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Lacquer poisoning  


... a varnish) that is often used to give wooden surfaces a glossy look. Lacquers are dangerous to ... that are used as a clear finish for wooden surfaces, particularly floors. They are sold under various ...


Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.  


Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard



[Respiratory pathology induced by inhalation of hair lacquer].  


On the basis of a critical analysis of the literature, the authors review the various respiratory lesions imputed to the inhalation of hair lacquers. Pulmonary thesaurismosis is alleged to result from accumulation in the pulmonary parenchyma of non-biodegradable macro-molecules, such as PVP. Only isolated cases have been published and the true existence of this disease remains to be confirmed, in the absence of convincing epidemiological data as well as the lack of experimental reproducibility. Chronic inhalation of hair lacquers may, however, be responsible for bronchial irritative manifestations and obstruction of the small airways, in particular in hairdressers. Increase in the relative risk of bronchopulmonary carcinoma has not been proven. PMID:3912911

Ameille, J; Pages, M G; Capron, F; Proteau, J; Rochemaure, J



Choroidal Thickness and Biometric Markers for the Screening of Lacquer Cracks in Patients with High Myopia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. Methods Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks). Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. Results Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%). Conclusions This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia.

Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chou, Chai Lin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Chao, An-Ning; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tsang, Stephen H.



Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-l-lysine.  


A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-l-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-l-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi



High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

Esposito, G. G.


Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Onychomycosis is a relatively common condition affecting toenails more than fingernails. It is caused predominantly by dermatophytes. Onychomycosis can cause pain and discomfort and has the potential to be a source of morbidity. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% used to treat onychomycosis of the toe in the United States and in

Aditya K. Gupta; Philip Fleckman; Robert Baran



Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi



Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree ( Rhus vernicifera stokes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were\\u000a below 4 ?g\\/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols\\u000a suggesting that they would

Dong Ho Hong; Sang Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Se Hyung Park; Young Jin Jeon; Myong-Jo Kim; Sang-Soo Kwak; Hwan Mook Kim



Contradictory results of the UVCON and saline immersion tests regarding the evaluation of some inhibitor\\/lacquer combinations on galvanised coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of inhibitors “with chromate” and “with phosphate” that accompany lacquer films applied on hot galvanised steel specimens has been studied using continuous immersion tests in 3% NaCl and UVCON tests in a climate cabinet. These tests, in combination with the EIS and XPS techniques, show that the behaviour of the inhibitor\\/lacquer system is dependent on the type of

S Feliu; V Barranco



Clinical features of 31 patients with systemic contact dermatitis due to the ingestion of Rhus (lacquer).  


In Korea, Rhus has been used as a folk medicine to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food. We review the clinicopathological and laboratory findings in patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by intake of Rhus. We reviewed medical records and histopathological sections from 31 patients during a 10-year period. The male/female ratio was 1.4: 1 and the average age was 43.8 years (range 22-70). Ten patients (32%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. Rhus was ingested to treat gastrointestinal problems including indigestion and gastritis (45%), and as a health food (39%), in cooked meat, in herbal medicine, or taken by inhalation. The patients developed skin lesions such as a maculopapular eruption (65%), erythema multiforme (EM, 32%), erythroderma (19%), pustules, purpura, weals and blisters. Erythroderma was very frequent in patients with a known history of allergy to lacquer, but maculopapular and EM-type eruptions were more frequently observed in those without a history of allergy. All patients experienced generalized or localized pruritus. Other symptoms included gastrointestinal problems (32%), fever (26%), chills and headache; many developed leucocytosis (70%) with neutrophilia (88%), while some showed toxic effects on liver and kidney. Fifty-nine per cent of patients observed cutaneous or general symptoms within a day after ingestion of Rhus. There was no difference in the time lag for symptoms to develop between patients allergic and not allergic to Rhus. All patients responded well to treatment with systemic steroids and antihistamines. Common histopathological findings were vascular dilatation, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, and extravasation of red blood cells in the upper dermis. Rhus lacquer should not be ingested in view of its highly allergic and toxic effects. PMID:10809851

Park, S D; Lee, S W; Chun, J H; Cha, S H



Diamond-turned lacquer-coated soft x-ray telescope mirrors.  


X-ray astronomy has reached sufficient maturity to demand at least moderate angular resolution lightgathering telescopes to accompany detector development. Keeping the cost of such telescopes within the budget of low-cost flight opportunities such as sounding rockets and SPARTAN missions is a substantial challenge. We have developed a program of precision diamond mirror turning, mechanical polishing, lacquer coating, and metal deposition which produces x-ray telescopes with minute of arc angular resolution at moderate cost. We describe the process and report calibration results for a 80 cm (31.4 in.) diam Wolter I telescope flown aboard an Aries sounding rocket. PMID:20531592

Nousek, J A; Garmire, G P; Pipetti, R J; Burrows, D N; Ku, W H; Lum, K S



Polymer films releasing nisin and\\/or natamycin from polyvinyldichloride lacquer coating: Nisin and natamycin migration, efficiency in cheese packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethylene films coated by commercially available polyvinyldichloride (PVdC) as well as nitrocellulose (NC) lacquer with addition of natamycin preparation Delvocid® (16.7% w\\/w of natamycin in lacquer) were studied at 6 and 23°C to determine the preservative migration into distilled water. The films released natamycin at maximal level 2.34±0.32mg\\/dm2. The diffusion coefficient of 0.79×10?10±0.29×10?10cm2\\/s and 1.03×10?10±0.17×10?10cm2\\/s was determined for natamycin transport

Kristýna Hanušová; Monika Š?astná; Lenka Votavová; Kamila Klaudisová; Jaroslav Dobiáš; Michal Vold?ich; Miroslav Marek



Loceryl nail lacquer--realization of a new galenical approach to onychomycosis therapy.  


Loceryl nail lacquer was developed to provide the effective antifungal drug, amorolfine, in a once-weekly dosage regimen combined with a convenient mode of application. Traditional formulations such as creams and nail solutions do not fulfil these requirements because they are wiped or washed off very rapidly. Amorolfine nail lacquer builds a non-water-soluble film on the nail plate, and this film remains in place for 1 week. The film contains a high concentration of amorolfine and forms a depot from which the drug is delivered and which allows the drug to permeate the nail plate. The film-forming polymer and the solvent were optimized for drug release, stability, and convenience of application (drying time, no gloss, transparency). In preclinical development, porcine hoof horn was used as a screening model to differentiate between formulations and dosage strengths with respect to the penetration rate. A high drug concentration of 11.72 micrograms/specimen (10 mm in diameter) was reached in the hoof horn after 6 h, increasing to 39.5 micrograms/specimen within 7 days, the maximum duration of the investigation. The drug concentration achieved was far above its minimum inhibitory concentration. Furthermore, the penetration model clearly indicated that amorolfine crossed the horn barrier and was found in the moistened gauze which simulated the nail bed. After a 7-day penetration period, 1.8% of the applied dose (500 micrograms) was available under the nail. PMID:1458660

Pittrof, F; Gerhards, J; Erni, W; Klecak, G



Comparative efficacy and safety of amorolfine nail lacquer 5% in onychomycosis, once-weekly versus twice-weekly.  


Amorolfine is a new topical antifungal of the phenylpropyl morpholine class which is highly active both in vitro and in vivo against yeasts, dermatophytes and moulds responsible for superficial fungal infections. Human pharmacological studies have established that amorolfine has a persistent antifungal effect in the nail bed and in the skin without being systemically absorbed. This has been confirmed by clinical work showing that amorolfine is effective in treating dermatomycoses and onychomycoses when administered as cream or nail lacquer. It is ineffective when given orally for systemic mycoses or bacterial infections in animals. In earlier studies a 5% concentration of amorolfine nail lacquer was found to produce a better cure rate in onychomycosis than a lower concentration of 2%. From data available on the penetration of amorolfine and on the persistence of mycologically relevant tissue concentrations, it appeared likely that once- or twice-weekly application of nail lacquer should suffice to produce a satisfactory therapeutic effect in onychomycosis. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of 5% amorolfine nail lacquer given once versus twice weekly to patients with onychomycosis of finger nails and toe nails. PMID:1458665

Reinel, D; Clarke, C



Topical treatment of onychomycosis with amorolfine 5% nail lacquer: comparative efficacy and tolerability of once and twice weekly use.  


456 patients with onychomycosis were treated once or twice weekly for up to 6 months with amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in an open, randomized study. The patients were examined at monthly intervals during treatment and followed-up 1 and 3 months after completion of treatment. Slightly better cure rates were achieved with twice weekly use than with once weekly use (overall cure rates 54.2 vs. 46.0%, p = 0.4). An overall cure or improvement was achieved in 74 and 68% of patients receiving twice- and once-weekly treatment, respectively. The mycological cure rate was 76.1% for twice-weekly treatment and 70.6% for once-weekly treatment. The nail lacquer was extremely well tolerated; 4 out of 456 patients reported mild local irritation. Plasma levels of amorolfine were determined in 19 patients and found to be below the detection limit of 0.5 ng/ml in all cases. PMID:1532336

Reinel, D



Effects of lacquer polysaccharides, glycoproteins and isoenzymes on the activity of free and immobilised laccase from Rhus vernicifera.  


The purified polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and isoenzymes of Rhus laccase, and crude enzymes, from Chinese lacquer (Rhus vernicifera sap) were used to determine their influence on the enzymic activity of Rhus laccase on several substrates (4-phenylenediamine, isoeugenol and coniferyl alcohol). No product identity changes were observed when these components were added singularly or in combination to the enzymic reactions (only relative product yields varied significantly), however, the polysaccharides (GP1 and GP2) and glycoprotein (stellacyanin, St) exhibited negative effects, and the two isoenzymes (L1 and L2) exhibited positive synergistic effects, on the activity of Rhus laccase. With respect to the activity of the crude enzymes, the negative effects of GP1, GP2 and St were greater than the positive effects of L1 and L2, compared with free Rhus laccase on its own (using 4-phenylenediamine as substrate), the estimated inhibitory effect (of GP1, GP2 and St) being by at least a factor of 50 (even with the positive effect of L1 and L2). This contributes to understanding of lacquer storage stability and drying rates. Immobilisation of crude enzymes using a variety of techniques (using natural and modified polysaccharides, and an inorganic support) where evaluated using isoeugenol as substrate. Agar embedding and zirconium chloride chelation methods resulted in the highest substrate conversion levels. The yields and products of isoeugenol catalysis using Vietnamese crude enzymes/purified Rhus laccase and commercial Denilite laccase were also compared and contrasted with their Chinese lacquer sap equivalents. PMID:20363247

Wan, Yun-Yang; Lu, Rong; Akiyama, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Katsuhisa; Honda, Takayuki; Du, Yu-Min; Yoshida, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Knill, Charles J; Kennedy, John F



Comparison of quantitative analysis techniques for the determination of heat seal lacquer layers on aluminum blister foils.  


