 0.17 M (1% w\\/w) NaCl solution. An interesting sequence of events was

  20. Primary structure of a Japanese lacquer tree laccase as a prototype enzyme of multicopper oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutomo Nitta; Kunishige Kataoka; Takeshi Sakurai

    2002-01-01

    The cDNA library of the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera) was constructed by the reverse transcription of mRNA. A cDNA encoding laccase was amplified by PCR using primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified laccase and its peptide fragments formed by digestions with chymotrypsin and trypsin, and subcloned. The laccase cDNA clone contained a single, large

  1. Polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate) blend as selective sensor for acetone in lacquer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladawan Ruangchuay; Anuvat Sirivat; Johannes Schwank

    2003-01-01

    A film of ?-naphthalene sulfonate-doped polypyrrole\\/poly(methylmethacrylate), PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA, obtained from solution mixing was successfully used as sensing material for acetone vapor in lacquer with a high degree of selectivity based on electrical conductivity over acetic acid and a high degree of stability over the humidity change. Compared with pure PPy\\/?-NS?, the selectivity ratio of acetone\\/acetic acid response of PPy\\/?-NS?\\/PMMA blend with

  2. Chemical modification and antitumour activity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharide from lac tree Rhus vernicifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Ronghua Huang; Liping Sun; Hui Liu; Xiaohai Gao; John F. Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide from Rhus vernicifera was separated into two fractions with high and low molecular weights, LPH and LPL. LPL was degraded using dilute sulphuric acid. Besides molecular weight, products had only a little change in their contents of ?-l-rhamnopyranose, ?-l-arabinofuranose and ?-d-galactopyranose. The side chains of LPH and LPL were partially removed with NaIO4 oxidation. The structures of all

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a Kel-F resin and lacquer

    SciTech Connect

    Rutenberg, A.C.

    1985-08-02

    Proton, carbon, and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to determine the concentration of various species present in Kel-F 800 resin and its lacquers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize Kel-F 800 resin and to measure the various chemical species present in a lacquer based on this resin. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of ethyl acetate to xylenes and to estimate the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the water and ethanol content of the lacquer as well as some of its components. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was also used to estimate the amount of perfluorodecanoate emulsifier present in the Kel-F resin. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the isomeric composition of various batches of xylenes and as an alternate method for measuring the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

    2013-05-01

    In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38-70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48-89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0-21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27-61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

  5. In vivo Uptake and Retention of Fluoride in Human Surface Enamel after Application of a Fluoride-Containing Lacquer (Fluor Protector®)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bruun; H. Givskov; K. Stoltze

    1980-01-01

    The ability of a newly developed urethane lacquer containing silane fluoride (Fluor Protector®) to deposit fluoride in the enamel was tested in vivo using the enamel biopsy technique. The enamel fluoride concentration was measured before, 1 week after a single application or two applications of the lacquer performed with a 1-week interval, and 6 months after two applications. At the

  6. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% and the new oral antifungal agents used to treat dermatophyte toe onychomycosis in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Background: Recently a novel topical nail lacquer, ciclopirox solution 8%, has been approved for the treatment of onychomycosis. Objective: This was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective treatment for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toes in the United States in 2000. Methods: The nature of the problem was defined. The drug comparators were ciclopirox nail lacquer, terbinafine, itraconazole

  7. [Preliminary study on lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty unearthed in Laoguanshan, Chengdu].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Zhou, Xinglan; Xie, Tao; Lu, Yinke; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Zhang-hua

    2015-01-01

    The lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty, unearthed in Tianhui town, Jinniu district, Chengdu in 2012, has been the earliest and the most complete human figure of meridian-acupoints in China so far. There were over ten courses of meridians, and over 100 visible acupoints as well as multiple intaglio inscriptions. All of them are valuable in academic study. The writers introduced the lacquer figure un- earthed in Laoguanshan in terms of the briefs and characteristics of meridian and acupoint distributions, which give the references to the future studies. PMID:25906581

  8. Ciclopirox Nail Lacquer 8%: In vivo Penetration into and through Nails and in vitro Effect on Pig Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Ceschin-Roques; H. Hänel; S. M. Pruja-Bougaret; J. Luc; J. Vandermander; G. Michel

    1991-01-01

    This report presents original methods to assess the bioavailability of an antifungal drug from a varnish preparation in finger nails. For the studies with human volunteers a ciclopirox 8 % nail lacquer was used to determine its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycoses. In vivo studies were performed on the fingernails of healthy volunteers by determining the total amount of

  9. An impedance study on the corrosion properties of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with tuna and mussels in pickled sauce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R CatalÁ; J. M CabaÑES; J. M Bastidas

    1998-01-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with two commercial epoxyphenolic lacquers were studied. Tuna and mussels in pickled sauce and an acetic model were used as electrolytes. EIS and polarization experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. Tin and iron dissolution was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Similar results were yielded by the three experimental techniques employed. The

  10. Chemical modification, characterization and bioactivity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides from lac tree Rhus vernicifera against leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du

    2003-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated from the sap of lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Its derivatives, carboxymethyl LP, sulfated LP and debranching LP were prepared. Their structure was analyzed by GPC, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The sugar components of carboxymethyl and sulfated LPs hardly changed, but the molecular weight of the former decreased. The side chains of LPs were partially removed

  11. Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis with Amorolfine 5% Nail Lacquer: Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Once and Twice Weekly Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Reinel

    1992-01-01

    456 patients with onychomycosis were treated once or twice weekly for up to 6 months with amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in an open, randomized study. The patients were examined at monthly intervals during treatment and followed-up 1 and 3 months after completion of treatment. Slightly better cure rates were achieved with twice weekly use than with once weekly use (overall

  12. The application of AC impedance to study the performance of lacquered aluminium specimens in acetic acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D Scantlebury; K Gali?

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium tubes with single and double coat solvent based and water based lacquers, based on epoxy-phenolic resins, were analysed. To determine the electrochemical parameters to correlate with the actual behaviour of a collapsible tube, impedance spectroscopy was used. The measurements were performed in 3% (v\\/v) acetic acid, at room temperature. After impedance measurements specimens surface were analysed by scanning electron

  13. Fabrication of paper-based devices by lacquer spraying method for the determination of nickel (II) ion in waste water.

    PubMed

    Nurak, Thara; Praphairaksit, Narong; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-30

    A spraying method with lacquer was developed for the fabrication of paper-based devices. A patterned iron mask was initially placed on a filter paper and held tightly attached by a magnetic plate placed on the opposite side. After that, acrylic lacquer was sprayed on the filter paper to create a hydrophobic area while the hydrophilic area was protected with the iron mask. The optimal conditions for the fabrication of this device were studied including lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper. Gloss spray lacquer and filter paper No. 4 were chosen as optimal lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper, respectively. To evaluate its efficiency, the paper-based devices were used to determine nickel using electrochemical detection. Cu-enhancer solution was employed to increase sensitivity of nickel determination with the optimal concentration of 4.5 ppm. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was observed in the range of 1-50 ppm with a coefficient of determination of 0.9971. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.5 and 1.97 ppm, respectively. Moreover, these paper-based devices coupled with electrochemical detection were applied to determine nickel in waste water of a jewelry factory and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that there were no significant variations between this proposed method (4.15±0.043 ppm) and the ICP-OES method (4.06±0.013 ppm). Therefore, this spraying method was found to be an excellent alternative for the fabrication of paper-based devices due to its ease of use, affordability and simplicity. PMID:23953473

  14. A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for Air Cherenkov Telescopes by applying a lacquer that scatters light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, D.; Gebauer, H. J.; Lorenz, E.; Mirzoyan, R.

    2004-02-01

    The sensitivity of photomultipliers (PMT) can be substantially increased by applying a light scattering lacquer doped with a Wavelength Shifter. Applying this method to the Electron Tubes 9116/17A PMT resulted in a good sensitivity in the short wave UV range as well as a 15-20% increase in quantum efficiency above 350nm. Details of the procedure and a simple model for the explanation of the enhancement are presented.

  15. Determination of butoxyacetic acid and N -butoxyacetyl-glutamine in urine of lacquerers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Rettenmeier; R. Hennigs; R. Wodarz

    1993-01-01

    Summary To determine the fraction of butoxyacetic acid (BAA) which is excreted as the amino acid conjugate N-butoxyacetylglutamine (BAA-GLN), urine samples of six lacquerers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol (BE) were collected before and after work and analysed using an HPLC-method which allows the simultaneous quantification of both BAA species. Whereas the pre-shift samples contained only little or no butoxyethanol-related material, concentrations

  16. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm?3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  17. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  18. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of nanoparticles designed for inclusion in paints and lacquers.

    PubMed

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Birkedal, Renie; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-08-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials are projected to be used on a large scale in paints and lacquers. We selected seven commercially interesting materials: Three titanium dioxide-based (two coated rutile; one uncoated anatase), one carbon black (Flamrüss 101), one kaolinite clay, and two silica products, whereas carbon black, Printex 90, was used as reference material. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity (pulmonary cell composition and mRNAs) were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Greatest inflammation was induced by Printex 90 and uncoated titanium dioxide. The inflammatory potency correlated with instilled surface area (R(2) = 0.94) but not with material volume (R(2) = 0.17). The coated titanium dioxides induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The uncoated titanium dioxide was not DNA damaging by the comet assay 24 h after exposure despite being highly inflammogenic. This suggests that inflammation is not a prerequisite to DNA damage in titanium dioxide-based products. PMID:21649461

  19. The use of the Er:YAG 2940nm laser associated with amorolfine lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Shinzato, Dayane Higa; Ayres, Guilherme Marreta Cavalcanti; Cardoso, Rayane Marques

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common disease, accounting for up to 50% of all ungual pathologies. We have been developing a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01528813) using a 2940nm Er:YAG laser to fractionally ablate human nails in vivo, aiming to increase topical amorolfine lacquer delivery to the nail unit, increasing the efficacy of topical treatment of distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Partial results have shown an increase in areas of nail plate free of disease. We believe that ablative lasers can increase the efficacy of topical onychomycosis treatment. PMID:24173203

  20. Identification of aromas from alcohols using a Japanese-lacquer-film-coated quartz resonator gas sensor in conjunction with pattern recognition analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Nanto; K Kondo; M Habara; Y Douguchi; R. I Waite; H Nakazumi

    1996-01-01

    Transient response curves for exposure to aromas from several kinds of alcohols are observed using a Japanese-lacquer-film-coated quartz resonator gas sensor. The shape of the transient response curves strongly depends on the ethanol concentration of alcohols. The pattern recognition analysis using principal component or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the shape of the transient

  1. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  2. Thermogelling hydrogels of cyclodextrin/poloxamer polypseudorotaxanes as aqueous-based nail lacquers: application to the delivery of triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2013-04-01

    This work investigated the use of in situ gelling hydrogels based on polypseudorotaxanes of Pluronic F-127 and partially methylated ?-cyclodextrin as aqueous nail lacquers. N-acetylcysteine and urea were incorporated as penetration enhancers. The formulations were tested for their ability to deliver ciclopirox and triamcinolone across human nail plate and bovine hoof. Simple aqueous solutions of the drugs with N-acetylcysteine provided measurable fluxes across hoof membranes but became quickly depleted of drug. Further, these solutions would have a short residence time upon nail application. Addition of Pluronic F-127 facilitated drug solubilization and provided the formulations with in situ gelling properties but drug entrapment into the micelles slowed down the delivery process. This was solved by addition of methylated ?-cyclodextrin; the formulations retained the thermogelling properties, drug solubilization was further increased, and drug delivery was accelerated. The polymer chains compete with the drugs for the cyclodextrin cavity forming polypseudorotaxanes, which facilitated drug release. The permeability of both drugs was higher across bovine hoof than human nail. The new polypseudorotaxanes formulation delivered more ciclopirox across human nail than a marketed organic lacquer which supports the growing hypothesis that aqueous-based nail lacquers represent a superior formulation strategy in nail topical delivery. PMID:23201053

  3. A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer for treatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

    PubMed

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht; Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Mirshams-Shahshahani, Mostafa; Jamshidi, Behrooz

    2012-12-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind study enrolling 70 patients with onychomycosis of the finger and toenails. Clinical and mycological efficacies as well as measures of safety were assessed monthly for a maximum of 6 months of treatment. The treatment regimens were: fluconazole 1% and fluconazole 1% with urea 40%. These results indicated topical treatment of onychomycosis with a combination of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% was more effective (82.8%) than fluconazole 1% (62.8%) nail lacquer alone in treatment of dermatophytic onychomycosis. Fluconazole was well tolerated and side effects were negligible. At the end of therapy and the end of the 6-month follow-up, fluconazole 1% and urea 40% demonstrated statistically significant superiority in clinical and mycological responses compared with fluconazole 1% alone. PMID:21781012

  4. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  6. Pigments, Paints, Polymer Coatings, Lacquers, and Printing Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryntz, Rose A.

    Change is constant in the coatings market. As mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships take shape, consolidation and globalization remain prominent. The 80/20 rule (20% of the firms accounting for 80% of business) takes effect as the need for regulatory and environmental compliance continues to plague the market. In 1975, the United States alone supported about 2000 coatings companies. Today, there are less than half that many.

  7. Sulfation of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides in different solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Yan Wen; Tianyu Li; Ling Hu

    2003-01-01

    A branched ionic polysaccharide isolated from the sap of the Chinese lac tree (Rhus vernicifera) was chemically modified by sulfation using sulfur trioxide–pyridine (SO3·Py) complex as a reagent. Effects of molar ratio of SO3·Py complex to sugar unit, reaction time and reaction temperature on degree of sulfation (DS) and molecular weights of products were studied. Solvent was another important factor

  8. Synthesis and Stochastic Assessment of Schedules for Lacquer Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik C. Bohnenkamp; Holger Hermanns; Ric Klaren; Angelika Mader; Yaroslav S. Usenko

    2004-01-01

    The M????? modeling language pairs modeling features from stochastic process algebra and from timed and proba- bilistic automata with light-weight notations such as excep- tion handling. It is supported by the M???? tool, which fa- cilitates the execution and evaluation of M????? specifica- tions by means of the discrete event simulation engine of the M¨ ????? tool. This paper describes

  9. Screening-level human health risk assessment of toluene and dibutyl phthalate in nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda; Perez, Angela L; Jacobs, Neva; Mendelsohn, Emma; Keenan, James J

    2015-07-01

    Toluene and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are found in many consumer products, including cosmetics, synthetic fragrances, and nail polish. In 2012, the California Environmental Protection Agency evaluated 25 nail products and found that 83% of the products that claimed to be toluene-free contained toluene at concentrations ranging up to 190,000?ppm, and 14% of the products that claimed to be DBP-free contained DBP at concentrations ranging up to 88,000?ppm. We conducted a preliminary, screening-level analysis of the potential toluene and DBP-related health risks to consumers and professionals based on the medium and maximum concentrations of toluene and DBP presented in the 2012 report and evaluated dermal and inhalation exposure to a salon patron, nail technician, and home user. We concluded that the maximum toluene concentration for the technician and home user scenarios exceeded the California MADL, but the estimated air concentrations did not exceed the Federal or Cal OSHA PEL. The MADL for DBP was exceeded for all user scenarios at both the median and maximum concentrations. Using these highly conservative assumptions, exposures above regulatory limits could possibly occur during routine use of nail products; further research is needed in order to evaluate potential human health risks. PMID:25865937

  10. Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer

    E-print Network

    Frlez, E; Krause, B; Pocanic, D; Renker, D; Ritt, S; Slocum, P L; Supek, I; Wirtz, H P; Broennimann, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the pi+ -> pi0 e+ nu decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-build detection apparatus (RASTA=radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source, cosmic muons and a light emitting diode as complementary probes of the scintillator light response. We have extracted the total light output, axial light collection nonuniformities and timing responses of the individual CsI crystals. These results predict improved performance of the 3 pi sr PIBETA calorimeter due to the painted lateral surfaces of 240 CsI crystals. The wavelength-shifting paint treatment did not affect appreciably the total light output and timing resolution of our crystal sample. The predicted energy resolution for positrons and photons in the energy range of 10-100 MeV was ...

  11. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on neurotoxicity of solvents in paints and lacquers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Triebig; D. Claus; I. Csuzda; K.-F. Druschky; P. Holler; W. Kinzel; S. Lehrl; P. Reichwein; W. Weidenhammer; W.-U. Weitbrecht; D. Weltle; K. H. Schaller; H. Valentin

    1988-01-01

    In a multi-disciplinary retrospective study we examined 105 house painters employed for at least ten years (median 27 years, range 10–36 years). Fifty-three workers from various professions (non-painters), who were matched with regard to age, occupational training and socio-economic status served as the control group. In both groups no cases of a clinically manifest polyneuropathy or encephalopathy were found. The

  12. Dermatopharmacology of ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Bohn; Karl Th. Kraemer

    2000-01-01

    Ciclopirox is a synthetic hydroxypyridone antifungal agent. In contrast to the azoles, glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of ciclopirox; therefore interactions with drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system are unlikely. Ciclopirox is also distinct from the common systemic agents, which interfere with sterol biosynthesis. In fact, ciclopirox chelates trivalent cations (such as Fe3+), inhibits metal-dependent enzymes that are

  13. Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frlež, E.; Brönnimann, Ch.; Krause, B.; Po?ani?, D.; Renker, D.; Ritt, S.; Slocum, P. L.; Supek, I.; Wirtz, H. P.

    2001-03-01

    We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the ?+? ?0 e+?e decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-built detection apparatus (RASTA - radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source, cosmic muons and a light-emitting diode as complementary probes of the scintillator light response. We have extracted the total light output, axial light collection nonuniformities and timing responses of the individual CsI crystals. These results predict improved performance of the 3 ? sr PIBETA calorimeter due to the painted lateral surfaces of 240 CsI crystals. The wavelength-shifting paint treatment did not affect appreciably the total light output and timing resolution of our crystal sample. The predicted energy resolution for positrons and photons in the energy range of 10-100 MeV was nevertheless improved due to the more favorable axial light collection probability variation. We have compared simulated calorimeter ADC spectra due to 70 MeV positrons and photons with a Monte Carlo calculation of an ideal detector light response.

  14. Is nanotechnology revolutionizing the paint and lacquer industry? A critical opinion.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Zuin, Stefano; Wick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Many paints for indoor and outdoor applications contain biocides and additives for protection against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration. The biocides should remain active as long as they are incorporated in the paint. Protection against microbial colonization should last at least a decade. Once the biocides are released they should degrade within a short time so that no accumulation in the environment can occur. The paint industry is not only focusing their research in producing better paint formulations with degradable biocides: they also consider using nanomaterials, such as nanosilver, nanocopper, nanozinc oxide, photocatalytic-active nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of paints, against microbial degradation and physical and chemical deterioration. In the future nanomaterials should replace biodegradable biocides and improve the paint properties as well as impede colonization by microorganisms. At the time there is no guarantee that the nanomaterials in paints and façades will fulfill their task in the long run, since there are no long term studies available. From nanosilver doped paints it is known that silver is easily washed out by rain. Photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide adsorbs ultra violet light (UV-light) and generates hydroxyl radicals, which not only inhibit microbial growth but can also initiate or accelerate the photocatalytic degradation of the paint matrix. Thus at this time it is still unknown if it makes sense to incorporate nanomaterials into paints. Intensive research and development are still needed in order to find the answers. PMID:23178832

  15. Virtual Shikki and Sazaedo: Shape Modeling in Digital Preservation of Japanese Lacquer Ware and Temples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pasko; A. Pasko; T. Ikedo; C. Vilbrandt

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Issues of digital preservation of shapes and internal structures of culturally valuable objects are discussed. An overview of existing approaches to digital shape preservation as well as corresponding problems is given. Our approach is based on using constructive modeling, which reflects the logical structure of the shapes. We examine and select those mathematical representations of shapes that fit the

  16. Ability of hydroxypropyl chitosan nail lacquer to protect against dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

    2015-04-01

    The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 ?m at day 9 versus 275 ?m in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  18. Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

    2009-07-01

    A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

  19. Law of similitude for the surface resistance of lacquered planes moving in a straight line through water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebers, Friedrich

    1925-01-01

    The proof of the validity of the Reynolds law of similitude for the surface resistance of planes has been developed with an accuracy hitherto unattained and for a large range of lengths and speeds. It has been shown that, in addition to the form resistance, the resistance of the longitudinal edges must be taken into account.

  20. Precursor sites for localised corrosion on lacquered tinplates visualised by means of alternating current scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Ballesteros Katemann; Carlota González Inchauspe; Pablo A Castro; Albert Schulte; Ernesto J Calvo; Wolfgang Schuhmann

    2003-01-01

    In solutions of low conductivity and at high frequencies the impedance of a SECM tip-auxiliary electrode cell is dominated by the solution resistance between the tip and counter electrode. Alternating current scanning electrochemical microscopy (AC-SECM) utilises the effect of an increasing (decreasing) solution resistance as the SECM tip approaches an insulator (conductor) for mapping domains of different conductivity\\/electrochemical activity on

  1. 40 CFR 52.1322 - Original Identification of Plan Section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Control of Emissions from Manufacture of Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, Enamels and Other...of Emissions from the Manufacturing of Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, Enamels, and...of Emissions from the Manufacturing of Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, Enamels,...

  2. Particle Physics CDF Detector Precision Tracker

    E-print Network

    " · 1929 Edison production ends, lacquer transcription disc introduced · 1947 Magnetic tape in production, wear, breakage Wax and plastic cylinders: mold growth, wear, breakage Lacquer, Al disc: instantaneous

  3. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A ] (

    E-print Network

    Learned, John

    lacquer containing a wavelength shifter (WLS). A rapidly evaporating lacquer solvent results in a milky, by increas- ing the overall quantum efficiency (QE) by applying a layer of structured lacquer acting lacquer 2.1. Enhancement of the UV light sensitivity At ground level, the observed Cherenkov photon

  4. An open-label, multicenter study of the combination of amorolfine nail lacquer and oral itraconazole compared with oral itraconazole alone in the treatment of severe toenail onychomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Lecha; Mercè Alsina; Josep M. Torres Rodríguez; Fermín Ruiz de Erenchun; Alfons Mirada; Ana Beatris Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Background: Data indicate that combination therapy may provide enhanced clinical and economic benefits over monotherapy in the treatment of onychomycosis.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 topical amorolfine\\/oral itraconazole combination regimens with oral itraconazole alone in the treatment of severe toenail onychomycosis. Cost implications of all treatments were assessed in a pilot pharmacoeconomic analysis.Methods:

  5. Genotoxicity of the coating lacquer on food cans, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), its hydrolysis products and a chlorohydrin of BADGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Suárez; Rosa Ana Sueiro; Joaqu??n Garrido

    2000-01-01

    The epoxy resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), its hydrolysis products and a chlorohydrin of BADGE (BADGE·2HCl), were examined for their genotoxicity in the micronucleus test (MNT) with human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro, in presence and in absence of an exogenous metabolizing system S9 rat liver. The treatment was done using different compound concentrations up to cytotoxic doses. The

  6. 27 CFR 20.141 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...detergents, proprietary antifreeze solutions, thinners, lacquers, and brake fluids; and (3) For fuel, light, and power...proprietary antifreeze solutions, solvents, thinners, and lacquers) may not be branded as completely denatured alcohol....

