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Sample records for lacquer

  1. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls, RM, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Use of clobetasol in lacquer for plaque psoriasis treatment*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Suze Aparecida; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Torres, Rafael Augusto Tamasauskas; de Oliveira, Raquel Diana; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Clobetasol benefits to control psoriasis lesions are well defined, but there were not studies about its action when used in lacquer vehicle to control skin lesions. A double-blind study was conducted with 40 patients that utilized clobetasol 0.05% in one hemibody and just the vehicle in the other hemibody. Twenty of them used petrolatum as vehicle and the others used lacquer. An assessment was conducted using the clinical index PASI and a quality of life questionnaire (Dermatological Life Quality Index). There was no statistical difference between groups. There was a trend of favorable response particularly in the hemibody treated with clobetasol.

  3. Amorolfine vs. ciclopirox lacquers for the treatment of onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Anna E.; Bienias, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Pastuszka, Marta; Oszukowska, Magdalena; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Amorolfine 5% and ciclopirox 8% nail lacquers are commonly used in topical treatment of onychomycosis. These formulations may be used alone or in combination with oral antifungal agents. Amorolfine and ciclopirox are valuable therapeutic options, however, their usage in monotherapy should be limited. Proper amorolfine and ciclopirox penetration through the nail plate is provided by transungual drug delivery systems. Although amorolfine and ciclopirox have a different mode of action, they both exhibit a broad antifungal activity. The use of antifungal nail lacquers in combination with oral agents, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, improves efficacy of antifungal therapy. PMID:25821426

  4. Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard

    2013-11-18

    Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

  5. Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.

    PubMed

    Brotons, J A; Olea-Serrano, M F; Villalobos, M; Pedraza, V; Olea, N

    1995-06-01

    We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer bisphenol-A, identified by mass spectrometry, was found as a contaminant not only in the liquid of the preserved vegetables but also in water autoclaved in the cans. The amount of bisphenol-A in the extracts accounted for all the hormonal activity measured. Although the presence of other xenoestrogens cannot be ruled out, it is apparent that all estrogenic activity in these cans was due to bisphenol-A leached from the lacquer coating. The use of plastic in food-packaging materials may require closer scrutiny to determine whether epoxy resins and polycarbonates contribute to human exposure to xenoestrogens. PMID:7556016

  6. Toxicodendron radicans dermatitis with black lacquer deposit on the skin.

    PubMed

    Mallory, S B; Miller OF 3dU; Tyler, W B

    1982-03-01

    Four patients with clinical Toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy) presented with dramatic black lacquer-like deposits on several lesions. This black deposit was also observed at sites of injury on poison ivy plants and was reproduced on volunteers by the application of plant sap on the skin. Histologically, the observed material was identified in the stratum corneum. This little-recognized phenomenon has been mentioned in past dermatologic literature. PMID:6461673

  7. Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

  8. Choroidal Thickness and Biometric Markers for the Screening of Lacquer Cracks in Patients with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chou, Chai Lin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Chao, An-Ning; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. Methods Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks). Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. Results Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%). Conclusions This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia. PMID:23349728

  9. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  10. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  11. Clinical Features of Systemic Contact Dermatitis Due to the Ingestion of Lacquer in the Province of Chungcheongnam-do

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Young Lip; Whang, Kyu Uang

    2012-01-01

    Background Lacquer contains an allergen, which can cause severe contact dermatitis. Systemic dermatitis resulting from the ingestion of lacquer is quite common in Korea, until now. Objective The purpose of this study is to elucidate the clinical features and laboratory findings of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD), due to the ingestion of lacquer in Chungcheongnam-do. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 patients with SCD, after ingestion of lacquer from Soonchunhyang University Hospital in Cheonan, over a 6-month period. Results In this study, 33.3% of patients ate lacquer, as a health food, and some (15.2%) by encouragement of friends or spouse. The most common way of ingestion was the lacquer-boiled chicken (48.5%), but many also ate lacquer tree sprouts (42.4%). The skin lesions developed as erythematous maculopapular eruptions, erythema multiforme, erythroderma, purpura, wheals and vesicles. On laboratory findings, 13 patients (52%) exhibited leukocytosis and 11 patients had elevated eosinophil counts. Conclusion The general public is becoming more aware of the toxic effects of lacquer ingestion, but still does not fully understand the dangers of lacquer tree sprouts, and this ignorance is frequently causing SCD in Chungcheongnam-do. PMID:22879716

  12. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of a Kel-F resin and lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, A. C.

    1985-08-01

    Proton, carbon, and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to determine the concentration of various species present in Kel-F 800 resin and its lacquers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize Kel-F 800 resin and to measure the various chemical species present in a lacquer based on this resin. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of ethyl acetate to xylenes and to estimate the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the water and ethanol content of the lacquer as well as some of its components. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was also used to estimate the amount of perfluorodecanoate emulsifier present in the Kel-F resin. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the isomeric composition of various batches of xylenes and as an alternate method for measuring the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin.

  14. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

  15. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their

  16. Corrosion behavior of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with cockles (cardium edulis) in brine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bastidas, J.M.; Cabanes, J.M.; Catala, R.

    2000-04-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with an epoxyphenolic plus zinc oxide (ZnO) lacquer were studied. The relationship between lacquer adhesion and total chromium, metallic chromium, and chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) in the passivated layer was analyzed. The thickness of the CrO{sub x} layer is a controlling parameter of adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), direct current (DC) polarization, and atomic absorption (AA) experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. EIS, DC, and AA results indicated that the passivation treatment with the lowest chromium content (Type 1) showed slightly worse corrosion behavior, with substantial iron dissolution and sulfur staining of the tinplate, than passivation treatments Types 2 and 3, which behaved similarly to each other. A fully opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell in contact with canned cockles (a mollusc, Cardium edulis).

  17. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A)=6.610.57mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681?cp and insignificantly (p>0.05) affected CDP/A (6.320.45mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2)=0.964) and flux value of 176?g/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:25445993

  18. Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes).

    PubMed

    Hong, D H; Han, S B; Lee, C W; Park, S H; Jeon, Y J; Kim, M J; Kwak, S S; Kim, H M

    1999-12-01

    Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were below 4 microg/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols suggesting that they would have an anticancer activity to human cancer cells. PMID:10615873

  19. Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 3870) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 4889). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 021) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 2761), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a Kel-F resin and lacquer

    SciTech Connect

    Rutenberg, A.C.

    1985-08-02

    Proton, carbon, and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to determine the concentration of various species present in Kel-F 800 resin and its lacquers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize Kel-F 800 resin and to measure the various chemical species present in a lacquer based on this resin. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of ethyl acetate to xylenes and to estimate the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the water and ethanol content of the lacquer as well as some of its components. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was also used to estimate the amount of perfluorodecanoate emulsifier present in the Kel-F resin. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the isomeric composition of various batches of xylenes and as an alternate method for measuring the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Multimodal imaging including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and confocal near-infrared reflectance for characterization of lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C-F; Liu, L; Lai, C-C; Chou, J CL; Yeh, L-K; Chen, K-J; Chen, Y-P; Wu, W-C; Chuang, L-H; Sun, C-C; Wang, N-K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare multimodal imaging in detecting lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes, and to correlate these findings with those of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods An observational case series study. Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and lacquer cracks were recruited. The rates of detection of the lacquer cracks using multimodal imaging including near-infrared reflectance (NIR) imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and fluorescence angiography (FA) were compared. The characteristic findings of multimodal imaging were correlated with those of SD-OCT. Results NIR imaging was more sensitive (92.9%) in detecting lacquer cracks than either FAF (12.5%) or FA (67.9%). Lacquer cracks showed hyperreflectance on NIR, and they were consistently associated with a continuous retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane complex, thinner choroid, and acoustic shadows on SD-OCT. Conclusions NIR imaging is superior to blue laser light (FAF and FA) imaging in detecting lacquer cracks. SD-OCT in combination with NIR located primary pathological lacquer cracks in the intact retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane complex as well as thinner choroid. These findings indicate that multimodal cSLO and SD-OCT imaging allow for detecting of lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes. PMID:25233819

  2. Clinical features of 31 patients with systemic contact dermatitis due to the ingestion of Rhus (lacquer).

    PubMed

    Park, S D; Lee, S W; Chun, J H; Cha, S H

    2000-05-01

    In Korea, Rhus has been used as a folk medicine to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food. We review the clinicopathological and laboratory findings in patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by intake of Rhus. We reviewed medical records and histopathological sections from 31 patients during a 10-year period. The male/female ratio was 1.4: 1 and the average age was 43.8 years (range 22-70). Ten patients (32%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. Rhus was ingested to treat gastrointestinal problems including indigestion and gastritis (45%), and as a health food (39%), in cooked meat, in herbal medicine, or taken by inhalation. The patients developed skin lesions such as a maculopapular eruption (65%), erythema multiforme (EM, 32%), erythroderma (19%), pustules, purpura, weals and blisters. Erythroderma was very frequent in patients with a known history of allergy to lacquer, but maculopapular and EM-type eruptions were more frequently observed in those without a history of allergy. All patients experienced generalized or localized pruritus. Other symptoms included gastrointestinal problems (32%), fever (26%), chills and headache; many developed leucocytosis (70%) with neutrophilia (88%), while some showed toxic effects on liver and kidney. Fifty-nine per cent of patients observed cutaneous or general symptoms within a day after ingestion of Rhus. There was no difference in the time lag for symptoms to develop between patients allergic and not allergic to Rhus. All patients responded well to treatment with systemic steroids and antihistamines. Common histopathological findings were vascular dilatation, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, and extravasation of red blood cells in the upper dermis. Rhus lacquer should not be ingested in view of its highly allergic and toxic effects. PMID:10809851

  3. [State of the nervous system of workers engaged in painting with bituminous lacquers].