For decades a gravimetric method has been common standard for the determination of heat seal lacquers on aluminum blister foils. With the availability of appropriate techniques such as interferometric, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic (IRRAS), beta backscatter, impedance spectroscopic and eddy current techniques respectively, more efficient determinations can be foreseen which are subject of the present communication. The different methods were compared to each other regarding parameters required for validation of analytical procedures according to the ICH guidelines Q2 (R1) such as linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and quantitation limits. The interferometric, IRRAS and beta backscatter techniques were well suitable for the measurements. Using these techniques novel procedures applicable for routine quality control of pharmaceutical packaging materials are suggested. PMID:20888412

Mühlfeld, Lukas; Langguth, Peter; Häusler, Heribert; Hagels, Hansjörg



[Assessment of hearing impairment in workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in the paint and lacquer industry].  


Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible harmful effect of chemicals, especially organic solvents, on the hearing system. In combined exposure to noise and solvents, very common in industry, it is most likely that a synergetic action of these factors enhances the traumatising effect of exposure to noise. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and the risk of hearing impairment in 117 paint and lacquer factory workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents. An analysis of organic solvent mixtures reveals that xylene and ethyl acetate are their major components whose concentrations depend on individual workposts. The control group consisted of 76 workers exposed to noise exceeding, Threshold Limit Value and 125 healthy subjects exposed neither to noise nor to solvents in their occupational setting. Pure tone audiometry revealed the highest hearing thresholds in workers exposed to solvents, lower thresholds in those exposed to noise, and the lowest ones in the non-exposed individuals. Hearing loss was found in 30% of workers exposed to organic solvents, in 20% of noise-exposed subjects, and in only 6% of non-exposed subjects. The comparison of relative risk values also indicated significantly enhanced probability of hearing impairment in workers of the paint and lacquer factory (9.6; 3.2-25.6), which is even more strongly pronounced than in the group of subjects exposed to noise (4.2; 1.2-13.2). An analysis of hearing impairment risk in particular frequencies suggests that organic solvents may damage the inner ear in much greater extent than noise. The results of the study show that exposure to organic solvents may create a significant risk of hearing impairment. Therefore, further steps should be taken to include the exposed population into effective preventive programmes. PMID:10857071

Sliwi?ska-Kowalska, M; Zamys?owska-Szmytke, E; Koty?o, P; Weso?owski, W; Dudarewicz, A; Fiszer, M; Pawlaczyk-Luszczy?ska, M; Polita?ski, P; Kucharska, M; Bilski, B



Titrations with ferrocyanide of japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase and of the type 2 copper-depleted enzyme. Interrelation of the copper sites.  

PubMed Central

1. Redox titrations are reported of the metal centres in Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase with ferrocyanide. 2. The redox potential of Type 1 Cu was found to increase with ferrocyanide concentration up to a limiting value similar to that for the Type 1 Cu in Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme (which is independent of ferrocyanide concentration). 3. The redox potential of the two-electron acceptor (Type 3 Cu) is also independent of ferrocyanide concentration in Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme and lower than values reported for the native enzyme. 4. The two-electron acceptor is present in the oxidized state in the Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme, though the latter lacks the 330 nm absorption band. 5. The redox potential of Type 2 Cu also depends on ferrocyanide concentration, at least in the presence of azide. 6. The redox potentials are affected by freezing the solutions and/or addition of azide, the latter binding to Type 2 Cu with affinity dependent on the redox state of the two-electron acceptor.

Morpurgo, L; Graziani, M T; Desideri, A; Rotilio, G



In vitro Antibacterial and Morphological Effects of the Urushiol Component of the Sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, alternative anti-H. pylori or supportive antimicrobial agents with fewer disadvantages are necessary for the treatment of H. pylori. We investigated the pH-(5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0) and concentration (0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.514, and 1.024 mg/mL)-dependent antibacterial activity of crude urushiol extract from the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) against 3 strains (NCTC11637, 69, and 219) of H. pylori by the agar dilution method. In addition, the serial (before incubation, 3, 6, and 10 min after incubation) morphological effects of urushiol on H. pylori were examined by electron microscopy. All strains survived only within pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged from 0.064 mg/mL to 0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused mainly separation of the membrane, vacuolization, and lysis of H. pylori. Interestingly, these changes were observed within 10 min following incubation with the 1×minimal inhibitory concentrations of urushiol. The results of this work suggest that urushiol has potential as a rapid therapeutic against H. pylori infection by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane.

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Uh, Young; Jang, In Ho; Kim, Soo Ki; Choi, Eung Ho; Kim, Myong Jo; Joo, Jung Soo



Landscape in a Lacquer Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

Savage, Martha



Optical properties of japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase depleted of type 2 copper(II). Involvement of type-2 copper(II) in the 330nm chromophore.  

PubMed Central

1. Spectroscopic and functional properties of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase were re-investigated, with special emphasis on the relationships between the different types of copper centres (Types 1, 2, and 3). 2. On removal of the Type 2 Cu(II), a decrease of absorbance occurred in the wavelength region above 650 nm (delta epsilon 750 = 300 M-1 . cm-1) and around 330 nm (delta episom 330 up to 2200 M-1 . cm-1). 3. Reductive titrations with ascorbic acid or ferrocyanide showed that the electron-accepting capacity of the partial apoprotein is one electron-equivalent lower than that of the native protein, i.e. the protein two-electron acceptor is present in the oxidized state in spite of absorbance loss at 330 nm. 4. The 330 nm chromophore apparently depends on the presence of both the Type 2 and the Type 3 copper in the oxidized state. 5. This finding may have implications in the relative location of Type 2 and 3 copper centres and on the redox behaviour of laccase.

Morpurgo, L; Graziani, M T; Finazzi-Agro, A; Rotilio, G; Mondovi, B




EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...


The effect of surface texture and other factors on the specular gloss of flatted lacquer films  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well known fact that the incorporation of so-called flatting agents into clear finishes results in lowered specular gloss readings. This study proposes to explain the effect produced by such agents in producing surface texture with subsequent flatting, and to statistically evaluate the percentage of specular gloss which can be attributed directly to the production of this surface

Sarah Margaret Claypool Willoughby



Influence of lacquer thinner and some organic solvents on reproductive and accessory reproductive organs in the male rat.  


The effects of thinner and its main components, toluene, xylene, methanol, and ethyl acetate, on reproductive and accessory reproductive organs in male rats were studied. The vapour from these organic solvents was inhaled twice a day for 7 d. Following inhalation of thinner vapour for 7 d, the weights of the testes and prostate fell and acid phosphatase activity in the prostate and plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased compared with the control group. Both ethyl acetate and xylene caused a decrease in the weight of the testes and accessory reproductive organs, as well as reducing acid phosphatase activity in the prostate and plasma testosterone levels. In contrast, toluene and methanol had no effect on organ weights, circulating testosterone levels, or on enzyme activity. Body weight was decreased by inhalation of thinner or ethyl acetate vapour. Spermatozoa levels in the epididymis were decreased by inhalation of ethyl acetate and xylene vapour. These results suggest that thinner, particularly the components ethyl acetate and xylene, interfere with the functions of the testes and accessory reproductive organ; toluene has no effect on these functions. PMID:8358395

Yamada, K



40 CFR 721.63 - Protection in the workplace.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude use for some paints, lacquers, or enamels.) (ix) Category 23C powered air-purifying...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude...



40 CFR 721.63 - Protection in the workplace.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude use for some paints, lacquers, or enamels.) (ix) Category 23C powered air-purifying...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude...



40 CFR 721.63 - Protection in the workplace.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude use for some paints, lacquers, or enamels.) (ix) Category 23C powered air-purifying...approved for paints, lacquers, and enamels. (Approval label may preclude...



Test Methods and Results for Eight Samples of Alkali-Free Steam Cleaning Agents and Nine Samples of Alkaline Lacquer and Grease Removing Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alkali-free agents used in steam-cleaning machines for the cleaning of ferrous and nonferrous metals and the alkaline agents used in hot water baths to clean steel parts of vehicle undercarriages are examined. Tests were conducted to determine the fol...

M. J. Reidt



49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR the proper shipping name for paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac, varnish, liquid aluminum, liquid bronze, liquid gold, liquid wood filler, and liquid lacquer base. The description âPaint-related materialâ is the proper shipping...



49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR the proper shipping name for paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac, varnish, liquid aluminum, liquid bronze, liquid gold, liquid wood filler, and liquid lacquer base. The description âPaint-related materialâ is the proper shipping...



40 CFR 59.402 - VOC content limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...including lacquer sanding sealers) that are also recommended for use in other architectural coating applications to wood, except as stains, are subject only to the VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart for lacquers. (3) Metallic pigmented...



42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels 50 70 20 1 Measured at end...specified in § 84.205. (c) Lacquer and enamel mist tests; general. (1) Three...against mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels shall be tested in accordance with...



42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels 50 70 20 1 Measured at end...specified in § 84.205. (c) Lacquer and enamel mist tests; general. (1) Three...against mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels shall be tested in accordance with...



Analyte detection using an active assay  


Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Evanskey, Melissa R. (Potomac Falls, VA)



The Chemistry of Coatings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)|

Griffith, James R.



External Corrosion of Tinplate Ration Food Cans under Tropical Field Storage,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and extent of external corrosion on unlacquered and lacquered 05 tinplate ration pack cans, under two conditions of field storage in a tropical zone, were determined. The mean areas of rust on unlacquered and poorly lacquered can bodies were, r...

P. J. Cavanough P. W. Board



Thermolytical treatment of dried sewage sludge and other biogenic materials—including upgrading of pyrolysis vapours by a cracking catalyst and examination of heavy metals by X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried sewage sludge from the city of Oldenburg, lacquered wood and linoleum were pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere (sewage sludge, 600°C; lacquered wood and linoleum, 500°C) in an atmospheric fluidized bed. Each fraction of solid material (feed, solid products) was investigated with X-ray fluorescence in order to estimate, especially, the loss of heavy metals during pyrolysis. Vapour resulting from the

W. Beckers; D. Schuller; O. Vaizert



PXE and Children  


... Some doctors describe them as looking like mud-cracks or lacquer cracks. Ophthalmologists see angioid streaks in at least 50- ... adults. After the retina has angioid streaks, or cracks, it is possible for blood vessels to grow ...


40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Harmonized Tariff Schedule Description of Products That May Contain Controlled Substances in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...including enamels and lacquers) based on synthetic polymers of chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous...polyesters. 3208.20 Based on acrylic or vinyl polymers. 3208.90 Other. 3209 Paints...



Tentative Approvals - September 2006  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... APOTEX INC. 9/27/2006. 8, 77-687, CICLOPIROX TOPICAL SOLUTION 8% (NAIL LACQUER), QLT USA, INC. 9/27/2006. 9, ... More results from


77 FR 71632 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...incurred by the United States at the National Lacquer and Paint Superfund Site in Chicago, Illinois and penalties and punitive damages for failure to comply with EPA administrative orders related to the Site. The consent decree lodged on...



40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...natural texture or grain pattern. Shellac means a clear or pigmented coating...the lac beetle, Laciffer lacca ). Shellacs dry by evaporation without chemical reaction...semi-transparent coating, excluding lacquers and shellacs, formulated and recommended to...



40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...natural texture or grain pattern. Shellac means a clear or pigmented coating...the lac beetle, Laciffer lacca ). Shellacs dry by evaporation without chemical reaction...semi-transparent coating, excluding lacquers and shellacs, formulated and recommended to...



40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section: (1) Perform paint stripping using MeCl for the removal of dried paint (including, but not limited to, paint, enamel, varnish, shellac, and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray...



Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate: Reproduction and Fertility Assessment in CD-1 Mice When Administered in Drinking Water (Revised September 1985).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (cellosolve acetate, 2-ethoxy-ethyl acetate, or EGMEEA) is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. It is commercially used in automobile lacquers to retard evaporation and ipart high gloss. The reproductive toxicit...

D. K. Gulati K. B. Poonacha L. H. Barnes S. Russell



Onychomycosis does not always require systemic treatment for cure: a trial using topical therapy.  


Standard teaching dictates that systemic therapy is required for treatment of onychomycosis. It is unknown whether topical antifungal therapy is effective for pediatric nail infections. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted in the Pediatric Dermatology Research Unit at Rady Children's Hospital to determine whether topical antifungal therapy is efficacious for pediatric onychomycosis. Forty patients ages 2 to 16 years with nonmatrix onychomycosis were randomized 1:3 to ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle lacquer. Ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle was applied daily for 32 weeks, with weekly removal of the lacquer and mechanical trimming. Those with poor response were crossed over to active drug at week 12. Thirty-seven patients completed the 32-week study, and follow-up data were collected 1 year after completion of the study from 24 patients. Mycologic cure, effective treatment, and complete cure were assessed, as well as adverse events and effect on quality of life. Mycologic cure was 70% in the treated group and 20% in the vehicle arm (p = 0.03) at week 12. At end of the study (week 32), 77% of treated patients achieved mycologic cure and 71% effective treatment, compared with 22% of the control group. Ninety-two percent of those who were cured and followed for 1 year remained clear. Topical antifungal lacquer (ciclopirox) can be an effective option for children with nonmatrix onychomycosis. Pediatric onychomycosis does not always require systemic therapy and responds better to topical therapy than does adult disease. PMID:23278851

Friedlander, Shiela Fallon; Chan, Yuin C; Chan, Yiong H; Eichenfield, Lawrence F



Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with osteogenesis imperfecta.  


A 12-year-old girl, diagnosed of osteogenesis imperfecta, presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. Investigations revealed an active choroidal neovascular membrane. She underwent treatment with intravitreal Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml). Follow-up at 1 month revealed the development of lacquer crack running through the macula, underlying the fovea. The patient received two re-treatments at 1-month intervals, following which the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) regressed completely. However, further progression of lacquer cracks was noted. At the last follow-up, 6 months following the last injection, the fundus remained stable and vision was maintained at 20/200. Considering the natural history of the disease and the increased risk of rupture of the Bruch's membrane in such eyes, the possible complication of a lacquer crack developing must be borne in mind, before initiating treatment. PMID:22569391

Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Venkatraman, Anusha


Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with osteogenesis imperfecta  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old girl, diagnosed of osteogenesis imperfecta, presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. Investigations revealed an active choroidal neovascular membrane. She underwent treatment with intravitreal Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml). Follow-up at 1 month revealed the development of lacquer crack running through the macula, underlying the fovea. The patient received two re-treatments at 1-month intervals, following which the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) regressed completely. However, further progression of lacquer cracks was noted. At the last follow-up, 6 months following the last injection, the fundus remained stable and vision was maintained at 20/200. Considering the natural history of the disease and the increased risk of rupture of the Bruch's membrane in such eyes, the possible complication of a lacquer crack developing must be borne in mind, before initiating treatment.

Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Venkatraman, Anusha



Effect of phosphate coatings on the performance of epoxy polyamide red oxide primer on galvanized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion coatings on metals enhance paint or lacquer adhesion and promote corrosion resistance. Present study characterizes three different phosphate baths of zinc phosphate, calcium modified and manganese-modified formulations. It has been observed that manganese modified baths have shown better performance than the other two. The phosphated substrates were coated with epoxy coatings. The coated panels were examined for adhesion by

S. Palraj; M. Selvaraj; P. Jayakrishnan



Thermal Oxidation Stability of Diesel Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) have been used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel de...

D. M. Yost J. G. Barbee L. L. Stavinoha



Needs for super-smooth surfaces. [For metrology, x-ray optics, soft x-ray projection lithography, x-ray microscopy, etc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the needs for super smooth optics give insights for optical fabricators tasked to produce them. These needs include substrates for metrology and a host of X-ray applications. In addition to some grazing angle of incidence optics,, normal incidence optics with multilayer stacks have been recently produced. These optics have very demanding finish requirements. Lacquer and flow polishing have produced



Ethylene, a Plant Hormone from Fluorescent Lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLUORESCENT lighting is used as a source of artificial light in plant growth chambers and to extend day length for plants grown in greenhouse conditions. The electrical circuit for a fluorescent light includes a ballast choke which usually consists of lacquered copper wire wound on an iron core and insulated with impregnated paper or cloth. We found that peas grown

R. B. H. Wills; B. D. Patterson




EPA Science Inventory

1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...


The Chemistry of Optical Discs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)|

Birkett, David



Innovative, scratch proof nanocomposites for clear coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of inorganic nanoscale particles into an organic matrix is of interest in many applications. Specific combinations of properties in coatings such as transparency and wear resistance can be obtained by using nanoparticles. The aim of the project is the development of high-grade transparent lacquers to provide clear coatings for mobile phones, skis, snowboards and helmets. The incorporation of

Elisabeth Barna; Bastian Bommer; Jürg Kürsteiner; Andri Vital; Oliver v. Trzebiatowski; Walter Koch; Bruno Schmid; Thomas Graule



Biocorrosion in pumps and pumping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conference on “Microbiological Destruction of Materials,” held under the auspices of DECHEMA in 1989, marked the first occasion when the hazards of microbial destruction of materials were elucidated. In addition to the metabolic processes of bacteria, molds, and algae, the topics discussed included damage to metals, ceramics, stone, plastic, leather, paper, enamels, and lacquers, illustrated by typical examples.

Ph. Berdelle-Hilge; Philipp Hilge



A Small-Scale Matric Potential Sensor Based on Time Domain Reflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of soil matric potential (c) are needed in many soil science applications. In the present study, a small matric potential sensor having a length of 30 mm and a diameter of 9.6 mm was de- veloped. The sensor consists of two coils made of lacquer-coated cop- per wires embedded in gypsum. The dielectric constant of the gypsum (Kgypsum) was

Magnus Persson; Jon M. Wraith; Torleif Dahlin



NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice and a Toxicology Study of Decalin in Male NBR Rats. (Inhalation Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decalin is used as an industrial solvent for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes. It is also used as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; and as a constituent...



Migration of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and its reaction products in canned foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is used as an additive or starting agent in coatings for cans. The presence of hydrochloric acid in the organosol (PVC-based) lacquers results in formation of chlorohydroxy compounds of BADGE. These compounds, as well as BADGE itself, are potential migrants into the preserved food and are of toxicological concern. In the present investigation the presence of

L. Hammarling; H. Gustavsson; K. Svensson; A. Oskarsson



Redox Cycling of Phenol Induces Oxidative Stress in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of phenolic compounds are utilized for industrial production of phenol-formaldehyde resins, paints, lacquers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Skin exposure to industrial phenolics is known to cause skin rash, dermal inflammation, contact dermatitis, leucoderma, and cancer promotion. The biochemical mechanisms of cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds are not well understood. We hypothesized that enzymatic one-electron oxidation of phenolic compounds resulting in

Anna A. Shvedova; Choudari Kommineni; Bettricia A. Jeffries; Vincent Castranova; Yulia Y. Tyurina; Vladimir A. Tyurin; Elena A. Serbinova; James P. Fabisiak; Valerian E. Kagan



A Case Study of Chronic Metabolic Acidosis, Neuropathies and Other Injuries Due to Solvent Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 61 year old male worker (Mr. T) previously employed on a lacquer coating line of a custom printing and packaging manufacturer contacted WorkCover during 2009 seeking help, as he was unable to work due to his injuries. More correctly, the pain, in combination with the amount and type of analgesic medication (including morphine patches, Vicodin, Gabapentin, etc) he was

Phillip C Cantrell


46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178âLacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090âEnamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No. 111). MIL-W-15117âWater, drinking, canned, emergency. (2)...



V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing…

Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.


46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178âLacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use. MIL-E-15090âEnamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No. 111). MIL-W-15117âWater, drinking, canned, emergency. (2)...



Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.


Jeweled Boxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

Coy, Mary



Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva



Evaluation of developmental toxicity in rats exposed to the environmental estrogen bisphenol A during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an essential component of epoxy resins used in the lacquer lining of metal food cans, as a component of polycarbonates, and in dental sealants. The present study was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the adverse effects of the environmental estrogen BPA on initiation and maintenance of pregnancy and embryofetal development after maternal exposure during the

Jong-Choon Kim; Ho-Chul Shin; Shin-Woo Cha; Woo-Suk Koh; Moon-Koo Chung; Sang-Seop Han



Environmental labels—the German ‘Blue Angel’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental considerations are becoming increasingly important for consumers and producers. A credible environmental label can only be established if it is issued by a neutral or state organisation on the basis of scientifically derived criteria. This holds true for the German ‘Blue Angel’. A case study of emulsion lacquer paints labelled with the Blue Angel indicates that an environmental label

Jens Hemmelskamp; Karl Ludwig Brockmann



Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs.

Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih



Some properties of composite panels made from wood flour and recycled polyethylene.  


This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih



[A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by smut spores of Ustilago esculenta].  


A 49-year-old woman was admitted with cough, general fatigue, and dyspnea on effort. Her hobby was the Japanese traditional handicraft of lacquer-carving. She sometimes used smut spores of Ustilago esculenta, pronounced as "Makomozumi"on lacquer ware. The chest radiographs showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and small centrilobular nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage yielded a marked number of lymphocytes as well as total cell counts and a low CD4 +/CD8 + ratio. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. The results of provocation test by Makomozumi were positive. Serum tests of the specific antibody against extracted soluble antigens of smut spores were positive. The peripheral lymphocyte proliferation test, performed with Mokomozumi antigens was also positive. The final diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by smut spores of fungus Ustilago esculenta. PMID:17491314

Fujii, Yumi; Usui, Yutaka; Konno, Kazunori; Atarashi, Kenichi; Ohtani, Yoshio; Inase, Naohiko; Tanaka, Takehiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki



[Infrared spectrum characteristics of vehicle body paint].  