  7. 27 CFR 20.141 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...detergents, proprietary antifreeze solutions, thinners, lacquers, and brake fluids; and (3) For fuel, light, and power...proprietary antifreeze solutions, solvents, thinners, and lacquers) may not be branded as completely denatured alcohol....

  8. Explicit Method of Sparkling Effect Simulation Roman Durikovic

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    on a very expensive kind of Japanese lacquer ware made by the nashiji technique. 1 Introduction Nowadays-computed pro- cedural texture. First attempt to render the most common and optically complex Japanese lacquer

  9. 27 CFR 20.141 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...detergents, proprietary antifreeze solutions, thinners, lacquers, and brake fluids; and (3) For fuel, light, and power...proprietary antifreeze solutions, solvents, thinners, and lacquers) may not be branded as completely denatured alcohol....

  10. UCSF UNIVERSITY CHAIRS STANDARD CHAIR of GARDNER

    E-print Network

    Derisi, Joseph

    /beautiful and durable lacquer topcoat ALSO AVAILABLE - Swivel Base Captain's Chair $575 BOSTON ROCKER $475. · Made a handsome satin black · Multi-step finish w/beautiful and durable lacquer topcoat PERSONALIZATIONS 1st Line

  11. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying... Maximum Resistance [mm. water-column height] Type of...gases and vapors, and mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels 50...protection against mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels...

  12. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...this part, the description “Paint” is the proper shipping name for paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac, varnish, liquid aluminum, liquid bronze, liquid gold...lacquer base. The description “Paint-related material” is the...

  13. LEARNING TO RESOLVE BRIDGING REFERENCES Massimo Poesio,

    E-print Network

    Poesio, Massimo

    ]i indicates that it was a particularly expensive commission. The four Japanese lacquer panels date from the mid- to late 1600s and were created with a technique known as kijimaki-e. For this type of lacquer. They then added the scenic elements of landscape, plants, and animals in raised lacquer. Although this technique

  14. ELSEVIER PII: S0032-3861(96)00902-0 PolymerVol. 38 No. 15, pp. 3767-3781, 1997

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    . A photopolymerization process may require several steps for disc replication3. First, the monomer mixture (lacquer) is spread on the mould surface and a top layer is placed above the lacquer and mould thus assur- ing good adhesion of the lacquer to the mould. Ultra- violet irradiation is used to initiate the polymerization

  15. EUROGRAPHICS 2002 / N.N. Short Presentations Rendering of Japanese Artcraft

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    several methods for simulation of Japanese lacquer ware, a prominent Far East Asian handicraft art. We consider two most popular kinds of Japanese lacquer ware made by the makie and nashiji techniques effect manifested by nashiji lacquer is simulated by the explicit modeling of metal platelets immersed

  16. A new method for the histochemical localization of laccase in Rhus verniciflua Stokes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of biochemical methods, such as spectrophotometry, oxygen-absorbance and polarography from the liquid lacquer of studying its physiological function in the lacquer tree, a simple permanent staining tech- nique One year old seedlings of the lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifltia Stokes cv. Puchengxiaomuy were grown

  17. STARTING SIDE " KNOW " Robotics DIE TIME, 11.01.2007 NR. 03

    E-print Network

    Bongard, Josh

    lacquer. The acronym GOLEM stands for "genetic organized life-similar elektro-Mechanik". Differently than the hands of a toepfers, but in a 3D-Drucker. Lipson and pole lacquer wrote first a program, to shape, strengthened or weakened the activity by neurons. Now Lipson and pole lacquer tested themselves, like far

  18. Capturing Optical Properties of Paint Polymerization Roman Durikovic

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    propose a heuristics, which does make the same tim- ing decision as an experienced lacquer man in reflectance coefficients over time. The novelty of the approach is transforma- tion of lacquer man experiences of the technique, the tech- nique was used to simulate the appearance of an expensive Japanese lacquer ware made

  19. Real-Time Rendering of Japanese Lacquerware Ryou Kimura Roman Durikovic

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    pigments, and lacquer. We propose a method for real-time rendering of Makie. The op- tical properties blending, photo-realistic render- ing, image processing 1 Introduction Japanese lacquer work called urushi after several kinds of metal and color pig- ments are sprinkled on raw lacquer. It has com- plex optical

  20. European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering ECCOMAS Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference 2001-03-29

    E-print Network

    Grant, P. W.

    is derived to describe the solvent coating applied to the underside of the sheet, assuming that the lacquer associated with the reverse roller-coating of alloy sheets using a protective film of solvent-based lacquer that the lacquer is a Newtonian fluid. In particular, the work has concentrated on the flow patterns that result

  1. Volume 2, Chapter 12: Eliminating Defects and Knowing the Reasons Behind Defects

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    piece of wood, using glue­lacquer and bamboo nails to fasten it. [ Boil down some thick cow glue and mix it with lacquer. Use this and bamboo nails to fasten it on secure. Expose it to some humidity so it will set]. 1 wood here and use the glue­lacquer mixture mentioned before to make it secure. It is best

  2. Page 2 of 55 Low-cost photomask fabrication using laser ablation

    E-print Network

    -thick) on float glass substrate. Then a nitrocellulose lacquer, serving as a self-developing resist, is spin hydrofluoric acid. Both nitrocellulose lacquer characterization and laser parameters are discussed; Photomask; Laser ablation; Patterning; Nitrocellulose lacquer. hal-01060034,version1-2Sep2014 Author

  3. Volume 2, Chapter 6: Rubbing the Powder on Smooth 1 When the two halves of the ch'in, the top and bottom, and also the area within the belly

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    the halves together.] It is necessary to put on the powder and lacquer so that the ch'in can stand up to the fingering. [ If the lacquer powder mixture is not used, then after a great period of time, the wood will be damaged.] Whenever others put on the powder and lacquer they use a cattle horn comb 2 and dab on (the

  4. Method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, W. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface, is described wherein the uncured enamel paint surface is coated with a non-curing lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cured lacquer. The non-curing lacquer adheres to the enamel and a photo resist material satisfactorily adheres to the partially cured lacquer. Once normal photo etching techniques are employed the lacquer coats can be easily removed from the enamel leaving the photo etched image. In the case of edge lighted instrument panels, a coat of uncured enamel is placed over the cured enamel followed by the lacquer coats and the photo resists which is exposed and developed. Once the etched uncured enamel is cured, the lacquer coats are removed leaving an etched panel.

  5. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Evanskey, Melissa R. (Potomac Falls, VA)

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  6. Volume 3, Chapter 7: Distinguishing Genuine Tuan Wen on Ancient Ch'in

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    for several hundred years, its lacquer­powder mixture will vaporize to such an extent that tuan­wen (##) 1, it is necessary that the lacquer­powder mixture should have been put on with care when the ch'in was make then after a long time the lacquer­powder mixture is not able to stick onto the ch'in wood and peeling

  7. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) EPA 402/F-08/008 | September 2008 | www.epa.gov/iaq

    E-print Network

    stoves, water heaters, dryers, and fireplaces. The types and amounts of pollutants produced depends. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals found in paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning

  8. Electroform replication of ultrasmooth mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altkorn, Robert I.; Haidle, Rudy H.; Chang, Jon C.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Dace, Gregory; Teague, Peter F.; Upham, D.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Rodricks, Brian G.; Georgopoulos, P.; Viles, N.; Butler, K.; Debooth, M.; Wiewel, D.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper we describe the fabrication of replica Wolter I optics from gold-coated lacquer- polished mandrels and the effect of plating bath temperature on the surface quality of electroforms produced from lacquer-polished substrates. We also discuss the use of ceramic masters to electroform replicas having high-frequency surface roughness as low as 3 angstroms.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Gg of... - Specialty Coating Definitions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...wetting and form a chemical bond with the subsequently...evaporation without a chemical reaction. Lacquers...An adhesive that bonds nonload bearing...yet flexible, bond between two mating...improve abrasion and chemical resistance...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Gg of... - Specialty Coating Definitions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...wetting and form a chemical bond with the subsequently...evaporation without a chemical reaction. Lacquers...An adhesive that bonds nonload bearing...yet flexible, bond between two mating...improve abrasion and chemical resistance...

  11. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...this chapter. (c) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers (which are prohibited), a limited number of coats of any standard paint, or any “Incombustible Material”...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...stripping using MeCl for the removal of dried paint (including, but not limited to, paint, enamel, varnish, shellac, and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray application of coatings, as...

  13. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Filling Yarns, Flat).” (5) Federal Test Method Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of Inspection, Sampling and Testing.” (Method 6141 “Washability of Paints”, and...

  14. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...print. After filling, sealing, autoclaving, and marking, the container shall be dip-coated with one coat of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing and filling. The plant and...

  15. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...this chapter. (c) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers (which are prohibited), a limited number of coats of any standard paint, or any “Incombustible Material”...

  16. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...this chapter. (c) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers (which are prohibited), a limited number of coats of any standard paint, or any “Incombustible Material”...

  17. 77 FR 71632 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...and 2010, the United States sought reimbursement of response costs for costs incurred by the United States at the National Lacquer and Paint Superfund Site in Chicago, Illinois and penalties and punitive damages for failure to comply with EPA...

  18. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090—Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No....

  19. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090—Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No....

  20. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090—Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No....

  1. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...this chapter. (c) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers (which are prohibited), a limited number of coats of any standard paint, or any “Incombustible Material”...

  2. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...this chapter. (c) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers (which are prohibited), a limited number of coats of any standard paint, or any “Incombustible Material”...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...stripping using MeCl for the removal of dried paint (including, but not limited to, paint, enamel, varnish, shellac, and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray application of coatings, as...

  4. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...print. After filling, sealing, autoclaving, and marking, the container shall be dip-coated with one coat of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing and filling. The plant and...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...stripping using MeCl for the removal of dried paint (including, but not limited to, paint, enamel, varnish, shellac, and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray application of coatings, as...

  6. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...print. After filling, sealing, autoclaving, and marking, the container shall be dip-coated with one coat of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing and filling. The plant and...

  7. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090—Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No....

  8. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...print. After filling, sealing, autoclaving, and marking, the container shall be dip-coated with one coat of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing and filling. The plant and...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...stripping using MeCl for the removal of dried paint (including, but not limited to, paint, enamel, varnish, shellac, and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray application of coatings, as...

  10. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090—Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No....

  11. Wat. Res. Vol. 0, No. 0, pp. 000000, 2001 # 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    for chlorinated solvents. Dioxane is also used as a solvent in paints, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, fumigants this xenobiotic is recalcitrant to microbial degradation, has a low tendency to volatilize from water

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Harmonized Tariff Schedule Description of Products That May Contain Controlled Substances in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...90 Other. 3210.00 Other paints and varnishes (including enamels, lacquers and distempers) and prepared water pigments of a kind used for finishing leather. 3212.90 Dyes and other coloring matter put up in forms or packings for...

  13. Do You Have Work-Related Asthma? A Guide for You and Your Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... repair • Foundry work (casting) • Paints, lacquers, ink, varnishes, sealants, finishes • Building construction (plaster, insulation) • Textile, rubber and ... and cutting • Printing • Polyurethane rubber • Painting • Furniture manufacturing • Glues and adhesives • Truck bed liner application • Electric cable ...

  14. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Baumann; Udo Dinglreiter

    2011-01-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order\\u000a to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing\\u000a liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new

  15. Onychomycosis does not always require systemic treatment for cure: a trial using topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Shiela Fallon; Chan, Yuin C; Chan, Yiong H; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2013-01-01

    Standard teaching dictates that systemic therapy is required for treatment of onychomycosis. It is unknown whether topical antifungal therapy is effective for pediatric nail infections. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted in the Pediatric Dermatology Research Unit at Rady Children's Hospital to determine whether topical antifungal therapy is efficacious for pediatric onychomycosis. Forty patients ages 2 to 16 years with nonmatrix onychomycosis were randomized 1:3 to ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle lacquer. Ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle was applied daily for 32 weeks, with weekly removal of the lacquer and mechanical trimming. Those with poor response were crossed over to active drug at week 12. Thirty-seven patients completed the 32-week study, and follow-up data were collected 1 year after completion of the study from 24 patients. Mycologic cure, effective treatment, and complete cure were assessed, as well as adverse events and effect on quality of life. Mycologic cure was 70% in the treated group and 20% in the vehicle arm (p = 0.03) at week 12. At end of the study (week 32), 77% of treated patients achieved mycologic cure and 71% effective treatment, compared with 22% of the control group. Ninety-two percent of those who were cured and followed for 1 year remained clear. Topical antifungal lacquer (ciclopirox) can be an effective option for children with nonmatrix onychomycosis. Pediatric onychomycosis does not always require systemic therapy and responds better to topical therapy than does adult disease. PMID:23278851

  16. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Walter; Dinglreiter, Udo

    2011-08-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new recycling process based on an evaporation process, a fractionated condensation and an after treatment of the condensates is described. The compatibility of the recycled system for lacquers is investigated. After a test with ten recycling loops no accumulation of harmful substances occurs. In comparison to original agents the recycled rinsing liquids show comparable or better cleaning abilities. The comparison of the energy consumption and the disposal of CO2 and of volatile organic compounds between the application of fresh rinsing liquid with disposal after usage and recycled rinsing liquid show major advantages of the recycling process.

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Venkatraman, Anusha

    2012-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl, diagnosed of osteogenesis imperfecta, presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. Investigations revealed an active choroidal neovascular membrane. She underwent treatment with intravitreal Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml). Follow-up at 1 month revealed the development of lacquer crack running through the macula, underlying the fovea. The patient received two re-treatments at 1-month intervals, following which the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) regressed completely. However, further progression of lacquer cracks was noted. At the last follow-up, 6 months following the last injection, the fundus remained stable and vision was maintained at 20/200. Considering the natural history of the disease and the increased risk of rupture of the Bruch's membrane in such eyes, the possible complication of a lacquer crack developing must be borne in mind, before initiating treatment. PMID:22569391

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  20. A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for air Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, D.; Gebauer, H. J.; Lorenz, E.; Martinez, M.; Mase, K.; Mirzoyan, R.; Ostankov, A.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-05-01

    A simple method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers (PMTs) will be described. The method is based on applying onto the cathode window a specially prepared lacquer containing a wavelength shifter (WLS). A rapidly evaporating lacquer solvent results in a milky surface that acts as a photon scatterer. Applying the method to the ET 9116A PMT (hemispherical borosilicate window and rubidium-bialkali photocathode) resulted in a good sensitivity in the short-wave UV range as well as a />~20% increase above 330nm. Details of the study, the procedure and a simple model for the explanation of the enhancement are presented.

  1. Production of ultrasmooth electroform-replica mirrors for multilayer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Altkorn, Robert I.; Haidle, Rudy H.; Madsen, David W.

    1994-02-01

    We describe the fabrication of smooth electroformed replicas from gold-coated ceramic and lacquer-polished glass mandrels. We show that lowering the temperature of the plating both improves the surface quality of replicas produced from lacquer-polished substrates, although not to the levels that can be achieved using ceramic substrates. The low surface roughness and high ductility of electroforms make them attractive alternatives to conventional silicon and mica substrates for the production of bent and conformable multilayer optics. We describe preliminary work on multilayer coating an electroform produced from a sapphire master.

  2. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  3. ENGINEERING PROGRAM Advancing health through technology

    E-print Network

    , and programmable systems. What can we build for you? 3D Printing 3D printing produces high resolution prototypes research/patients benefit from 3D models? #12; from a wide range of materials including plaster, lacquered paper, bio-compatible plastics, metals

  4. V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing…

  5. 25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed roof construction with lacquered finish, decorative cove molding at intersection of roof and walls, and interior framing details - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  6. Surface treatment of polyimide film for metal magnetron deposition in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V.; Vertyanov, D.; Timoshenkov, S.; Nikolaev, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper brings forward a solution for acquisition of good quality metallization layers on the polyimide substrate by magnetron deposition in vacuum environment. Different film type structures have been analyzed after refining and activation surface treatment operations. Positive effect was shown after the application of polyimide lacquer for surface dielectric film planarization and for structural defects elimination.

  7. 40 CFR 59.110 - Incorporations by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ASTM D 1613-96, Standard Test Method for Acidity in Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products, IBR approved for § 59.104(d). (2) ASTM D 523-89, Standard Test Method for Specular...

  8. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  9. Walking by Night: Japanese Art for Blind and Sighted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joshua

    1982-01-01

    Describes a museum exhibit of Japanese art designed to enhance tactual awareness. Blind and sighted visitors cooperated in sharing their hands-on perceptions of objects. Display pieces, chosen for functionality and design interest, included ceramics, textiles, folk art, lacquer work, musical instruments, and household objects. (AM)

  10. 40 CFR 59.110 - Incorporations by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ASTM D 1613-96, Standard Test Method for Acidity in Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products, IBR approved for § 59.104(d). (2) ASTM D 523-89, Standard Test Method for Specular...

  11. Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallmeyer, H.

    1988-01-01

    To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

  12. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  13. Blu-Ray Disc cover layer production using spin coating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Bernd; Eisenhammer, Thomas; Dubs, Martin; Yavaser, Cem; Pfaff, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A spin coating technique for the 100 micron cover layer for Blu-Ray Disc production has been developed. The process includes a controlled manipulation of the viscosity of the lacquer with heat and UV light during spin coating. Stability and cost efficiency, two vital criteria for mass production, have been considered.

  14. Molecular Structure of Urushiol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-04-19

    Urushiol is a yellow oil comprised of a mixture of organic compounds containing a catechol (1,2-hydroxy benzene) and a pentadecyl or heptadecyl side chain; some side chains may be unsaturated. The earliest use of urushiol was in the art of ancient Asia, where works of art were coated in lacquer finishes derived from the trees Toxicodendron vernicifluum or Rhus verniciflua. In fact, the name urushiol is derived from urushi, the Japanese word for the lacquer prepared from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree ("kiurushi"). During the lacquering process, the phenols oxidize and polymerize with the help of enzymes to yield a coating that is hard and resistant to mechanical stress. Inhabitants of North America are familiar with the more malevolent side of urushiol-as the active ingredient of poison ivy and poison oak. Most people are highly allergic to urushiol and will develop redness, painful itching, and blistering of the skin if they touch even minute amounts of the oil. Interestingly, one of the most effective remedies for poison ivy comes also from a plant. The Jewelweed plant (Impatiens capensis) found in North American hardwood forests produces a chemical called Lawsone (a naphthoquinone) with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the effects of urushiol on the skin.

  15. Ranges in Air and Mass Identification of Plutonium Fission Fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour Katcoff; John A. Miskel; Charles W. Stanley

    1948-01-01

    Determinations were made of the mean and extrapolated ranges in air of plutonium fission fragments for twenty individual masses between 83 and 157. Collimated fission fragments passing through air at 120 or 140 mm pressure were deposited, after being stopped by the air, on a series of fourteen thin lacquer films. These were analyzed radio-chemically for individual fission products. The

  16. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel–manganese alloys: Effect of Ni\\/Mn bath ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Stephen; M. V. Ananth; V. Ravichandran; B. R. V. Narashiman

    2000-01-01

    with detergent followed by a final washing in distilled water. The edges of the panels were masked with lacquer. An area of 4 cm · 5 cm on both sides was left exposed to the electrolyte during plating. Efforts were initially made to study the preparation of practical deposits obtained from solution of pH 3. No attempt was made to

  17. Private Wealth--National Vision: The Memoirs of a New Russian Entrepreneur

    E-print Network

    Panikin, Aleksandr; Clowes, Edith W.

    2000-01-01

    to the Moscow train. The passengers would be overcome by the smell 15 PRIVATE WEALTH—NATIONAL VISION of fresh lacquer, and they would keep up a steady stream of complaint the whole way to Moscow. Finally I would reach the luggage room at the station where...

  18. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...

  19. Physical and mechanical characteristics of coatings, subjected to accelerated ageing, of mixes of propellants with polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Glavchev; Radi Ganev; Hristina Iordanova

    2001-01-01

    A scheme for manufacturing lacquers from mixes of waste single-base propellants with halogen-containing polymers is proposed. Examines the physical and mechanical characteristics (decrease of mass of coating, hardness, adhesion, and impact strength) of created coatings subjected to accelerated ageing, by two methods. Compares and analyses results obtained in testing. Results show that coatings from mixes of propellants with polymers are

  20. Association of indigo with zeolites for improved colour stabilization , Martinetto P.a,*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by hybridizing the natural dye with a mineral. In search for stable natural pigments, the present work focuses host and the tailorable properties of organic dyes, are of wide interest for paint and pigment industry dyes led several ancient civilizations to the manufacturing of artificial pigments, such as lacquer

  1. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...including but not limited to aluminum, flour, iron ore...including but not limited to aluminum, antimony, arsenic...including but not limited to aluminum, asbestos, coal, flour...protection against mists of paints, lacquers, and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...including but not limited to aluminum, flour, iron ore...including but not limited to aluminum, antimony, arsenic...including but not limited to aluminum, asbestos, coal, flour...protection against mists of paints, lacquers, and...

  3. Migration from can coatings: Part 2. Identification and quantification of migrating cyclic oligoesters below 1000?Da

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schaefer; V. A. Ohm; T. J. Simat

    2004-01-01

    Metal cans for food use can be coated with lacquers based on polyester resins. Recent research has focussed on the identification and quantification of migrants released by coatings that are potentially absorbable (below 1000?Da). The presented method describes a procedure that was optimized to hydrolyse the polyester migrants into their monomers, polyvalent acids and polyols. The polyols were identified by

  4. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  5. A Small-Scale Matric Potential Sensor Based on Time Domain Reflectometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Persson; Jon M. Wraith; Torleif Dahlin

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of soil matric potential (c) are needed in many soil science applications. In the present study, a small matric potential sensor having a length of 30 mm and a diameter of 9.6 mm was de- veloped. The sensor consists of two coils made of lacquer-coated cop- per wires embedded in gypsum. The dielectric constant of the gypsum (Kgypsum) was

  6. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  7. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...insulated from heated surfaces. An internal combustion engine exhaust, galley uptake, electrical heating tape, or similar source...of and suitably insulated from combustible material. A dry exhaust system for an internal combustion engine on a wooden or fiber...Paint. Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume producing paints or lacquers must not be used on......