    PubMed

    Majdecki, T; Miszczak, J

    1985-01-01

    The neurological and electroencephalographic examinations involved a group of 82 workers dealing with the protection of railway carriage assemblies against corrosion. For anamnesis "The Hck and Hess ailments questionnaire" was used to evaluate the neurotic syndrome. The results have been compared in varnishing workers under better and worse toxicological conditions. The evaluation of the varnishing workers' nervous system did not reveal any specific clinical picture. More frequent neurotic ailments and EEG deviations in those working under worse toxicological conditions may be indicative of enhanced neurotoxic effects of organic solvents, used for lacquers dilution, upon the brain disfunction. PMID:4010504

  4. Assay for Laccase activity by microcalorimetry: laccase was extracted from china lacquer of Rhus vernicifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Li, W; Wan, H W; Zhou, P J; Qu, S S

    2000-08-10

    The reactions between Laccase (extracted from China lacquer of Rhus vernicifera) and various substrates (3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, Guaiacol, Pyrogallol, Gallic acid) have been studied using LKB-2107 batch microcalorimetry system. Based on calorimetry, a new method has been proposed. Laccase activity and the Michaelis constant K(m) have been determined simultaneously by this method. The method is simple, sample-saving, and valid for a wider range of substrate concentrations. Furthermore, it can be extended for assaying other enzymes catalyzing reactions using this method. PMID:10899390

  5. In vitro transungual permeation of ciclopirox from a hydroxypropyl chitosan-based, water-soluble nail lacquer.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Saccomani, L; Chetoni, P; Burgalassi, S; Saettone, M F; Mailland, F

    2005-01-01

    Commercial antimycotic nail lacquers are commonly based on water-insoluble resins. The present study was aimed at evaluating a novel, experimental nail lacquer (P-3051, Polichem SA, Lugano, Switzerland) based on the water-soluble film-forming agent hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH). The in vitro permeation of ciclopirox (CPX) from P-3051 and from a commercial, water-insoluble lacquer based on a vinyl resin (Penlac, Aventis Pharma), was investigated using thin membranes obtained from bovine hooves, an accepted model for human nails. Similar CPX permeation fluxes at steady state through the membranes, but significantly different lag times were observed for P-3051 and Penlac, when these were tested as dry films. The formulations thus appeared to influence only the time required by CPX to saturate the membrane, and not the final drug concentration gradient in the membrane. Permeation experiments performed on the same membranes and on hairless mouse skin with P-3051 and with a similar, HPCH-free vehicle (ERV), both tested in liquid form, disproved the possibility that HPCH might act as a permeation enhancer for CPX in either substrate. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of the HPCH vehicle in terms of CPX transfer from the vehicle itself to the keratin membrane are discussed. This effect might be tentatively attributed to a particular affinity of HPCH for the membrane, resulting in intimate contact and strong adhesion of the HPCH lacquer to the keratin substrate. PMID:15704853

  6. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  7. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  8. Effects of lacquer polysaccharides, glycoproteins and isoenzymes on the activity of free and immobilised laccase from Rhus vernicifera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yun-Yang; Lu, Rong; Akiyama, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Katsuhisa; Honda, Takayuki; Du, Yu-Min; Yoshida, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Knill, Charles J; Kennedy, John F

    2010-07-01

    The purified polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and isoenzymes of Rhus laccase, and crude enzymes, from Chinese lacquer (Rhus vernicifera sap) were used to determine their influence on the enzymic activity of Rhus laccase on several substrates (4-phenylenediamine, isoeugenol and coniferyl alcohol). No product identity changes were observed when these components were added singularly or in combination to the enzymic reactions (only relative product yields varied significantly), however, the polysaccharides (GP1 and GP2) and glycoprotein (stellacyanin, St) exhibited negative effects, and the two isoenzymes (L1 and L2) exhibited positive synergistic effects, on the activity of Rhus laccase. With respect to the activity of the crude enzymes, the negative effects of GP1, GP2 and St were greater than the positive effects of L1 and L2, compared with free Rhus laccase on its own (using 4-phenylenediamine as substrate), the estimated inhibitory effect (of GP1, GP2 and St) being by at least a factor of 50 (even with the positive effect of L1 and L2). This contributes to understanding of lacquer storage stability and drying rates. Immobilisation of crude enzymes using a variety of techniques (using natural and modified polysaccharides, and an inorganic support) where evaluated using isoeugenol as substrate. Agar embedding and zirconium chloride chelation methods resulted in the highest substrate conversion levels. The yields and products of isoeugenol catalysis using Vietnamese crude enzymes/purified Rhus laccase and commercial Denilite laccase were also compared and contrasted with their Chinese lacquer sap equivalents. PMID:20363247

  9. Heterogeneity of the Type 3 copper in Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase.

    PubMed Central

    Morpurgo, L; Desideri, A; Rotilio, G

    1982-01-01

    The two steps of the titration of the Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase with N3- [Morpurgo, Rotilio, Finazzi-Agr & Mondovi (1974) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 336, 324-328; LuBien, Winkler, Thamann, Scott, Co, Hodgson & Solomon (1981) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 7014-7016] were shown to be two distinct reactions, each involving one different portion of the native enzyme molecules. The difference consists in the oxidation state of the Type 3 Cu, which is reduced in the portion with higher affinity for N3- and oxidized in the portion with lower affinity for N3-. The difference is eliminated by treatment with oxidizing (H2O2) or reducing agents, and a single N3- adduct is then formed. The e.p.r. spectra of the H2O2-treated enzyme and of its F- derivatives support this interpretation of the results. The similarity of the spectroscopic properties of the high-affinity N3- adduct to those of the N3- adducts of half-met-haemocyanins and half-met-tyrosinase is discussed. PMID:6299275

  10. The analysis of lacquer crack in the assessment of myopic choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y M; Yoon, J U; Koh, H J

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristic findings in myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the relationship with lacquer crack (LC). Methods In all, 66 consecutive myopic CNV patients treated with photodynamic therapy and/or intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection in one eye were reviewed. Data from fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), obtained simultaneously using the Heidelberg retina angiograph 2 (HRA2), were analyzed. Results LCs were associated with a relatively large extent (?3000??m) of peripapillary choroidal atrophy and a dark rim, the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells surrounding the neovascular membrane was accompanied by a small extent. Myopic CNV usually developed in the LC area surrounded by tiny crack fragments. In all, 35 patients with LCs received FA and ICGA at least twice during follow-up. LC progression was observed in nine (25.7%) treated eyes and six (23.1%) non-CNV fellow eyes. Crack fragments progressed in three distinct forms such as elongation, branching, or bridging pattern. Newly diagnosed myopic CNV was reported in 18 treated eyes and 3 fellow eyes. Progression of LCs and development of CNV occurred simultaneously in eight eyes. By multivariate Cox's regression, a statistically significant association was observed between recurrence of myopic CNV and the absence of a dark rim on ICGA. Conclusions The HRA2 instrument affords detailed high-resolution images of FA and ICGA. Notably, recurrence of myopic CNV developed in areas surrounded by new small crack fragments and LCs are considered to be important in the development of myopic CNV. PMID:21527958

  11. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

  12. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fishers exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fishers exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fishers exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  13. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. PMID:26724272

  14. Thermogelling hydrogels of cyclodextrin/poloxamer polypseudorotaxanes as aqueous-based nail lacquers: application to the delivery of triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2013-04-01

    This work investigated the use of in situ gelling hydrogels based on polypseudorotaxanes of Pluronic F-127 and partially methylated β-cyclodextrin as aqueous nail lacquers. N-acetylcysteine and urea were incorporated as penetration enhancers. The formulations were tested for their ability to deliver ciclopirox and triamcinolone across human nail plate and bovine hoof. Simple aqueous solutions of the drugs with N-acetylcysteine provided measurable fluxes across hoof membranes but became quickly depleted of drug. Further, these solutions would have a short residence time upon nail application. Addition of Pluronic F-127 facilitated drug solubilization and provided the formulations with in situ gelling properties but drug entrapment into the micelles slowed down the delivery process. This was solved by addition of methylated β-cyclodextrin; the formulations retained the thermogelling properties, drug solubilization was further increased, and drug delivery was accelerated. The polymer chains compete with the drugs for the cyclodextrin cavity forming polypseudorotaxanes, which facilitated drug release. The permeability of both drugs was higher across bovine hoof than human nail. The new polypseudorotaxanes formulation delivered more ciclopirox across human nail than a marketed organic lacquer which supports the growing hypothesis that aqueous-based nail lacquers represent a superior formulation strategy in nail topical delivery. PMID:23201053

  15. [A chromatographic method of determining the levels of organic solvents in the air, the components of the offset lacquer LO-2].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, M; Czerczak, S

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method was worked out to determine the mixture of ethyl acetate, toluene, buthyl acetate, p,m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl ethylene glycol vapours. These solvents are used as some components of offset lacquer LO-2. Optimum separation conditions were achieved on 3-metre SS column filled with 10% FFAP on Chormosorb W AW DMCS 80-100 mesh. Air samples were collected on activated charcoal placed in glass tubes. The components tested were desorbed from the sorbent material by 10% acetone solution in CS2. The method enables to determine the concentrations of each compound, corresponding to one fifth of their TLVs. PMID:3444421

  16. Titrations with ferrocyanide of japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase and of the type 2 copper-depleted enzyme. Interrelation of the copper sites.

    PubMed Central

    Morpurgo, L; Graziani, M T; Desideri, A; Rotilio, G

    1980-01-01

    1. Redox titrations are reported of the metal centres in Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase with ferrocyanide. 2. The redox potential of Type 1 Cu was found to increase with ferrocyanide concentration up to a limiting value similar to that for the Type 1 Cu in Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme (which is independent of ferrocyanide concentration). 3. The redox potential of the two-electron acceptor (Type 3 Cu) is also independent of ferrocyanide concentration in Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme and lower than values reported for the native enzyme. 4. The two-electron acceptor is present in the oxidized state in the Type 2 Cu-depleted enzyme, though the latter lacks the 330 nm absorption band. 5. The redox potential of Type 2 Cu also depends on ferrocyanide concentration, at least in the presence of azide. 6. The redox potentials are affected by freezing the solutions and/or addition of azide, the latter binding to Type 2 Cu with affinity dependent on the redox state of the two-electron acceptor. PMID:6446907

  17. Yeast copper-thionein can reconstitute the Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase from the Type 2-copper-depleted enzyme via a direct copper(I)-transfer mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Morpurgo, L; Hartmann, H J; Desideri, A; Weser, U; Rotilio, G

    1983-01-01

    The Type 2-Cu-depleted laccase from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera) can be reconstituted with CuSO4 aerobically and much more rapidly and efficiently under anaerobic reducing conditions. This is to be related to a more favourable conformation of a laccase in the reduced state, rather than to reduction of the metal ion. In fact, reconstitution with Cu(I)-thionein from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) only proceeds under anaerobic reducing conditions, via a direct transfer of Cu(I). PMID:6307284

  18. Yeast copper-thionein can reconstitute the Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase from the Type 2-copper-depleted enzyme via a direct copper(I)-transfer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, L; Hartmann, H J; Desideri, A; Weser, U; Rotilio, G

    1983-05-01

    The Type 2-Cu-depleted laccase from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera) can be reconstituted with CuSO4 aerobically and much more rapidly and efficiently under anaerobic reducing conditions. This is to be related to a more favourable conformation of a laccase in the reduced state, rather than to reduction of the metal ion. In fact, reconstitution with Cu(I)-thionein from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) only proceeds under anaerobic reducing conditions, via a direct transfer of Cu(I). PMID:6307284

  19. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns

  20. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  1. Low-temperature resonance-Raman spectra of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase, type-2-copper-depleted laccase and H2O2-treated type-2-copper-depleted laccase.

    PubMed

    Musci, G; Desideri, A; Morpurgo, L; Garnier-Suillerot, A; Tosi, L

    1983-08-01

    Resonance-Raman spectra of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase, type-2-copper-depleted laccase and the latter form treated with H2O2 were measured in liquid and frozen solution, on excitation into the 600 nm absorption band. Significant changes in intensity and/or frequency of the bands lying in the 370-430 cm-1 region were observed on freezing, indicating local structural rearrangements taking place at the blue copper site. These findings corroborate previous suggestions based on e.p.r. measurements and redox data [Morpurgo, Calabrese, Desideri & Rotilio (1981) Biochem. J. 193, 639-642]. They show the strong dependence of the physical properties of blue copper centres on local symmetry. Some conclusions on the origin of the Raman bands are also drawn. PMID:6225424

  2. Low-temperature resonance-Raman spectra of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase, type-2-copper-depleted laccase and H2O2-treated type-2-copper-depleted laccase.