Two hundred eighty seven samples of vehicle paint were collected, and 940 spectra were obtained by Fourier transform infrared micro spectrometer. The spectral features of varnish, finish layer, and coated layers of different models and different color were analyzed, and the spectra similarities were compared. The results show that the varnish similarity on the same models with different color is 99.5%, and some similar model with the same manufacturer had high similarity. The finish spectra have remarkable differences with different model and different color, and the similarity degree is under 70%. The coated layer similarity varies between 83.33% and 96.91% among the common lacquer putty, and it ranges between 70.12% and 96.44% among the water-based lacquer putty. The metal components of paint will influence the spectrum characteristics. The spectra of the vehicle paint will change with the usage time. PMID:23016329

Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming



Effect of surface finish on the durability of GRP sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial and natural weathering in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the effect of surface\\u000a finish on the resistance to deterioration of GRP sheets. When exposed in a xenon arc weathering machine or to outdoor weathering,\\u000a GRP sheets protected with either a gel-coat or an acrylic lacquer have considerably better resistance to deterioration than\\u000a sheets with

A. Blaga; R. S. Yamasaki



Surface analysis of particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries  Normally, commercial coatings are filled with small particles in the form of pigments or fillers. The general properties of\\u000a surface coating systems significantly depend on the stability of such systems, and on the interaction forces between polymer\\u000a matrix and particle. The knowledge about the mechanism of these interaction forces enables us to control the lacquer properties.\\u000a One of the well

C. Bellmann; N. Petong; A. Caspari; W. Jenschke; F. Simon; K. Grundke



Curing of polyurethane coatings: Radiation curing. January 1980-November 1989 (A Bibliography from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the curing of urethane and polyurethane coatings by electromagnet radiation. This bibliography is specific to electric and/or magnetic curing as compared to photocuring or ultraviolet curing, which are treated as separate bibliographies. These coatings may be described as inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, or specialized coatings. Special applications of this technology in the magnetic recording media industry are presented. (Contains 98 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Removal of Synthetic Textile Dyes From Wastewaters: A Critical Review on Present Treatment Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of industrial colorants. These are no longer used only for the coloration of textiles, plastics, paints, inks, and lacquers, but rather serve as key components in high-tech applications such as optical data storage, reprographics, display devices, dye-sensitized solar cells, energy transfer cascades, light-emitting diodes, laser welding processes, or heat management systems. Azo dyes are

Kamaljit Singh; Sucharita Arora



Corrosion resistance of aluminum cans for low-alcohol carbonated beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 539.431 We investigate the corrosion resistance of cans for beverages to establish reasons for their depressurization. Cans are made of aluminum strips 0.28 mm thick of the “Rochinery Phenalu” firm. The inner surface is protected by an “Ecodex-4020” epoxy-phenolic lacquer. The chemical composition (in wt. %) determined with an ISP-30 spectrograph with quartz optics is the following: 0.17 Cu,

A. P. Olik; O. D. Sokolov; V. O. Maslov; A. H. Salamashenko



Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of ethyl acrylate and tripropylene glycol diacrylate to normal human skin and lung cells.  


The potential for occupational exposure to the esters of acrylic acid (acrylates) is considerable, and, thus, requires a greater understanding of the their toxicity. Confluent (70-90%) cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). or bronchial epithelium (NHBE) were exposed to the monofunctional ethyl acrylate (EA), the multifunctional tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), or TPGDA monomer in a radiation curable lacquer (Lacquer A) at equimolar dosages in order to determine human in vitro cytotoxicity. Viability of the cells after 2-24-h exposure to the representative monofunctional or multifunctional acrylate or solvent control was used to calculate an index of acute cytotoxicity (50% inhibitory dose; ID50) and to determine the shape of the dose-response curves. TPGDA, Lacquer A, and EA were equally cytotoxic (ID50 is approximately equal to 0.1 micromol/cm2) to NHEK at equimolar doses. TPGDA or Lacquer A were more cytotoxic (is approximately equal to 100X) to NHDF or NHBE than EA. Sequential exposure of UV(A) and TPGDA to NHEK indicate the potential for a synergistic cytotoxic response. These findings are consistent with observed decreases in free sulfhydryl groups (e.g., glutathione or cysteine) that parallel the dose-response-related decreases in viability. logether, these data suggest possible differences in toxicity between the monofunctional EA and multifunctional TPGDA to NHEK, NHDF. or NHBE, possibly due to the difference in the number of functional acrylate groups and/or physicochemical differences (e.g., vapor pressure) between the acrylates investigated. PMID:11212146

Nylander-French, L A; French, J E



Alkyd resins: From down and out to alive and kicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd resins have been introduced in the 1930s as binders for paints. Their compatibility with many polymers and the extremely wide formulating latitude made them suitable for the production of a very broad range of coating materials. This includes do-it-yourself paints and varnishes for wood and metal, road marking paints, anticorrosive paints, nitrocellulose lacquers, two-component isocyanate curing coatings, acid curing

Ad Hofland


Monitoring of taints related to printed solid boards with an electronic nose.  


The main objectives were to combine knowledge gathered from the electronic nose (EN) with traditional analytical reference methods for measuring volatile compounds, such as sensory and headspace methods. The impacts of different colouring agents on the sensory properties of packaging materials when analysed by EN were determined. The first step in investigations using the EN was optimization of sample treatment and analysis parameters for the samples. The best resolution was achieved at 60 degrees C in 20 min, and the effect of humidity on the EN sensors was confirmed. A comparison was made of three sensory methods for analysing taints of packaging materials. The study showed that the odour of the packaging itself was often not a reliable indication of the taint perceived in the packed foodstuff and should be regarded only as indicative. Taints caused by pigments of printed solid boards were analysed by EN. Twenty samples were studied, representing unprinted solid board, lacquered solid board, offset printed solid board with 14 different colours and offset printed, lacquered solid board with four colours. The EN succeeded in grouping these materials according to their colouring agents or lacquering, despite slight overlapping of replicates, and the results appeared to reflect at least to some extent the off-flavours perceived in sensory evaluation. The results of this study are only indicative, because the analysis of results from different sources or equipment requires more extensive use of statistical methods. PMID:11962710

Heiniö, R L; Ahvenainen, R



Preservatives in registered chemical products.  


Preservatives are common causes of contact allergy and contact dermatitis. Exposure to cosmetics, personal care products, consumer products and occupationally used products often involve contact with the same range of preservatives. The aim of this study is to provide an overview on the occurrence of preservatives in registered chemical products. The studied preservatives included substances from standard patch test series and other preservatives relevant for registered chemical products. Data obtained from the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) in January 2005 were compared to similar data from January 2002. Paints/lacquers, cleaning agents and printing inks were the most frequently registered product categories, and the studied preservatives were registered in most of the product categories included in the study. For most product categories the total number of registered products was stable during the study period. Butylated hydroxytoluene, benzoic acid, isothiazolinones, Bronopol and formaldehyde showed an increase from 2002 to 2005. Most of these changes occurred in the product category paints/lacquers, for which a doubling mainly due to a change in registration practice was observed. The frequent registration of isothiazolinones (MCI/MI and benzisothiazolinone) in paints/lacquers may be a possible explanation for the relative high and stable frequency of positive patch test reactions to MCI/MI. PMID:15982228

Flyvholm, Mari-Ann



Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.



Matting Agent Concentration and its Effect on the Colour and the Rheology of Matted Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matting of polymeric pigmented coatings not only decreases the gloss of surfaces but also affects their colour and rheological properties. For this reason, it is important to study the changes in colour and rheology of coatings caused by adding a matting agent. Blue, green and white alkyd lacquers and pure silica as matting have been investigated regarding this purpose. The obtained results showed that after a saturation point, the alterations in colour and rheology change their direction. The optical processes effecting these alterations are discussed.

Nsib, Faouzi; Ayed, Naceur; Chevalier, Yves


PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.



Determination of the efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride nail solution in the topical treatment of dermatophytosis in a guinea pig model.  


Currently available topical antifungals are often not satisfactory for the treatment of nail infections, because of the inability to penetrate the nail plate. Terbinafine HCl nail solution is a novel antifungal formulation containing a nail penetration enhancer dodecyl-2-N,N-dimethylaminopropionate hydrochloride (DDAIP HCl, trade name NexACT-88). In this study, we used a guinea pig model of Trichophyton mentagrophytes dermatophytosis and evaluated the clinical and mycological efficacy of different terbinafine HCl nail solutions (TNS) formulated with or without DDAIP HCl. Ciclopirox (8%) nail lacquer (Penlac), the only Food and Drug Administration approved topical treatment for onychomycosis, was used as a comparator. Following the IACUC Guidelines, the skin of male albino guinea pigs was abraded under anaesthesia. Each animal was infected with T. mentagrophytes ATCC 24953 (cell suspension containing 1 x 10(7) conidia). The experimental animals were divided into 11 groups (five animals per group) and tested with the following formulations: vehicle control, 0.5% DDAIP HCl, 1%, 5% and 10% TNS (without DDAIP HCl), 1% TNS with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0% DDAIP HCl, 5% and 10% TNS with 0.5% DDAIP HCl, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and an untreated control group. Evaluation of clinical and mycological efficacy was performed 72 h after completion of a 7-day treatment regimen. Skin biopsy samples were processed for histopathological examination. The infected untreated control guinea pigs showed patches of hair loss and ulcerated or scaly skin and fungal invasion of hair roots. The vehicle and 0.5% DDAIP HCl treated groups showed minimal clinical efficacy (only 11% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, all three concentrations of TNS (1%, 5% and 10% terbinafine HCl) formulated with or without 0.5% DDAIP HCl showed 100% mycological efficacy by the hair root invasion test. Clinical efficacy of the 5% and 10% TNS improved with addition of 0.5% DDAIP HCl (47.4% and 73.8% vs. 68.4% and 89.5%, respectively). In addition, no fungal elements were detected in the treated guinea pig skin. All formulations of TNS resulted in a higher clinical and mycological efficacy compared with the 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer (P = 0.0444). In conclusion, TNS containing 1%, 5% and 10% terbinafine HCl formulated with and without DDAIP HCl demonstrated high antifungal efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis. Addition of 0.5% DDAIP HCl to 5% and 10% TNS significantly enhanced the clinical and mycological efficacy of these formulations which were superior compared with the 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Evaluation of the 1%, 5% and 10% TNS in clinical trials for the treatment of dermatophytosis and onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:18498299

Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Long, Lisa; Pfister, William R



Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.  


Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis


Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period.

Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.



Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): American Chemical Services, Griffith, IN. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 36-acre American Chemical Services (ACS) site is a chemical manufacturing facility in Griffith, Indiana, which was formerly involved in solvent recovery. From the late 1960's to early 1970's, ACS manufactured barium naphtherate, brominated vegetable oil, lacquers and paints, liquid soldering fluid, and polyethylene solutions in polybutene. The ROD addresses a final remedy for the buried drums, as well as waste, contaminated soil, debris, and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available



Sensitivity to a flame retardant, Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Firemaster LVT 23 P).  


Tris(2,3-dibromoprophyl) phosphate (TDB P) is marketed under many different trade names as a flame retardant, used in clothing and home furnishings. DTB P is chemically related to tricresylphosphate (TCP) and triphenylphosphate (TPP) used as plasticizers in plastics and lacquers. The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) in 1976 examined the incidence of sensitization to TDB P and found two positives among 1103 patients. One of these two cases is reported here in detail. It concerns a woman, aged 56, with spectacle frame dermatitis. The spectacle frame did not contain TDB P and sensitization with another phosphate ester is assumed. PMID:606484

Andersen, K E



Clinicopathologic Manifestations of 36 Korean Patients with Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis: A Case Series and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare and severe subtype of drug eruption, characterized by acute, extensive, non-follicular, sterile pustules on an erythematous background, accompanied by fever and leukocytosis. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize AGEP in Korean patients in terms of clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings. Methods Thirty-six patients (M:F=17:19) with AGEP were identified from an extensive review of medical records over a 15 year period. All patient cases were confirmed by biopsy and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria. Results The patient ages ranged from 4~80 years (37.6±19.4). The incubation period was 1~23 days. The duration of disease was 5~14 days. Neutrophilia (36/36), high CRP (14/36), and eosinophilia (30/36) were common laboratory findings. A history of drug administration existed in 23 of 36 patients; herbal medications, lacquers and radiocontrast media were the unique causative drugs. Spongioform subcorneal or intraepidermal pustules in the epidermis was observed in all patients. Thirty-six patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group A (n=23) was strongly associated with known agents; and group B (n=13) had no identified causative agents. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the characteristic features of AGEP in Korean patients as follows: lower identification of causative agents; herbal medications, lacquers, and radiocontrast media were the main causative agents; and no significant differences existed between the 2 groups.