  8. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108...Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or...highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit....

  9. The role of topical antifungal therapy for onychomycosis and the emergence of newer agents.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

  10. The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

  11. Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

  12. [Infrared spectrum characteristics of vehicle body paint].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming

    2012-07-01

    Two hundred eighty seven samples of vehicle paint were collected, and 940 spectra were obtained by Fourier transform infrared micro spectrometer. The spectral features of varnish, finish layer, and coated layers of different models and different color were analyzed, and the spectra similarities were compared. The results show that the varnish similarity on the same models with different color is 99.5%, and some similar model with the same manufacturer had high similarity. The finish spectra have remarkable differences with different model and different color, and the similarity degree is under 70%. The coated layer similarity varies between 83.33% and 96.91% among the common lacquer putty, and it ranges between 70.12% and 96.44% among the water-based lacquer putty. The metal components of paint will influence the spectrum characteristics. The spectra of the vehicle paint will change with the usage time. PMID:23016329

  13. An analytical approach to toxic substance replacement in support of pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, I.B. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Emission Reduction Research Center

    1997-12-31

    In support of pollution prevention and in accordance with Executive Order 12856 concerning pollution prevention, all federal agencies must comply with the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) chemical release reduction and pollution prevention planning. The inventory lists hundreds of chemicals and choosing those to replace and finding actual replacement chemicals or procedures is not always clear. This study focuses on an analytical approach to this problem by understanding the application of ethanol. Ethanol is a volatile organic compound (VOC) used as a solvent in ammunition manufacturing. Ethanol`s use as the solvent for shellac in a primer lacquer is characterized in the laboratory. Due to interest in substituting acetone for ethanol, an acetone-based primer lacquer is fabricated and tested in comparison to its ethanol counterpart. The results form the basis for broader application and chemical change.

  14. Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

    2012-07-01

    Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC ˜ 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

  15. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  16. Process for non-contact removal of organic coatings from the surface of paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  17. Novel photoelectrochromic cells containing a polyaniline layer and a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 photovoltaic cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiang Li; Jürgen Hagen; Dietrich Haarer

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel photoelectrochromic (PEC) cell containing a polyaniline layer and a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 layer. Electrochromic thin films of polyaniline layers have been prepared by electrochemical deposition and by spin-coating a dispersion of a polyaniline lacquer. The influences of the preparing parameters on the micromorphologies of the polyaniline layers were investigated. Under illumination of about one sunlight intensity,

  18. Successful coating of an allergenic acrylate-based dental prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lasse Kanerva; Kyllikki Tarvainen; Riitta Jolanki; Tuula Estlander

    1995-01-01

    Background: Most dental prostheses are currently made of acrylate compounds. Therefore, patients sensitized to acrylate compounds may have difficulties in finding prostheses.Objective: A patient with allergic prosthesisinduced stomatitis who was able to use the prosthesis after her allergenic acrylate-based dental prosthesis had been coated with a UV light—cured acrylate lacquer is reported.Methods: The patient was patch tested with the standard

  19. Numerical simulation of polyester coextrusion: Influence of the thermal parameters and the die geometry on interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, O.; Agassant, J.-F.; Laure, P.; Valette, R.; Silva, L.

    2007-04-01

    The polymer coextrusion process is a new method of sheet metal lining. It allows to substitute lacquers for steel protection in food packaging industry. The coextrusion process may exhibit flow instabilities at the interface between the two polymer layers. The objective of this study is to check the influence of processing and rheology parameters on the instabilities. Finite elements numerical simulations of the coextrusion allow to investigate various stable and instable flow configurations.

  20. Optics for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Vieira, J. R.; Brookover, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a large grazing incidence X-ray telescope that is being prepared for use in a spectrometer for X-ray astronomical observations. The telescope is figured by diamond turning and polished by applying an acrylic lacquer that is overcoated by a thin film of tungsten to provide high X-ray reflectivity. The current status of our research in multilayer deposition is presented and some astronomical applications of multilayer mirrors are described.

  1. Needs for super-smooth surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, T. T.

    1992-05-01

    Understanding the needs for super smooth optics yields insights for optical fabricators tasked to produce them. These needs include substrates for metrology and a host of X-ray applications. In addition to some grazing angle of incidence optics, normal incidence optics with multilayer stacks have been recently produced. These optics have very demanding finish requirements. Lacquer and flow polishing have produced some interesting surfaces.

  2. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  3. High throughput X-ray optics - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for the production of high-throughput modular arrays of telescopes with net collecting areas exceeding 10 to the 5th sq cm and 20-arsec angular resolution are discussed. Techniques considered include the automated figuring of flats as parabolic reflectors, the replication of cylindrical shells, the alignment of thin lacquer-coated conical foils, electroforming, and the use of large diamond turning machines. High-throughput programs are described, and it is noted that future missions will emphasize high resolution spectroscopy.

  4. Needs for super-smooth surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.

    1992-05-01

    Understanding the needs for super smooth optics give insights for optical fabricators tasked to produce them. These needs include substrates for metrology and a host of X-ray applications. In addition to some grazing angle of incidence optics,, normal incidence optics with multilayer stacks have been recently produced. These optics have very demanding finish requirements. Lacquer and flow polishing have produced some interesting surfaces.

  5. Needs for super-smooth surfaces. [For metrology, x-ray optics, soft x-ray projection lithography, x-ray microscopy, etc

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.

    1992-05-01

    Understanding the needs for super smooth optics give insights for optical fabricators tasked to produce them. These needs include substrates for metrology and a host of X-ray applications. In addition to some grazing angle of incidence optics,, normal incidence optics with multilayer stacks have been recently produced. These optics have very demanding finish requirements. Lacquer and flow polishing have produced some interesting surfaces.

  6. On the thermal decomposition and residue formation of plant oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goettler, H.J.; Harwood, R.F.; Ziejewski, M.; Klosterman, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Plant oils are considered viable replacement fuels for diesel engines. However, in order to become successful, diesel fuel substitutes, problems associated with the formation of lacquer and carbon deposits on engine components must be resolved, else truly long-term engine reliability will not be possible. This paper reports some basic experiments into the formation of residues due to liquid phase reactions of a number of plant oils as a function of temperature.

  7. Curing of polyurethane coatings: Radiation curing. January 1980-November 1989 (A Bibliography from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the curing of urethane and polyurethane coatings by electromagnet radiation. This bibliography is specific to electric and/or magnetic curing as compared to photocuring or ultraviolet curing, which are treated as separate bibliographies. These coatings may be described as inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, or specialized coatings. Special applications of this technology in the magnetic recording media industry are presented. (Contains 98 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Development of a satellite antenna reflector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Stockburger

    1975-01-01

    A 1.3 m reflector dish for an X-band transmitter antenna has been developed for use in communications satellites. The full-scale dish thickens towards the center and is braced by a sandwich section around the rim. Temperature gradients are reduced by a white thermal lacquer. Two model antennae constructed from carbon fiber composites - one with an epoxy resin matrix and

  9. Molecular criteria for discriminating museum Asian lacquerware from different vegetal origins by pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Solenn Le Hô; Martine Regert; Olivier Marescot; Chloé Duhamel; Juliette Langlois; Tetsuo Miyakoshi; Christophe Genty; Michel Sablier

    This paper focuses on the identification of several chemical markers of vegetal species of Oriental lacquers with the aim at providing a methodology consistent with sampling restrictions necessarily applied in the field of cultural heritage. The method proposed is based on rapid and easy single step thermally assisted hydrolysis–methylation (THM) pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) analysis that can be carried out

  10. Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal decoating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Kvithyld; C. E. M. Meskers; Sean Gaal; Markus Reuter; Thorvald Abel Engh

    2008-01-01

    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented\\u000a in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact.\\u000a Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous\\u000a emissions, with increased metal oxidation,

  11. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: A review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Huang; C. K. C. Wong; J. S. Zheng; H. Bouwman; R. Barra; B. Wahlström; L. Neretin; M. H. Wong

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins\\/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites\\/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much

  12. Migration from can coatings: Part 3. Synthesis, identification and quantification of migrating epoxy-based substances below 1000?Da

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schaefer; T. J. Simat

    2004-01-01

    Bisphenol A-derived glycidyl ethers as well as its reaction products with other lacquer components can migrate into the packed food from epoxy-based can coatings. A sensitive and selective method is presented using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet light, fluorescence and electrospray ionization-mass selective detection for the identification and quantification of all migrants with a bisphenol A backbone and a

  13. Failure Analysis of Tuna Cans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Barella; S. Cincera; M. Boniardi; M. Bellogini; S. Gelati; A. Montanari

    A metal container used for food packaging must preserve the food’s edibility characteristics for a long period of time. Lacquered\\u000a tinplate is suitable for canning food provided that the cans are airtight. This article details a root cause failure analysis\\u000a that was conducted utilizing a sample of tuna cans taken from an affected batch of one million units. Several examinations

  14. Self-assembling adhesion promoters for corrosion resistant metal polymer interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Maege; Evelin Jaehne; Axel Henke; Hans-Juergen P Adler; Christian Bram; Christian Jung; Martin Stratmann

    1997-01-01

    The self-assembly process has been investigated for the replacement of the present chromating procedure on reactive metals like aluminium and to improve the lacquer adhesion and corrosion inhibition. It will be shown, that self-assembled layers can affect adhesion and corrosion inhibition on aluminium and its alloys. For self-assembly molecules (SAMs) substances are required which are able to react spontaneously on

  15. [Antitumor effects of a plant extract mixture].

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Wataru; Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Ono, Nobufumi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the most common cause of death in Japan. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer were conducted from the viewpoint of Western medicine so far. However, a sustained complete remission has not been achieved yet. In order to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, some traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines) have been prescribed to cancer patients. We have been studying on antitumor substances in medicinal herbs and found an antitumor medicinal herb named Rhus verniciflua (lacquer, Urushi in Japanese). To investigate the antitumor effect in vitro, a plant extract mixture was prepared from six medicinal herbs containing lacquer. The plant extract mixture containing lacquer (Rv-PEM) inhibited the proliferation of several mouse and human tumor cell lines. Rv-PEM had more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human leukemia cell lines (MOLT-3, KG-1) than on other tumor cell lines. The IC50 values of Rv-PEM on MOLT-3 and KG-1 cells were 0.208 and 0.293 mg/mL, respectively. After treating Rv-PEM to the tumor cells, DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 and -9 activity increased in the treated cells. The mechanisms of the inhibitory proliferation activity of Rv-PEM would involve apoptosis of human leukemia cells (MOLT-3, KG-1, K-562) by the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23649388

  16. Preservatives in registered chemical products.

    PubMed

    Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2005-07-01

    Preservatives are common causes of contact allergy and contact dermatitis. Exposure to cosmetics, personal care products, consumer products and occupationally used products often involve contact with the same range of preservatives. The aim of this study is to provide an overview on the occurrence of preservatives in registered chemical products. The studied preservatives included substances from standard patch test series and other preservatives relevant for registered chemical products. Data obtained from the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) in January 2005 were compared to similar data from January 2002. Paints/lacquers, cleaning agents and printing inks were the most frequently registered product categories, and the studied preservatives were registered in most of the product categories included in the study. For most product categories the total number of registered products was stable during the study period. Butylated hydroxytoluene, benzoic acid, isothiazolinones, Bronopol and formaldehyde showed an increase from 2002 to 2005. Most of these changes occurred in the product category paints/lacquers, for which a doubling mainly due to a change in registration practice was observed. The frequent registration of isothiazolinones (MCI/MI and benzisothiazolinone) in paints/lacquers may be a possible explanation for the relative high and stable frequency of positive patch test reactions to MCI/MI. PMID:15982228

  17. Monitoring of taints related to printed solid boards with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Heiniö, R L; Ahvenainen, R

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives were to combine knowledge gathered from the electronic nose (EN) with traditional analytical reference methods for measuring volatile compounds, such as sensory and headspace methods. The impacts of different colouring agents on the sensory properties of packaging materials when analysed by EN were determined. The first step in investigations using the EN was optimization of sample treatment and analysis parameters for the samples. The best resolution was achieved at 60 degrees C in 20 min, and the effect of humidity on the EN sensors was confirmed. A comparison was made of three sensory methods for analysing taints of packaging materials. The study showed that the odour of the packaging itself was often not a reliable indication of the taint perceived in the packed foodstuff and should be regarded only as indicative. Taints caused by pigments of printed solid boards were analysed by EN. Twenty samples were studied, representing unprinted solid board, lacquered solid board, offset printed solid board with 14 different colours and offset printed, lacquered solid board with four colours. The EN succeeded in grouping these materials according to their colouring agents or lacquering, despite slight overlapping of replicates, and the results appeared to reflect at least to some extent the off-flavours perceived in sensory evaluation. The results of this study are only indicative, because the analysis of results from different sources or equipment requires more extensive use of statistical methods. PMID:11962710

  18. Efinaconazole: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trina; Dhillon, Sohita

    2013-11-01

    A non-lacquer 10% topical solution of efinaconazole, developed by Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, received its first global approval in Canada in October 2013 for the treatment of onychomycosis. The product is under regulatory review in the US and Japan. The mechanism of anti-fungal activity of efinaconazole, a small-molecule triazole compound, appears to be similar to that of other anti-fungal triazoles, namely ergosterol synthesis inhibition. In particular, it appears to inhibit 14? demethylase, an enzyme involved in the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, resulting in secondary degenerative changes. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of efinaconazole leading to this first approval for onychomycosis. PMID:24249649

  19. Mass transfer during dissolution of cadmium in hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubynin, A.I.; Duda, B.I.; Berlin, A.A.

    1987-10-20

    This paper reports the dissolution kinetics of cadmium tubes (d = 40, l = 90 mm) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions under natural and induced movement at 30/sub 0/C. The external surface and edges were insulated with an acid-resistant lacquer. The hydrochloric acid concentration over the range studied had little effect on the cadmium dissolution rate, the controlling step in the process being desorption of cadmium ions from the anodic sections and hydrogen ions from the cathodic sections. Based on theoretical and experimental studies we postulate a halide passivation of the anodic sections of the metal surface to produce dissolution curve inflections as a result of induced acid movement.

  20. A progress report on grazing incidence optics fabrication and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, Peter F.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Matsui, Yutaka; Briel, Ulrich; Burkert, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    The progress being made on a mirror array telescope for high energies (MARTHE) project is reported. As a first step, small mirror flats and full-size Wolter I mirrors are produced that are lacquer coated (mandrels) and then coated with gold or palladium. The up-to-date results of fabricating and testing these mirrors are presented. Currently, results can be provided on the micro-roughness, marco-figure, X-ray scattering, and reflectivity up to 8 keV from flats and Wolter I mirrors as well as optical measurements of the flats.

  1. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  2. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-04-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  3. Developments in CD-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J. A. T.; Mischke, Wlodek S.

    2001-02-01

    A review of recent developments in CD-R technology is given. This covers the physical design principles of the disc together with its production methods. We review all the subsequent manufacturing steps. The relevance of groove replication, substrate conditioning, dye solution and solvents, spinning methods, dye coating process conditions, dye layer drying, sputtering and lacquer coating on the CD-R disc performance are presented. The differences in the recording mechanism for several types of dyes are illustrated. The two modified new phthalocyanine and cyanine processes are described. Some technological implications for higher density recordable formats like DVD-R will be given.

  4. Electrochemical reaction mechanisms for hydrogen at highly disperse tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Boikova, G.V.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Tarasevich, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen ionization and evolution of tungsten carbide were compared and these reactions were described in terms of a unified reaction scheme. Two types of electrodes were used, a rotating disk electrode with a thin catalyst layer of disperse tungsten carbide and the second model was a floating gas-diffusion electrode. Fluoropolymer lacquer was used as the binder. The kinetic parameters were determined by measuring steady-state polarization curves and potentiodynamic curves. A hypothesis for a hydrogen ionization reaction scheme was developed which may serve in future investigations and the authors suggest prior deprotonation of the hydrogen molecules.

  5. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  6. Electroform replication of smooth mirrors from sapphire masters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altkorn, R.; Chang, J.; Haidle, R.; Takacs, P. Z.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-09-01

    A sapphire master was used to produce mirrors that exhibit mid-to-high-frequency roughness as low as 3 A. The fabrication procedure and potential applications in X-ray astronomy are discussed. It is shown that foils replicated from flat smooth mandrels should offer at least equivalent HF roughness and significantly lower mid-frequency ripple than those coated with lacquer. A ceramic-surface mandrel could also be expected to last far longer without the need for repolishing than electroless nickel-coated mandrels.

  7. Matting Agent Concentration and its Effect on the Colour and the Rheology of Matted Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsib, Faouzi; Ayed, Naceur; Chevalier, Yves

    Matting of polymeric pigmented coatings not only decreases the gloss of surfaces but also affects their colour and rheological properties. For this reason, it is important to study the changes in colour and rheology of coatings caused by adding a matting agent. Blue, green and white alkyd lacquers and pure silica as matting have been investigated regarding this purpose. The obtained results showed that after a saturation point, the alterations in colour and rheology change their direction. The optical processes effecting these alterations are discussed.

  8. Application of UV/EB cured coatings to different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriryaeva, G. V.; Bydanova, V. V.; Khoromskaya, V. A.; Bolshakova, T. A.

    1995-09-01

    Particular attention is given to the development and radiation curing of lacquers on different substrates. Radiation-induced polymerization of thin oligomer films is considered with regard to lowering oxygen inhibition. The effect of radiation curing parameters (energy of accelerated electrons, dose, dose rate) on the cured coating properties and their change under UV accelerated ageing is investigated. The paper deals with the study of UV cured paints and presents the properties of coatings produced in the presence of different photoinitiators. A current situation is described to show the progress in design of the commercial radiation curing lines in Russia.

  9. Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Samuel L.

    1994-09-01

    The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

  10. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters 

    E-print Network

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01

    The solar heaters are shown tn Figure VI, page 31 30 Figure VI Horizontal Solar Heaters ~GLAZING AND FRAME ~~ POLYETHYLENE HEATERS THERMAL IN S U LA T I N 8 CELLS THERMOCOUPLES HORIZONTAL TABLE TOP THERMOCOUPLES COPPER LEADS TO CONTROL... equiltbrium temperature when exposed to solar radiation, The black lacquer used for the tnnermost ring is a very good absorber at all wave lengths The cold and hot junctions of the thermopile are attached under the magnesium oxide receiver and the black...

  11. Nanomaterials Transform Hairstyling Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Dennis Morrison, a former scientist at Johnson Space Center, conducted research on microcapsules that were developed in space and designed to deliver drugs to cancerous tumors. This work led to research on nanoceramic materials, and in 2001, Morrison shared his expertise with Farouk Shami, the owner of Farouk Systems Inc., of Houston, Texas. After learning more, Shami developed a ceramic composite for his CHI (Cationic Hydration Interlink) hairstyling irons, brushes, nail lacquers, and hair dryers. Morrison also used his NASA research expertise as a platform to incorporate nanosilver and near-infrared light into the products.

  12. Molecular Structure of Cyclohexane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-14

    Cyclohexane exists naturally in petroleum, but is also commercially produced by hydrolyzing benzene. It is relatively volatile with a boiling point lower than that of water. The ability of cyclohexane to assume different conformations lends itself to a vast array of chemistry. Cyclohexane is used as a solvent for lacquers and resins, as a paint intermediate and varnish remover, in the extraction of essential oils, and in analytical chemistry for molecular weight determination. Also it is used in the manufacture of adipic acid, benzene, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexyl chloride, nitrocyclohexane, solid fuel for camp stoves, in industrial recrystallization of steroids, and in fungicidal formulations. Cyclohexane is also used in the preparation of nylon.

  13. Thinner intoxication manifesting as methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Gomber, Sunil

    2009-03-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints is known to contain mixture of various arometic hydrocarbons; halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha, if ingested may rarely cause methemoglobinemia. We report a 3 year old child who presented to us with history of accidental ingestion of thinner, used for removing household paint. Child was having cyanosis with minimal tachypnoea & the colour of his blood was chocolate brown. Later methemoglibulin level estimations were also done, which were suggestive of this diagnosis. Child was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy & vital monitoring, which lead to complete recovery and discharge from hospital later. PMID:19347673

  14. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

  15. A spark chamber for cosmic ray research

    E-print Network

    Jelinek, Al Vincent

    1964-01-01

    . The Geiger counters used in this apparatus are made of soft (soda lime) glass tubing 1 I/2" in diameter, 18" long with center wires of 5-mil tungsten. The tubes were coated with Dag 3isper- sion No. 194 conducting lacquer to form an exterior cathode... . Tne sp -rk i ~ a, h. ghly conducting plasma. w. :n 1 ov imoed ance aru the high-vol . age terminal of cne caps citor bans i" effoc ively grounded, sv' tcning tne hign-voliage on the c" pacitor 'sank across the chamber. This volta ~ c wil: c se...

  16. [Factors inducing clinical symptoms of acute hepatic porphyria 1986-1990].

    PubMed

    Tarczy?ska-Nosal, S; Ekiert, M; Kostrzewska, E

    1991-01-01

    The most frequent cause of porphyria attacks in this time period were drugs used in symptomatic treatment (in 69 out of 195 cases). In 42 women attacks were induced by sex hormone disturbances, in 21 cases by contact with paints and lacquer in 7 by alcohol and in 3 by calorie deficiencies. The main cause of porphyria attacks in carriers of this metabolic error is lack of porphyria considering in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pains, polyneuropathy and vague mental disorders, which leads to erroneous treatment worsening the course and prognosis of the disease. PMID:1823950

  17. Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

  18. Bulk and surface components of electric influence on the magnetoplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of weak electric fields on the magnetically induced mobility of individual dislocations in NaCl crystals has been investigated. It is shown that the strong influence of an electric field on the magnetoplasticity, which is caused by the transformation of impurity centers at dislocations from the diamagnetic state ( Me ++) to the paramagnetic state ( Me +), has both bulk and surface components. The surface effect dominates over the bulk one in weak electric fields ( E < 0.5 kV/m), which are insufficient for the exciting bulk electromigration of charged defects near dislocations. However, the contribution of the surface effects becomes insignificant in comparison with the bulk processes in stronger fields E. Lacquering crystal faces to block the surface electromigration of defects excludes this stimulation component at any E. It is shown that dislocation motions occurring due to a rapid switching on an electromagnet also disappear in lacquered samples. These effects observed may be related to the same surface electromigration of defects under the vortex electric fields induced by switching on a magnetic field.