    PubMed Central

    Musci, G; Desideri, A; Morpurgo, L; Garnier-Suillerot, A; Tosi, L

    1983-01-01

    Resonance-Raman spectra of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase, type-2-copper-depleted laccase and the latter form treated with H2O2 were measured in liquid and frozen solution, on excitation into the 600 nm absorption band. Significant changes in intensity and/or frequency of the bands lying in the 370-430 cm-1 region were observed on freezing, indicating local structural rearrangements taking place at the blue copper site. These findings corroborate previous suggestions based on e.p.r. measurements and redox data [Morpurgo, Calabrese, Desideri & Rotilio (1981) Biochem. J. 193, 639-642]. They show the strong dependence of the physical properties of blue copper centres on local symmetry. Some conclusions on the origin of the Raman bands are also drawn. PMID:6225424

  3. Optical properties of japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase depleted of type 2 copper(II). Involvement of type-2 copper(II) in the 330nm chromophore.

    PubMed Central

    Morpurgo, L; Graziani, M T; Finazzi-Agr, A; Rotilio, G; Mondov, B

    1980-01-01

    1. Spectroscopic and functional properties of Japanese-lacquer-tree (Rhus vernicifera) laccase were re-investigated, with special emphasis on the relationships between the different types of copper centres (Types 1, 2, and 3). 2. On removal of the Type 2 Cu(II), a decrease of absorbance occurred in the wavelength region above 650 nm (delta epsilon 750 = 300 M-1 . cm-1) and around 330 nm (delta episom 330 up to 2200 M-1 . cm-1). 3. Reductive titrations with ascorbic acid or ferrocyanide showed that the electron-accepting capacity of the partial apoprotein is one electron-equivalent lower than that of the native protein, i.e. the protein two-electron acceptor is present in the oxidized state in spite of absorbance loss at 330 nm. 4. The 330 nm chromophore apparently depends on the presence of both the Type 2 and the Type 3 copper in the oxidized state. 5. This finding may have implications in the relative location of Type 2 and 3 copper centres and on the redox behaviour of laccase. PMID:6446906

  4. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The person may receive: Breathing support, including tube through the mouth into the lungs, and breathing ...

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  6. Screening-level human health risk assessment of toluene and dibutyl phthalate in nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda; Perez, Angela L; Jacobs, Neva; Mendelsohn, Emma; Keenan, James J

    2015-07-01

    Toluene and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are found in many consumer products, including cosmetics, synthetic fragrances, and nail polish. In 2012, the California Environmental Protection Agency evaluated 25 nail products and found that 83% of the products that claimed to be toluene-free contained toluene at concentrations ranging up to 190,000?ppm, and 14% of the products that claimed to be DBP-free contained DBP at concentrations ranging up to 88,000?ppm. We conducted a preliminary, screening-level analysis of the potential toluene and DBP-related health risks to consumers and professionals based on the medium and maximum concentrations of toluene and DBP presented in the 2012 report and evaluated dermal and inhalation exposure to a salon patron, nail technician, and home user. We concluded that the maximum toluene concentration for the technician and home user scenarios exceeded the California MADL, but the estimated air concentrations did not exceed the Federal or Cal OSHA PEL. The MADL for DBP was exceeded for all user scenarios at both the median and maximum concentrations. Using these highly conservative assumptions, exposures above regulatory limits could possibly occur during routine use of nail products; further research is needed in order to evaluate potential human health risks. PMID:25865937

  7. [Exposure to organic solvent vapors during production of lacquers for automobile painting].

    PubMed

    Weso?owski, W; Czerski, B

    1992-01-01

    This study was aimed at the development and improvement of the methods for determining solvent vapours to estimate occupational exposure in paint and varnish shops. Gas chromatographic method and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were applied respectively for quantitative determination and identification of toxic substances in the work-room air in plants manufacturing carbamide car paints and commonly used phthalic paints. Particular attention was paid to aromatic hydrocarbon components of farbasol: ethyltoluenes, propylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, mesitylene, hemimelitene, pseudocumene, diethylbenzenes and cymene. These hydrocarbons constitute about 95% of farbasol. At present, the evaluation of exposure in paint and varnish factories and in paint shops in Poland is insufficient because of the lack of TLV values for the above solvents, as well as inadequate methods of determination used in majority of laboratories. PMID:1435247

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  9. Is nanotechnology revolutionizing the paint and lacquer industry? A critical opinion.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Zuin, Stefano; Wick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Many paints for indoor and outdoor applications contain biocides and additives for protection against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration. The biocides should remain active as long as they are incorporated in the paint. Protection against microbial colonization should last at least a decade. Once the biocides are released they should degrade within a short time so that no accumulation in the environment can occur. The paint industry is not only focusing their research in producing better paint formulations with degradable biocides: they also consider using nanomaterials, such as nanosilver, nanocopper, nanozinc oxide, photocatalytic-active nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of paints, against microbial degradation and physical and chemical deterioration. In the future nanomaterials should replace biodegradable biocides and improve the paint properties as well as impede colonization by microorganisms. At the time there is no guarantee that the nanomaterials in paints and faades will fulfill their task in the long run, since there are no long term studies available. From nanosilver doped paints it is known that silver is easily washed out by rain. Photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide adsorbs ultra violet light (UV-light) and generates hydroxyl radicals, which not only inhibit microbial growth but can also initiate or accelerate the photocatalytic degradation of the paint matrix. Thus at this time it is still unknown if it makes sense to incorporate nanomaterials into paints. Intensive research and development are still needed in order to find the answers. PMID:23178832

  10. Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

    2009-07-01

    A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

  11. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

  12. Law of similitude for the surface resistance of lacquered planes moving in a straight line through water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebers, Friedrich

    1925-01-01

    The proof of the validity of the Reynolds law of similitude for the surface resistance of planes has been developed with an accuracy hitherto unattained and for a large range of lengths and speeds. It has been shown that, in addition to the form resistance, the resistance of the longitudinal edges must be taken into account.

  13. Lacquered Words: The Evolution of Vietnamese under Sinitic Influences from the 1st Century B.C.E. through the 17th Century C.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, John Duong

    2013-01-01

    As much as three quarters of the modern Vietnamese lexicon is of Chinese origin. The majority of these words are often assumed to have originated in much the same manner as late Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese borrowed forms: by rote memorization of reading glosses that were acquired through limited exposure to spoken Sinitic. However, under closer

  14. Method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface, is described wherein the uncured enamel paint surface is coated with a non-curing lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cured lacquer. The non-curing lacquer adheres to the enamel and a photo resist material satisfactorily adheres to the partially cured lacquer. Once normal photo etching techniques are employed the lacquer coats can be easily removed from the enamel leaving the photo etched image. In the case of edge lighted instrument panels, a coat of uncured enamel is placed over the cured enamel followed by the lacquer coats and the photo resists which is exposed and developed. Once the etched uncured enamel is cured, the lacquer coats are removed leaving an etched panel.

  15. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  16. The Chemistry of Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

  17. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lacquer described in Federal Specification TT-L-31, October 7, 1953, is an example of an acceptable lacquer. Copies of TT-L-31 may be inspected or obtained from the NIOSH, Certification and Quality... white enamel and 1 volume of turpentine. The enamel described in Federal Specification TT-E-489b, May...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lacquer described in Federal Specification TT-L-31, October 7, 1953, is an example of an acceptable lacquer. Copies of TT-L-31 may be inspected or obtained from the NIOSH, Certification and Quality... white enamel and 1 volume of turpentine. The enamel described in Federal Specification TT-E-489b, May...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lacquer described in Federal Specification TT-L-31, October 7, 1953, is an example of an acceptable lacquer. Copies of TT-L-31 may be inspected or obtained from the NIOSH, Certification and Quality... white enamel and 1 volume of turpentine. The enamel described in Federal Specification TT-E-489b, May...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lacquer described in Federal Specification TT-L-31, October 7, 1953, is an example of an acceptable lacquer. Copies of TT-L-31 may be inspected or obtained from the NIOSH, Certification and Quality... white enamel and 1 volume of turpentine. The enamel described in Federal Specification TT-E-489b, May...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lacquer described in Federal Specification TT-L-31, October 7, 1953, is an example of an acceptable lacquer. Copies of TT-L-31 may be inspected or obtained from the NIOSH, Certification and Quality... white enamel and 1 volume of turpentine. The enamel described in Federal Specification TT-E-489b, May...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11170 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and lacquer) from wood, metal, plastic, and other substrates. (2) Perform spray application of....11180, to a plastic and/or metal substrate on a part or product, except spray coating applications...

  3. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be a sanitary type can, approximately 211/16 in diameter by 47/8? in height. The top and bottom of... of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing...

  4. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....337-10(c) of this subchapter and 49 CFR 393.86 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. (2..., containing a flammable liquid 3 UN1133 II Paint including paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac...

  5. Do You Have Work-Related Asthma? A Guide for You and Your Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Polyurethane foam • Paints, lacquers, ink, varnishes, sealants, finishes • Insulation materials • Polyurethane rubber • Glues and adhesives • Car manufacture and repair • Building construction (plaster, insulation) • Foam blowing and cutting • Painting • Truck bed liner ...

  6. Intrinsic Hydrophobic Cairnlike Multilayer Films for Antibacterial Effect with Enhanced Durability.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Heo, Jiwoong; Son, Boram; Choi, Daheui; Park, Tai Hyun; Chang, Minwook; Hong, Jinkee

    2015-12-01

    One important aspect of nanotechnology includes thin films capable of being applied to a wide variety of surfaces. Indispensable functions of films include controlled surface energy, stability, and biocompatibility in physiological systems. In this study, we explored the ancient Asian coating material "lacquer" to enhance the physiological and mechanical stability of nanofilms. Lacquer is extracted from the lacquer tree and its main component called urushiol, which is a small molecule that can produce an extremely strong coating. Taking full advantage of layer-by-layer assembly techniques, we successfully fabricated urushiol-based thin films composed of small molecule/polymer multilayers by controlling their molecular interaction. Unique cairnlike nanostructures in this film, produced by urushiol particles, have advantages of intrinsic hydrophobicity and durability against mechanical stimuli at physiological environment. We demonstrated the stability tests as well as the antimicrobial effects of this film. PMID:26561514

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  9. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  10. V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing

  11. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene

  12. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military Specification.... 164.018-5 Section 164.018-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  13. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military Specification.... 164.018-5 Section 164.018-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  14. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military Specification.... 164.018-5 Section 164.018-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  15. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military Specification.... 164.018-5 Section 164.018-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  16. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military Specification.... 164.018-5 Section 164.018-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  17. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 g/L to 1 g/L. It is now commonly de...

  18. Three cases of severe Rhus dermatitis in an English primary school.

    PubMed

    Gach, J E; Tucker, W; Hill, V A

    2006-02-01

    We report three paediatric cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis caused by a Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus verniciflua), which is a rare specimen plant in the UK. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis produced by plants that are not indigenous to a particular country is more likely to be delayed, as well as mistaken for cellulitis. PMID:16441636

  19. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  20. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  1. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  2. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  3. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  4. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  5. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  6. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed Containers), for Merchant Vessels § 160.026-3 Container. (a) General. The emergency drinking water container shall... of clear base lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178. (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1503 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... § 7479(1) and 40 CFR 52.21(b)(1)(i)(A) (“prevention of significant deterioration of air quality... solid coatings (i.e., lacquers). D/F means dioxins and furans. Dioxins and furans means tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and octachlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans. Dross means the slags and skimmings...