Choi, Min Jee; Kim, Hei Sung; Park, Hyun Jeong; Park, Chul Jong; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung Ok



New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.



Genetic and Molecular Characterization of the Optomotor-Blind Gene Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila gene optomotor-blind (omb) is involved in the development of a set of giant neurons in the optic lobes and possibly other structures in the imaginal brain. Adult flies have discrete defects in optomotor behavior. The gene has previously been mapped in chromomeres 4C5-6, together with three other genes, bifid, Quadroon and lacquered(gls). We have localized the gene in a genomic walk of 340 kb of DNA. By mapping seven chromosome breakpoints with omb phenotype we determined its minimum size to about 80 kb. From this region more than 20 RNAs of different size and temporal expression pattern are transcribed. Three of them (T3, T7 and T7') stem from primary transcripts of 40-80 kb in length. In its distal part the omb gene overlaps in at least 19 kb with four other complementation units, bifid, l(1)bifid, Quadroon and lacquered(gls). The three nonlethals affect the external appearance of the fly and seem to be unrelated to brain development.

Pflugfelder, G. O.; Schwarz, H.; Roth, H.; Poeck, B.; Sigl, A.; Kerscher, S.; Jonschker, B.; Pak, W. L.; Heisenberg, M.



Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.



Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.  


A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C



Health assessment for Bog Creek Farm Site (BCFS) National Priorities List (NPL) site, Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD063157150. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Bog Creek Farm Site, located in a rural area of Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, is on the National Priorities List. In 1973 and 1974, various wastes were reportedly dumped at the site, including lacquer thinners, paint solvents and resins, disinfectants, animal carcasses, and residential debris. Sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site ground water, surface water, and sediments and of on-site waste and soil revealed several contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Site contamination appears to be greatest immediately adjacent to an on-site waste-disposal trench. A potential public health threat exists from dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of contamination from ground water, surface water, sediment, waste, and soil.

Not Available



Engineering laccases: in search for novel catalysts.  


Laccases (p-diphenol oxidase, EC are blue multicopper oxidases that catalyze the reduction of dioxygen to water, with a concomitant oxidation of small organic substrates. Since the description at the end of the nineteenth century of a factor catalyzing the rapid hardening of the latex of the Japanese lacquer trees (Rhus sp.) exposed to air laccases from different origins (plants, fungi bacteria) have been continuously discovered and extensively studied. Nowadays, molecular evolution and other powerful protein modification techniques offer possibilities to develop tailored laccases for a wide array of applications including drug synthesis, biosensors or biofuel cells. Here, we give an overview on strategies and results of our laboratory in the design of new biocatalysts based on laccases. PMID:21966250

Robert, Viviane; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Pailley, Pierre R; Tron, Thierry



Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. XI. Alkylbenzene exposure of varnish workers: effects on hematopoetic system.  


Thirty-five spraymen, who were varnishing vehicles with alkyd-, phenol- and polyestervarnishes, which were dissolved in solvent mixtures mainly containing o-, m-, p-xylene and ethylbenzene, have been investigated. The concentrations of these solvents in air were 2.1, 7.9, 2.8 and 4.0 ppm on average. The levels of alkylbenzenes in blood and those of their metabolites in urine have been determined. At two of the six working places the spraymen were additionally exposed to n-butanol, respectively 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and several C9-aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of the lacquers contained lead pigments. Alterations of blood cell counts have been observed under the described conditions of exposure. On average the number of lymphocytes was higher than that of segmented granulocytes. Erythrocytes and hemoglobin level of the spraymen were lower than those of the controls. PMID:4066054

Angerer, J; Wulf, H



Keratoconus associated with choroidal neovascularization: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Keratoconus and choroidal neovascularization can occur as a result of dysfunction of the epithelium and its basement membrane. Case presentation A 17-year-old Asian man, who was diagnosed with myopic choroidal neovascularization in both eyes and who subsequently underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis®) five times over six months, presented with further vision decrease and pain in his right eye. Examination showed corneal steepening and stromal edema in the inferocentral cornea of his right eye, both of which were indicative of advanced keratoconus with acute hydrops. Corneal topography also showed features consistent with keratoconus in his left eye. Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography revealed choroidal neovascularization-associated subretinal hemorrhages and lacquer cracks in both eyes. Conclusion Keratoconus and choroidal neovascularization, possibly resulting from dysfunction of the epithelium and its basement membrane, can occur together in the same individual. This would suggest a possible connection in pathogenesis between these two conditions.



Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)



Fabrication of imaging X-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabrication, and performance of optics for X-ray astronomy and laboratory applications are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and sample images. Particular attention is given to the Wolter I telescope developed for spectroscopic observation of 8-30-A cosmic X-ray sources from a rocketborne X-ray Objective Grating Spectrometer; this instrument employs three nested paraboloid-hyperboloid mirrors of 5083 Al alloy, figured by diamond turning and covered with a thin coating of acrylic lacquer prior to deposition of a 40-nm-thick layer of Sn. In calibration tests at NASA Marshall, the FWHM of the line-spread function at 1.33 nm was found to be 240 microns, corresponding to 21 arcsec. Also presented are the results of reflectivity measurements on C and W multilayers sputtered on Si and fusion glass substrates.

Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Brookover, W. J.


High throughput x-ray optics: an overview.  


Several x-ray astronomy missions of the 1990s will contain focusing telescopes with significantly more collecting power than the Einstein Observatory. There is increasing emphasis on spectroscopy. ESA's XMM with 10(4) cm(2) of effective area will be the largest. A high throughput facility with over 10(5) cm(2) of effective area and 20-sec of arc angular resolution is needed ultimately for various scientific studies such as high resolution spectroscopic observations of QSOs. At least one of the following techniques currently being developed for fabricating x-ray telescopes including automated figuring of flats as parabolic reflectors, replication of cylindrical shells, and the alignment of thin lacquer-coated conical foils is likely to permit the construction of modular arrays of telescopes with the area and angular resolution required. PMID:20531593

Gorenstein, P



Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

Xu, Yanlian; Bai, Weibin; Luo, Zhen; Jin, Yao; Peng, Bichen; Feng, Lixia; Hu, Binghuan; Lin, Jinhuo



Using optical metrology to reconstruct sound recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to 1950 nearly all sound recordings were made on mechanical media such as wax, foil, shellac, lacquer, and plastic. Some of these older recordings contain material of great historical value or interest but are damaged, decaying, or now considered too delicate to play. Archives seek to preserve and also create broad access to their collections. An ongoing effort at Berkeley Lab has applied methods of optical metrology and image processing to reconstruct sound stored on these mechanical carriers. This approach was inspired by the use of precision optical metrology to align and fabricate silicon tracking arrays for high-energy physics experiments and by track finding and fitting data analysis methods. The technology has matured to the point that an optical metrology system for sound restoration has been designed and built for the Library of Congress.

Cornell, E. W.; Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Jin, J.; Nordmeyer, R.; Golden, M.



Unusual applications of holographic interferometry in a semi-industrial environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two rather specific applications of holographic interferometry. The first is related to the study of displacements and strains associated with the rapid (200 meter/second) crack propagation in pressurized polymer pipes. Denisyuk type holography using a double pulsed Ruby laser was found to yield practical results; due to the rather explosive nature, experiments were carried out at night, outside of the classical buildings. The other series of tests is concerned with the localization of most stressed zones in prototypes manufactured from steel castings. As the use of brittle lacquers is now prohibited, holographic interferometry was used to find the locations for putting the strain gauges. Relatively large (up to 1 X 1 m) and heavy (about 700 kgs) castings were tested, resting on an unisolated concrete slab, using a semi-professional ESPI system and a small argon laser.

Boone, Pierre M.



Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols  

PubMed Central

Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110?kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted.

Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo



Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.


Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures used in the paint and varnish production.  


The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system. PMID:8972166

Indulski, J A; Si?czuk-Walczak, H; Szymczak, M; Weso?owski, W



Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers.  


Abstract Context: Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail plate and bed that affects up to 14% of the population and can have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected. Objective: This study compared the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ciclopirox dissolved in novel lipid diffusion enhancers with that of a commercial ciclopirox nail lacquer using the in vitro finite dose model. Materials and methods: The penetration rate of ciclopirox was determined by applying doses of topical formulation twice daily to human nail plates for 11?d. Drug absorption was then measured by monitoring its rate of appearance in each nail layer and in the cotton pad/nail supporting bed. Results: After a multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ciclopirox formulated with lipid enhancers in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of the commercial ciclopirox lacquer (p?

Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Selner, Marc; Rosenthal, Bert; Maibach, Howard



Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1/s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific issues to be solved are polymer hairs in the process and scuffing or scraping of the coating. A realistic simulation of the wall ironing process is needed to understand the processing conditions that influence these phenomena. The Arruda-Boyce model proved to be a good constitutive model for PET in the as supplied state as well as the deformed state of the coating. An improvement can be made by a full thermomechanical coupling of strain rate, temperature and pressure. The major factor of influence in the wall ironing process is the entry angle of the ironing die. To overcome issues with the required small entry angle and high expansion forces in the die a special die profile has been patented.

Mulder, J.; Nagy, G. T.; Šuštari?, P.; Šuštar, T.; Rodi?, T.



The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings  

SciTech Connect

We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

Tuecks, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Beck, H.P. [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]. E-mail:



Nasal and sinonasal cancer. Connection with occupational exposures in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.  


A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 in order to study the connection between nasal and sinonasal cancer and various occupational exposures. All new cases of nasal and sinonasal cancer were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland and Sweden) or from the hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to an interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was made according to standardized forms. Both cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal and sinonasal cancer and exposure to (i) hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14: 2), (ii) softwood dust alone (13:4), (iii) chromium (16: 6), (iv) nickel (12: 5, not significant), (v) welding, flame-cutting and soldering (17: 6), and (vi) lacquers and paints (14: 0). The last finding was probably due to confounding from wood dust exposure. Hardwood dust exposure was associated with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents. PMID:6635610

Hernberg, S; Westerholm, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Degerth, R; Kuosma, E; Englund, A; Engzell, U; Hansen, H S; Mutanen, P



Optoacoustic characteristics of single-mode fiber waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference is made to the investigations of Gur'yanov et al. (1980, 1981) and Andreev et al. (1981), who reported on the optical characteristics of single-mode fiber waveguides, including losses during the propagation of light and the degree of polarization. Results are presented here from an investigation, believed to be the first, of the optoacoustic characteristics of fiber waveguides that are required in applications in such interference devices as hydrophones and magnetometers. A fiber waveguide is immersed in a liquid in which an acoustic pressure is established. The fiber is thus subjected to a practically homogeneous deformation. The experiments are carried out on fiber waveguides having a lacquer coating. The two-layer waveguides have a core diameter of 5-6 microns. The three-layer waveguides are of the W type (Andreev et al., 1981); they have a length of 2-25 m and are wound on a drum 8-12 cm in diameter. The phase sensitivity is determined at a given optical wavelength.