  19. Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

  20. New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.

    2012-06-01

    The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

  1. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of speed-reduction equipment. Environmental Research Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing speed reduction equipment -- approximately 110,000 speed reduction units/yr. Plant operations include machining and assembling parts for worn gear shafts and other shafts, worn gear bodies, hubs and housings, bearings and seals. Keyed and threaded shafts are case-hardened, ground with a thread grinder, and deburred. Component parts are washed with an aqueous cleaner before assembly, and finished assemblies are spray painted with solvent-based paints and lacquer thinner. Spent cutting fluid and sludge, including turnings, and spent wash water are shipped offsite for disposal. Spent hydraulic oil and non-aqueous cutting fluid are shipped to a recycler. Waste paint and spent lacquer thinner are shipped offsite for incineration. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that most waste consists of spent aqueous cutting fluid, and that the greatest savings could be obtained by ultrafiltration and recycle of spent wash water.

  2. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

  3. In-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at a printing press.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Savchuk, Olesya; Genest, Beatrix; Scherzer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the coating weight of printed layers can be determined in-line in a running printing press by near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy assisted by chemometric methods. Three different unpigmented lacquer systems, i.e., a conventional oil-based printing lacquer, an ultraviolet (UV)-curable formulation, and a water-based dispersion varnish, were printed on paper with coating weights between about 0.5 and 7 g m(-2). NIR spectra for calibration were recorded with a special metal reflector simulating the mounting conditions of the probe head at the printing press. Calibration models were developed on the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and evaluated by independent test samples. The prediction performance of the developed models was examined at a sheet-fed offset printing press at line speeds between 90 and 180 m min(-1). Results show an excellent correlation of data predicted in-line from the NIR spectra with reference values obtained off-line by gravimetry. The prediction errors were found to be ? 0.2 g m(-2), which confirms the suitability of the developed spectroscopic method for process control in technical printing processes. PMID:22709830

  4. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

  5. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  6. Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 2: experimental determination of internal damage growth in unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates is investigated in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. The damage may take the form of longitudinal yielding and splitting in the matrix as well as stable transverse damage consisting of broken fibers and matrix yielding ahead of the notch. A brittle lacquer coating is used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques are used to detemine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the experimental specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model.

  7. Cost-effective production of microgrooves for drag reduction on the surface of aircraft in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwing-So

    1992-04-01

    Cost-effective technique for producing longitudinal microgrooves in situ of near-optical quality has been developed to improve the aerodynamic performance of aircraft. The production technique utilizes a flexible tooling sheet, which is pressurized onto the painted surface of aircraft wings and fuselage under moderate temperature. In this method, the surface of aircraft is moulded with the pattern of the tooling sheet which can be mass-produced using conventional roller-rolling techniques. Both of the surfaces with thermo-plastic paints (e.g., acrylic lacquer) and thermo-setting paints (e.g. polyurethane) can be applied with this technique to produce triangular micro-grooves of 50 micrometers on the aircraft surface, which can save the jet-fuel cost by more than 2 percent.

  8. Effects of free tin on filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, J.; Yoshida, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Aichi (Japan). Nagoya Research and Development Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin (Sn)-coated steel (LTS) for welded cans was studied in relation to the free Sn coating weight (free Sn coating weight = total Sn [minus] alloyed Sn). Filiform corrosion was found to be retarded by high cathodic polarization in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was <0.1 g/m[sup 2] but where the electrochemically determined chromium (Cr) coating weight was high. In the region where the free Sn coating weight was 0.1 to 0.35 g/m[sup 2], microcells were formed by the coupling of free Sn and the tin-iron alloy below the lacquer film, resulting in acceleration of filiform corrosion.

  9. Thermal-oxidation stability of diesel fuels. Interim report, October 1983-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Barbee, J.G.; Yost, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) were used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel deposits formed on test surfaces at elevated temperatures was developed and applied to a variety of fuels, both with and without MIL-S-53021(additive stabilizer package). The utility of this technique greatly expands the capability for exploring and defining diesel-fuel thermal stability with respect to both material and kinetic studies. Correlation of IFBT and JFTOT type tests including definitions of temperature, flow, test-surface metallurgy and fuel additive effects can now be performed to better understand diesel thermal stability and provide test methodology/test limit information for fuel-specification consideration.

  10. Parental occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McCanlies, Erin C; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Sanderson, Wayne T; Charles, Luenda E; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-11-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene occurred more often in the parents of children with ASD compared to the parents of unaffected children. Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report exposures to asphalt and solvents compared to parents of unaffected children. This study was limited by the small sample size, but results suggest that workplace exposures to some chemicals may be important in the etiology of ASD and deserve further investigation. PMID:22399411

  11. Reactive ion etching of deep trenches in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliznetsov, Vladimir N.; Gutshin, Oleg P.; Yachmenev, V.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a new production technology of deep trenches RIE with a photoresist mask. RIE was performed in a low-pressure batch diode reactor. Wafers were placed on RF (5,28 MHz) electrode covered by organic lacquer. The maximum loading was 24 wafers having a diameter of 100 mm. Positive photoresist with 2 micron thickness was used for masking without any thermal treatment after development. The line width was 1.5 - 2.0 micron. Because earlier investigated mixtures of chlorine and bromine-containing halocarbons with SF6 didn't allow sufficient selectivity silicon/photoresist, we have proposed to use for deep silicon etching the mixture of CF3I/SF6 and investigated the dependence of silicon and photoresist etch rates and etch anisotropy on basic controlled plasma parameters.

  12. Diamond-turned very thin mirror for high-throughput x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sakima, Yasuhiro; Senda, Harumitsu; Endo, Hiroki; Yasuba, Shoichi

    1994-02-01

    We have developed a new method to make very thin mirror for the high throughput X-ray telescope, whose design goal of an angular resolution is 1 arc min half power diameter. In this method, aluminum mirror substrate is figured by diamond machining using special support made of water-soluble adhesive. The smooth surface is obtained by dip lacquering and the reflective layer is gold coated on this surface by the vacuum deposition. By means of this method, we have made test conical mirrors with a diameter of 150 mm, a height of 100 mm, a grazing angle of 0.6 degree and various thickness. We found that this method can provide very thin substrate of thickness down to 0.3 mm. The first results of mechanical and X-ray test indicate that angular resolution is 1.7 arc min half power diameter for 2 stage conical mirror system.

  13. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  14. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored. PMID:21596439

  15. Unusual applications of holographic interferometry in a semi-industrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Pierre M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents two rather specific applications of holographic interferometry. The first is related to the study of displacements and strains associated with the rapid (200 meter/second) crack propagation in pressurized polymer pipes. Denisyuk type holography using a double pulsed Ruby laser was found to yield practical results; due to the rather explosive nature, experiments were carried out at night, outside of the classical buildings. The other series of tests is concerned with the localization of most stressed zones in prototypes manufactured from steel castings. As the use of brittle lacquers is now prohibited, holographic interferometry was used to find the locations for putting the strain gauges. Relatively large (up to 1 X 1 m) and heavy (about 700 kgs) castings were tested, resting on an unisolated concrete slab, using a semi-professional ESPI system and a small argon laser.

  16. Engine durability screening test of a diesel oil/soy oil/alcohol microemulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Fry, B.

    1984-10-01

    A hybrid fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were burned in direct-injection diesel engines to compare the effects of the fuels on engine durability. The hybrid fuel was a microemulsion of soybean oil, diesel fuel, 190-proof ethanol and 1-butanol. The engines were run for 200 hours on each fuel with loads and speeds controlled by computer according to a cycle suggested by the EMA (Engine Manufacturer's Association). Engines were disassembled before and after the runs to determine the difference in wear and carbon deposits. The engine running on the hybrid fuel completed the 200-hour EMA test without difficulty. The hybrid produced less engine wear than diesel fuel, but produced greater deposits of carbon and lacquer on the injector tips, intake valves and tops of the cylinder liners. Also, engine performance was degraded ca. 5% at the end of the 200 hour test. 11 references.

  17. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanlian; Bai, Weibin; Luo, Zhen; Jin, Yao; Peng, Bichen; Feng, Lixia; Hu, Binghuan; Lin, Jinhuo

    2012-04-01

    Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

  19. Fabrication of imaging X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Brookover, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of optics for X-ray astronomy and laboratory applications are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and sample images. Particular attention is given to the Wolter I telescope developed for spectroscopic observation of 8-30-A cosmic X-ray sources from a rocketborne X-ray Objective Grating Spectrometer; this instrument employs three nested paraboloid-hyperboloid mirrors of 5083 Al alloy, figured by diamond turning and covered with a thin coating of acrylic lacquer prior to deposition of a 40-nm-thick layer of Sn. In calibration tests at NASA Marshall, the FWHM of the line-spread function at 1.33 nm was found to be 240 microns, corresponding to 21 arcsec. Also presented are the results of reflectivity measurements on C and W multilayers sputtered on Si and fusion glass substrates.

  20. Laser prototyping of printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. R.; Anto?czak, A. J.; Kozio?, P. E.; Abramski, K. M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the application of laser micromachining to rapid prototyping of printed circuit boards (PCB) using nano-second lasers: the solid-state Nd:YAG (532/1064 nm) laser and the Yb:glass fiber laser (1060 nm). Our investigations included tests for various mask types (synthetic lacquer, light-sensitive emulsion and tin). The purpose of these tests was to determine some of the basic parameters such as the resolution of PCB prototyping, speed of processing and quality of PCB mapping with commonly available laser systems. Optimization of process parameters and the proposed conversion algorithm have allowed us to produce circuit boards with a resolution similar to that of the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology.

  1. Another grain boundary corrosion process in sensitized stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, W.K.; Iyer, R.N.; Pickering, H.W. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    This work investigates the intergranular corrosion of a sensitized Type 430 stainless steel in 1N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. Once the grain boundary groove is formed by dissolution of the Cr-depleted material, a second form of localized corrosion commences within minutes and replaces the Cr-depletion mechanism. The second mechanism attacks both the bulk grains (of normal Cr content) and the Cr-depleted alloy. This is shown by groove widths that are much larger than the Cr-depleted zone widths. Gas bubbles, deduced to be hydrogen, egress from the grain boundary grooves, indicating a sizable potential drop within the grooves and the likelihood that the second corrosion process is caused by the IR phenomenon recently found to account for crevice corrosion in iron. The IR mechanism could also account for the observed corrosion under the lacquer at the sample edges.

  2. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  3. Measurement of surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films by a combination of optical shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    Shearography techniques were applied again to measure the surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films on a metallic substrate. The coatings were ACE premium-grey enamel (spray coating), a yellow Acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a carbon steel substrate. The investigation was focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings by shearography between 20 and 60 °C. Then, the alternating current (AC) impedance (resistance) of the same coated samples was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.0% NaCl solution at room temperature. As a result, the proportionality constant (resistivity or conductivity = 1/surface resistivity) between the determined AC impedance and the in-plane displacement was obtained. The obtained resistivity of all investigated coatings, 40:15 × 106-24:6 × 109?cm, was found in the insulator range.

  4. Nonprocess solvent use in the furniture refinishing and repair industry: Evaluation of alternative chemical strippers. Final report, September 1993-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.L.

    1996-02-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditional high-VOC lacquer and emerging, low-VOC, wood furniture coatings. Objectives of the research were to: (1) conduct a laboratory evaluation of the performance of five alternative chemical stripper formulations and compare their performance to that of a traditional solvent-based chemical stripper formulation on three coatings types found on wood furniture substrates, and (2) assess, in a furniture refinishing facility, the use of the best performing alternative chemical stripper on traditional furniture coatings and new emerging low-VOC furniture coatings. Alternative chemical strippers were evaluated based on their stripping effectiveness compare to a methylene-chloride-based stripper.

  5. Using optical metrology to reconstruct sound recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E. W.; Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Jin, J.; Nordmeyer, R.; Golden, M.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to 1950 nearly all sound recordings were made on mechanical media such as wax, foil, shellac, lacquer, and plastic. Some of these older recordings contain material of great historical value or interest but are damaged, decaying, or now considered too delicate to play. Archives seek to preserve and also create broad access to their collections. An ongoing effort at Berkeley Lab has applied methods of optical metrology and image processing to reconstruct sound stored on these mechanical carriers. This approach was inspired by the use of precision optical metrology to align and fabricate silicon tracking arrays for high-energy physics experiments and by track finding and fitting data analysis methods. The technology has matured to the point that an optical metrology system for sound restoration has been designed and built for the Library of Congress.

  6. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?urikovi?, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  7. Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Lerman, Zafra M.; Angelos, Sanford A.

    1996-06-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been utilized with nonscience majors in the courses: "Modern Methods in Science: Discovering Molecular Secrets"; "The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things"; "From Ozone to Oil Spills: Chemistry, the Environment and You"; and "Crime Lab Chemistry: Solving Crime through Analytical Chemistry". Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter. Students have also used GC-MS, as a form of alternative assessment, in course projects that have been based on their majors, personal interests, and cultural backgrounds. Students have also conducted advanced independent work in different areas of chemistry, including the analysis of nail polishes and lacquers and eleven aromatic compounds present in three different brands of gasoline.

  8. New edge-blackening techniques for refractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Ramona; Gebhardt, A.; Weber, C.; Risse, Stefan; Guyenot, Volker

    1996-08-01

    There is a trend in the optical industry to automate the edge-blackening of optical components. The goal of edge- blackening is to coat the areas outside the functional region of optical components, namely the peripheral areas including the surface edge or 'diaphragm' and apertures, with light absorbing, index-matched material to minimize scattering light. The common method today is the manual application with brush or ink-writer of quick-drying liquid pigmented synthetic resin. The lenses are fitted at a rotary table with a vacuum-pump or with considerable disadvantage inhibiting the automation. Another problem is the use of a high number of lacquers with different or partly unknown properties, due to varying chemical bases.

  9. Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groshart, E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

  10. Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Gold Coast, Florida (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-11

    The Gold Coast Oil Corporation (GCO) site is located within a commercial/industrial/residential area and located over the Biscayne Aquifer, the sole source aquifer for the area. GCO, along with Solvent Extraction, Inc., were in the business of distilling mineral spirits, lacquer thinner, and reclaiming solvents. Blowdown from these operations was sprayed directly onto the ground and 53 drums of sludge-contaminated soil were stored onsite. No waste was shipped offsite during the 11 years of operation. Investigations of illegally dumped and stored sludge and onsite wells took place in 1980 and in 1981. In 1982 CSX Transportation evicted GCO from the property and agreed to voluntarily clean up the site. Soil and ground water are contaminated with TCE, PCE, other VOCS, lead, and other heavy metals. The selected remedial action for this site are given. The estimated total cost for this remedial action is $3,711,600 with present worth OandM of $74,850.

  12. Onychomycosis nailed.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, M; Noorlaily, Mn

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection of the nail is a common condition that causes much concern because of its disfiguring appearance. Although specific treatment is available for this condition, treatment outcome is variable and persistent nail dystrophy post-treatment may cause distress to both the patient and the physician. This article describes the current available treatment options for onychomycosis, management approach and the expected treatment outcome to enhance primary care physicians' confidence in managing this condition. Oral antifungal agents such as terbinafine and itraconazole are good treatment options for onychomycosis. Combination therapy using oral antifungal agents with topical lacquer preparations may provide added benefits. Evaluation of patient's expectations, providing information on treatment outcome, clinical cure and recurrence rates are essential in the management of onychomycosis. This article is intended to guide primary care physicians to achieve realistic treatment goals and for a satisfactory experience in the overall management of this challenging condition. PMID:25606290

  13. Hard and soft x-ray study of the correlation between substrate quality and multilayer performance for Co/C coating produced by electron beam evaporation using ion polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdali, Salim; Christensen, Finn E.; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Louis, Eric; Voorma, Harm-Jan

    1995-06-01

    Polished silicon crystals, lacquered aluminum foil, and float glass substrates with respect to surface roughness. Co/C multilayers were then deposited by electron-beam evaporation with in situ monitoring x-ray signal and ion polishing (Kr+) for the metal layer. The specular as well as the transverse scan have demonstrated different qualities, influenced by the different substrates. The investigations were performed with both hard x-ray (8.05 keV) as well as soft x-ray (0.25 keV). The reflectivity varies up to factor 3 between the best and the worst of these substrates. The results of these investigations and a comparison between the coating performances are discussed.

  14. Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. W.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates was conducted in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the fiber stresses and displacements and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agreed well with those predicted by the models. It was shown that for thin laminates the amount of damage and the fiber displacements do not depend strongly on the number of plies for a given notch width.

  15. Activity of catalyst coatings in reactors for waste gas purification

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Samoilov, N.A.

    1988-03-01

    The influence of oxidation temperature on the degree of purification of a model vapor-air mixture (VAM) is shown in terms of removal of isopropylbenzene for coatings based on KO-08 varnish and catalysts AP-64, GIPKh-105-B and STK-1-7. The same influence is shown for removal of isopropylbenzene and n-paraffins on coatings based on KO-08 lacquer and catalysts STK-1-7 and AP-64. The purification improved as the VAM feed rate was increased. A logarithm of effective reaction rate constant is presented as a function of the reciprocal of the absolute temperature of oxidation and expressed in a linear anamorphosis of the Arrhenius equation.

  16. Health assessment for Bog Creek Farm Site (BCFS) National Priorities List (NPL) site, Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD063157150. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Bog Creek Farm Site, located in a rural area of Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, is on the National Priorities List. In 1973 and 1974, various wastes were reportedly dumped at the site, including lacquer thinners, paint solvents and resins, disinfectants, animal carcasses, and residential debris. Sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site ground water, surface water, and sediments and of on-site waste and soil revealed several contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Site contamination appears to be greatest immediately adjacent to an on-site waste-disposal trench. A potential public health threat exists from dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of contamination from ground water, surface water, sediment, waste, and soil.

  17. Efinaconazole solution 10%: topical antifungal therapy for toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Toenail onychomycosis is a common disease with limited treatment options, as treatment failures and relapses frequently are encountered. Many patients experience long-term disease that affects multiple toenails and causes substantial discomfort and pain. Although many patients prefer topical therapies, treatment efficacy with ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers has been disappointing. Efinaconazole solution 10% is a new triazole antifungal agent specifically developed for the treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole has shown a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in vitro and is more potent than ciclopirox against common onychomycosis pathogens. It has lower keratin binding and quicker drug release from keratin than ciclopirox and amorolfine and exhibits remarkably greater in vivo activity. Efinaconazole has limited or no potential for drug interactions and a low resistance potential. Efinaconazole provides a viable alternative to oral therapy for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. PMID:24195094

  18. Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  19. Penetration of ((14)C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Joshua A; Stein Gold, Linda; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors' nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors' findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  20. Temperature stability of transit time delay for a single-mode fibre in a loose tube cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.; Johnston, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the transit-time delay of a loose-tube-type single-mode optical-fiber cable is investigated experimentally. A 1058-m length of cable was placed loosely coiled in an oven and used to connect a 820-nm single-mode laser diode to a high-speed avalanche-photodiode detector feeding a vector voltmeter; the signal was provided by a high-stability frequency-synthesized generator. Measurements were made every 2 C from -50 to 60 C and compared to those obtained with a 200-m lacquered bare fiber. The phase change of both fibers varied with temperature at a positive slope of 6-7 ppm/C. This value is significantly better than those reported for other cable types, suggesting the application of loose-fiber cables to long-haul gigabit digital transmissions or precision time-base distribution for VLBI.

  1. Materials processing with a high power diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Lawrence, J. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Spencer, J.T. [BNFL, Lancashire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on work exploring the feasibility of a range of materials processing applications using a Diomed 60W diode laser delivered through a 600{mu}m diameter optical fibre to a 3 axis CNC workstation. The applications studied include: marking/engraving natural stones (marble and granite), marking ceramic tiles, sealing tile grouts, cutting and marking glass, marking/engraving wood, stripping paint and lacquer, and welding metallic wires. The study shows that even at the present limited power level of diode lasers, many materials processing applications can be accomplished with satisfactory results. Through the study an initial understanding of interaction of high power diode laser (HPDL) beam with various materials has been gained. Also, within the paper basic beam characteristics, and current R&D activities in HPDL technology and materials processing applications are reviewed.

  2. Correlation of images: technique for mandible biomechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yachouh, Jacques; Domergue, Sophie; Loosli, Yannick; Goudot, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    Various experimental or physicomathematical methods can be used to calculate the biomechanical behavior of the mandible. In this study, we tested a new tool for the analysis of mandibular surface strain based on the correlation of images. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were placed in a loading device allowing replication of a physiologic biting exercise. Surfaces of the mandibles were prepared with white and black lacquer. Images were recorded by 2 cameras and analyzed with an algorithm to correlate those images. With the Limess Measurement & Software system and VIC 3D software, we obtained data output concerning deformations, strains, and principal strains. This allowed us to confirm strain distribution on the mandibular corpus and to focus on weak points. Image correlation is a new technique to study mandible biomechanics, which provides accurate measurements on a wide bone surface, with high-definition images and without modification of the structure. PMID:21959457

  3. Molecular Structure of Succinic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

  4. Factors impacting the combination of topical corticosteroid therapies for psoriasis: perspectives from the International Psoriasis Council.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Kragballe, K; Segaert, S; Lebwohl, M

    2011-10-01

    Corticosteroids are the mainstay of topical therapies for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. Selection of vehicle, concentrations of corticosteroid and coadministered medications, and frequency of administration are critical factors that enhance bioavailability of topical corticosteroids. Topical corticosteroids are commonly used as polytherapy and combination therapy with other agents, such as salicylic acid, vitamin D analogues and tazarotene. Combinations are selected for the ability to enhance efficacy while minimizing corticosteroid-related side-effects, such as cutaneous atrophy. New, innovative products such as sprays, foams and nail lacquers provide opportunities to tailor treatment for individuals, which promotes patient adherence to medications. This review covers features of topical corticosteroid formulations that affect bioavailability, efficacy and safety when used as monotherapy and in combination with other agents for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. PMID:21564329

  5. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  6. Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (? > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

  7. Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (?>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

  8. Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and other substances.