  8. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  9. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and

  10. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...

  11. Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallmeyer, H.

    1988-01-01

    To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

  12. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense

  13. Disinfection with gaseous formaldehyde. Second Part: Influence of test materials on formaldehyde residues and the bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Casella ML; Schmidt-Lorenz W

    1989-08-01

    The pararosaniline method for the determination of formaldehyde residues on test surfaces after exposure to gaseous formaldehyde was standardized as well as the methods of collection, preparation and desorption from the samples. The analysis of residues on plates of 5 different materials yielded the following amounts of residues after 60 minutes exposure to 3.2 mg HCHO1-1 air at 45 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of about 90%; silicon rubber 287.2 micrograms, lacquered polyurethane foam 109.6 micrograms, lacquered aluminium 30.3 micrograms, plexiglass 13 micrograms and stainless steel 4 micrograms HCHO 100 cm-2. The residues of formaldehyde on lacquered aluminum after an HCHO exposition with condensing layer at 20 and 30 degrees C were 10(3)-fold higher than after an exposition to gaseous formaldehyde without a condensing layer at a relative humidity of about 90% and a temperature of 40 degrees C. The inactivations of S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores on carriers of 5 different materials were determined under the same conditions (60 min, 3.2 mg HCHO 1-1 air, 45 degrees C and a RH of about 90%). The decimal reductions showed that Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was more readily inactivated on non porous plexiglass with a D-value of 0.7 min or stainless steel D = 1.1 min than on porous silicon rubber D = 3 min. For spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger DSM 675, D-values of 1.6 min for plexiglass, 2.3 min for stainless steel, 2.7 min for lacquered aluminium, 3.2 min for lacquered polyurethane foam and 4.1 min for silicon rubber were registered.

  14. Disinfection with gaseous formaldehyde. Second Part: Influence of test materials on formaldehyde residues and the bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Casella, M L; Schmidt-Lorenz, W

    1989-08-01

    The pararosaniline method for the determination of formaldehyde residues on test surfaces after exposure to gaseous formaldehyde was standardized as well as the methods of collection, preparation and desorption from the samples. The analysis of residues on plates of 5 different materials yielded the following amounts of residues after 60 minutes exposure to 3.2 mg HCHO1-1 air at 45 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of about 90%; silicon rubber 287.2 micrograms, lacquered polyurethane foam 109.6 micrograms, lacquered aluminium 30.3 micrograms, plexiglass 13 micrograms and stainless steel 4 micrograms HCHO 100 cm-2. The residues of formaldehyde on lacquered aluminum after an HCHO exposition with condensing layer at 20 and 30 degrees C were 10(3)-fold higher than after an exposition to gaseous formaldehyde without a condensing layer at a relative humidity of about 90% and a temperature of 40 degrees C. The inactivations of S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores on carriers of 5 different materials were determined under the same conditions (60 min, 3.2 mg HCHO 1-1 air, 45 degrees C and a RH of about 90%). The decimal reductions showed that Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was more readily inactivated on non porous plexiglass with a D-value of 0.7 min or stainless steel D = 1.1 min than on porous silicon rubber D = 3 min. For spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger DSM 675, D-values of 1.6 min for plexiglass, 2.3 min for stainless steel, 2.7 min for lacquered aluminium, 3.2 min for lacquered polyurethane foam and 4.1 min for silicon rubber were registered. PMID:2476137

  15. The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

  16. Different physicochemical properties of antimycotic agents are relevant for penetration into and through human nails.

    PubMed

    Neubert, R H H; Gensbügel, C; Jäckel, A; Wartewig, S

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the characterization of the physicochemical properties of two important antifungal topical drugs, amorolfine and ciclopirox. Furthermore, the release of the drugs from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis was studied using the online FTIR-ATR technique. Based on the physicochemical background of these two drugs and their release from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis, the suitability of these drugs for optimized local antifungal therapy to human nails is discussed. Amorolfine appears to be more suitable for drug delivery to human nails because it penetrates into the nails via the hydrophilic pathway. Furthermore amorolfine penetrates very well into fungal cells, due to the pH value of the nail, as well as the pKa value of this antimycotic agent and the lipophilic properties of its base form. PMID:16889067

  17. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by smut spores of Ustilago esculenta].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yumi; Usui, Yutaka; Konno, Kazunori; Atarashi, Kenichi; Ohtani, Yoshio; Inase, Naohiko; Tanaka, Takehiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman was admitted with cough, general fatigue, and dyspnea on effort. Her hobby was the Japanese traditional handicraft of lacquer-carving. She sometimes used smut spores of Ustilago esculenta, pronounced as "Makomozumi"on lacquer ware. The chest radiographs showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and small centrilobular nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage yielded a marked number of lymphocytes as well as total cell counts and a low CD4 +/CD8 + ratio. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. The results of provocation test by Makomozumi were positive. Serum tests of the specific antibody against extracted soluble antigens of smut spores were positive. The peripheral lymphocyte proliferation test, performed with Mokomozumi antigens was also positive. The final diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by smut spores of fungus Ustilago esculenta. PMID:17491314

  18. Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

  19. Curing of polyurethane coatings: Radiation curing. January 1980-November 1989 (A Bibliography from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the curing of urethane and polyurethane coatings by electromagnet radiation. This bibliography is specific to electric and/or magnetic curing as compared to photocuring or ultraviolet curing, which are treated as separate bibliographies. These coatings may be described as inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, or specialized coatings. Special applications of this technology in the magnetic recording media industry are presented. (Contains 98 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1973-December 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the formulations and processes for radiation curing on polyester resins. Effects of radiation curing on polyester resins are also discussed. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also examined. Applications in adhesives, coatings, lacquers, and printing inks are included. (Contains 200 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1970-December 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the processes and formulations sensitive to radiation curing in polyester resins. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also included. Applications in paints, coatings, lacquers, printing inks, laminates, photoresists, and other substrates are discussed. (Contains 166 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

    2012-07-01

    Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

  3. Heating of thin products by means of transverse-flux inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-02-01

    There are some forms of metallic products which do not lend themselves well to induction heating upon first consideration, either because of their shape (small thickness) or their nature (materials with low resistance). In particular, this applies to all products in the form of a thin sheet. Various applications are suggested such as the drying of the sheet after pickling the heating of the sheet in order to dry or harden varnish lacquer, and the heat treatment of aluminium sheet.

  4. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  5. Process for non-contact removal of organic coatings from the surface of paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  6. Numerical simulation of polyester coextrusion: Influence of the thermal parameters and the die geometry on interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, O.; Agassant, J.-F.; Laure, P.; Valette, R.; Silva, L.

    2007-04-01

    The polymer coextrusion process is a new method of sheet metal lining. It allows to substitute lacquers for steel protection in food packaging industry. The coextrusion process may exhibit flow instabilities at the interface between the two polymer layers. The objective of this study is to check the influence of processing and rheology parameters on the instabilities. Finite elements numerical simulations of the coextrusion allow to investigate various stable and instable flow configurations.

  7. Monitoring of taints related to printed solid boards with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Heini, R L; Ahvenainen, R

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives were to combine knowledge gathered from the electronic nose (EN) with traditional analytical reference methods for measuring volatile compounds, such as sensory and headspace methods. The impacts of different colouring agents on the sensory properties of packaging materials when analysed by EN were determined. The first step in investigations using the EN was optimization of sample treatment and analysis parameters for the samples. The best resolution was achieved at 60 degrees C in 20 min, and the effect of humidity on the EN sensors was confirmed. A comparison was made of three sensory methods for analysing taints of packaging materials. The study showed that the odour of the packaging itself was often not a reliable indication of the taint perceived in the packed foodstuff and should be regarded only as indicative. Taints caused by pigments of printed solid boards were analysed by EN. Twenty samples were studied, representing unprinted solid board, lacquered solid board, offset printed solid board with 14 different colours and offset printed, lacquered solid board with four colours. The EN succeeded in grouping these materials according to their colouring agents or lacquering, despite slight overlapping of replicates, and the results appeared to reflect at least to some extent the off-flavours perceived in sensory evaluation. The results of this study are only indicative, because the analysis of results from different sources or equipment requires more extensive use of statistical methods. PMID:11962710

  8. Clinical and immunologic features of systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of Rhus (Toxicodendron).

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Hun; Haw, Choong-Rim; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2003-05-01

    Oral or parenteral exposure to certain contact allergens may elicit an eczematous skin reaction in sensitized individuals. This phenomenon has been called systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) and is relatively rare when compared with classical contact dermatitis. We reviewed and analysed the clinical and immunologic features of 42 patients with SCD caused by ingestion of Rhus (Toxicodendron), 24 males and 18 females, average age 44 years (range 24-72). Several of such patients (33%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. The patients developed skin lesions such as generalized maculopapular eruptions (50%), erythroderma (29%), vesiculobullous lesions (14%) and erythema multiform (EM)-like lesions (7%). Many patients (57%) developed leucocytosis with neutrophilia (74%). In some patients (5%), abnormalities of liver function developed. We also analysed lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 12 patients. The lymphocyte subsets studied were T cells (CD3), B cells (CD19), natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-CD16+/CD56+), helper/inducer cells (CD4), cytotoxic/suppressor cells (CD8) and helper/suppressor ratio (CD4/CD8). The lymphocyte subsets of all 12 patients studied were within the normal range. Moreover, there were no differences between patients with a history of allergy to lacquer and those without a history of allergy to lacquer. Therefore, rather than an immunologic response, the skin eruption seems to be caused by a toxic reaction because of Rhus. PMID:12868965

  9. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

  10. Treatment of onychomycosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, A A; Thomas, T; Shirwaikar, A; Lobo, R; Prabhu, K S

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  11. Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  12. Thinner intoxication manifesting as methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Gomber, Sunil

    2009-03-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints is known to contain mixture of various arometic hydrocarbons; halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha, if ingested may rarely cause methemoglobinemia. We report a 3 year old child who presented to us with history of accidental ingestion of thinner, used for removing household paint. Child was having cyanosis with minimal tachypnoea & the colour of his blood was chocolate brown. Later methemoglibulin level estimations were also done, which were suggestive of this diagnosis. Child was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy & vital monitoring, which lead to complete recovery and discharge from hospital later. PMID:19347673

  13. Catastrophic models of materials destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Taipova, B. G.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Fursa, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of concentration and type of fillers on mechanical properties of composite material based on polyimide were studied. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyester), polycarbonate (PCAR) and montmorillonite (MM) were used as the fillers. The samples were prepared by mechanically blending the polyimide-based lacquer solutions with different concentrations of the second component. The concentration of filler and its class, especially their internal structure and technology of synthesis determine features of physical and mechanical properties of obtained materials. Models of catastrophic failure of material satisfactorily describe the main features depending on tension ct from deformation e.