Bershtein, I. L.; Bunkin, F. V.; Grudinin, A. B.; Gurianov, A. N.; Gusovskii, D. D.; Dianov, E. M.; Zaitsev, Iu. I.; Karaevskii, S. Kh.; Kravtsov, Iu. A.; Kuzkin, V. M.



In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol.  


The in vitro absorption of panthenol into and through the human nail was examined in this study. Panthenol, the alcohol form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), is believed to act as a humectant and improve the flexibility and strength of nails. A liquid nail treatment formulated with panthenol (2%) was compared to a solution of panthenol (2%) in water. Fingernail specimens were dosed daily for 7 days with either the nail treatment (non-lacquer film forming) formulation or aqueous solution with sampling performed every 24 h. Panthenol concentrations were determined in the dorsal surface, interior (by drilling and removal) and in the supporting bed under the human nail. Panthenol levels in the dorsal nail (R(2) = 0.87; P < 0.001), nail interior (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) and nail supporting bed (R(2) = 0.79; P < 0.003) showed a significant linear increase with each day of dosing. Significantly more panthenol was delivered into the interior nail and supporting bed by a nail treatment formulation than from an aqueous solution. The film acts not only as a reservoir of panthenol, but also acts to increase the hydration of the nail and the thermodynamic activity of panthenol as well, thereby enhancing diffusion. PMID:18489355

Hui, X; Hornby, S B; Wester, R C; Barbadillo, S; Appa, Y; Maibach, H



Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick



Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment for Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dump, Smithfield, Providence County, Rhode Island, Region 1: CERCLIS number RID981063258. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite is an area formerly occupied by a lacquer manufacturing industry located in Smithfield, Rhode Island. Drums of a nitrocellulose resin have been found onsite and were promptly disposed by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. This public health assessment is an evaluation of existing on and offsite environmental data, health outcome data, and addresses community health concerns related to the site. An evaluation of onsite sediment sampling data showed semi-volatile compound (SVOC) contamination in the wetland area near Stillwater River. However, human contact with sediment in this area is infrequent and is not expected to result in adverse health effects. There were no contaminants detected in onsite subsurface soil samples at levels of health concern. Sampling results from two privately owned wells used by the public that are located one half mile from Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite showed no groundwater contamination of health concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has classified the Smithfield Chemical Industrial Dumpsite as a No Apparent Public Health Hazard based on infrequent human contact with SVOCs detected in onsite sediment of the wetlands area near Stillwater River.




Effects of the Acrylic Polyol Structure and the Selectivity of the Employed Catalyst on the Performance of Two-Component Aqueous Polyurethane Coatings  

PubMed Central

Two kinds of aqueous acrylic polyols (single step and multi step synthesis type) have been investigated for their performance in the two-component aqueous polyurethane application, by using more selective catalysts. The aliphatic polyfunctional isocyanates based on hexamethylen diisocyanates have been employed as suitable hardeners. The complex of zirconium, commercially known as K-KAT®XC-6212, and manganese (III) complexes with mixed ligands based on the derivative of maleic acid have been used as catalysts in this study. Both of the aqueous polyols give good results, in terms of application and hardness, when elevated temperatures and more selective catalysts are applied. A more selective catalyst promotes the reaction between the isocyanate and polyol component. This increases the percentage of urethane bonds and the degree of hardness in the films formed from the two components of aqueous polyurethane lacquers. The polyol based on the single step synthesis route is favourable concerning potlife and hardness. The obtained results show that the performance of the two-component aqueous polyurethane coatings depends on the polymer structure of the polyols as well as on the selectivity of the employed catalyst.

Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Stamenkovic, Jakov; Ristic, Nikola; Takic, Ljiljana; Barac, Miroljub; Gligoric, Miladin



Analysis of the Henze precipitate from the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henze precipitate, a peculiar blue-green microparticulate obtained by lysis of the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Protochordata), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The precipitate was collected from the Henze solution, an unstable red-brown product obtained by treating blood with distilled water, whose degradation yields a characteristic blue-green product. The microparticulates measured 50-100 µm in diameter and appeared irregular in shape. SEM examination showed smooth, roughly round boundaries. The microparticulate surface examined with AFM appeared as an irregular matrix formed by 70-320-nm-wide mammillate composites, including and embedding small (500-800 nm wide) crystal-like multilayered formations. X- ray analysis showed that the elements present in these same precipitates were mainly C, Si, Al and O. The microparticulate composition appeared close to those of natural waxes or lacquers, embedding amorphous silicates and/or other Si-Al components. The unusual occurrence of Si in ascidian blood and its role are discussed.

Ciancio, Aurelio; Scippa, Silvia; Nette, Geoffrey; De Vincentiis, Mario


Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.  


Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37°C) between 0 and 96h, reaching a maximum of 335?M H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37°C, 96h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100?M H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:24128521

Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika



Respiratory hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde and solvents in acid-curing paints  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-eight employees exposed to formaldehyde when working with acid-hardening lacquers and 18 nonexposed control persons employed at the same company were examined to determine lung function (spirometry and nitrogen washout), total immunoglobulin blood concentration, and work-related symptoms. The mean exposure to formaldehyde during an 8-hr workshop was 0.40 mg/m/sup 3/ air, and the mean exposure to peak values was 0.70 mg/m/sup 3/. Mean exposure to solvents was low, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the hygienic effect. Eye, nose, and throat irritation was more common in exposed persons than in controls. Monday morning, after two exposure-free days, forced vital capacity (FVC) values were found to have declined by 0.24 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1.0/) by 0.21 L, compared with normal values. There was a weak correlation between the individual concentration of IgG and decrease in FVC and FEV/sub 1.0/. No significant changes were noted in any other lung function variable before a work shift, and no lung function changes were noted over a full work shift. Deviations in FVC and FEV/sub 1.0/ values did not correlate to peaks or mean exposures or employment time.

Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G.



Laccase versus laccase-like multi-copper oxidase: a comparative study of similar enzymes with diverse substrate spectra.  


Laccases (EC are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term "laccase-like multi-copper oxidase" (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda



Industrial surface inspection by wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet analysis is a processing method for the description of single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales and therefore well suited for describing technical surfaces with variable resolution. Here optically measured height data of technical surfaces are wavelet-transformed along two dimensions with two different objectives: One is the representation with only a few coefficients in the sense of an efficient data compression, the other is the reliable detection of defects, which can be regarded as a pattern recognition task. A systematic comparison of various wavelet families results in the choice of the biorthogonal pseudo-coiflets for representing the surfaces, and differentiating wavelets like Burt-Adelson-wavelet or short-range Daubechies-wavelets for solving the defect detection problem. It is shown that the representation can be improved by not using the most significant wavelet-values - which can be interpreted as low-pass filtered coefficients, but to maintain those with the largest weights. Thus the variance between the original surface and that reconstructed from the representation data is minimized by a factor up to 4. Defect detection is best performed with separate transformation in two orthogonal directions with subsequent superposition. The procedures obtained here are applied to surfaces like a coin-surface, a copper-mirror surface, and a lacquered surface.

Kreis, Thomas; Rosenboom, Lars; Jüptner, Werner



Surface description and defect detection by wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet analysis is a method to describe single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales. Optically measured two-dimensional height data describing engineering surfaces are effectively represented by wavelet transforms enabling a reliable description of even complicated formed surfaces by a drastically reduced number of coefficients as well as the detection of component defects of different types. Reconstruction with only 0.1% of all wavelet coefficients of 4-4-pseudo-coiflets leads to a variance of the difference image between original and reconstructed surface of less than 0.07 of the variance of the original surface. Keeping the coefficients with highest values gives an up to four times better result than keeping the coefficients belonging to the lowest frequencies. Defects are effectively detected with the help of Burt-Adelson and Daubechies wavelets. Local defects in the range of 8 nm can be made visible. Lacquer pits are localized in the higher resolution stages of 4-4-pseudo-coiflet-transforms.

Rosenboom, Lars; Kreis, Thomas; Jüptner, Werner



Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.



Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.  


Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market. PMID:22554646

Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G



Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.



The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry ?Eab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and ?Eab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.Graphical abstractCIE chromaticity diagram indicating the approximate color change of typical photochromic bismuth vanadate pigments under the influence of sunlight or incandescent light.

Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.



Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)



Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel



Study of the migration of photoinitiators used in printed food-packaging materials into food simulants.  


Photoinitiators (PIs) are used as catalyzers for inks and lacquers that are cured with ultraviolet (UV) light, and they can contaminate foodstuffs by mass transference.The aim of the present paper is to study the migration of six photoinitiators (Irgacure 184, benzophenone, Irgacure 651, Irgacure 907, ITX, and EHA) into food simulants [distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v) in aqueous solution, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 95% ethanol (v/v) in aqueous solution]. Migration levels of the six PIs into different food simulants were compared after a 30 day contact period with the additivated plastic. A relationship between R (ratio between log K(o/w) and MW) and total migration was found for PIs with log K(o/w) < 5. Key parameters of migration processes were calculated according to a mathematical model based on Fick's second law. Diffusion (D) and partition coefficients were estimated and compared among different simulants, temperatures, and PIs to understand better the mechanisms of the migration process and the physicochemical properties that most influence this phenomenon. For instance, at 5 degrees C, in ethanol 95% (v/v), D ranged between 4.2 x 10(-11) cm/s for Irgacure 907 and 3.0 x 10(-9) cm/s for benzophenone. PMID:19807101

Sanches-Silva, Ana; Andre, Catarina; Castanheira, Isabel; Cruz, José Manuel; Pastorelli, Sarah; Simoneau, Catherine; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto



Worst case aerosol testing parameters: II. Efficiency dependence of commercial respirator filters on humidity pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that relative humidity has a degrading effect on the performance of commercially available particulate air-purifying respirator filters. That degradation results from a reduction of charge within the filter. This study was done to evaluate the time-dependent effects of relative humidity pretreatment and the reduction of charge on filter penetration against a most penetrating, ''worst case'' aerosol challenge. Filters of the dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency types were tested after being pretreated in an environment of 38 degrees C and 85% relative humidity for periods up to 42 days. After various intervals of pretreatment (1, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days), the filters were tested against neutralized worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols for percent penetration. The results showed a drop in filter efficiency of approximately 2%-6% depending on preconditioning time, except for the high efficiency filters tested which showed no detectable change.

Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.



Properties of screen printed electrocardiography smartware electrodes investigated in an electro-chemical cell  

PubMed Central

Background ECG (Electrocardiogram) measurements in home health care demands new sensor solutions. In this study, six different configurations of screen printed conductive ink electrodes have been evaluated with respect to electrode potential variations and electrode impedance. Methods The electrode surfaces consisted of a Ag/AgCl-based ink with a conduction line of carbon or Ag-based ink underneath. On top, a lacquer layer was used to define the electrode area and to cover the conduction lines. Measurements were performed under well-defined electro-chemical conditions in a physiologic saline solution. Results The results showed that all printed electrodes were stable and have a very small potential drift (less than 3 mV/30 min). The contribution to the total impedance was 2% of the set maximal allowed impedance (maximally 1 k? at 50 Hz), assuming common values of input impedance and common mode rejection ratio of a regular amplifier. Conclusion Our conclusions are that the tested electrodes show satisfying properties to be used as elements in a skin electrode design that could be suitable for further investigations by applying the electrodes on the skin.



Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Marion/Bragg Landfill, Marion, Indiana, (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Marion/Bragg Landfill is a 72-acre site located near the southeastern city limits of Marion, Indiana. The site is bordered on the north and east by the Mississinewa River. Main features of the site include a 45-acre landfill and a 15-acre pond. From 1935 to 1961 the site was used as a sand and gravel quarry, and from 1949 to 1970 portions of the site, leased by Radio Corporation of America and Bragg Construction Company, were used for industrial and municipal waste disposal, respectively. Throughout this period, the Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH) noted the disposal of acetone, plasticizers, lacquer thinner, and enamels. Drummed wastes were also accepted and contents were allegedly emptied from the drums and worked into the landfill waste with a bulldozer, causing several fires on site. Drums were allegedly rinsed and resold. In 1975 Bragg Construction company ceased operation of the landfill. In 1975, Waste Reduction Systems constructed a transfer station to properly transfer solid wastes to an approved landfill. The transfer station was closed in 1977.

Not Available



A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.  


The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients. PMID:15606656

Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko


Characterization and control of cure of polymer coatings on optical disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer coatings are used extensively in optical disk technology, the majority being acrylate based formulations which are transparent and tough. For example, the servo pattern for tracking can be generated by a photopolymer process (2P), where a thin acrylate-based coating system is cured between a `stamper' and a treated glass substrate. In this study, we have extended this technology beyond current servo geometries to generate the small structures (0.6 micron pitch features) that are required for future substrates using the blue laser. The fidelity of replication is measured by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. Acrylate based polymer lacquer coatings are also applied (by spin coating) to optical disks and compact disks to provide handling and anti-static protection. The term `corrosion protective coating 1' (PC1) refers to the coating on the film side of the disk and `scratch resistent protective coating 2' (PC2) refers to the anti-static, anti-scratch coating applied to the substrate side of the polymer disk. A number of analytical techniques have been developed to monitor the cure of these acrylate based systems. These include infrared spectroscopy, microhardness, various thermal methods (DMTA, TGA, TGA-MS) and extraction techniques. The usefulness of these techniques is discussed in terms of formulation optimization, cure optimization, and accelerated aging tests that reveal failure mechanisms.

Best, Margaret E.; Prime, R. B.



Ciclopirox: recent nonclinical and clinical data relevant to its use as a topical antimycotic agent.  


Ciclopirox is a topical antimycotic agent belonging to the chemical class of hydroxypyridones and not related to azoles or any other class of antifungal agents. Its antimicrobial profile includes nearly all of the clinically relevant dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds, and is therefore broader than that of most other antimycotics. It is also active against certain frequently azole-resistant Candida species and against some bacteria. The mechanism of action of ciclopirox is different from that of other topical antifungal drugs, which generally act through ergosterol inhibition. The high affinity of ciclopirox for trivalent metal cations, resulting in inhibition of the metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for the degradation of peroxides within the fungal cell, appears to be the major determinant of its antimicrobial activity. This unique and multilevel mechanism of action provides a very low potential for the development of resistance in pathogenic fungi, with cases of resistance rarely reported. Ciclopirox also displays mild anti-inflammatory effects in biochemical and pharmacological models; effects also shown in small clinical studies. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species released from inflammatory cells is a likely contributor to these anti-inflammatory effects. Ciclopirox, and its olamine salt, is available in multiple topical formulations, suitable for administration onto the skin and nails and into the vagina. The pharmaceutical forms most widely investigated are 1% ciclopirox olamine cream and 8% ciclopirox acid nail lacquer, but lotion, spray, shampoo, pessary, solution, gel and douche formulations have also been used. Ciclopirox penetrates into the deep layers of the skin, mucosal membranes and nail keratin, reaching concentrations exceeding the minimal fungicidal concentrations for most medically important fungi. A large number of clinical trials were and are still being performed with ciclopirox, starting in the early 1980s. Ciclopirox was first developed for fungal skin infections and vaginal candidiasis, and is currently well established in these indications. More recently, the drug has been clinically investigated in seborrhoeic dermatitis and onychomycosis, showing good efficacy and excellent tolerability. Emphasis in this review is given to a ciclopirox medicated nail lacquer, which is based on an original technology and has superior properties in terms of its affinity to keratin and nail permeation. It has been found to have superior efficacy and safety to another commercially available formulation in the treatment of onychomycosis. The safety features of ciclopirox are well known. The topical drug is devoid of systemic adverse reactions. Mild local reactions characterized by a burning sensation of the skin, irritation, redness, pain or pruritus, generally in less than 5% of treated patients, can be observed following skin and vaginal application. With nail application, the most common adverse event is the appearance of mild erythema in 5% of the treated population. As a general conclusion, although less effective than some oral antimycotic agents in various indications, ciclopirox compares very well in terms of the benefit/risk ratio due to its excellent tolerability and complete absence of serious adverse effects. PMID:20964457

Subissi, Alessandro; Monti, Daniela; Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico



Biomechanics of the weakened mandible: use of image correlation analysis.  


Uninterrupted resection of mandibular bone is often necessary during maxillofacial operations for cancer. This weakens the mandible, and increases the risk of fracture. To our knowledge no biomechanical analysis has been made of deformations and strains that occur during chewing if this happens, so we have made such an analysis of the weakened mandible using a new technique: image correlation. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were prepared with black and white lacquer, and placed in a loading device that allowed replication of a physiological biting exercise. Calibrated pieces of bone were resected from the right body of each mandible. Images of the mandibular surface were recorded by 2 cameras and analysed with an algorithm to correlate them, which allowed us to confirm the distribution of strain on the body of the mandible, and to focus on the weak points. Before the bone was resected, we noted tensile strains on the alveolar border of the body, and compressive strains on the basilar border. The intensity of the strains in the posterior angle of the resected bony area then increased, with reduction in the height of the bone until fracture. The orientation of the fracture line started at the lower posterior angle of the resection area and spread in a lower posterior direction until it reached the basilar border of the mandible. Image correlation is a new technique for the study of mandibular biomechanics that provides accurate measurements on a wide bony surface with high definition images and without modification of the structure. Its application to weakened mandible provided reliable images of modifications to strains during simulated biting exercises. PMID:22901525

Yachouh, J; Domergue, S; Hoarau, R; Loosli, Y; Goudot, P



Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 ?g/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 ?g/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.



Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Methods Personal task based inhalation samples (n?=?95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di?n?butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC?MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n?=?291) and analysed for HDA by GC?MS. Results Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10?fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3–6?pm v 0–8?am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of ?25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non?spray painters in car body repair shops. Conclusion Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose.

Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D



Occupational respiratory and skin sensitization caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener.  


Polyfunctional aziridine (PFA) is increasingly used as a water-based crosslinker in two-component paints, paint primers, lacquers, topcoats and other protective coatings. The crosslinker is made by reacting multifunctional acrylic monomer with a highly reactive aziridine compound. Respiratory allergy or hypersensitivity from PFA has not been reported previously. During 1978-1991 we came across nine cases with hypersensitivity from PFA: two had allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), four had occupational asthma and three had both of them. Five of the patients were parquet layers, two were fibreboard painters, one was a spray painter and one was a salesman of PFA products. ACD was diagnosed by positive allergic patch test reactions with PFA in a dilution series in petrolatum: 0.32%-0.5% gave a 2(+)-3+ allergic reaction in the five cases with ACD but 0.1% gave only a weak reaction in one case, whereas the methacrylate patch test series was negative. The diagnosis of seven cases of occupational asthma due to PFA hardener was based on symptoms related to exposure to PFA hardener at work, and on positive provocation tests with PFA hardener. One had an immediate type reaction, one a had a dual reaction, and the others had late reactions. The positive reactions with the PFA hardener and the negative reactions with the acrylate compounds indicate that PFA caused ACD which is different from the previous reports in which acrylates present as impurities in the PFA hardener caused the sensitization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7553246

Kanerva, L; Keskinen, H; Autio, P; Estlander, T; Tuppurainen, M; Jolanki, R



Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener.  


Polyfunctional aziridine (PFA) is increasingly used as a water-based cross-linker in 2-component paints, paint primers, lacquers, topcoats and other protective coatings. The cross-linker (PFA hardener) is made by reacting multifunctional acrylic monomer with a highly reactive aziridine compound. During 1992-1993, we came across 2 patients with allergic patch test reactions provoked by PFA hardener. One of the patients was a parquet layer, and the other a printer. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was diagnosed by positive allergic patch test reactions to PFA hardener in a dilution series in pet.:0.3%-1% gave ++ to allergic reactions in both patients, whereas 0.1% gave a weak (+) or questionable reaction (?+), respectively. The methacrylate patch test series was negative in both patients, although gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that PFA hardener contained 0.3% of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), a multifunctional acrylic monomer. One of the patients also had symptoms of contact urticaria, and a prick test with PFA hardener (1% aq.) induced a histamine-sized prick test reaction. The positive reactions with the PFA hardener and the negative reactions with the starting chemicals and additives in PFA, namely acrylates, propyleneimine and dimethylethanolamine, indicate that PFA caused ACD. This is in accordance with our previous observations, but differs from the reports of others, whose patients had been sensitized to acrylates present as remnants in the PFA hardener. As test substance, 0.5% PFA hardener in pet. is recommended for patch testing. Testing should be performed in patients with contact dermatitis if exposure to PFA has occurred. Skin prick tests may be of help to detect contact urticaria. PMID:8565484

Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K



[Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry--a new (old) method of detection in forensic chemistry and criminal investigation].  


The Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) is a very valuable technique for identifying organic substances. FTIR is more versatile in comparison to disperse infrared spectrometry, as it combines speed and sensitivity. FTIR is even superior to GC/MS: 1. Easy differentiation between isomers is possible. 2. Functional group information can be achieved instead of mass fragments. 3. GC fractions can be saved for further analysis. The FTIR instrument has no prisma or grating. It is equipped with a Michelson interferometer, which gives much more beam energy on the examination object. Most beneficial is the use of a broadband beam source, which impinges simultaneously all frequencies on the sample and on the detector. All these qualities allow the registration of fast chemical and biological processes or the observation of all reactions by volatizing and evaporation at high temperatures. IR spectrometer can run high quality infrared spectra in short time (almost 100/second) with high sensitivity. This is the basic requirement for the "on line" coupling of the IR-system with a GC. The GC peaks are analysed by IR beams with the help of a "light pipe". It is possible to examine all kinds of substances with diffuse and attenuated total reflectance methods. In special cases the change for binding of proteins and kinetic and structural processes in the flowing blood can be measured in vivo. Another use of FTIR-techniques is possible in combination with a microscope. Samples with a square aera of 8 microns can be examined. In criminalistics and forensic toxicology little particles as hairs, fibers, foams, adherents of powder in clothes, splinters of lacquer and paints etc. can be detected and identified by transmission or reflection. In conclusion, the FTIR spectrometry offers a versatility to some measurement problems that is often superior, faster and easier than other techniques such as NMR and MS. PMID:2818470

Arnold, W



Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 1012-1013 ? cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 k?/square to 1 M?/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred k?/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred k?/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine (Grafica Flextronica, Vasai, India) using the screen printing ink viz. CARBO PASTE DC-1000M and DC-20 (Dozen Tech, Korea). A surface resistivity of a few hundred k?/square was obtained on a 100 mm thick polyester sheet of dimension 0.7 M×1.2 M. Curing was done for ˜30 minutes at 150 °C. We are planning to test this film on a glass RPC very soon.

Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.



Alteration of the MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway related to tumour progression during urinary bladder carcinogenesis.  


Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder develop by a multistep process characterized by various stages of transformation differing in their grade of malignancy and biological behaviour. Since the prospective clinical outcome cannot be reliably predicted on histopathological grounds, we analysed the mRNA expression of the MDM2-p73-P14ARF tumour surveillance pathway in an attempt to detect alterations of gene activity, allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for conversion of low to high malignant TCC. Expression of the mRNA was determined in 71 TCC of various grades and stages using the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway was dominated by the MDM2 gene, the mRNA expression of which proved to be significantly (5-fold) lower in advanced high-grade, high-stage than in superficial low-grade, low-stage TCC. Conversely, the expression of p73 mRNA increased with increasing tumour grades and stages, while the activity of the P14ARF gene was not substantially altered during early and late phases of urothelial carcinogenesis. Analysing the expression of spliced variants of MDM2 mRNA, we found a heterogeneous pattern including a novel splicing transcript coding for an abnormal protein. Promoter hypermethylation of P14ARF occurred in 10% of the TCC with an under-expression of mRNA. An analysis of the effects of lifestyle and occupational bladder cancer risk factors revealed that TCC of smokers showed a 2-fold elevated expression of MDM2 mRNA and an approximately 2-fold lower expression of P14ARF mRNA, whereas the activity of the p73 gene was unchanged. Heavy coffee consumption was associated with a 2-fold decreased expression level of P14ARF mRNA. Exposure to certain occupational hazards (plastic products, paints and lacquer, polycyclic hydrocarbons, chemical solvents) was observed to modulate the activity of the genes analysed. Our findings suggest that an alteration in the MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway is involved in the progression of bladder cancer to a more malignant and aggressive form. PMID:15492852

Schlott, Thilo; Quentin, Thomas; Korabiowska, Monika; Budd, Bettina; Kunze, Ekkehard



Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  


As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (

Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth



Sorting out meandering and braiding: discriminating formative conditions and stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For various river channel patterns, the necessary formative conditions differ, but how is not entirely understood. Furthermore, not only the morphology and dynamics differ, but also the resulting stratigraphy differs, of which understanding is required to infer past environmental conditions and predict reservoir behaviour. Our objective is to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for forming dynamic meandering and braided rivers. We reproduced both patterns experimentally and with a physics-based numerical model, and produced synthetic stratification from bed elevation maps and control lacquer peels for the experiments. Experimental meandering was produced using a mixture of poorly sorted sediment and silt-sized silica flour and a transversely moving inflow boundary. Braiding was produced in exactly the same conditions but without the silica flour. These experiments represent gravel-bed rivers in nature, where both experimental meandering and braiding channels were close to the transition between the types. Onset meandering was also produced in the numerical model (Delft3D) with a similar transversely moving inflow boundary, whilst braided rivers formed with fixed inflow or some noise on the transverse discharge distribution at the inflow boundary. The silica flour deposited on crevasse splays and in chute channels, forming new floodplain. This caused much less chute cutoffs and stronger banks. The resulting meandering river formed multiple sets of scroll bars forming pointbars, overlain by splays and floodplain. The braided river, in contrast, showed mid-channel bars and multiple active channels, faster and more haphazard bar and channel migration, and frequent chute cutoffs. Apart from the floodplain, stratification in meandering rivers consisted of sigmoidally stratified units formed by scroll bars and channel fills, usually formed after chute cutoff. Braided rivers had similar units but much smaller and more. In both cases the highest preservation potential is in the deepest channels. We conclude that some floodplain-filling sediment or vegetation is required for meandering to prevent chute cutoffs to lead to weak braiding, but, more importantly, that some dynamics are required at the upstream boundary, where periodic perturbation causes meandering whilst stochastic perturbation causes braiding. Furthermore, morphology and stratification in braided gravel-bed rivers have much smaller morphological and stratigraphic units relative to average channel width than the meandering rivers, even though active bar dimensions are comparable.

Kleinhans, M. G.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Schuurman, F.; Van Dijk, W. M.



Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (?= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.



An overview of topical antifungal therapy in dermatomycoses. A North American perspective.  


Dermatophytes cause fungal infections of keratinised tissues, e.g. skin, hair and nails. The organisms belong to 3 genera, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum. Dermatophytes may be grouped into 3 categories based on host preference and natural habitat. Anthropophilic species predominantly infect humans, geophilic species are soil based and may infect both humans and animals, zoophilic species generally infect non-human mammals. It is important to confirm mycologically the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis and other tinea infections prior to commencing therapy. The identity of the fungal organism may provide guidance about the appropriateness of a given topical antifungal agent. Special techniques may be required to obtain the best yield of fungal organisms from a given site, especially the scalp and nails. It is also important to realise the limitations of certain diagnostic aids e.g., Wood's light examination is positive in tinea capitis due to M. canis and M. audouinii (ectothrix organisms); however, Wood's light examination is negative in T. tonsurans (endothrix organism). Similarly, it is important to be aware that cicloheximide in culture medium will inhibit growth of non-dermatophytes. Appropriate media are therefore required to evaluate the growth of some significant non-dermatophyte moulds. For tinea infections other than tinea capitis and tinea unguium, topical antifungals may be considered. For effective therapy of tinea capitis an oral antifungal is generally necessary. Similarly, oral antifungals are the therapy of choice, especially if onychomycosis is moderate to severe. Furthermore, where the tinea infection involves a large area, in an immunocompromised host or if infection is recurrent with poor response to topical agents, then oral antifungal therapy may be necessary. Topical antifungal agents may be broadly divided into specific and nonspecific agents. The former group includes the polyenes, azoles, allylamines, amorolfine, ciclopirox and butenafine. Generally the topical agent is available as a cream, sometimes for use intravaginally. Less commonly, the formulation may be in the form of a powder, lacquer, spray, gel or solution. Many of these agents have a broad spectrum of activity, being effective against dermatophytes, yeasts and Malassezia furfur. For the treatment of tinea corporis, tinea cruris tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidosis, once or twice daily application may be required, the most common duration of therapy being 2 to 4 weeks. For tinea pedis the most common treatment duration is 4 to 6 weeks. PMID:9585862

Gupta, A K; Einarson, T R; Summerbell, R C; Shear, N H



Fusarium infections of the skin.  


Fusarium species are ubiquitous and may be found in the soil, air and on plants. Fusarium species can cause mycotoxicosis in humans following ingestion of food that has been colonized by the fungal organism. In humans, Fusarium species can also cause disease that is localized, focally invasive or disseminated. The pathogen generally affects immunocompromised individuals with infection of immunocompetent persons being rarely reported. Localized infection includes septic arthritis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, cystitis and brain abscess. In these situations relatively good response may be expected following appropriate surgery and oral antifungal therapy. Disseminated infection occurs when two or more noncontiguous sites are involved. Over eighty cases have been reported, many of which had a hematologic malignancy including neutropenia. The species most commonly involved include Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium moniliforme (also termed F. verticillioides). The diagnosis of Fusarium infection may be made on histopathology, gram stain, mycology, blood culture, or serology. Portals of entry of disseminated infection include the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and cutaneous sites.The skin can be an important and an early clue to diagnosis since cutaneous lesions may be observed at an early stage of the disease and in about seventy-five cases of disseminated Fusarium infection. Typical skin lesions may be painful red or violaceous nodules, the center of which often becomes ulcerated and covered by a black eschar. The multiple necrotizing lesions are often observed on the trunk and the extremities. Onychomycosis most commonly due to F. oxysporum or F. solani has been reported. The onychomycosis may be of several types: distal and lateral subungual (DLSO), white superficial (WSO), and proximal subungual (PSO). In proximal subungual onychomycosis there may be associated leukonychia and/or periungual inflammation. Patients with Fusarium onychomycosis have been cured following therapy with itraconazole, terbinafine, ciclopirox olamine lacquer, or topical antifungal agent. In other instances nail avulsion plus antifungal therapy has been successful. In patients with hematologic malignancy or bone marrow transplant, who may experience prolonged or severe neutropenia during the course of therapy, the skin and nails should be carefully examined and consideration given to treating potential infection sites that may serve as portals for systemic dissemination. When disseminated Fusarium infection is present therapy with antifungal agents has generally been disappointing with the chances of a successful resolution being enhanced if the neutropenia can be corrected in a timely manner. PMID:11964778

Gupta, Aditya K.; Baran, Robert; Summerbell, Richard C.



Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.



NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrahydrofuran (CAS No. 109-99-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).  


Tetrahydrofuran is used as a reaction medium for Grignard and metal hydride reactions; in the synthesis of butyrolactone, succinic acid, and 1,4-butanediol diacelate; in the fabrication of articles for packaging, transporting, and storing of foods; as a solvent for dyes and lacquers; and as a chemical intermediate in polymerization solvent for fat oils, unvulcanized rubber, resins, and plastics. Tetrahydrofuran is also an indirect food additive when it is in contact with the surface of articles intended for use in food processing. Tetrahydrofuran was nominated for study because of the potential for occupational exposure in humans. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetrahydrofuran (approximately 99% pure) by inhalation for 13 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood cells erythrocites. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to 0 (chamber control), 66, 200, 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 14 weeks. All rats survived until the end of the study. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed groups of male and female rats were similar to those of the chamber controls. Immediately after exposure, male and female rats in the 5,000 ppm groups exhibited ataxia. Hematologic and serum chemistry changes were minimal, with most values falling within physiologic ranges. Absolute and relative thymus and spleen weights of male and female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Absolute and relative liver weights of female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Increased incidences of minimal to mild hyperplasia of the forestomach were observed in male and female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm. Minimal suppurative inflammation was associated with forestomach hyperplasia in two male rats and four female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 66, 200, 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 14 weeks. Two male mice exposed to 5,000 ppm died during weeks 2 and 8 of the study; one male mouse from the 5,000 ppm group was killed in a moribund state during week 4. All female mice survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male mice were similar to those of the chamber controls. The final mean body weight and mean body weight gain of the 5,000 ppm female mice were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Male and female mice exposed to 1,800 or 5,000 ppm were observed in a state of narcosis (described by stupor) during exposure periods. Mice exposed to 1,800 ppm were fully awake and alert immediately after exposure; however, mice exposed to 5,000 ppm required up to 2 hours for recovery. Absolute and relative liver weights of male mice exposed to 600 ppm or greater and of female mice exposed to 1800 or 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Absolute and relative thymus weights of male mice exposed to 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. The incidences of minimal to mild centrilobular cytomegaly of the liver in male and female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. The adrenal glands of all female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm had mild degeneration of the X-zone of the innermost cortex. Uterine atrophy was observed in all female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to 0, 200, 600, or 1,800 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 105 weeks. Survival, Body Weights, and Clinical Findings Survival and mean body weights of male and feman