    PubMed

    Luce, D; Gérin, M; Leclerc, A; Morcet, J F; Brugère, J; Goldberg, M

    1993-01-21

    A case-control study of cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses was conducted in France to determine whether occupational exposure to formaldehyde was associated with an increased risk of sinonasal cancer. Exposures to 14 other substances or groups of substances were also studied (wood dust, leather dust, textile dust, flour dust, sugar dust, coal/coke dust, nickel compounds, chromium compounds, chromium VI, welding fumes, soldering fumes, cutting oils, paints and lacquers, glues and adhesives). Cases (n = 207) and controls (n = 409) were interviewed to obtain detailed information on job history and other potential risk factors for sinonasal cancer. In addition, a questionnaire specially designed for this study was used to help assess exposures to formaldehyde and other substances of interest. The questionnaires were translated into history of occupational exposure by an expert in industrial hygiene, without knowledge of case-control status. Several exposure variables (lifetime average level, duration, cumulative level) were used to describe the risk related to exposure to formaldehyde. Potential confounding factors (occupational and non-occupational) were examined and adjusted for when necessary. No significant association was found between exposure to formaldehyde and squamous-cell carcinomas of the sinonasal cavities. Because of the strong association between exposure to wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma, it was not possible to assess an independent effect of formaldehyde on this type of cancer. However, among males exposed to medium or high levels of wood dust, the risk of adenocarcinoma associated with formaldehyde was significantly elevated for the highest exposure categories for average level (OR = 5.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-22.2), cumulative level (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.7-28.2) and duration of exposure (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.7-27.8). Although a residual confounding effect of wood dust could not be excluded, this study suggests that exposure to both formaldehyde and wood dust may increase the risk of nasal adenocarcinoma, by comparison with the risk due to wood dust alone. This study also indicated an increased risk among males who had been exposed to glues and adhesives, for all histologic types, which was not explained by a confounding effect of paints and lacquers, wood dust or formaldehyde. No other significant association was observed. PMID:8425759

  9. What can cross-bedding tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a common transport mechanism associated with explosive eruptions. They behave as particulate density current (flows of particles and fluid, whose driving force is the excess density compared to the ambient fluid). The particles thus are the defining part of the flow acting as the agent of momentum and the resultant deposits, making PDC sedimentology fundamental. We combine wind tunnel measurements with nontraditional field techniques to consider cross-bedding from dilute PDCs from the mm to the km scale. Each deposited particle requires 1) momentum to reach its final location, but 2) sufficiently low shearing to halt at this place. A range of shearing is constrained from wind tunnel measurements. The results are combined with field data from lacquer peel sampling (an outcrop is impregnated with a solidifying glue, preserving the primary organization of the grains). This enables quantification of the grain size of mm-scale laminae, giving an order of magnitude of turbulence during deposition. The lacquer peel technique also imaged cm-scale, soft sediment deformation patterns producing overturned beds. These are interpreted as related to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instabilities between a granular-based flow and the bed. Dune bedform (DBs) cross-stratification at the m scale generally have an overall stoss-aggrading stacking pattern. Often interpreted as indicating supercritical flows, the wind-tunnel results and DBs' geometry rather suggest they are a specificity of particulate density currents with high deposition rates. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the 3D stability in location of a DB over several m depth, although stacking patterns vary with time and laterally. This emphasizes the primary influence of the basal boundary layer in the depositional dynamics. At the 100 m scale, DBs' shape evolves in dimensions and form, calling for 3D datasets. Terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry enable quantification of the evolution of DBs' outer shape and document the depositional history. The understanding of PDC cross-bedding is emerging, but ample evidence of the extreme variability in sedimentary facies in depth and laterally call for 3D acquisition schemes from the mm to km scale to depict correctly and understand the information in the buried deposits.

  10. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Niklasson, B

    1983-07-01

    D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow belong to a group of quinophtalone dyes with a common basic structure. D & C Yellow No. 11 is used mostly in plastics, spirit lacquers, coloured smokes and cosmetics, but it is also increasingly used as a dye in soaps and shampoos. Quinoline Yellow is used for dyeing wool, silk and nylon in cases where good light fastness is not required, but is most commonly used as a drug and food colouring agent. A patient, extremely sensitive to D & C Yellow No. 11 with a positive patch test reaction down to 0.00001%, also reacted to Quinoline Yellow at a test concentration of 0.1%. To establish if any cross-reactivity occurs between the two compounds, a high pressure liquid chromatograph was used for analysis, purification and separation of the two colours. The patient was then patch tested with the two colours and the pure fraction of Quinoline Yellow. The test results confirm a true sensitivity to Quinoline Yellow and to D & C Yellow No. 11, and may indicate cross-reactivity between the colours. PMID:6684529

  11. Cloning, expression, and spectroscopic characterization of Cucumis sativus stellacyanin in its nonglycosylated form.

    PubMed Central

    Nersissian, A. M.; Mehrabian, Z. B.; Nalbandyan, R. M.; Hart, P. J.; Fraczkiewicz, G.; Czernuszewicz, R. S.; Bender, C. J.; Peisach, J.; Herrmann, R. G.; Valentine, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the 182 amino acid long precursor stellacyanin from Cucumis sativus was isolated and characterized. The protein precursor consists of four sequence domains: I, a 23 amino acid hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide with features characteristic of secretory proteins; II, a 109 amino acid copper-binding domain; III, a 26 amino acid hydroxyproline- and serine-rich peptide characteristic of motifs found in the extension family, extracellular structural glycoproteins found in plant cell walls; and IV, a 22 amino acid hydrophobic extension. Maturation of the protein involves posttranslational processing of domains I and IV. The copper-binding domain (domain II), which shares high sequence identity with other stellacyanins, has been expressed without its carbohydrate attachment sites, refolded from the Escherichia coli inclusion bodies, purified, and characterized by electronic absorption, EPR, ESEEM, and RR spectroscopy. Its spectroscopic properties are nearly identical to those of stellacyanin from the Japanese lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, the most extensively studied and best characterized stellacyanin, indicating that this domain folds correctly, even in the absence of its carbohydrate moiety. The presence of a hydroxyproline- and serine-rich domain III suggests that stellacyanin may have a function other than that of a diffusible electron transfer protein, conceivably participating in redox reactions localized at the plant cell wall, which are known to occur in response to wounding or infection of the plant. PMID:8931137

  12. Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  13. Molecular Structure of Formic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

  14. Nasal and sinonasal cancer. Connection with occupational exposures in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hernberg, S; Westerholm, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Degerth, R; Kuosma, E; Englund, A; Engzell, U; Hansen, H S; Mutanen, P

    1983-08-01

    A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 in order to study the connection between nasal and sinonasal cancer and various occupational exposures. All new cases of nasal and sinonasal cancer were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland and Sweden) or from the hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to an interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was made according to standardized forms. Both cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal and sinonasal cancer and exposure to (i) hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14: 2), (ii) softwood dust alone (13:4), (iii) chromium (16: 6), (iv) nickel (12: 5, not significant), (v) welding, flame-cutting and soldering (17: 6), and (vi) lacquers and paints (14: 0). The last finding was probably due to confounding from wood dust exposure. Hardwood dust exposure was associated with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents. PMID:6635610

  15. Influence of Blackness on Visual Impression of Color Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Tetsuya; Koike, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Sakurako; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ozaki, Koichi; Ayama, Miyoshi

    Two experiments, using color images of Japanese lacquer objects, investigated the relation between the strength of blackness and the visual and artistic impression of digital color images presented on a display. The first experiment determined the mean RGB values of black surface areas in the test stimuli where observers began to perceive the areas as “black”, and the mean RGB values where observers perceived the areas “really black”. Results indicate that to perceive a “really black” surface, RGB values should be lower than those of the original image in some pictures. The second experiment investigated, how, and to what degree the RGB values of black areas affect the visual impression of an artistic picture. Three factors, “high-quality axis”, “mysterious axis”, and “feeling of material axis”, were extracted by factor analysis. Results indicate that the Art students seem to be more sensitive in the evaluations along the “high-quality axis” and “mysterious axis” than the Engineering students are, while the opposite tendency is observed in the evaluation along the “feeling of material axis”.

  16. The Alcan fluidized bed decoater: A new generation of decoating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, F.; Litalien, M. [Alcan International Ltd., Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Centre; Stephens, D. [Alcan Recycling, Shelbyville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that removal of organic material such as lacquer, paint, plastic prior to melting improves aluminum recovery. In addition to being ail important economically, decoating of aluminum scrap has a positive impact on the environment, through better control of gaseous emissions. Most of the existing thermal decoaters for aluminum have been designed to operate with scrap containing a level of organic material lower than 10%. The main field of their present application is for recycling of used aluminum can, where levels of organic material are lower than 4%. Alcan has recently developed a new thermal decoating system in order to extend applications of this process to a much wider variety of aluminum scrap. The new decoater efficiently processes aluminum scrap with a level of organic material LIP to 50%. This new technology features the use of fluidized bed technology to thermally control the process. This innovative feature improves both performance and control over conventional delacquering systems based on hot air convection. This paper describes the basic principles of the technology and the design of the first industrial unit commissioned by the Alcan Recycling plant in Shelbyville (TN) at the beginning of 1994. Typical applications in operating advantages are discussed.

  17. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): New Lyme, Ashtabula County, Ohio, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The New Lyme Landfill is located near State Route 11 on Dodgeville Road in Ashtabula County, approximately 20 miles south of the City of Ashtabula, Ohio. The landfill occupies about 40 acres of a 100-acre tract. Operations began at the site in 1969, and were initially managed by two farmers. In 1971, the landfill was licensed by the State of Ohio and operations were taken over by a licensed landfill operator. According to documentation, the New Lyme Landfill received household, industrial, commercial, and institutional wastes and construction and demolition debris. However, numerous violations of the license occurred, including: open dumping; improper spreading and compacting of wastes; no State approval for disposal of certain industrial wastes; and excavation of trenches into the shale bedrock. In August 1978, the landfill was closed by the Ashtabula County Health Department. Documents indicate that wastes at the New Lyme Landfill site included: coal tar distillates, asbestos, coal tar, resins and resin tar, paint sludge, oils, paint lacquer thinner, peroxide, corrosive liquids, acetone, xylene, toluene, kerosene, naptha, benzene, linseed oil, mineral oil, fuel oil, chlorinated solvents, 2,4-D, and laboratory chemicals. The selected remedial action is included.

  19. Composite plastic coatings and face rolled materials technology, energy- and environment-saving, based on irradiation of liquid monomers by broad and high-current electron beams in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisburd, David

    1994-05-01

    The technology is based on the well-known process of hardening some organic liquid monomers and oligomers (resins and lacquers) under the action of ionizing radiation, i.e. electron, ion, ultra-violet, laser, and X-ray beams. The main mechanism of hardening is 3D polymerization of initial monomers induced by irradiation. First of all 1D polymer chains are created. And the next stage is cross-linking of them. Numerical attempts to apply such a process for plastic materials production met some earnest difficulties. Our decision to perform the whole processing in vacuum changed radically the main properties of radiation induced hardening technology. The inhibition of polymerization by reactive oxygen became unessential. The output window foil of accelerator became unnecessary. Application of super broad beams such as 1 sq.m became possible. The entire efficiency of grid electricity was increased to 60% and it was not the limit. One of the main advantages is that the processing carried out in vacuum may satisfy the highest ecological standards. The technology developed is contamination free and environment-saving.

  20. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment for Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dump, Smithfield, Providence County, Rhode Island, Region 1: CERCLIS number RID981063258. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-06-25

    Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite is an area formerly occupied by a lacquer manufacturing industry located in Smithfield, Rhode Island. Drums of a nitrocellulose resin have been found onsite and were promptly disposed by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. This public health assessment is an evaluation of existing on and offsite environmental data, health outcome data, and addresses community health concerns related to the site. An evaluation of onsite sediment sampling data showed semi-volatile compound (SVOC) contamination in the wetland area near Stillwater River. However, human contact with sediment in this area is infrequent and is not expected to result in adverse health effects. There were no contaminants detected in onsite subsurface soil samples at levels of health concern. Sampling results from two privately owned wells used by the public that are located one half mile from Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite showed no groundwater contamination of health concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has classified the Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite as a No Apparent Public Health Hazard based on infrequent human contact with SVOCs detected in onsite sediment of the wetlands area near Stillwater River.

  1. Conical foil optics for the collimation of soft x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Samuel L.; O'Hara, David B.; Scarborough, Scott; Price, Melvin L.

    1994-11-01

    Physitron has constructed a grazing incidence nested optic designed to collect and collimate a broad energy bandwidth of diverging soft x-rays (nominally 1.5 keV) emanating from a point source. Although this optic was designed to collimate rather than focus x-rays, our optic is similar to the nested conical foil x-ray telescopes which have been constructed and successfully used by NASA. Key differences exist between our optic and NASA's telescopes. First, the aperture of our optic is 28 cm2 which is considerably smaller than NASA's telescopes. Second, the reflectors in NASA's telescopes are contained in an annular ring, leaving the middle of the optic open. Our optic has a much smaller open area at its radial center. These differences required an innovative fabrication technique in which the reflective rings are formed as complete rings from lacquer-smoothed aluminum foil instead of forming the reflectors as quadrants as in NASA's technique. This paper will discuss the key design considerations and procedures for the collimator in addition to a description of the fabrication technique used.

  2. Plastic substrate hardening by PE-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichella, Stefania; Misiano, Carlo; Simonetti, Enrico; De Carlo, L.

    1994-09-01

    The usage of plastic substrates has known a big enhancement driven by ophthalmic applications, but a further spreading can be foreseen in higher technological fields too. As known, two drawbacks are outlined when using these substrate: low scratching resistance; high thermal expansion coefficient, thus bad compatibility with the optical coatings made of inorganic layers. The most widespread solution up to now is a hardening and mechanical matching lacquer coating by dipping, which is well accepted in ophthalmics, but cannot be utilized in precision optics due to its intrinsic thickness disuniformity. Recently similar layers have been realized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. This paper describes Ce.Te.V.'s activities and results in setting up this coating by RF PE-CVD, aimed to both ophthalmics and precision optics. The two different functions (hardening and mechanical matching) and the performances of the coating-with special attention to scratch and thermal shock resistance-are examined. The experimental equipment and the optical and environmental characteristics are described.

  3. Effects of H-implantation on the optical stability under photo-irradiation of urushi films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Nishimura, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Tachio; Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masaya

    1993-06-01

    A study has been made of the effects of H-implantation on the optical stability under photo-irradiation of urushi films. Urushi films of 43 ?m in thickness were lacquered on glass plates. Implantation of H +, H 2+, C +, N + and O + ions were performed with an energy of 150 keV and doses of 1 × 10 14 and 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. The beam current density used was approximately 1 ?A/cm 2 to prevent specimens from heating. The photo-irradiation onto the surfaces of urushi films was carried out to radiative exposure of 190 MJ/m 2, using a Suga sunshine weather meter. The gloss, transmittance and haze of implanted and photo-irradiated urushi films have been investigated in conjunction with chemical bonding states of carbon at the urushi surfaces. Ion implantation induces the surface carbonization of urushi films to inhibit the change in gloss and haze by photo-irradiation. It is concluded that ion implantation is useful for improving the optical stability under photo-irradiation of urushi films.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Marion/Bragg Landfill, Marion, Indiana, (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    The Marion/Bragg Landfill is a 72-acre site located near the southeastern city limits of Marion, Indiana. The site is bordered on the north and east by the Mississinewa River. Main features of the site include a 45-acre landfill and a 15-acre pond. From 1935 to 1961 the site was used as a sand and gravel quarry, and from 1949 to 1970 portions of the site, leased by Radio Corporation of America and Bragg Construction Company, were used for industrial and municipal waste disposal, respectively. Throughout this period, the Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH) noted the disposal of acetone, plasticizers, lacquer thinner, and enamels. Drummed wastes were also accepted and contents were allegedly emptied from the drums and worked into the landfill waste with a bulldozer, causing several fires on site. Drums were allegedly rinsed and resold. In 1975 Bragg Construction company ceased operation of the landfill. In 1975, Waste Reduction Systems constructed a transfer station to properly transfer solid wastes to an approved landfill. The transfer station was closed in 1977.

  5. Evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide technology to reduce solvent in spray coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, K.J.; Parsons, A.B.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Union Carbide has developed the technology and is currently marketing this process under the UNICARB trademark. The report reviews the UNICARB process as it is used in the application of nitrocellulose lacquer finish on a chair finishing line at the Pennsylvania House Furniture Company in White Deer, Pennsylvania. It also provides a comparative analysis between the conventional spray application methods previously used on the chair finishing line and the new UNICARB process. The report demonstrates that use of the UNICARB process can result in a net reduction in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) without increasing other wastestream products of disposal costs or negatively affecting product quality. The equipment costs and other factors that affect the return on investment for the process can be variable, but a payback period of five years is estimated for the process as implemented at the White Deer facility.

  6. Application of plasma polymerization on ophthalmic lenses: equipment and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlrab, Christian; Hofer, Markus

    1995-09-01

    The use of plastic as a substrate material for optical lenses has been increasing in importance due to its smaller density, simpler machining, and lower price. However, scratches present a major problem wherever the lens surface is exposed to the environment. Various processes have thus been developed to protect the surfaces with hard coatings. The most common technique is dipping, but spinning and spraying are other methods to apply lacquer. Common to all these techniques are the required posttreatments such as drying and heat or UV curing. Safety consideration, as well as the long processing time and the handling required between the different steps, have led to the development of new technologies. Plasma polymerization, a technology relying on plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition, is used to deposit dense organic layers with reproducible, well-defined surface properties. In contrast to dip coating, plasma polymerization coats even strongly curved structures with good uniformity, This is important for bifocal or trifocal lenses, which have sharp edges on the surface. Due to the wide range of refraction indexes (about n equals 1.5 to 1.8) available by using different monomers, even the latest high-index materials can be coated without disturbing interference fringes. After a survey of plasma polymerization basics, some aspects of industrial equipment and processes for ophthalmic applications are presented. An outlook into the future of plasma polymerization of optical applications concludes the paper.

  7. Widely tunable LP11 cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anitha S; Sudeep Kumar, V P; Joe, Hubert

    2015-03-10

    A record tunability of 35 nm for the LP11 cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating using standard single-mode communication fiber is demonstrated. By forming the LP11 resonance far away from its cut-off wavelength and modifying the grooves of the grating in the form of smooth semicircular humps, a high twist sensitivity of 8.75 nm/(rad/cm) and a controlled tunability of 35 nm is achieved. The fiber with its lacquer coating is not broken even at a severe twist rate of 5.44 rad/cm. The present design can be used as a novel variable optical selective wavelength attenuator since the bandwidth, rejection efficiency, and center wavelength can be controlled by changing the grating length, pressure over the grating, and fiber twist, respectively. Using the results, a cost-effective tunable variable optical attenuator for selective channel-blanking applications is also demonstrated. A fine tunability of 1.5 nm is achieved for a twist rate change of 0.1 rad/cm. PMID:25968376

  8. Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.

  9. Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2008-08-01

    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

  10. The effect of light exposure on the degradation of latent fingerprints on brass surfaces: the use of silver electroless deposition as a visualization technique.

    PubMed

    Payne, Imogen C; McCarthy, Imogen; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the degradation of sebaceous fingerprints on brass surfaces using silver electroless deposition (SED) as a visualization technique. We have stored fingerprints on brass squares either (i) in a locked dark cupboard or (ii) in glass-filtered natural daylight for periods of 3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. We find that fingerprints on brass surfaces degrade much more rapidly when kept in the light than they do under dark conditions with a much higher proportion of high-quality prints found after 3 or 6 weeks of aging when stored in the dark. This process is more marked than for similar fingerprints on black PVC surfaces. Identifiable prints can be achieved on brass surfaces using both SED and cyanoacrylate fuming (CFM). SED is quick and straightforward to perform. CFM is more time-consuming but is versatile and can be applied to a wider range of metal surfaces than SED, for example brass surfaces which have been coated by a lacquer. PMID:25182300

  11. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 ?M H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 ?M H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:24128521

  12. Update: medical treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be made clinically and mycologically: clinically, by one of seven subtypes of onychomycosis, and mycologically, by evidence of dermatophytes or verified presence of molds and/or yeasts. Dermatophytes are usually considered as pathogens, whereas non-dermatophyte molds and yeasts are saprophytes. Basic anamnesis and close inspection should be performed to eliminate combined diseases (e.g., onychomycosis and trauma). The gold standard treatment for onychomycosis is basically systemic. Combination with topical agents, such as nail lacquer and/or chemical nail avulsion, produces better results than systemic treatment alone. Topical treatment as monotherapy is not efficient, excluding minor cases. Terbinafine is superior to itraconazole for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Evaluation of the outcome of clinical cure, mycological cure and total cure should be based on the well-defined worldwide criteria; otherwise, comparison of results is impossible due to lack of uniformity in different studies. In case of treatment failure, the reasons for each failure should be carefully considered. PMID:23210757

  13. Analysis of the Henze precipitate from the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancio, Aurelio; Scippa, Silvia; Nette, Geoffrey; De Vincentiis, Mario

    The Henze precipitate, a peculiar blue-green microparticulate obtained by lysis of the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Protochordata), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The precipitate was collected from the Henze solution, an unstable red-brown product obtained by treating blood with distilled water, whose degradation yields a characteristic blue-green product. The microparticulates measured 50-100 µm in diameter and appeared irregular in shape. SEM examination showed smooth, roughly round boundaries. The microparticulate surface examined with AFM appeared as an irregular matrix formed by 70-320-nm-wide mammillate composites, including and embedding small (500-800 nm wide) crystal-like multilayered formations. X- ray analysis showed that the elements present in these same precipitates were mainly C, Si, Al and O. The microparticulate composition appeared close to those of natural waxes or lacquers, embedding amorphous silicates and/or other Si-Al components. The unusual occurrence of Si in ascidian blood and its role are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of innovative volatile organic compound and hazardous air-pollutant-control technologies for U. S. Air Force paint spray booths. Final report, Aug 88-Aug 89

    SciTech Connect

    Ritts, D.H.; Garretson, C.; Hyde, C.; Lorelli, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-10-01

    Significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants are released into the atmosphere during USAF maintenance operations. Painting operations conducted in paint spray booths are major sources of these pollutants. Solvent based epoxy primers and solvent-based polyurethane coatings are typically used by the Air Force for painting aircraft and associated equipment. Solvents used in these paints include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, lacquer thinner, and other solvents involved in painting and component cleaning. In this report, carbon paper adsorption/catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) were evaluated as control technologies to destroy VOC emissions from paint spray booths. Simultaneous testing of pilot-scale units was performed to evaluate the technical performance of both technologies. Results showed that each technology maintained greater than 99 percent Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs). Particulate emissions from both pilot-scale units were less than 0.08 grains/dry standard cubic foot. Emissions of the criteria pollutants--sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide--were also below general regulatory standards for incinerators. Economic evaluations were based on a compilation of manufacturer-supplied data and energy consuption data gathered during the pilot scale testing. CPACM and FBCI technologies are less expensive than standard VOC control technologies when net present costs for a 15-year equipment life are compared.