  14. Drug-induced, photosensitive, erythema multiforme-like eruption: possible role for cell adhesion molecules in a flare induced by Rhus dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, T; Chiba, M; Tanaka, Y; Nagashima, M

    1990-04-01

    Drug-induced, photosensitive erythema multiforme has not been reported, although drugs and sunlight are listed among precipitating factors in erythema multiforme. We describe a case of a drug-induced erythema multiforme-like eruption in a photodistribution that was reproduced by clinical challenge with the drug and sunlight. On contact with Rhus verniciflua, the Japanese lacquer tree, the patient had a flare of the eruption, which was limited to the areas previously exposed to sun. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that the keratinocytes in the skin that retain teh photoactivated substances may facilitate epidermal invasion of lymphocytes by persistent expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. PMID:1969427

  15. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  16. [Express method of laboratory study of the outgassing of thermostable plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Iablochkin, V D; Solomin, G I; Shchirskaia, V A; Glazkova, N A; Demchenko, E A

    1980-01-01

    Time-temperature dependence of concentrations of outgasing products of polymers and rubbers was studied. Applying the principle of time-temperature equilibrium, the exposure time for a laboratory rapid study of polymers at 100 degrees C was estimated to be 1 hr for enamels, lacquers and dyes, 1.5 hr for block and sheet polymers, 2.5 hr for sealants and rubbers, and 4 hr for textile materials, measured from the time when the preassigned temperature was achieved. The rapid method can be recommended for preliminary chemical study of polymers at the stage of their laboratory testing. PMID:7359873

  17. [The composition and characteristics of the spread of the shot products from a gas-barrel weapon].

    PubMed

    Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Kuznetsov, Iu D; Sigalov, F A

    1998-01-01

    Chemical composition and diffusion of additional factors of a shot from barrel gun supplied with a standard chemical cartridge are studied. Experimental shots from gas pistols of three designs were made. During shots from gas barrel guns the victim is exposed to additional factors characteristic of both fire arms and gas barrel guns, namely, fragments of plastic cartridge container and pads, magnesium particles, and lacquer powder. The characteristics of the short range zone for gas barrel guns correspond to those of short barrel fire arms. PMID:9567673

  18. Nanomaterials Transform Hairstyling Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Dennis Morrison, a former scientist at Johnson Space Center, conducted research on microcapsules that were developed in space and designed to deliver drugs to cancerous tumors. This work led to research on nanoceramic materials, and in 2001, Morrison shared his expertise with Farouk Shami, the owner of Farouk Systems Inc., of Houston, Texas. After learning more, Shami developed a ceramic composite for his CHI (Cationic Hydration Interlink) hairstyling irons, brushes, nail lacquers, and hair dryers. Morrison also used his NASA research expertise as a platform to incorporate nanosilver and near-infrared light into the products.

  19. Lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in foods in welded cans.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S

    1987-01-01

    The levels of lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in fruit and vegetables in welded tinplate cans were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels found were compared with those in foods in soldered tinplate cans and fresh foods. The results show that the lead levels in foods in welded cans were much lower than those in similar foods in soldered cans. Foods in unlacquered welded cans contain much more lead, chromium and tin than foods in lacquered welded cans. The cadmium and iron levels in canned fruit and vegetables in welded cans were similar to those found in the corresponding fresh foods. PMID:3653455

  20. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  1. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  2. Comparison of dust released from sanding conventional and nanoparticle-doped wall and wood coatings

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Schneider, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into traditional surface coatings (e.g., paints, lacquers, fillers) may result in new exposures to both workers and consumers and possibly also a new risk to their health. During finishing and renovation, such products may also be a substantial source of exposure to ENPs or aggregates thereof. This study investigates the particle size distributions (5.6?nm19.8??m) and the total number of dust particles generated during sanding of ENP-doped paints, lacquers, and fillers as compared to their conventional counterparts. In all products, the dust emissions from sanding were found to consist of five size modes: three modes under 1??m and two modes around 1 and 2??m. Corrected for the emission from the sanding machine, the sanding dust, was dominated by 100300?nm size particles, whereas the mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the micrometer modes. Adding ENPs to the studied products only vaguely affected the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes in the sanding dust when compared to their reference products. However, we observed considerable differences in the number concentrations in the different size modes, but still without revealing a clear effect of ENPs on dust emissions from sanding. PMID:20485339

  3. Establishment of a Novel Model of Onychomycosis in Rabbits for Evaluation of Antifungal Agents ?

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Saori; Suzuki, Taku; Mukai, Hideki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a novel model of onychomycosis in which we observed fungi in the deep layer of the nail, and we used the model to evaluate the efficacy of two topical antifungal drugs. To establish an experimental, in vivo model of onychomycosis, we applied Trichophyton mentagrophytes TIMM2789 to the nails of the hind limbs of rabbits that underwent steroid treatment. The nails were taken from the rabbits' feet at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after a 2-week infection. The localization of the fungi was evaluated histopathologically. Some fungi were seen to penetrate to the nail bed, and the infection rate in the sample at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after infection was 57, 87, and 93%, respectively. In addition, fungi proliferated and moved proximally into the nail plate in a manner that depended on the duration of infection. Second, using this model we evaluated antifungal efficacy both by the culture recovery method and histopathological examination. Two topical antifungal drugs, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer, were applied to the nail for 4 weeks in each group. On histopathological examination, two antifungal treatment groups showed no significant difference against the nontreated control group. However, there were a significantly low fungus-positive rate and intensity of the recovery of fungi on culture between antifungal treatment and nontreated control groups. We therefore suggest that we have established an in vivo model of onychomycosis that is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:21555762

  4. In-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at a printing press.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Savchuk, Olesya; Genest, Beatrix; Scherzer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the coating weight of printed layers can be determined in-line in a running printing press by near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy assisted by chemometric methods. Three different unpigmented lacquer systems, i.e., a conventional oil-based printing lacquer, an ultraviolet (UV)-curable formulation, and a water-based dispersion varnish, were printed on paper with coating weights between about 0.5 and 7 g m(-2). NIR spectra for calibration were recorded with a special metal reflector simulating the mounting conditions of the probe head at the printing press. Calibration models were developed on the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and evaluated by independent test samples. The prediction performance of the developed models was examined at a sheet-fed offset printing press at line speeds between 90 and 180 m min(-1). Results show an excellent correlation of data predicted in-line from the NIR spectra with reference values obtained off-line by gravimetry. The prediction errors were found to be ? 0.2 g m(-2), which confirms the suitability of the developed spectroscopic method for process control in technical printing processes. PMID:22709830

  5. New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.

    2012-06-01

    The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

  6. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

  7. Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

  8. [Sanitary chemical evaluation and control of hazards in the varnishing ships of the furniture industry].

    PubMed

    Bobev, G; Koen, E

    1976-01-01

    Using theoretical calculations and personal observations and researches, the authors succeeded in demonstrating that evaporation from lacquered surfaces, particularly in the early period of drying, is the primary source of working environment air pollution with toluene and styrol in the varnishing workshops of furniture factories. Three equations are submitted to calculate the quantities of evaporated volatile components from the lacquer film of the machine, and from the varnished surfaces, equations which have been adopted in the practice of pollution sources' sanitary-chemical assay. Against the background thus outlined, the conclusion is reached that the varnishing machine is by no means the primary source of harmful effect provided the technology of varnish application employed does not require tools of the type of a conveyor line, pointing out furthermore that air pollution from the wheel-barrows, containing varnished details, is the most significant. Proceeding from the results of the research, it is recommended to carry out during of the varnished surfaces in a separate room or in a tunnelled drying room which, under conditions of updated technology of applying varnish, prove the most effective from sanitary hygienic viewpoint since they provide for the lowest toxic-vapour concentrations in the air of the working environment, and for optimal working conditions. PMID:1032723

  9. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved. PMID:25543146

  10. Internal corrosion and shelf-life of food cans and methods of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mannheim, C; Passy, N

    1982-01-01

    Internal corrosion in food cans is characterized by metallic dissolution which is an electrochemical reaction. In lacquered cans, corrosion may also cause disruption in the continuity of the lacquer film. These reactions may cause organoleptic changes in the product, loss of vacuum, swelling, and leaking in extreme cases. In some instances the metal dissolution (i.e., lead) may give rise to toxicological problems. Therefore, these phenomena are often the limiting factor in the shelf life of canned products. Changes in color, texture, and sensoric properties of the foods, which take place simultaneously, affect the aesthetic and nutritional value of the product and thus its shelf life. These changes are often related to interactions with the container. For example, tin dissolution prevents browning and loss of ascorbic acid. Shelf life of canned foods is governed by the quality of the raw materials, the processing technology, quality of the container and storage conditions which will be reviewed in this paper. Can manufacturing technologies, mechanisms of electrochemical corrosion, methods of their measurement and prediction of shelf life will be discussed. PMID:6759048

  11. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Tuber, Anja; Mller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

  12. "Worst case" aerosol testing parameters: I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Stevens, G A; Moyer, E S

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called "worst case" set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory. PMID:2729101

  13. EuroGeoMars mission and techniques: First results for geology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S. T. M.; Borst, A.; Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Slob, E.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroGeoMars expedition forms part of the European Space Agency's ExoGeoLab research project and is a test campaign at the MDRS (Mars Desert Research Station), which is operated by the Mars Society, in the Utah desert, US. MDRS has yet been used by research groups of various interest as an analogue site to the Martian environment. The goal of this expedition is to simulate the employment of various instruments and sample return under Martian conditions, while carrying out several geological and biological investigations. In this paper we present our methods and first results for the geological and geochemistry investigations. Two main geological investigations have been carried out, of which one includes mapping of the sequence stratigraphy and internal structure of Quaternary alluvial fan deposits, 5 km South-West of the MDRS. Alluvial fans are formed when a stream gradient decreases over a relatively small area and therefore coarse-grained sediments are being deposited. Alluvial fans on Mars are of particular interest because they may have formed, as they do on Earth, a niche for life at deposition time. If any was present, the sediments may contain detritus that was transported by the river from the hinterland. Furthermore, the internal structure and lithology represent the depositional environment, water activity, and climatological perturbations. These three factors provide main implications for the conditions and possibilities of maintaining life. Mineralogical variations represent changes in the source area of the sediments and hence possible tectonic activity. The fan that we investigated measures 1.5 x 1.5 km and is made up of several stratigraphic sequences that we defined by classic geological methods. We followed the sedimentary sequences laterally using a Ground Penetrating Radar system (GPR) and taking samples for ground truth by drilling. All samples were analyzed on mineral content using Raman spectroscopy and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for mineralogical and elemental analysis respectively. We created lacquer peels from several sequences in order to sample and study sedimentary structures. The procedure to make lacquer peels is to poor lacquer over an outcrop and sticking the unconsolidated sediments to a piece of cloth, which is subsequently pasted upon a hardboard plank. Another investigation that was carried out focuses on the possibilities and restrictions to the geologist for future fieldwork on Mars. Hence the investigators did similar type of experiments as for the alluvial fan, wearing spacesuits and spending restricted time outside as they would on a Martian base. The EuroGeoMars expedition is the first in a series of manned planetary mission simulations.

  14. Determination of ozone removal rates by selected building products using the FLEC emission cell.

    PubMed

    Klenø, J G; Clausen, P A; Weschler, C J; Wolkoff, P

    2001-06-15

    Ozone removal by 16 aged (older than 1-120 months) but unused building products or materials was studied in a test system that included the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC). The ozone removal was studied at 50 +/- 1 ppb ozone, a relative humidity of 50 +/- 5%, a temperature of 21 +/- 2 degrees C, and an air flow rate of 900 +/- 10 mL min(-1) through the FLEC (air velocity ca. 3 cm s(-1)). The ozone removal increased rapidly during the first 1-2 min and either remained at a constant level or decreased asymptotically to reach a steady state-like value. The ozone removal profiles for a given material showed good repeatability during replicate experiments. Ozone deposition velocities for the building products were calculated to be between 0.0007 cm s(-1) (lacquered ash) and 0.8 cm s(-1) (unpainted gypsum board). PMID:11432562

  15. Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanlian; Bai, Weibin; Luo, Zhen; Jin, Yao; Peng, Bichen; Feng, Lixia; Hu, Binghuan; Lin, Jinhuo

    2012-04-01

    Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

  16. [The chemical working environment among car painters in Bergen].

    PubMed

    Grnberg, B H; Moen, B E; Bruun, T; Dale, K; Dams, J K; Hovland, A; Lune, E; Stanislaus, J; Young, S; Hollund, B E

    1994-08-20

    Official guidelines have been prepared for the working environment in Norwegian spraylacquering garages, in order to reduce the incidence of symptoms and diseases related to exposure to organic solvents. 11 garages were visited to see if the guidelines were being followed. All the sprayers (n = 28) were examined by questionnaire about the occurrence of acute symptoms connected to the central nervous system, the skin, the eyes and the airways during work, and about their use of personal protective equipment. All the garages had specially ventilated rooms for the lacquering procedure, and all the workers used personal respiratory protective equipment. The sprayers did not report more acute symptoms than a control group of office workers employed in the same companies. PMID:7992296

  17. Sevoflurane: are there differences in products?

    PubMed

    Baker, Max T

    2007-06-01

    Sevoflurane is currently available in the United States from two manufacturers: Ultane (Abbott Laboratories, Inc.) and a generic product, Sevoflurane Inhalation Anesthetic (Baxter Healthcare Corp.). These products are rated therapeutically equivalent by the Food and Drug Administration, but there are some differences. Ultane is made in a single-step synthetic process and generic sevoflurane is manufactured using a three-step process. Ultane contains >300 ppm water and generic sevoflurane contains < or =130 ppm water. Ultane is supplied in a plastic polyethylene naphthalate polymer bottle, while generic sevoflurane is supplied in lacquer-lined aluminum bottles. The manufacturing processes and impurities, sevoflurane degradation resulting from Lewis acid reactions, and suitability of nonglass containers for sevoflurane are discussed. PMID:17513639

  18. Temperature stability of transit time delay for a single-mode fibre in a loose tube cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.; Johnston, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the transit-time delay of a loose-tube-type single-mode optical-fiber cable is investigated experimentally. A 1058-m length of cable was placed loosely coiled in an oven and used to connect a 820-nm single-mode laser diode to a high-speed avalanche-photodiode detector feeding a vector voltmeter; the signal was provided by a high-stability frequency-synthesized generator. Measurements were made every 2 C from -50 to 60 C and compared to those obtained with a 200-m lacquered bare fiber. The phase change of both fibers varied with temperature at a positive slope of 6-7 ppm/C. This value is significantly better than those reported for other cable types, suggesting the application of loose-fiber cables to long-haul gigabit digital transmissions or precision time-base distribution for VLBI.

  19. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groshart, E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

  1. Introduction: Surface Histories.

    PubMed

    Grote, Mathias; Stadler, Max

    2015-09-01

    The first section of this issue brings together four essays on "surfaces" - a subject matter which might seem conspicuous or, indeed, palpable enough. Just think of the sheets of paper, window panes, and haptic interfaces surrounding you: the world, evidently, is diffused with surfaces, membranes, and boundaries of all sorts. Some of these things have been salient, for obvious reasons in fields such as media studies, or implicit in notions such as "boundary object": the retina, photographic plates, basilar membranes, the skin, or various forms of "displays" immediately come to mind. Not even mentioning their immense metaphoricity, surfaces are the entities that make things visible, inscribable, or knowable. But not all of them have been so salient. In fact, most surface-phenomena arguably - and, typically, for similarly obvious reasons - haven't received much scholarly notice at all: plastic wraps, lacquers, lubricants, coatings, silicon wavers, cell membranes, glass, plant leaves, the ozone layer. PMID:26256502

  2. Engineering Laccases: In Search for Novel Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Viviane; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Pailley, Pierre R; Tron, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Laccases (p-diphenol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.2) are blue multicopper oxidases that catalyze the reduction of dioxygen to water, with a concomitant oxidation of small organic substrates. Since the description at the end of the nineteenth century of a factor catalyzing the rapid hardening of the latex of the Japanese lacquer trees (Rhus sp.) exposed to air laccases from different origins (plants, fungi bacteria) have been continuously discovered and extensively studied. Nowadays, molecular evolution and other powerful protein modification techniques offer possibilities to develop tailored laccases for a wide array of applications including drug synthesis, biosensors or biofuel cells. Here, we give an overview on strategies and results of our laboratory in the design of new biocatalysts based on laccases. PMID:21966250

  3. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  4. [Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    2003-09-01

    Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

  5. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110?kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted. PMID:22545205

  6. Use of HPLC for the analytical determination of diisocyanates and acid anhydrides in the air of working environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rietz, B.

    1985-06-01

    Measurements of airborne concentrations of (monomeric) 2,4- and 2,6- toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6- TDI), 4,4' - diisocyanato diphenylmethane (MDI) and phthalic anhydride have been performed at 17 Danish atmanufactories using these compounds in the production of polyurethane foams, insulating materials, elastomers, coatings, lacquers and glues. Diisocyanate vapors at workplaces were collected in impingers, containing a solution of 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)-anthracene (1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in toluene. By reaction with this amine compounds the diisocyanates are converted to stable urea derivatives. Phthalic anhydride particles were collected on glass fiber filters. For separation and detection of the diisocyanate derivatives and the phthalic acid formed upon hydrolysis of its anhydride, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography on a bonded octadecylsilyl phase using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water and UV-monitoring at lambda = 254 nm were used. The results obtained for each manufacturer are presented. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  8. Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Strebkov, V.T.

    2005-06-01

    This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

  9. Directional emittance surface measurement system and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  10. Thermal-oxidation stability of diesel fuels. Interim report, October 1983-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Barbee, J.G.; Yost, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) were used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel deposits formed on test surfaces at elevated temperatures was developed and applied to a variety of fuels, both with and without MIL-S-53021(additive stabilizer package). The utility of this technique greatly expands the capability for exploring and defining diesel-fuel thermal stability with respect to both material and kinetic studies. Correlation of IFBT and JFTOT type tests including definitions of temperature, flow, test-surface metallurgy and fuel additive effects can now be performed to better understand diesel thermal stability and provide test methodology/test limit information for fuel-specification consideration.

  11. Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 2: Experimental determination of internal damage growth in unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates is investigated in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. The damage may take the form of longitudinal yielding and splitting in the matrix as well as stable transverse damage consisting of broken fibers and matrix yielding ahead of the notch. A brittle lacquer coating is used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques are used to detemine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the experimental specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model.

  12. Effects of free tin on filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, J.; Yoshida, M. . Nagoya Research and Development Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin (Sn)-coated steel (LTS) for welded cans was studied in relation to the free Sn coating weight (free Sn coating weight = total Sn [minus] alloyed Sn). Filiform corrosion was found to be retarded by high cathodic polarization in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was <0.1 g/m[sup 2] but where the electrochemically determined chromium (Cr) coating weight was high. In the region where the free Sn coating weight was 0.1 to 0.35 g/m[sup 2], microcells were formed by the coupling of free Sn and the tin-iron alloy below the lacquer film, resulting in acceleration of filiform corrosion.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Arrowhead Associates/Scovill, Montross, VA. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The 30-acre Arrowhead Associates/Scovill site is a cosmetic-case manufacturing and filling facility in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The site overlies a shallow aquifer that is used by an estimated 500 people as a drinking water supply. Ownership of the site has changed hands several times. From 1966 to 1979, Scovill, Inc., and later Arrowhead Associates (AA), used the site for manufacturing cosmetic cases using electroplating, lacquering, and enameling processes. Currently, Virginia Elastics uses the former plating area as a storage warehouse. Numerous investigations by the State and EPA revealed extensive soil and ground water contamination. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses final remediation of soil and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  14. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  15. Using optical metrology to reconstruct sound recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E. W.; Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Jin, J.; Nordmeyer, R.; Golden, M.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to 1950 nearly all sound recordings were made on mechanical media such as wax, foil, shellac, lacquer, and plastic. Some of these older recordings contain material of great historical value or interest but are damaged, decaying, or now considered too delicate to play. Archives seek to preserve and also create broad access to their collections. An ongoing effort at Berkeley Lab has applied methods of optical metrology and image processing to reconstruct sound stored on these mechanical carriers. This approach was inspired by the use of precision optical metrology to align and fabricate silicon tracking arrays for high-energy physics experiments and by track finding and fitting data analysis methods. The technology has matured to the point that an optical metrology system for sound restoration has been designed and built for the Library of Congress.

  16. Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Lerman, Zafra M.; Angelos, Sanford A.

    1996-06-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been utilized with nonscience majors in the courses: "Modern Methods in Science: Discovering Molecular Secrets"; "The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things"; "From Ozone to Oil Spills: Chemistry, the Environment and You"; and "Crime Lab Chemistry: Solving Crime through Analytical Chemistry". Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter. Students have also used GC-MS, as a form of alternative assessment, in course projects that have been based on their majors, personal interests, and cultural backgrounds. Students have also conducted advanced independent work in different areas of chemistry, including the analysis of nail polishes and lacquers and eleven aromatic compounds present in three different brands of gasoline.

  17. Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassel, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Freiesleben, H.; Kiesewetter, J.

    1990-11-01

    The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 μgcm-2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method of lacquering a surface of distilled water with a solution of Formvar in 1,2-dichlorethane. The thicknesses of the foils are determined with various methods. Their rupture strength and gas permeability are investigated. The differential energy loss as well as the energy-loss straggling in these foils are measured for 16O-ions using the 4 MV tandem accelerator in Bochum.

  18. Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (λ > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

  19. Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (λ>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

  20. What can cross-bedding tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a common transport mechanism associated with explosive eruptions. They behave as particulate density current (flows of particles and fluid, whose driving force is the excess density compared to the ambient fluid). The particles thus are the defining part of the flow acting as the agent of momentum and the resultant deposits, making PDC sedimentology fundamental. We combine wind tunnel measurements with nontraditional field techniques to consider cross-bedding from dilute PDCs from the mm to the km scale. Each deposited particle requires 1) momentum to reach its final location, but 2) sufficiently low shearing to halt at this place. A range of shearing is constrained from wind tunnel measurements. The results are combined with field data from lacquer peel sampling (an outcrop is impregnated with a solidifying glue, preserving the primary organization of the grains). This enables quantification of the grain size of mm-scale laminae, giving an order of magnitude of turbulence during deposition. The lacquer peel technique also imaged cm-scale, soft sediment deformation patterns producing overturned beds. These are interpreted as related to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instabilities between a granular-based flow and the bed. Dune bedform (DBs) cross-stratification at the m scale generally have an overall stoss-aggrading stacking pattern. Often interpreted as indicating supercritical flows, the wind-tunnel results and DBs' geometry rather suggest they are a specificity of particulate density currents with high deposition rates. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the 3D stability in location of a DB over several m depth, although stacking patterns vary with time and laterally. This emphasizes the primary influence of the basal boundary layer in the depositional dynamics. At the 100 m scale, DBs' shape evolves in dimensions and form, calling for 3D datasets. Terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry enable quantification of the evolution of DBs' outer shape and document the depositional history. The understanding of PDC cross-bedding is emerging, but ample evidence of the extreme variability in sedimentary facies in depth and laterally call for 3D acquisition schemes from the mm to km scale to depict correctly and understand the information in the buried deposits.