  15. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  16. Alternative FIB TEM sample preparation method for cross-sections of thin metal films deposited on polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Felipe; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) are proven tools to produce site-specific samples in which to study devices from initial processing to causes for failure, as well as investigating the quality, defects, interface layers, etc. However, the use of polymer substrates presents new challenges, in the preparation of suitable site-specific TEM samples, which include sample warping, heating, charging, and melting. In addition to current options that address some of these problems such as cryo FIB, we add an alternative method and FIB sample geometry that address these challenges and produce viable samples suitable for TEM elemental analysis. The key feature to this approach is a larger than usual lift-out block into which small viewing windows are thinned. Significant largely unthinned regions of the block are left between and at the base of the thinned windows. These large unthinned regions supply structural support and thermal reservoirs during the thinning process. As proof-of-concept of this sample preparation method, we also present TEM elemental analysis of various thin metallic films deposited on patterned polycarbonate, lacquer, and poly-di-methyl-siloxane substrates where the pattern (from low- to high-aspect ratio) is preserved. PMID:23800729

  17. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  18. Health assessment for Spartan Chemical Company, Wyoming, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID079300125. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The Spartan Chemical Company is listed on the National Priorities List. The company distributes liquid industrial chemicals including lacquer thinners, solvents, and wash thinners. Contamination was detected in 1975. Analyses of sampling revealed the following maximum levels of organic compounds: benzene (1,600 ppb), chlorobenzene (780 ppb), 1,2-dichloroethane (73 ppb), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (13,000 ppb), 1,2-dichloropropane (140 ppb), tetrachloroethylene (1,100 ppb), toluene (260,000 ppb), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (6,300 ppb), trichloroethylene (1,900 ppb), vinyl chloride (210 ppb), xylene (41,000 ppb), and methyl ethyl ketone (6,200 ppb). Soil borings have shown a similar profile of contaminants. It is notable that, when the contamination was discovered in 1975, explosive conditions prevailed in the storm sewer into which the ground water was discharged. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Potentially contaminated environmental media are surface and subsurface soil, surface water, ground water, consumable plants and animals, and air.

  19. Power and operating behavior in stirred media mills

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, J.; Harris, C.C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Henry Krumb School of Mines

    1995-12-31

    It has been estimated that 1.3% of Us electrical power production is consumed for comminution, particularly by fine grinding. Stirred media mills have especially attracted attention because of the reported high energy efficiency, ability for grinding into the micron and sub-micron range, and reduced contamination. Stirred media mills have been applied for fine particle production in many industries such as mineral, ceramic, metallurgical, electronic, pigments, paint and lacquer, chemical, bio-technology, rubber, agricultural, pharmaceutical, photographic, coal and energy. While applications of stirred media mills for fine particle production have continued to increase, there is a lack of understanding of operating behavior and power requirement. Investigations in laboratory stirred media mills have been carried out with grinding media, limestone and yttria stabilized zirconia. The torque required to rotate impellers immersed in dense particulate media with supernatant versus impeller rotational speed displays four regions marked by sharp transitions: transition from static to dynamic friction; channeling; dispersing; and centrifuging. Equations, including dimensionless group correlations of power and modified Reynolds number, for relating power, speed, impeller and tank dimensions and design, media size and density, solid concentration, and other relevant variables have been established. Scale-up guidelines with respect to power consumption are also proposed.

  20. Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  1. Hydroxypropyl- ? -cyclodextrin: A Novel Transungual Permeation Enhancer for Development of Topical Drug Delivery System for Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Pradeep; Saini, T R

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis is a challenging task because of unique barrier properties of the nail plate which hampers the passage of antifungal drugs in a concentration required to eradicate the deeply seated causative fungi in the nail bed. In present investigation, application of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was established as an effective and nail friendly transungual drug permeation enhancer especially for poorly water soluble drugs using terbinafine hydrochloride as a poorly soluble drug. HP-?-CD significantly improves hydration of nail plates and increases solubility of terbinafine hydrochloride in the aqueous environment available therein, which leads to uninterrupted drug permeation through water filled pores of hydrogel-like structure of hydrated nail plates. A nail lacquer formulation was designed with an objective to deliver the drug in an effective concentration across nail plates, using HP-?-CD as a permeation enhancer. The formulations containing HP-?-CD showed higher flux than the control formulation in in vitro drug permeation study. The formulation containing 10%?w/v of HP-?-CD showed maximum flux of 4.586 ± 0.08??g/mL/cm(2) as compared to the control flux of 0.868 ± 0.06??g/mL/cm(2). This finding supports application of HP-?-CD as an effective permeation enhancer for transungual delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride and possibly other poorly water soluble drugs where HP-?-CD can act as a solubilizer. PMID:25177500

  2. New applications of modulated digital images in document security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert A.; Leech, Patrick W.; McCarthy, Lawry D.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2006-02-01

    In previous work we have demonstrated that selective masking, or modulation, of digital images can be used to create documents and transparent media containing covert or optically variable, overt images. In the present work we describe new applications and techniques of such "modulated digital images" (MDI's) in document security. In particular, we demonstrate that multiple hidden images can be imperceptibly concealed within visible, host images by incorporating them as a new, half-tone, printing screen. Half-toned hidden images of this type may contain a variety of novel features that hinder unauthorized copying, including concealed multiple images, and microprinted-, color-, and various fadeeffects. Black-and-white or full color images may be readily used in this respect. We also report a new technique for the embossing of multiple, covert- or optically variable, overt-images into transparent substrates. This method employs an embossing tool that is prepared using a combination of electron beam and greytone lithography. Two approaches may be used: (i) a double-sided "soft" emboss into curable, transparent, lacquer layers, and (ii) a single-sided "hot" emboss in which multiple, dithered images consisting of distinctly-sloped microprisms are impressed into the substrate. Technique (ii) requires a novel, electron-beam-originated master dye.

  3. Interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factor-?B signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liang, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Yong; Lin, Chun-Yan; Shi, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Fisetin is an effective compound extracted from lacquer which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that it also exerts specific anti-cancer effects. However, the manner in which fisetin regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factor?B signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoding latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, Results showed that fisetin inhibited the survival rate of CNE-LMP1 cells and NF-?B activation caused by LMP1. Fisetin also suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-?B (p65) and I?B? phosphorylation, while inhibiting CyclinD1, all key targets of the NF-?B signal transduction pathway. It was suggested that interference effects of fisetin with signal transduction activated by LMP1 encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus may play an important role in its anticancer potential. PMID:25520114

  4. Enhanced quantum efficiency bialkali photo multiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmick; Goebel, Florian; Hose, Juergen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; Ninkovi?, Jelena; Paneque, David; Rudert, Agnes; Teshima, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    Currently, the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo cathode show peak quantum efficiency (QE) of ˜25-27%. Although the above-mentioned peak QE was achieved already ˜40 years ago, nevertheless one cannot report any significant increase since then. A couple of years ago we started a development program with the main PMT manufacturers Photonis, Electron Tubes and Hamamatsu, aiming to boost-up the peak QE of the (1-2)? size bialkali PMTs. Today we want to report that our efforts were successful: all of the three above-mentioned companies succeeded to boost the peak QE of bialkali PMTs to the level of 30-35%. In this report, we want to show the QE measurements of different tubes and discuss the future prospects. For example, it shall be possible to use the diffuse-scattering matt lacquer coating technique in order to enhance further the QE. In our previous experience application of that coating provided ˜15% increase in QE for 1-1.5? hemispherical tubes.

  5. Surface description and defect detection by wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenboom, Lars; Kreis, Thomas; Jüptner, Werner

    2011-04-01

    Wavelet analysis is a method to describe single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales. Optically measured two-dimensional height data describing engineering surfaces are effectively represented by wavelet transforms enabling a reliable description of even complicated formed surfaces by a drastically reduced number of coefficients as well as the detection of component defects of different types. Reconstruction with only 0.1% of all wavelet coefficients of 4-4-pseudo-coiflets leads to a variance of the difference image between original and reconstructed surface of less than 0.07 of the variance of the original surface. Keeping the coefficients with highest values gives an up to four times better result than keeping the coefficients belonging to the lowest frequencies. Defects are effectively detected with the help of Burt-Adelson and Daubechies wavelets. Local defects in the range of 8 nm can be made visible. Lacquer pits are localized in the higher resolution stages of 4-4-pseudo-coiflet-transforms.

  6. Onychomycosis Caused by Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Myung Hoon; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo; Choi, Jong Soo

    2013-05-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. The genus Chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. We report the first Korean case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. The patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th). Direct microscopic examination of scraping on the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed septate hyphae and repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide slants showed the same fast-growing colonies, which were initially velvety white then turned to dark gray to brown. However, there was no growth of colony on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Brown-colored septated hyphae, perithecia and ascospores were shown in the slide culture. The DNA sequence of internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of C. globosum strain ATCC 6205 (GenBank accession number EF524036.1). We confirmed C. globosum by KOH mount, colony, and light microscopic morphology and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated with 250 mg oral terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. PMID:23717019

  7. Characterization and control of cure of polymer coatings on optical disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Margaret E.; Prime, R. Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Polymer coatings are used extensively in optical disk technology, the majority being acrylate based formulations which are transparent and tough. For example, the servo pattern for tracking can be generated by a photopolymer process (2P), where a thin acrylate-based coating system is cured between a `stamper' and a treated glass substrate. In this study, we have extended this technology beyond current servo geometries to generate the small structures (0.6 micron pitch features) that are required for future substrates using the blue laser. The fidelity of replication is measured by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. Acrylate based polymer lacquer coatings are also applied (by spin coating) to optical disks and compact disks to provide handling and anti-static protection. The term `corrosion protective coating 1' (PC1) refers to the coating on the film side of the disk and `scratch resistent protective coating 2' (PC2) refers to the anti-static, anti-scratch coating applied to the substrate side of the polymer disk. A number of analytical techniques have been developed to monitor the cure of these acrylate based systems. These include infrared spectroscopy, microhardness, various thermal methods (DMTA, TGA, TGA-MS) and extraction techniques. The usefulness of these techniques is discussed in terms of formulation optimization, cure optimization, and accelerated aging tests that reveal failure mechanisms.

  8. Industrial surface inspection by wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Thomas; Rosenboom, Lars; Jüptner, Werner

    2011-05-01

    Wavelet analysis is a processing method for the description of single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales and therefore well suited for describing technical surfaces with variable resolution. Here optically measured height data of technical surfaces are wavelet-transformed along two dimensions with two different objectives: One is the representation with only a few coefficients in the sense of an efficient data compression, the other is the reliable detection of defects, which can be regarded as a pattern recognition task. A systematic comparison of various wavelet families results in the choice of the biorthogonal pseudo-coiflets for representing the surfaces, and differentiating wavelets like Burt-Adelson-wavelet or short-range Daubechies-wavelets for solving the defect detection problem. It is shown that the representation can be improved by not using the most significant wavelet-values - which can be interpreted as low-pass filtered coefficients, but to maintain those with the largest weights. Thus the variance between the original surface and that reconstructed from the representation data is minimized by a factor up to 4. Defect detection is best performed with separate transformation in two orthogonal directions with subsequent superposition. The procedures obtained here are applied to surfaces like a coin-surface, a copper-mirror surface, and a lacquered surface.

  9. Systematic reliability studies of back-contact photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosca, Victor; Bennett, Ian J.; Eerenstein, Wilma

    2012-10-01

    Back-contact module technology offers the advantage of lower yield loss, higher power conversion efficiency, and significantly faster manufacturing as compared to conventional H-pattern modules. In this paper we present results of a systematic accelerated ageing study of ECN back-contact metallization wrap through (MWT) modules. A series of fullsize (6×10 cells) MWT modules based on combinations of four different conductive back-sheet foils, two encapsulants, and two electrically conductive adhesives were manufactured and subjected to the damp heat conditions as defined in the IEC61215 edition 2 standard. Modules that combine conductive back-sheet foil with certain types of isolation lacquer (also referred to as inner layer dielectric, ILD) and EVA showed a high failure rate. It appears that a combined effect of moisture and EVA causes a weakening of adhesion strength at Cu/ILD interface and decisively contributes to delamination at Cu/ILD interface. This delamination puts stress on the interconnection and ultimately results in interconnection failure. Removal of ILD significantly improves the stability of MWT modules in damp heat, as up to 2000 hrs of testing only up to 2.4% relative power loss was observed, and also lowers the foil cost.

  10. Evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide spray technology to reduce solvents in a wood finishing process

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to provide an objective evaluation of the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as an alternative technology for spray applied in wood finishing processes using reduced solvent formulations. Union Carbide has pioneered this technology under the UNICARB{trademark} trademark. In the UNICARB{trademark} process, the solvent-like properties of supercritical CO{sub 2} are employed to replace a portion of the organic solvent in the conventional coating formulation. The supercritical CO{sub 2} acts as a diluent solvent to thin the viscous coating just prior to application so that the coating can be atomized and applied with a modified spray gun. According to Union Carbide, 30 to 80 percent of the organic solvent in a coating formulation can be replaced with the supercritical fluid. This evaluation addressed the issues of product quality, pollution prevention potential, and process economics. The testing was conducted at the Pennsylvania House Furniture Company in White Deer, PA. The White Deer facility produces cherry and oak chairs, stools, dining room tables, and four poster beds. At the time of the evaluation, the White Deer plant had been using the UNICARB{trademark} process to apply nitrocellulose lacquer finish on their chair line for over a year with good results. Testing was done to quantify and qualify these results.

  11. High-performance Co/Pt multilayer magneto-optical disk using ultrathin seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Tyan, Y. S.; Brucker, C. F.

    1997-04-01

    We have prepared high-performance disks based on Co/Pt multilayers using ultrathin seed layers. Both crystalline (such as ZnO) and amorphous [such as indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and Si] materials were used as seed layers. We found that very thin layers of these materials enhance coercivity, squareness of the Kerr loop, and perpendicular anisotropy of the Co/Pt superlattices. These beneficial effects are obtained with a seed layer as thin as 0.2 nm. This is incontrast with the earlier presumptions that indicated much thicker layers, about 80 nm of crystalline material, were required to improve the texture of the Co/Pt multilayer for sufficient enhancement in the coercivity. Further, the data indicated that disks with amorphous seed layers generally have higher perpendicular anisotropy and lower recording noise as compared to those with crystalline ZnO. We have prepared disks using a thin amorphous ITO seed layer and a simple disk structure: grooved PC/ITO/12[Co/Pt]/lacquer overcoat. The performance of these disks is similar to that a commercial TbFeCo media. This media has potential for low cost manufacturing.

  12. An analysis of the ``accidental painting'' technique of D.A. Siqueiros: the Rayleigh Taylor instability as a tool to create explosive textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetina, S.; Zenit, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the spring of 1936, the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros organized an experimental painting workshop in New York: a group of artists focused in developing painting techniques through empirical experimentation of modern and industrial materials and tools. Among the young artists attending the workshop was Jackson Pollock. They tested different lacquers and a number of experimental techniques. One of the techniques, named by Siqueiros as a ``controlled accident,'' consisted in pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. After a brief time, the paint from the lower layer emerged from bottom to top creating a relatively regular pattern of blobs. This technique led to the creation of explosion-inspired textures and catastrophic images. We conducted an analysis of this process. We experimentally reproduced the patterns ``discovered'' by Siquieros and analyzed the behavior of the flow. We found that the flow is driven by the well-known Rayleigh Taylor instability: different colors paints have different densities; a heavy layer on top of a light one is an unstable configuration. The blobs and plumes that result from the instability create the aesthetically pleasing patterns. We discuss the importance of fluid mechanics in artistic creation.

  13. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry ? E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and ? E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  14. Temperature and humidity influences on inactivation kinetics of enteric viruses on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jung; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2012-12-18

    Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are pathogenic enteric viruses responsible for public health concerns worldwide. The viral transmission occurs through fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, or direct contact. However, the difficulty in cultivating these viruses makes it a challenge to characterize the resistance to various environmental stresses. In this study, we characterized the inactivation rates of murine norovirus (MNV), MS2, and HAV on either lacquer coating rubber tree wood or stainless steel under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The viruses were analyzed at temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C, 32 °C, and 40 °C and at RHs of 30%, 50%, and 70% for 30 days. Overall, they survived significantly longer on wood than on steel at lower temperature (P < 0.05). The inactivation rate of MS2 and MNV increased at higher RH levels, whereas HAV survived the best at a medium RH level (50%). The effect of RH was significant only for MS2 (P < 0.05). MS2 persisted longest under all of the environmental conditions examined. Both a linear and a nonlinear Weibull model were used to describe the viral inactivation data in this study. The data produced a better fit to the survival curves that were predicted by the Weibull model. PMID:23152976

  15. Corrosion investigation of coatings for surface protection of military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, N.; Vasanth, K.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A product improvement program (PIP) for the surface finish of some steel military hardware has been recently initiated by the Navy. Presently the metal cleaning methods, interior and exterior surface finishes and corrosion protection requirements for such hardware are specified in MIL-P-18948. The coated hardware are stored in a warehouse structure for long durations. Because these storage places are not environmentally controlled (that is, no temperature or humidity control) the corrosion protection has not been adequate. The exterior surfaces of the hardware are coated with a corrosion inhibiting alkyd primer coating (TT-P-664) or a rust inhibiting lacquer primer coating (MIL-P-11414) to a thickness of 0.4 to 0.6 mils. The exterior color paint, (MIL-E-52891 or MIL-P11195), is applied to a thickness of 1.5 mils. The investigation of various coatings to replace the present system is an ongoing effort. The coatings have been examined from a corrosion protection vantage point and results have been correlated. The coatings were evaluated by exposing them to natural marine atmosphere and seawater wetdown tests. The coatings were also exposed to a 5.0% sodium chloride solution in a laboratory environmental salt fog chamber for 500 hours. Selected coatings were examined using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from field tests, salt fog, and EIS measurements are discussed.

  16. Worst case aerosol testing parameters: II. Efficiency dependence of commercial respirator filters on humidity pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relative humidity has a degrading effect on the performance of commercially available particulate air-purifying respirator filters. That degradation results from a reduction of charge within the filter. This study was done to evaluate the time-dependent effects of relative humidity pretreatment and the reduction of charge on filter penetration against a most penetrating, ''worst case'' aerosol challenge. Filters of the dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency types were tested after being pretreated in an environment of 38 degrees C and 85% relative humidity for periods up to 42 days. After various intervals of pretreatment (1, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days), the filters were tested against neutralized worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols for percent penetration. The results showed a drop in filter efficiency of approximately 2%-6% depending on preconditioning time, except for the high efficiency filters tested which showed no detectable change.

  17. Steel production

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty five years ago commercial steel production began at the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine in Russia in converter shop number one. A planned changeover to the continuous method of casting of all blooms and later, all slabs and plates will allow the combine to increase annual output by 20% without increasing steelmaking capacity. The gain will be made throughout the reduction in waste allowed by the new casting technology. Steel production at the combine now stands at eight million tons a year with converter shops number one and two presently rated as 3.5 and 4.3 million ton a year. Assuming a stable supply of charge materials and power, these levels of production should be attained after the introduction of the new casting and the ladle type steel finishing section that are being built. At the combine, a new ingot mold that increases the yield of sound metal that allows a fume-free lubrication of the molds, eliminating pollution from the lacquer based lubricants used previously.

  18. The Chemistry of Optical Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, David

    2002-09-01

    The rapid rise of optical data storage is clearly a triumph for physics, engineering, and information technology, but a great deal of chemical innovation has also been necessary to make this revolution possible. This article explores the polymer and material science that has gone into the development of CDs and DVDs in prerecorded, write-once, and erasable formats, and magneto-optical (MO) discs and the related minidiscs. Prerecorded CDs and DVDs, where the data is stored as a series of pits physically stamped into a plastic disc, have required new optically-clear grades of the base plastic, technically sophisticated UV acrylic adhesives and lacquers, and a detailed understanding of the surface energy and the optical and electrochemical properties of metals in very thin layers. The different recordable formats have all needed new chemistry for the recording layer: cyanine and phthalocyanine dyes for write-once discs, low-melting alloys with a glassy state for erasable discs, and magnetic materials with closely defined Curie temperatures and hysteresis for MO and minidiscs. Even newer optical storage formats, including multilayer fluorescent or holographic discs are under development, and these are already demanding critical inputs by chemists.

  19. PICVD: a novel technique for hard- and AR coating of spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Matthias; Kuhr, Markus; Witzany, Michael

    1999-09-01

    PICVD is used for providing organic spectacles with a protective hardcoat, an antireflective multilayer and a hydrophobic top coat. The hardcoat, low index material in the antireflective stack and the hydrophobic film are derived from the same silicon precursor, different layer properties can be achieved by tuning of the plasma parameters. For the high index material, TiO2 is used. The coating performances of Carl Zeiss Carat Carat-coating can readily be achieved. In contrast to standard batch coaters, allowing to coat up to 100 spectacles at a time, the PICVD technique uses a single station design: the spectacles are coated in a single reactor each at a time. This single station concept result in cost effective coating processes and allows furthermore to reduce the turn-around time of the coating service dramatically: almost one day can be saved compared to the mainstream procedure, comprising of hardcoating with lacquer, post bake, washing and batch coating of AR stack, respectively. Optical and mechanical properties of the low index films depend strongly on the oxygen content of the precursor. Measurements of the films' refractive index and hardness are presented and conclusions for optimizing the hardcoat and the low index film are drawn.

  20. [Morphological features of myopic choroidal neovascularization: differences to neovascular age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Inhoffen, W; Ziemssen, F

    2012-08-01

    Choroidal neovascularization due to pathological myopia (mCNV) differs in important characteristics from lesions seen in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Myopic CNV is associated with typical phenomena, such as lacquer cracks or patchy atrophy drusen or pigment epithelium detachment are rare occurrences. The dimensions of mCNV and the extent of leakage are substantially smaller. The heterogeneous combination of thinning and concomitant staphyloma often complicates the early detection of neovascular lesions. Diagnosis and evaluation of the clinical progress are only possible using the combination of different imaging modalities, e.g. funduscopy, fluorescein angiography (FLA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Special forms, such as periconal mCNV or dome-shaped variants exhibit a typical progression and response to therapy. In the course of the disease a progressive pigmentation and secondary atrophy occur and later, depigmentation of the mCNV complicates the demarcation of the original mCNV within the zone of atrophy. Extensive information and counselling seem to be mandatory in order to allow a better self-assessment. Sometimes, patients notice the first symptoms of recurrent mCNV activity before confirmation is possible by objective diagnostics. PMID:22911352

  1. Foil X-Ray Mirrors for Astro-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1998-12-01

    The X-ray Astrophysics Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center is in the midst of preparing 5, 40 cm diameter, conical foil mirrors for the Astro-E mission. Three of these have already been delivered to our Japanese colleagues at the spacecraft site and are now in calibration at their X-ray beam line. The delivery of the last mirror is planned for early 1999. Design parameters, materials, assembly and tuning techniques are essentially the same for all five mirrors and not very different from those used earlier for the four mirrors on the ASCA observatory. One major difference is an improved surface preparation technique (epoxy replication versus acrylic lacquering) which has roughly halved the new PSF (point spread function). Four of the mirrors are slated for CCD focal plane detectors. They consist of 175 nested shells each, tuned to a 4.75 m focal length. They have Au reflecting surfaces. The fifth mirror has 168 nested shells tuned to a 4.5 m focal length. The surface in this case is Pt, chosen for the significant enhancement in its high energy response. Typical mirror weight is under 20 kg. Preliminary performance parameters based on ray tracing and ground calibrations will be presented.