  1. Trace analysis of airborne 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate and the related aminoisocyanate and diamine by glass capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Mathiasson, L

    1988-01-15

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the analysis of complex air mixtures of 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The method is based on derivatization in the sampling step of the reactive isocyanate groups to corresponding urethane groups by the alkaline ethanolic solvent and a subsequent derivatization of remaining amino groups to amide groups with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. The overall procedure, including sampling, gave a linear response at air concentrations of 3-300 micrograms/m3 for 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate with a precision of ca. 4% at 15 micrograms/m3 and a detection limit of ca. 0.2 microgram/m3 using nitrogen selective detection. In a field measurement of air concentrations in welding work on lacquered metal parts at a motor-car workshop, concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate above 600 micrograms/m3 were found. Also 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine were found at concentrations of the order of 15% of the 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate concentration. PMID:3356757

  2. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate. PMID:25940933

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): New Lyme, Ashtabula County, Ohio, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The New Lyme Landfill is located near State Route 11 on Dodgeville Road in Ashtabula County, approximately 20 miles south of the City of Ashtabula, Ohio. The landfill occupies about 40 acres of a 100-acre tract. Operations began at the site in 1969, and were initially managed by two farmers. In 1971, the landfill was licensed by the State of Ohio and operations were taken over by a licensed landfill operator. According to documentation, the New Lyme Landfill received household, industrial, commercial, and institutional wastes and construction and demolition debris. However, numerous violations of the license occurred, including: open dumping; improper spreading and compacting of wastes; no State approval for disposal of certain industrial wastes; and excavation of trenches into the shale bedrock. In August 1978, the landfill was closed by the Ashtabula County Health Department. Documents indicate that wastes at the New Lyme Landfill site included: coal tar distillates, asbestos, coal tar, resins and resin tar, paint sludge, oils, paint lacquer thinner, peroxide, corrosive liquids, acetone, xylene, toluene, kerosene, naptha, benzene, linseed oil, mineral oil, fuel oil, chlorinated solvents, 2,4-D, and laboratory chemicals. The selected remedial action is included.

  4. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  5. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  6. The byssus of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. II: Structure and polymorphism of byssal polyphenolic protein families.

    PubMed

    Rzepecki, L M; Waite, J H

    1993-10-01

    The byssus of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is the key element of its adhesive strategy. It consists of a bundle of threads tipped by adhesive plaques and attached to the mussel at the base of its byssal-synthesizing organ, the foot. Two polyphenolic protein precursors of the byssus have been purified from the foot. These precursors, Dpfp-1 and Dpfp-2 (Dreissena polymorpha foot protein), with apparent M(r) values of 76 and 26 K, respectively, contain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) integrated into their primary sequence, but differ from previously characterized polyphenolic proteins from marine mussels. The related quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.?) has homologous proteins with significantly different compositions. The zebra mussel DOPA proteins are tandemly repetitive with unique oligopeptide motif sequences, contain tryptophan, and are O-glycosylated primarily on threonine residues. Galactosamine was the only carbohydrate detected after hydrolysis. Dpfp-1 constitutes a polymorphic family of polypeptides with, unusually, an acidic range of pI values between 5.3 and 6.5. The detection of carbohydrate in the thread and in the juncture between thread and plaque suggests that these two proteins are localized in those regions where they may function as lacquers or structural elements. PMID:8180628

  7. [Characteristics and habits of parents of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sipeti?, Sandra; Vlajinac, Hristina; Kocev, Nikola; Radmanovi?, Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study conducted in Belgrade during 1994-1997 was to investigate whether parental demographic characteristics and habits are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Case group comprised 105 children up to 16 years old with IDDM and control group comprised 210 children with skin diseases. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (+/- one year), sex and place of residence (Belgrade). According to chi 2 test results, children with IDDM significantly had five or more family members and they also significantly more frequently had poor socio-economic status than their controls. Higher education of fathers was significantly more frequently reported in diabetic children, in comparison with their controls. Parents of diabetic children were significantly more frequently occupationally exposed to radiation, petroleum, and its derivates, organic solvents, dyes and lacquers. During pregnancy mothers of diabetic children significantly more frequently smoked cigarettes and consumed coffee, coca-cola, alcohol and foods containing nitrosamines. Fathers of diabetic children more frequently consumed alcohol. PMID:14692131

  8. Treatment of Onychomycosis a Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pajaziti, Laura; Vasili, Ermira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail unit. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the nail apparatus impose the need for long-term treatment to achieve complete cure. Goal: The main goal of this project is to study the effectiveness of several treatment protocols for onychomycosis based on Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Material and methods: The study included 133 patients with onychomycosis, diagnosed by KOH microscopy and culture. Based on disease severity, patients were grouped into groups with SCIO values: 6-9, and 12-16. These groups were randomly subdivided to 5 subgroups according to the given treatment protocols: fluconazole 150 mg 1x weekly, itraconazole continual therapy, itraconazole pulse therapy, terbinafine 250 mg/d, and terbinafine + ciclopirox 8% lacquer, respectively. The cure rate was evaluated at the end of 48 week. Results: The obtained cure rates according to the above mentioned protocols were: 92.30%, 81.81%, 83.33%, 90.90%, and 100%, respectively for groups of patients with SCIO values 6 9. Within patients with SCIO values 12-16, were achieved cure rates as follows: 78.57%, 78.57%, 75%, 80%, and 86.66%. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in cure rate between five treatment protocols applied in this study. In patients with high SCIO values is expected a decrease in cure rate. PMID:26261386

  9. A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients. PMID:15606656

  10. Urushiol Induces Apoptosis via a p53-dependent Pathway in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seaho; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Chung, Hae Young; Na, Chun Soo; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urushiols are mixtures of olefinic catechols which is isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes). The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer effects of urushiol in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The cytotoxicity of urushiols was assessed by MTT assays on the two gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines, MKN-45 (wild type of p53) and MKN-28 (mutant type of p53). We also examined the action mechanisms of urushiol by analyzing its effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction. Results: The cytotoxic results from MTT assays indicated that urushiol inhibited human gastric cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of approximately 15 and 20 ?g/ml on MKN-45 and MKN-28 cells, respectively. Urushiol mediated cell death on these two cancer cell lines through different pathways. Urushiol induced apoptosis on MKN-45 cells, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear change, DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and apoptotic body formation via extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. However, no apoptotic features were induced by urushiol treatment on MKN-28 cells. Urushiol induced cytostatic cell growth inhibition via upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 proteins and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4 proteins in a p53-independent manner. Conclusions: These data provide evidence that urushiol has the potential to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent in human gastric cancer. PMID:25337543

  11. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  12. Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term laccase-like multi-copper oxidase (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  13. Alternative FIB TEM sample preparation method for cross-sections of thin metal films deposited on polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Felipe; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) are proven tools to produce site-specific samples in which to study devices from initial processing to causes for failure, as well as investigating the quality, defects, interface layers, etc. However, the use of polymer substrates presents new challenges, in the preparation of suitable site-specific TEM samples, which include sample warping, heating, charging, and melting. In addition to current options that address some of these problems such as cryo FIB, we add an alternative method and FIB sample geometry that address these challenges and produce viable samples suitable for TEM elemental analysis. The key feature to this approach is a larger than usual lift-out block into which small viewing windows are thinned. Significant largely unthinned regions of the block are left between and at the base of the thinned windows. These large unthinned regions supply structural support and thermal reservoirs during the thinning process. As proof-of-concept of this sample preparation method, we also present TEM elemental analysis of various thin metallic films deposited on patterned polycarbonate, lacquer, and poly-di-methyl-siloxane substrates where the pattern (from low- to high-aspect ratio) is preserved. PMID:23800729

  14. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  15. Controlled nail delivery of a novel lipophilic antifungal agent using various modern drug carrier systems as well as in vitro and ex vivo model systems.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Sandy; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Kiesow, Andreas; Mrestani, Yahya; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2014-04-28

    The penetration behavior into human nails and animal hoof membranes of a novel antifungal agent (EV-086K) for the treatment of onychomycosis was investigated in this study. The new drug provides a high lipophilicity which is adverse for penetration into nails. Therefore, four different formulations were developed, with particular focus on a colloidal carrier system (CCS) due to its penetration enhancing properties. On the one hand, ex vivo penetration experiments on human nails were performed. Afterwards the human nail plates were cut by cryomicrotome in order to quantify the drug concentration in the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail layer using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. On the other hand, equine and bovine hoof membranes were used to determine the in vitro penetration of the drug into the acceptor compartment of an online diffusion cell coupled with Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. In combination, both results should exhibit a correlation between the EV-086K penetration behavior in human nail plates and animal hoof membranes. The investigations showed that the developed CCS could increase drug delivery through the human nail most compared to other formulations (nail lacquer, solution and hydrogel). Using animal hooves in the online diffusion cell, we were able to calculate pharmacokinetic data of the penetration process, especially diffusion and permeability coefficients. Finally, a qualitative correlation between the penetration results of human nails and equine hooves was established. PMID:24560884

  16. Transungual delivery: deliberations and creeds.

    PubMed

    Thatai, P; Sapra, B

    2014-10-01

    Although considered as trifling illness, nail diseases have a reasonably high occurrence and a noteworthy impact on the patients' quality of life. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the topical treatment for nail diseases to avoid drug interactions and to reduce side effects associated with oral therapy. Topical drug delivery to the nails has established amplified consideration lately. Strategies (such as chemical enhancers, formulation strategies, physical and mechanical methods) are being investigated in order to improve drug permeability across the nail plate. The rationale of this review is to present contemporary information on the structure of human nail along with its comparison with animal hooves. Precincts of nail permeability have been briefly discussed with respect to factors like permeant's molecular size, hydrophilicity, charge and the nature of the vehicle. These factors affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail. Formulations like nail lacquers which mimic cosmetic varnish and colloidal carriers along with nail substitutes that can be utilized for transungual delivery have also been discussed. PMID:24888698

  17. Analysis of the Henze precipitate from the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancio, Aurelio; Scippa, Silvia; Nette, Geoffrey; De Vincentiis, Mario

    The Henze precipitate, a peculiar blue-green microparticulate obtained by lysis of the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Protochordata), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The precipitate was collected from the Henze solution, an unstable red-brown product obtained by treating blood with distilled water, whose degradation yields a characteristic blue-green product. The microparticulates measured 50-100 µm in diameter and appeared irregular in shape. SEM examination showed smooth, roughly round boundaries. The microparticulate surface examined with AFM appeared as an irregular matrix formed by 70-320-nm-wide mammillate composites, including and embedding small (500-800 nm wide) crystal-like multilayered formations. X- ray analysis showed that the elements present in these same precipitates were mainly C, Si, Al and O. The microparticulate composition appeared close to those of natural waxes or lacquers, embedding amorphous silicates and/or other Si-Al components. The unusual occurrence of Si in ascidian blood and its role are discussed.