  2. Electron beams in research and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1995-11-01

    Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

  3. Systematic review of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis: diagnosis, clinical types, epidemiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Brintnell, William; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-03-01

    Nondermatophyte mold (NDM) onychomycosis is difficult to diagnose given that NDMs are common contaminants of the nails and of the mycology laboratory. Diagnostic criteria and definition of cure are inconsistent between studies, which may affect the quality of published data. We identified 6 major criteria used in the literature: identification of the NDM in the nail by microscopy (using potassium hydroxide preparation), isolation in culture, repeated isolation in culture, inoculum counting, failure to isolate a dermatophyte in culture, and histology. Most studies used 3 or more of these (range = 1-5). We recommend using at least 3 of the criteria to rule out contamination; these should include potassium hydroxide preparation for direct microscopy and isolation of the organism in culture. We review geographic distribution and clinical presentations associated with different NDMs. The treatment with the greatest quantity of data and highest reported cure rates is terbinafine, for the treatment of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus species infections. Topicals such as ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be effective (data originating from Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Acremonium species infections), especially when combined with chemical or surgical avulsion of the nail. We recommend that future studies use (and clearly indicate) at least 3 of the main criteria for diagnosis, and report the clinical type of onychomycosis and the isolated organism. When evaluating different treatments, we suggest that authors clearly define their efficacy outcomes. PMID:21820203

  4. Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%: Formulation Development Program of a New Topical Treatment of Toenail Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2177-2182, 2015. PMID:25940933

  5. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) certified equipment list as of October 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The publication contains a listing of personal protective devices and reliable industrial hazard measuring instruments that have been evaluated by NIOSH and found acceptable for use as of October 1, 1986. Certified coal-mine-dust personal-sampler units are listed along with the names and addresses of manufacturers and distributors. Data are provided on the effectiveness and use of self-contained breathing apparatus. Gas masks for protection against acid gases, organic vapors, ammonia, chlorine, sulfur-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, pesticides, and other gases and vapors are discussed. Supplied air respirators are discussed, including Type-C continuous flow, Type-C pressure demand, Type-C demand, Type CE continuous-flow abrasive blasting, Type-A, and Type-B. Particular respirators described include those for single use, for dust and mists, for dusts, fumes and mists, and for high-efficiency usage. Chemical cartridges used to prevent exposure to ammonia, methyl-amine, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, organic vapors, paints, lacquers and enamels, pesticides, vinyl chloride, and other gases and vapors are described. Powered air purifiers are discussed. Also included are the NIOSH policy statement on approval of air-purifying respirators with end-of-service-life indicators, the NIOSH policy statement on use of respirators for protection against asbestos, and the NIOSH and OSHA testing and certification of positive-pressure closed-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus.

  6. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R; Englund, A; Engzell, U; Kuosma, E; Mutanen, P; Nordlinder, H; Hansen, H S; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1983-04-01

    Nasal and sinus paranasal cancers have been associated with several occupational exposures, for example, dust from hardwood, nickel and unspecific agents occurring in the boot and shoe industry. A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 to study further the connection between nasal and sinus paranasal cancers and various occupational exposures. All new cases of these cancers were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland & Sweden) or from hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to the interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was performed according to a standardized procedure. Both the cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an experienced industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal or sinus paranasal cancer and exposure to hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14/2); softwood dust alone (13/4); chromium 16/6); nickel (12/5, not significant); welding, flamecutting, and soldering (17/16); and lacquers and paints (12/0). Hardwood dust exposure showed a connection with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents, and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents. PMID:6648420

  7. Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1998-06-01

    There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

  8. A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients. PMID:15606656

  9. Toxicity review of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and its acetate ester.

    PubMed

    Johanson, G

    2000-05-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and its acetate ester (EGMEA) are highly flammable, colorless, moderately volatile liquids with very good solubility properties. They are used in paints, lacquers, stains, inks and surface coatings, silk-screen printing, photographic and photo lithographic processes, for example, in the semiconductor industry, textile and leather finishing, production of food-contact plastics, and as an antiicing additive in hydraulic fluids and jet fuel. EGME and EGMEA are efficiently absorbed by inhalation as well as via dermal penetration. Dermal absorption may contribute substantially to the total uptake following skin contact with liquids or vapours containing EGME or EGMEA. EGMEA is rapidly converted to EGME in the body and the two substances are equally toxic in animals. Therefore, the two substances should be considered as equally hazardous to man. Effects on peripheral blood, testes, and sperm have been reported at occupational exposure levels ranging between 0.4 and 10 ppm EGME in air, and with additional, possibly substantial, dermal exposure. Severe malformations and disturbed hematopoiesis have been linked with exposure to EGME and EGMEA at unknown, probably high, levels. Embryonic deaths in monkeys and impaired spermatogenesis in rabbits have been reported after daily oral doses of 12 and 25 mg per kg body weight, respectively. In several studies, increased frequency of spontaneous abortions, disturbed menstrual cycle, and subfertility have been demonstrated in women working in the semiconductor industry. The contribution of EGME in relation to other exposure factors in the semiconductor industry is unclear. PMID:10852499

  10. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  11. Eyelid dermatitis: experience in 203 cases.

    PubMed

    Guin, Jere D

    2002-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis has been considered the most common of the many dermatologic conditions found with eyelid dermatitis. This is a retrospective study of 203 patients who presented with persistent or recurrent eyelid dermatitis with or without dermatitis elsewhere. Almost all underwent patch testing and, when indicated, radioallergosorbent test, skin prick and intradermal tests, and in many cases, usage tests as part of the workup. Relevant allergic contact dermatitis was found in 151 of 203 patients (74.%): 46 (23.%) had protein contact dermatitis, but only 7% had protein contact dermatitis without concurrent allergic contact dermatitis. Less than 1% had irritant dermatitis alone. Twenty-three patients had atopic eczema, of whom 16 also had allergic contact dermatitis, protein contact dermatitis, or both. Other conditions included seborrheic dermatitis (n = 11), psoriasis (n = 7), dry eyes (n = 9), and dermatomyositis or overlapping connective tissue disease (n = 7). Important sources of contact sensitivity include cosmetics, metals, topical medications including corticosteroids, eye medications, dust mites, animal dander, and artificial nails; only 5 cases were caused by nail lacquer. Eyelid dermatitis is a multifaceted clinical problem, but in this group of patients, allergic contact dermatitis was a common cause, even among those with atopic eczema. PMID:12399770

  12. Laccase versus laccase-like multi-copper oxidase: a comparative study of similar enzymes with diverse substrate spectra.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term "laccase-like multi-copper oxidase" (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  13. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Beck, H.P. [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]. E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  14. Lubricant performance and turbochargers analysis for alternate fuel tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five T31 turbochargers used on a direct-injected diesel engine were tested as part of a plant fuel evaluation program. The engine was tested on the 200-hour durability cycle proposed by the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA). Part of the evaluation was an investigation of premature carbon and lacquer deposits, and wear within the turbocharger due to oil deterioration from the hybrid fuels. The lubricant viscosities for all tested fuels, except the microemulsion, were within normal limits. A sudden increase in lubricating oil viscosity for the microemulsion was observed. At the same time, higher blow-by and increased lubricating oil consumption was noted. All turbochargers displayed journal bearing wear but no rubs or unusual seal leakage was formed. The turbine shafts showed various degrees of hot shutdown and high temperature operation for different fuels. The turbine wheels and housing varied in color from a soft gray to dark black. Varying amounts of varnish buildup on the turbine shaft, the thrust bearing, and the thrust collar for the different fuels were observed.

  15. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  16. Treatment of severe nail psoriasis with acitretin: an impressive therapeutic result.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, F; Pescitelli, L; Tripo, L; Bassi, A; Prignano, F

    2013-01-01

    Nail psoriasis is common in adult psoriatic patients. Although several new drugs have recently been introduced for the treatment of skin psoriasis, treatment of nail psoriasis still remains a challenge. Topical treatments (e.g., corticosteroids, tazarotene, 5-fluorouracil, calcipotriol) are the first line in the management of skin psoriasis. The efficacy of these drugs in nail disease, however, is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in penetrating the nail bed and nail matrix. In cases of nail disease resistant to topical treatment, methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin, or biological agents can be used. The present authors introduce a 73-year-old patient affected by impressive psoriatic nail disease involving all her fingernails and toenails treated by acitretin, a traditional systemic treatment. After 2 months of treatment there was a marked improvement. The clinical improvement of the nails was progressive and 6 months later it was stable and satisfactory. The remarkable response to treatment in this case suggests that oral acitretin, in association to urea nail lacquer, might be useful in the management of disabling severe nail psoriasis even in absence of severe cutaneous involvement. PMID:23384024

  17. Controlled nail delivery of a novel lipophilic antifungal agent using various modern drug carrier systems as well as in vitro and ex vivo model systems.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Sandy; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Kiesow, Andreas; Mrestani, Yahya; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2014-04-28

    The penetration behavior into human nails and animal hoof membranes of a novel antifungal agent (EV-086K) for the treatment of onychomycosis was investigated in this study. The new drug provides a high lipophilicity which is adverse for penetration into nails. Therefore, four different formulations were developed, with particular focus on a colloidal carrier system (CCS) due to its penetration enhancing properties. On the one hand, ex vivo penetration experiments on human nails were performed. Afterwards the human nail plates were cut by cryomicrotome in order to quantify the drug concentration in the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail layer using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. On the other hand, equine and bovine hoof membranes were used to determine the in vitro penetration of the drug into the acceptor compartment of an online diffusion cell coupled with Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. In combination, both results should exhibit a correlation between the EV-086K penetration behavior in human nail plates and animal hoof membranes. The investigations showed that the developed CCS could increase drug delivery through the human nail most compared to other formulations (nail lacquer, solution and hydrogel). Using animal hooves in the online diffusion cell, we were able to calculate pharmacokinetic data of the penetration process, especially diffusion and permeability coefficients. Finally, a qualitative correlation between the penetration results of human nails and equine hooves was established. PMID:24560884

  18. Mortality of paint and coatings industry workers. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Claxton, K W; Kaplan, S D; Parsons, J M; Wong, O

    1985-05-01

    Extensive follow-up of production workers in the paint and coatings industry failed to indicate any important hazard that was previously unsuspected. The authors are more confident of the results of their original study since studying a subsample of persons lost to follow-up in the original study. Some efforts to investigate certain diseases (skin and liver cancer) more vigorously met with failure, which illustrates the problem of attempting retrospective studies by using death certificates for case ascertainment. Of the successful studies, the leukemia case-control analysis showed a possible relationship to lacquer production, which probably included benzene exposure. For lung cancer, no exposure category was associated with increased risk. The bowel cancer excesses, concentrated in three plants, are probably not job related and in any case do not represent an industry-wide problem. Cerebrovascular accidents showed a mild elevation of risk for vehicle workers. Although strong statements concerning the safety of this industry probably await more studies or further follow-up of this cohort, there is every indication that it is an industry without a major excess of any job-related disease. In drawing this conclusion, however, one must be aware that an individual job or individual plant could harbor health problems that would not be detected by a study of this type. PMID:4009308

  19. After the Day of Infamy: 'Man-on-the-Street' Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress presents this seasonal collection of field recordings of over 200 ordinary Americans' reactions to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. Made between December 8, 1941, and February 1942, the original recordings used a technology called direct-to-disk, which created fragile, lacquer-coated, aluminum disks that could be played at 33 1/3 or 78 RPMs. The site includes transcripts and audio of the recordings, biographies of the people who conducted the interviews, and information on how the disks have been preserved since the 1940s (in the 1960s, most of the collection was copied onto magnetic tape). There are also a few documents, primarily letters and communications between Alan Lomax, "assistant in charge" of the Library of Congress Archive of American Folk Song, who managed the project, and field workers. The interview transcripts can be searched by keyword, and browsing by names, subjects, titles, and geographic locations is possible. In addition, the interviews have been arranged into series, or sets, of recordings made by one interviewer in a particular location, for example five 8-inch discs recorded in Bloomington and Mishawaka, Indiana, by Robert E. Barton Allen.

  20. Distribution and change of DDT and HCH levels in oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) from coast of Guangdong, China between 2003 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ju L; Jia, Xiao P; Jia, Ting; Lin, Qin; Cai, Wen G

    2009-11-01

    This investigation was undertaken to understand the temporal trend, the spatial distribution and the residue level of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzenes(HCHs) in bivalves from the coast of the South China in recent years. Jinjiang oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) were sampled from 15 bays along the coast of Guangdong province, China between 2003 and 2007. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector was used to quantify the contents of HCH isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH), DDT isomers (p,p'-, o,p'-DDT), p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE in the oyster tissues. The results demonstrate that annual level of DDTs in the tissue increase throughout the study, particularly between 2004 and 2006. The DDTs content in the tissue varied significantly among sampling regions and some sampling sites (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the HCHs content was significantly lower than DDTs content in the tissue (p < 0.01), and remain constant among sampling years, sampling regions and sampling sites (p > 0.10). Predominance of isomer form of DDTs and higher ratio of gamma-HCH/HCHs at some sites indicated that recent input of DDT and lindane in the coastal waters of Guangdong, which might be caused by dicofol spraying in crop planting and lacquer painting on fisher boat. In the soft tissues of the oysters, the highest content of HCHs was 1.21 ng/g (wet weight), and DDTs levels ranged from 0.11 ng/g to 76.3 ng/g (wet weight), far below the Maximum Residual Limits in China and many developed nations. PMID:20183095

  1. The Antileukemia Activity of Natural Product HQ17(3) Is Possibly Associated with Downregulation of miR-17-92 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ya-Chun; Lin, Tzu-Heng; Chen, Chih-Ying; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Au, Lo-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The compound 10?(Z),13?(E),15?(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)] was purified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea. HQ17(3) has cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and can inhibit topoisomerase (topo) II? activity. We treated various cancer cells with different doses of HQ17(3) and found that leukemia cells were most sensitive to HQ17(3). After analysis of microRNA (miRNA) profiling, we found that treatment with HQ17(3) caused downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster in some leukemia cells. These changes partially restored the normal levels from leukemia-specific miRNA expression signature. Messenger RNAs of tumor suppressor proteins, such as pRB, PTEN, and Dicer, are targets of miR-17-92 cluster. Their protein levels were increased after the treatment. c-Myc is a regulatory protein for miR-17-92 gene. Similar to topo II?, we found that c-Myc decreased its activity after the HQ17(3) treatment, which may explain the downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster. Combined with 5-fluorouracil, NaAsO2, or ABT-737, HQ17(3) elicited additive inhibitory effects on leukemia cells. In conclusion, the high sensitivity of leukemia cells to HQ17(3) may be associated with the reduction of topo II? and c-Myc activities, as well as with the downregulation of the miR-17-92 cluster expression. PMID:25140305

  2. The Low Keratin Affinity of Efinaconazole Contributes to Its Nail Penetration and Fungicidal Activity in Topical Onychomycosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  3. Square meter scale new moulding method to study the temporal evolution of the soil surface micro-topography and its impact on the runoff dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, M.; Chalon, C.; Darboux, F.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, directs and triggers the runoff. By concentring the surface water fluxes, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favour sedimentation. If we want to study this, it is necessary to isolate, among all the different processes that interact with the runoff, the impact of the micro-topography only. Therefore we developed a fast and cheap in-situ moulding method (+/- 50 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, gypsium and a lacquer. It creates stable, and impermeable artificial micro-topographies that reproduce real fields situations and that can be submitted to various laboratory rain and erosion simulations. Both surface of a specific soil and its artificial reproduction have been measured with a laser scanner in order to assess the quality of the moulding method, analyzing: the surface heights, the surface storage, the spatial correlation (semi-variogram and bivariate entropy), the connectivity properties (N-direct connectivity, Euler number, percolation probability, connectivity function and relative surface connection function) and the runoff dynamics. Since real soil micro-topographies evolve with their exposure to rain events, we made several moulds of a small bare field plot during a rain season and analyze the evolution of the above cited properties, especially the runoff dynamics. This cheap technique already provides important metrics of runoff triggering to be integrated in hillslope runoff-erosion models. It could allow one, in the future, to create a collection of micro-topographical reproductions to study the combined actions of the rain and the agriculture practices on the micro-topographical properties. Under laboratory conditions, the spatial variation of water velocity could be studied on those artificial micro-topographies to better model the erosion-deposition processes.

  4. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  5. XIIth international meeting on radiation processing Avignon 25-30 March 2001 (Polymer irradiation: past-present and future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapiro, Adolphe

    2002-03-01

    Radiations are used efficiently and economically for the production of new or modified polymers. The following processes are considered: Radiation curing; Radiation cross-linking; Radiation grafting. These processes are commonly used today in industry and provide a broad range of new potential applications in various fields. The history of their development is briefly reported. The chemical reactions underlying these processes are described. (1) Radiation curing is used commercially on a large scale for the production of improved coatings, lacquers and inks. The process can be conducted at very high speeds. Curing of magnetic formulations leads to particularly stable products, which compete favourably with more conventional materials. (2) Radiation cross-linking is an established technology in the wire and cable industry. It emparts to the modified insulators improved resistance to solvents, to ageing and to elevated temperatures. The resulting cross-linked network also reduces the migration of fillers and thereby stabilizes in time any message imprinted with magnetic or colored pigments dispersed in a polymer. (3) Radiation grafting is a powerful method for modifying more profoundly the properties of a polymer and for creating numerous, entirely new materials. The chemical modification can be applied at will into the bulk of the material or limited to a surface zone of any desired depth. This method can be used for instance, for introducing polar groups in the bulk or on the surface of non-polar polymers, for increasing or reducing the wettability of a polymer, for imparting a better compatibility of a polymer to a specific coating and the like. The irradiation of water-soluble polymers in aqueous solutions, with or without the addition of another monomer gives rise to a variety of cross-linked gels which find useful applications in the biomedical field. Other promising applications will be considered.

  6. Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Jalota, Lalit; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    1995-06-01

    For the last decade we have been developing conical approximation of the Wolter I type thin foil/shell grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Several missions have come out of these developments, e.g., BBXRT, and Astro-D (a U.S. - Japanese collaboration now known as ASCA), and Sodart on board SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA in the near future. The spatial resolution of this type of telescope is an order of magnitude worse than the theoretical limit, which hosts a great potential of improving these high throughput and relatively inexpensive x- ray instruments. In summary, x-ray image can be improved by reducing surface roughness and profile error for specularly reflecting x-rays in a better defined direction. The conventional way, coating reflecting surface of substrates with a thin layer of acrylic lacquer, was not effective in smoothing the surface roughness in spatial wavelength longer than a few microns. The profile of the foils was controlled by forming the substrate under certain mechanical pressure and/or combining heat treatment, but very often, the process is detrimental to the surface quality of roughness in millimeter wavelength. We report a new development of using epoxy replication technique on smooth pyrex mandrels. The results show very encouraging improvements over the conventional method. The half power diameter (HPD) of the x-ray image has dropped from 3.5 arcmins to 1.0 arcmin, and the extended image blur, i.e. the tail part of the encircled energy function (EEF), which was attributed to the roughness at higher spatial frequencies, was drastically reduced by 10 times. In this report we summarize the new technique in progress and the direction for future development.

  7. Critical assessment of the integrity of thin organic films by shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.

    2007-02-01

    In the present work, the temperature versus thermal deformation (strain) with respect to time, of different coating films were studied by a non-destructive technique (NDT) known as shearography. An organic coating, i.e., epoxy, a white enamel, and a yellow Acrylic Lacquer on a metallic alloy, i.e., carbon steels, were investigated at a temperature range simulating the severe weather temperatures in Kuwait especially between the daylight and the night time temperatures, 20-60 °C. The investigation focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings, which amounts to the thermal deformation (strain) with respect to the applied temperature range. Furthermore, the investigation focused on determining the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature range. In other words, one could determine, from the decreasing value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, a critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, in which the integrity of the coatings can be assessed with respect to time. In fact, determination of critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings could be accomplished independent of parameters, i.e., UV exposure, Humidity, exposure to chemical species, and so on, normally are considered in conventional methods of the assessment of the integrity of coatings. In other words, with the technique of shearography, one would need only to determine the critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Furthermore, results of shearography indicate that the technique is very useful NDT method not only for determining the critical value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings, but also the technique can be used as a 2D- microscope for monitoring the deformation of the coatings in realtime at a submicroscopic scale.

  8. The antileukemia activity of natural product HQ17(3) is possibly associated with downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ya-Chun; Lin, Tzu-Heng; Chen, Chih-Ying; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Au, Lo-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The compound 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)] was purified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea. HQ17(3) has cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and can inhibit topoisomerase (topo) II? activity. We treated various cancer cells with different doses of HQ17(3) and found that leukemia cells were most sensitive to HQ17(3). After analysis of microRNA (miRNA) profiling, we found that treatment with HQ17(3) caused downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster in some leukemia cells. These changes partially restored the normal levels from leukemia-specific miRNA expression signature. Messenger RNAs of tumor suppressor proteins, such as pRB, PTEN, and Dicer, are targets of miR-17-92 cluster. Their protein levels were increased after the treatment. c-Myc is a regulatory protein for miR-17-92 gene. Similar to topo II?, we found that c-Myc decreased its activity after the HQ17(3) treatment, which may explain the downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster. Combined with 5-fluorouracil, NaAsO2, or ABT-737, HQ17(3) elicited additive inhibitory effects on leukemia cells. In conclusion, the high sensitivity of leukemia cells to HQ17(3) may be associated with the reduction of topo II? and c-Myc activities, as well as with the downregulation of the miR-17-92 cluster expression. PMID:25140305

  9. Multi-analyte methods for the detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in food contact materials and foodstuffs--part I: HPLC-DAD screening of materials.

    PubMed

    Jung, T; Browatzki, C; Simat, T J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a HPLC-DAD method suitable for the screening of food contact materials for a total of 63 monomeric and polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists. Such multi-analyte methods are worthwhile for official control laboratories, where normally no information about the composition of the applied inks or varnishes on the printed or lacquered materials is available and thus target analyses are not feasible. The polymeric analytes were each separated in a multitude of substance peaks, which largely overlaid those of the other compounds. Thus, for 13 polymeric photoinitiators and amine synergists a hydrolysis method was developed that reduced the number of ultraviolet (UV) detectable peaks to only one. This allowed easier identification and--preliminary--semi-quantification of these polymeric substances with adequate limits of detection. The remaining 50 photoinitiators and amine synergists were combined in one HPLC-DAD method. But since many of these substances are structurally related, partly retention times and spectra did not differ significantly. Thus selectivity was enhanced by preparing a database containing all spectra and retention times of the investigated compounds. Furthermore, the retention times of those 50 substances were calculated relative to two internal standards to overcome variances of retention from run to run or due to matrix effects. The developed method was tested for the analysis of food contact materials. Extractions of these were performed with acetonitrile and partially the extracts were subsequently concentrated in a steam of nitrogen. Limits of detection of photoinitiators and amine synergists in concentrated packaging extracts were in the range between 0.02 and 5.5 µg dm(-2). PMID:24405406

  10. Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.

    2013-04-01

    The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 ?g/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 ?g/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

  11. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-P. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Robin Y. [Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Kan, L.-S. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.-B. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sblin@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

  12. Obtainment of pellets using the standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Omar Paulino Silva; Oliveira, Leandra Almeida Ribeiro; Martins, Frederico Severino; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Freitas, Osvaldo; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul is an alternative for the treatment of vitiligo. There is a shortage of solid oral dosage forms developed from standardized extracts of this plant specie. Objective: This study is aimed to obtain pellets with a standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii. Results: The standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii was obtained through maceration and percolation with a 55% ethanol-water solution (v/v). Pellets were obtained through a mixture of extract of 500 g of B. gaudichaudii standardized extract, 500 g of microcrystalline cellulose PH101 and 10 g of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100. The pellets obtained presented a homogeneity yield of 92%, aspect ratio of 1.16 ± 0.65, shape fator eR of 0.35 ± 0.09 and Feret diammeter of 0.87 ± 0.27. These pellets were coated with a suspension composed of titanium dioxide, aluminum red lacquer, ethyl cellulose, talc and magnesium stearate. Before the photostability test, the uncoated pellets showed psoralen content equal to 0.13 ± 0.01% and to the 5-MOP was 1.40 ± 0.27%. After exposure to one level (3 J.cm-2) of UVB irradiation the uncoated pellets presented a degradation of 2.16% of psoralen and 8.1% of 5-MOP. After exposure to three levels (10, 20 and 30 J.cm-2) of UVA irradiation the uncoated pellets exhibited photodegradation of 9.78, 17.64, 24.21% of psoralen and 18.95, 23.68, 28.48% for 5-MOP. The coated pellets where unaffected after photostability test. Conclusion: Pellets were obtained with the standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii and coating is a technological alternative to ensure the stability of the formula. PMID:25709229

  13. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  14. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

  15. Biomechanics of the weakened mandible: use of image correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Yachouh, J; Domergue, S; Hoarau, R; Loosli, Y; Goudot, P

    2013-10-01

    Uninterrupted resection of mandibular bone is often necessary during maxillofacial operations for cancer. This weakens the mandible, and increases the risk of fracture. To our knowledge no biomechanical analysis has been made of deformations and strains that occur during chewing if this happens, so we have made such an analysis of the weakened mandible using a new technique: image correlation. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were prepared with black and white lacquer, and placed in a loading device that allowed replication of a physiological biting exercise. Calibrated pieces of bone were resected from the right body of each mandible. Images of the mandibular surface were recorded by 2 cameras and analysed with an algorithm to correlate them, which allowed us to confirm the distribution of strain on the body of the mandible, and to focus on the weak points. Before the bone was resected, we noted tensile strains on the alveolar border of the body, and compressive strains on the basilar border. The intensity of the strains in the posterior angle of the resected bony area then increased, with reduction in the height of the bone until fracture. The orientation of the fracture line started at the lower posterior angle of the resection area and spread in a lower posterior direction until it reached the basilar border of the mandible. Image correlation is a new technique for the study of mandibular biomechanics that provides accurate measurements on a wide bony surface with high definition images and without modification of the structure. Its application to weakened mandible provided reliable images of modifications to strains during simulated biting exercises. PMID:22901525

  16. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  17. In vitro permeation and penetration of ciclopirox olamine from poloxamer 407-based formulations - comparison of isolated human stratum corneum, bovine hoof plates and keratin films.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-07-15

    Fungal infections of skin and/or nails are common diseases resulting in major challenges in topical treatment. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to develop a dermal formulation targeting both tinea pedis and onychomycosis. The antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine (CPX) was incorporated into a variety of poloxamer 407-based formulations and analysed regarding its in vitro permeation and penetration behaviour across keratin films (KF) and bovine hoof plates as artificial nail models as well as human stratum corneum (SC). The novel compositions consisted of poloxamer 407 (P407), double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. All the formulations exhibited semi-solid to liquid consistencies and were isotropic under a polarising microscope. Upon CPX incorporation, the formulations became softer and the yield stresses decreased. Increasing temperature led to higher complex viscosities. Permeation coefficients (P) from P407-based formulations across KF and bovine hoof plates and normalised retained CPX amounts in KF and bovine hoof plates were higher in comparison to the nail lacquer Ciclopoli(®) as a marketed reference. Data of KF and bovine hoof plates were comparable, therefore KF are suggested as artificial nail model for in vitro permeation studies besides the well-accepted nail model of bovine hoof plates. With regard to SC permeation, several liquid formulations indicated higher P in comparison to the references Ciclopoli(®) and the antimycotic skin formulation Selergo(®) 1% cream, while the normalised retained API amounts in SC were higher in comparison with Selergo(®) 1% cream or in the same range as Ciclopoli(®). PMID:25895717

  18. High-resolution, submicron particle size distribution analysis using gravitational-sweep sedimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Mächtle, W

    1999-01-01

    Sedimentation velocity is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex solutions of macromolecules. However, sample turbidity imposes an upper limit to the size of molecular complexes currently amenable to such analysis. Furthermore, the breadth of the particle size distribution, combined with possible variations in the density of different particles, makes it difficult to analyze extremely complex mixtures. These same problems are faced in the polymer industry, where dispersions of latices, pigments, lacquers, and emulsions must be characterized. There is a rich history of methods developed for the polymer industry finding use in the biochemical sciences. Two such methods are presented. These use analytical ultracentrifugation to determine the density and size distributions for submicron-sized particles. Both methods rely on Stokes' equations to estimate particle size and density, whereas turbidity, corrected using Mie's theory, provides the concentration measurement. The first method uses the sedimentation time in dispersion media of different densities to evaluate the particle density and size distribution. This method works provided the sample is chemically homogeneous. The second method splices together data gathered at different sample concentrations, thus permitting the high-resolution determination of the size distribution of particle diameters ranging from 10 to 3000 nm. By increasing the rotor speed exponentially from 0 to 40,000 rpm over a 1-h period, size distributions may be measured for extremely broadly distributed dispersions. Presented here is a short history of particle size distribution analysis using the ultracentrifuge, along with a description of the newest experimental methods. Several applications of the methods are provided that demonstrate the breadth of its utility, including extensions to samples containing nonspherical and chromophoric particles. PMID:9916040

  19. Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2011-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs). Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers) are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse, and reinfection. To combat the poor response, newer strategies such as combination, sequential, and supplementary therapies have been suggested. In the end, treatment of special populations such as diabetic, elderly, and children is outlined. PMID:22016272

  20. Comparison of roll-to-roll replication approaches for microfluidic and optical functions in lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Baum, Christoph; Bastuck, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Economically advantageous microfabrication technologies for lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices substituting commonly used glass etching or injection molding processes are one of the key enablers for the emerging market of microfluidic devices. On-site detection in fields of life sciences, point of care diagnostics and environmental analysis requires compact, disposable and highly functionalized systems. Roll-to-roll production as a high volume process has become the emerging fabrication technology for integrated, complex high technology products within recent years (e.g. fuel cells). Differently functionalized polymer films enable researchers to create a new generation of lab-on-a-chip devices by combining electronic, microfluidic and optical functions in multilayer architecture. For replication of microfluidic and optical functions via roll-to-roll production process competitive approaches are available. One of them is to imprint fluidic channels and optical structures of micro- or nanometer scale from embossing rollers into ultraviolet (UV) curable lacquers on polymer substrates. Depending on dimension, shape and quantity of those structures there are alternative manufacturing technologies for the embossing roller. Ultra-precise diamond turning, electroforming or casting polymer materials are used either for direct structuring or manufacturing of roller sleeves. Mastering methods are selected for application considering replication quality required and structure complexity. Criteria for the replication quality are surface roughness and contour accuracy. Structure complexity is evaluated by shapes producible (e.g. linear, circular) and aspect ratio. Costs for the mastering process and structure lifetime are major cost factors. The alternative replication approaches are introduced and analyzed corresponding to the criteria presented. Advantages and drawbacks of each technology are discussed and exemplary applications are presented.

  1. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  2. [Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry--a new (old) method of detection in forensic chemistry and criminal investigation].

    PubMed

    Arnold, W

    1989-01-01

    The Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) is a very valuable technique for identifying organic substances. FTIR is more versatile in comparison to disperse infrared spectrometry, as it combines speed and sensitivity. FTIR is even superior to GC/MS: 1. Easy differentiation between isomers is possible. 2. Functional group information can be achieved instead of mass fragments. 3. GC fractions can be saved for further analysis. The FTIR instrument has no prisma or grating. It is equipped with a Michelson interferometer, which gives much more beam energy on the examination object. Most beneficial is the use of a broadband beam source, which impinges simultaneously all frequencies on the sample and on the detector. All these qualities allow the registration of fast chemical and biological processes or the observation of all reactions by volatizing and evaporation at high temperatures. IR spectrometer can run high quality infrared spectra in short time (almost 100/second) with high sensitivity. This is the basic requirement for the "on line" coupling of the IR-system with a GC. The GC peaks are analysed by IR beams with the help of a "light pipe". It is possible to examine all kinds of substances with diffuse and attenuated total reflectance methods. In special cases the change for binding of proteins and kinetic and structural processes in the flowing blood can be measured in vivo. Another use of FTIR-techniques is possible in combination with a microscope. Samples with a square aera of 8 microns can be examined. In criminalistics and forensic toxicology little particles as hairs, fibers, foams, adherents of powder in clothes, splinters of lacquer and paints etc. can be detected and identified by transmission or reflection. In conclusion, the FTIR spectrometry offers a versatility to some measurement problems that is often superior, faster and easier than other techniques such as NMR and MS. PMID:2818470

  3. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    PubMed

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  4. Cyclohexane produces behavioral deficits associated with astrogliosis and microglial reactivity in the adult hippocampus mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Zarate-Lopez, David; Galvez-Contreras, Alma Y; Moy-Lopez, Norma; Guzman-Muniz, Jorge; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile substance that has been utilized as a safe substitute of several organic solvents in diverse industrial processes, such as adhesives, paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, and rubber industry. A number of these commercial products are ordinarily used as inhaled drugs. However, it is not well known whether cyclohexane has noxious effects in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cyclohexane inhalation on motor behavior, spatial memory, and reactive gliosis in the hippocampus of adult mice. We used a model that mimics recreational drug use in male Balb/C mice (P60), divided into two groups: controls and the cyclohexane group (exposed to 9,000 ppm of cyclohexane for 30 days). Both groups were then evaluated with a functional observational battery (FOB) and the Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, the relative expression of AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), and the number of astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were quantified in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings indicated that cyclohexane produced severe functional deficits during a recreational exposure as assessed by the FOB. The MWM did not show statistically significant changes in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory. Remarkably, a significant increase in the number of astrocytes and microglia cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of these cells were observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of cyclohexane-exposed mice. This cellular response was associated with an increase in the expression of APE1 in the same brain regions. In summary, cyclohexane exposure produces functional deficits that are associated with an important increase in the APE1 expression as well as the number of astrocytes and microglia cells and their cytoplasmic complexity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the adult hippocampus. PMID:25433657

  5. EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station: Preparing for Future Mars Landers and Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Pletser, V.; Stoker, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.

    2009-04-01

    Background: Surface science is one of the prime objectives of current and future Mars, Moon, or planetary missions and encompasses a wide range of activities from global mapping via specific studies of localised regions until microscopic scales. The studies of rocks and soil in situ, or with sample return missions, require the development of systematic multi-instruments protocols, characterisation diagnostics, and merging of data from various techniques. Both photogeology and mineralogical wide scale mapping have been performed to some extent previously so significant new surface science results may only come from co-ordinated multi-instrument operations operating from the surface. EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign: The goal of the mission (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) is to demonstrate and validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science. This chain begins with characterisation of the local surface and close sub-surface environment, before moving on to sample extraction and analysis. The characterisation stage involves a survey of a sample area in the vicinity of the MDRS site by our geologists and other team members. This utilises satellite and aerial photography to inform the overallmorphology and geological unit distribution, with the specific geological and geochemical context being provided through the use of imagers and spectrometers. Further reconnaissance is used to plan sample-extraction EVAs at sites of geochemical and astrobiological significance. Characterisation of larger-scale features is conducted in-situ (for example using ground penetrating radar to investigate the close sub-surface). Results from these sorties inform the choice and planning of sites for surface and sub-surface sampling. The sample extraction step - the nature of which is dependent on the identified areas of interest - involves standard geological tools such as rock drills and scoops etc, as well as more specific techniques such as lacquer peels. These samples are returned to the MDRS for analysis using microscopes and other analysis techniques. These documented samples are afterward taken to ESTEC and collaborators institutes for analysis by various techniques.

  6. Sorting out meandering and braiding: discriminating formative conditions and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, M. G.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Schuurman, F.; Van Dijk, W. M.

    2011-12-01

    For various river channel patterns, the necessary formative conditions differ, but how is not entirely understood. Furthermore, not only the morphology and dynamics differ, but also the resulting stratigraphy differs, of which understanding is required to infer past environmental conditions and predict reservoir behaviour. Our objective is to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for forming dynamic meandering and braided rivers. We reproduced both patterns experimentally and with a physics-based numerical model, and produced synthetic stratification from bed elevation maps and control lacquer peels for the experiments. Experimental meandering was produced using a mixture of poorly sorted sediment and silt-sized silica flour and a transversely moving inflow boundary. Braiding was produced in exactly the same conditions but without the silica flour. These experiments represent gravel-bed rivers in nature, where both experimental meandering and braiding channels were close to the transition between the types. Onset meandering was also produced in the numerical model (Delft3D) with a similar transversely moving inflow boundary, whilst braided rivers formed with fixed inflow or some noise on the transverse discharge distribution at the inflow boundary. The silica flour deposited on crevasse splays and in chute channels, forming new floodplain. This caused much less chute cutoffs and stronger banks. The resulting meandering river formed multiple sets of scroll bars forming pointbars, overlain by splays and floodplain. The braided river, in contrast, showed mid-channel bars and multiple active channels, faster and more haphazard bar and channel migration, and frequent chute cutoffs. Apart from the floodplain, stratification in meandering rivers consisted of sigmoidally stratified units formed by scroll bars and channel fills, usually formed after chute cutoff. Braided rivers had similar units but much smaller and more. In both cases the highest preservation potential is in the deepest channels. We conclude that some floodplain-filling sediment or vegetation is required for meandering to prevent chute cutoffs to lead to weak braiding, but, more importantly, that some dynamics are required at the upstream boundary, where periodic perturbation causes meandering whilst stochastic perturbation causes braiding. Furthermore, morphology and stratification in braided gravel-bed rivers have much smaller morphological and stratigraphic units relative to average channel width than the meandering rivers, even though active bar dimensions are comparable.

  7. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  8. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort addresses reported traces of BPA detected using different analytical techniques. In this study, the presence of BPA in different baby feeding bottles was determined. In general, the concentration of BPA released increased with increasing time of heating and longer use. The experimental results also showed that BPA is present in those plastic containers, even though labeled " BPA free". Research and studies done by scientists and other health organizations have agreed to measure BPA levels in human tissue, and determine its negative effects to human health. At this time the source and level of exposure to BPA is unknown. For this reason, much more research is needed to uncover more evidence of this toxic chemical.

  9. 10?(Z),13?(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10?(Z), 13?(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  10. 10'(Z),13'(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone inhibits swarming and virulence factors and increases polymyxin B susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Che; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10'(Z), 13'(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  11. The effect of cigarette smoking on the indexes of immunity and acute phase reaction in subjects with occupational exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, P

    1993-06-01

    The study was carried out in 156 men, including 49 nonsmokers and 47 smokers who had never been exposed to chemicals, 19 nonsmokers exposed to organic solvents, and 41 smokers exposed to organic solvents. The results of toxicological analysis of air in the working place carried out in the range depending on the type of solvents used in the process of lacquering of steel cans and on the data obtained from the producer showed that the solvents contained benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives partly hydrogenated, paraffin hydrocarbons, oleins, naphthenes (components of painter's naphtha), monohydric and polyhydric alcohols (butanol, cyclohexanol, butyloglycol), esters (ethylglycol acetate, butyl acetate) and ketones (methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone). Measured benzene concentrations varied from 0 to 370 mg x m-3 (0 to 116 ppm), with arithmetic mean annual averages of about 100 mg x m-3 (31 ppm) in the late 1960's and less than 50 mg x m-3 (16 ppm) in the 1970's. In the 1980's values for the TWA were 0-38 mg x m-3 (0-12 ppm) with arithmetic mean averages of about 19 mg x m-3 (6 ppm) and for the level of benzene 0-351 mg x m-3 (0-110 ppm), with arithmetic mean annual averages of about 48 mg x m-3 (15 ppm). Phenol concentration in the urine of the workers in groups was 7.9 +/- 3.5; 10.0 +/- 5.8; 16.8 +/- 6.2 and 18.4 +/- 9.7 mg x 1(-1) respectively. Hippuric acid concentration in the urine of the workers in groups was 496 +/- 326, 538 +/- 341, 982 +/- 420 and 1107 +/- 507 mg x 1(-1) respectively. The parameters of immunity and proteins acute phase reaction were determined, measuring the count of T, B, and "non-T, non-B" circulating lymphocytes, the concentration of immunoglobulins, lysozyme, C3c, C4, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobulin and ceruloplasmin in serum. The results of the presented study suggest the role of cigarette smoking as a co-factor in the immunological changes brought out by occupational exposure to organic solvents. This phenomenon is reflected in the changes of IgA, IgD, IgG, IgM and lysozyme in the serum, and number of circulating T cells. PMID:8305889

  12. Ab initio study of the interaction of polyoxymethylene with polyoxymethylene, ammonium perchlorate, and the aluminum (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seel, M.; Kunz, A. B.; Wadiak, D. T.

    1988-05-01

    Self-consistent restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations have been performed for the microscopic interactions in particle-filled polymeric suspensions. First, we have investigated the elongation and the torsion potential of a single infinite polyoxymethylene chain. It is found that the 9/5 helix is ~4.5 kcal/mol lower in energy than the planar zigzag conformation. A Young's modulus of 80+/-20 GPa is obtained for the chain-direction deformation. The potential-energy curve for the van der Waals interaction between two 2/1 helical polyoxymethylene chains has a minimum for a chain separation of ~4.3 Å with a binding energy of ~1.3 kcal per (CH2O)2 translational unit. For the chain-direction slip of two polyoxymethylene chains a barrier of ~5.1 kcal is calculated. To study polymer-particle interactions, cluster calculations for the interaction of polyoxymethylene fragments with ammonium perchlorate and the aluminum (100) surface have been performed. The oxygen in the polyoxymethylene backbone forms a hydrogen bond with ammonium perchlorate. For an O-H distance of 1.62 Å a binding energy of 23.7 kcal is obtained. This strong coordination of the ammonium ion with the oxygen in the polyether backbone is in agreement with the experimentally observed increase in viscosity of polyether lacquers upon dissolution of ammonium perchlorate. The potential energy curve for the bonding of a H3C-O-CH2-O-CH2-O-CH3 fragment at the on-top sites of an Al5 cluster has a minimum for an O-Al separation of 2.3 Å with a binding energy of 17.1 kcal (8.55 kcal per O-Al bonding). This binding energy is of the same order of magnitude as the energy of 4.5 kcal per CH2O unit needed to stretch the polyoxymethylene 9/5 helix to a helix whose next-nearest oxygen atoms are commensurate with the aluminum lattice constant of 4.05 Å. Therefore the coating of aluminum particles with polyoxymethylene polymers is possible. The quantum-mechanical results of these microscopic static-model studies provide an estimate for polymer-particle forces needed for a macroscopic dynamic model of particle-filled polymeric suspensions.

  13. Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

    2009-12-01

    Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

  14. Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor concentrations using a Licor LI-7000 and dew point (Buck Research Instruments model CR-1A). A suite of experiments was conducted in which the; (i) Aerosol particle composition was varied (4 chemical compounds) (ii) Aerosol particle GMD was varied (40-80 nm) (iii) Aerosol particle total number concentration was varied (2 orders of magnitude) (iv) Tree type was varied (using a range of species and alternately lacquering the trees to prevent active uptake) (v) Light, water vapor content and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber were varied in order to mimic the range of conditions observed at our experimental particle flux site in southern Indiana (see related abstract by Pryor and Hornsby that describes the in situ flux estimates). The results of these laboratory experiments are used to quantify the relative importance of these factors in dictating aerosol particle uptake and specifically the importance of the foliage collection mechanisms at the leaf scale and deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements.

  15. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Commercial Grade 2,4 (80%)- and 2,6 (20%)- Toluene Diisocyanate (CAS No. 26471-62-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is commercially produced as an approximate 80:20 mixture of the 2,4- and 2,6-isomers. In 1980, 580,000 pounds of this chemical were produced in the United States, primarily for use in the manufacture of flexible polyurethane foams. These foam elastomers are found in furniture and automobile cushions, carpet underlays, pillow filling, mattresses, insulation, shoes, purses, and toys. TDI is also used to produce polyurethane coatings for lacquers and wood finishes. Groups of 50 female F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice were administered commercial grade toluene diisocyanate (80% 2,4- and 20% 2,6-) in corn oil by gavage at doses of 60 or 120 mg/kg body weight, 5 days per week for 105 or 106 weeks. Groups of 50 male F344/N rats received 30 or 60 mg/kg and groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice received 120 or 240 mg/kg on the same schedule. Dosage analyses of toluene diisocyanate indicated that the chemical had reacted in the corn oil vehicle, resulting in actual gavage concentrations 77% to 90% of theoretical values. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil only and served as vehicle controls. Survival in all groups of dosed rats in the 2-year studies were shorter (P