  18. Worst case aerosol testing parameters: II. Efficiency dependence of commercial respirator filters on humidity pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relative humidity has a degrading effect on the performance of commercially available particulate air-purifying respirator filters. That degradation results from a reduction of charge within the filter. This study was done to evaluate the time-dependent effects of relative humidity pretreatment and the reduction of charge on filter penetration against a most penetrating, ''worst case'' aerosol challenge. Filters of the dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency types were tested after being pretreated in an environment of 38 degrees C and 85% relative humidity for periods up to 42 days. After various intervals of pretreatment (1, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days), the filters were tested against neutralized worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols for percent penetration. The results showed a drop in filter efficiency of approximately 2%-6% depending on preconditioning time, except for the high efficiency filters tested which showed no detectable change.

  19. Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  20. Occupation, occupational exposure to chemicals and rheumatological disease. A register based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Alfredsson, L; Plato, N; Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was compared between different occupations, and between different exposure groups based on a job-exposure matrix (JEM). The study population comprised those subjects who in 1980 lived in one of 13 Swedish counties, were born between 1905 and 1945, and who had stated the same occupation in the censuses of 1960 and 1970, a total of 375,035 men and 140,139 women. The study population was followed concerning hospital care for rheumatoid arthritis in 1981-1983 by lineage to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. In general there were rather small differences in the relative risk of RA in different exposure groups and different occupations. Most of the occupations associated with an increased risk of RA were occupations in which it was possible to work when the disease was present, i.e. cost accountants, estimating clerks and working proprietors in the retail trade. However, an increased relative risk of RA was also observed in some occupations where selection of RA patients out of heavy work should have biased genuinely increased relative risks towards unity. Such occupations were farmers, upholsterers, lacquerers, concrete workers, and hair-dressers. Substantial handling of organic solvents, according to the JEM, was associated with an increased relative risk. PMID:7801054

  1. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-298-2182, Gibson Flatiron, Erica Shell Manufacturing, Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.

    1992-02-01

    In response to a request from the Montana State Health Department, an evaluation was undertaken of exposures to wood dust and lacquer vapors at the Gibson Flatiron/Erica Shell Manufacturing Companies (SIC-3931), Bozeman, Montana. Gibson Flatiron manufactured mandolins and banjoes. Erica Shell Manufacturing Company cuts and grinds abalone and other sea shells into small pieces to be used in designs inlayed into mandolins and banjos. Measured wood dust levels ranged from 0.8 to 32mg/cu m with an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 1.2 to 30mg/cu m. Rib construction and assembly, and planing bulk ebony wood had TWA exposures above the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 5mg/cu m for wood dust. Application of dyes and finishes resulted in low exposures to acetone (67641), toluene (108883), xylene (1330207), and butyl-acetate (123864). No solvent air concentrations were above 10% of their respective PELs. The author concludes that a health hazard existed for exposure to wood dusts. The author recommends the establishment of a respiratory protection program and a hearing conservation program. Emergency egress routes should be marked in the buildings.

  2. Properties of screen printed electrocardiography smartware electrodes investigated in an electro-chemical cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ECG (Electrocardiogram) measurements in home health care demands new sensor solutions. In this study, six different configurations of screen printed conductive ink electrodes have been evaluated with respect to electrode potential variations and electrode impedance. Methods The electrode surfaces consisted of a Ag/AgCl-based ink with a conduction line of carbon or Ag-based ink underneath. On top, a lacquer layer was used to define the electrode area and to cover the conduction lines. Measurements were performed under well-defined electro-chemical conditions in a physiologic saline solution. Results The results showed that all printed electrodes were stable and have a very small potential drift (less than 3 mV/30 min). The contribution to the total impedance was 2% of the set maximal allowed impedance (maximally 1 kΩ at 50 Hz), assuming common values of input impedance and common mode rejection ratio of a regular amplifier. Conclusion Our conclusions are that the tested electrodes show satisfying properties to be used as elements in a skin electrode design that could be suitable for further investigations by applying the electrodes on the skin. PMID:23827015

  3. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  4. Mycology - an update Part 3: Dermatomycoses: topical and systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krger, Constanze; Paasch, Uwe; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of dermatophyte infections is based on the clinical picture and mycological detection of the causative pathogen. Based on the appropriate indication, onychomycosis can be treated topically using an antimycotic nail lacquer. Atraumatic nail abrasion with 40 % urea ointment has a beneficial effect on healing. Continuous treatment of onychomycosis with terbinafine represents the most effective systemic therapy. Terbinafine or itraconazole are the safest and most effective antimycotic agents for the treatment of onychomycosis in children. For laser therapy of onychomycosis, only a few studies on clinical efficacy are available. Regarding tinea capitis, targeted species-specific therapy of dermatophytosis of the scalp is currently recommended. Terbinafine, yet also itraconazole and fluconazole, are effective in tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton species. Microsporum infections of the scalp are preferably treated with griseofulvin, alternatively with itraconazole or fluconazole. Terbinafine is less effective. Candidal intertrigo are topically treated with nystatin, but azoles or ciclopirox olamine are also suitable candidates. Systemically, fluconazole or itraconazole are used. Topical and systemic antimycotics are equivalent forms of therapy in acute vulvovaginal mycosis. Fluconazole is the drug of choice in chronic recurrent vulvovaginal mycosis caused by Candida albicans. Ketoconazole shows very good efficacy in tinea versicolor. With respect to systemic treatment of severe and widespread tinea versicolor, itraconazole is the drug of choice. PMID:25918080

  5. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. PMID:26276254

  6. Study of the migration of photoinitiators used in printed food-packaging materials into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Andre, Catarina; Castanheira, Isabel; Cruz, Jos Manuel; Pastorelli, Sarah; Simoneau, Catherine; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2009-10-28

    Photoinitiators (PIs) are used as catalyzers for inks and lacquers that are cured with ultraviolet (UV) light, and they can contaminate foodstuffs by mass transference.The aim of the present paper is to study the migration of six photoinitiators (Irgacure 184, benzophenone, Irgacure 651, Irgacure 907, ITX, and EHA) into food simulants [distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v) in aqueous solution, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 95% ethanol (v/v) in aqueous solution]. Migration levels of the six PIs into different food simulants were compared after a 30 day contact period with the additivated plastic. A relationship between R (ratio between log K(o/w) and MW) and total migration was found for PIs with log K(o/w) < 5. Key parameters of migration processes were calculated according to a mathematical model based on Fick's second law. Diffusion (D) and partition coefficients were estimated and compared among different simulants, temperatures, and PIs to understand better the mechanisms of the migration process and the physicochemical properties that most influence this phenomenon. For instance, at 5 degrees C, in ethanol 95% (v/v), D ranged between 4.2 x 10(-11) cm/s for Irgacure 907 and 3.0 x 10(-9) cm/s for benzophenone. PMID:19807101

  7. X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, F. E.; Byrnak, B. P.; Hornstrup, A.; Zhu, Shou-Hua; Westergaard, N. J.; Schnopper, H. W.; Jalota, L.

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all the mirrors produced on Al foils shows a scatter which limits the obtainable half-power width to above 1.5 arcmin. Mirrors based on electroformed Ni foils, however, show local regions with a factor of 4 better performance, and they are being developed for future applications.

  8. Evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide spray technology to reduce solvents in a wood finishing process

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, P.M.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to provide an objective evaluation of the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as an alternative technology for spray applied in wood finishing processes using reduced solvent formulations. Union Carbide has pioneered this technology under the UNICARB{trademark} trademark. In the UNICARB{trademark} process, the solvent-like properties of supercritical CO{sub 2} are employed to replace a portion of the organic solvent in the conventional coating formulation. The supercritical CO{sub 2} acts as a diluent solvent to thin the viscous coating just prior to application so that the coating can be atomized and applied with a modified spray gun. According to Union Carbide, 30 to 80 percent of the organic solvent in a coating formulation can be replaced with the supercritical fluid. This evaluation addressed the issues of product quality, pollution prevention potential, and process economics. The testing was conducted at the Pennsylvania House Furniture Company in White Deer, PA. The White Deer facility produces cherry and oak chairs, stools, dining room tables, and four poster beds. At the time of the evaluation, the White Deer plant had been using the UNICARB{trademark} process to apply nitrocellulose lacquer finish on their chair line for over a year with good results. Testing was done to quantify and qualify these results.

  9. Evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide technology to reduce solvent in spray coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, K.J.; Parsons, A.B.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Union Carbide has developed the technology and is currently marketing this process under the UNICARB trademark. The report reviews the UNICARB process as it is used in the application of nitrocellulose lacquer finish on a chair finishing line at the Pennsylvania House Furniture Company in White Deer, Pennsylvania. It also provides a comparative analysis between the conventional spray application methods previously used on the chair finishing line and the new UNICARB process. The report demonstrates that use of the UNICARB process can result in a net reduction in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) without increasing other wastestream products of disposal costs or negatively affecting product quality. The equipment costs and other factors that affect the return on investment for the process can be variable, but a payback period of five years is estimated for the process as implemented at the White Deer facility.

  10. Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Echt, A.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

  12. The Alcan fluidized bed decoater: A new generation of decoating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, F.; Litalien, M.; Stephens, D.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that removal of organic material such as lacquer, paint, plastic prior to melting improves aluminum recovery. In addition to being ail important economically, decoating of aluminum scrap has a positive impact on the environment, through better control of gaseous emissions. Most of the existing thermal decoaters for aluminum have been designed to operate with scrap containing a level of organic material lower than 10%. The main field of their present application is for recycling of used aluminum can, where levels of organic material are lower than 4%. Alcan has recently developed a new thermal decoating system in order to extend applications of this process to a much wider variety of aluminum scrap. The new decoater efficiently processes aluminum scrap with a level of organic material LIP to 50%. This new technology features the use of fluidized bed technology to thermally control the process. This innovative feature improves both performance and control over conventional delacquering systems based on hot air convection. This paper describes the basic principles of the technology and the design of the first industrial unit commissioned by the Alcan Recycling plant in Shelbyville (TN) at the beginning of 1994. Typical applications in operating advantages are discussed.

  13. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:24128521

  14. Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1998-06-01

    There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

  15. "Worst case" aerosol testing parameters: II. Efficiency dependence of commercial respirator filters on humidity pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Moyer, E S; Stevens, G A

    1989-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relative humidity has a degrading effect on the performance of commercially available particulate air-purifying respirator filters. That degradation results from a reduction of charge within the filter. This study was done to evaluate the time-dependent effects of relative humidity pretreatment and the reduction of charge on filter penetration against a most penetrating, "worst case" aerosol challenge. Filters of the dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency types were tested after being pretreated in an environment of 38 degrees C and 85% relative humidity for periods up to 42 days. After various intervals of pretreatment (1, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days), the filters were tested against neutralized worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols for percent penetration. The results showed a drop in filter efficiency of approximately 2%-6% depending on preconditioning time, except for the high efficiency filters tested which showed no detectable change. PMID:2729102

  16. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  17. Determination of nitrocellulose by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; Torre, Mercedes; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    The industrial application of nitrocellulose depends on its nitrogen content. When nitrocellulose presents high nitrogen content is used in the manufacture of explosives whereas nitrocellulose with low nitrogen content is used to make a wide range of daily and non-explosive products (e.g. cigarettes, paints, lacquers). This fact makes really important to develop a method for the determination and discrimination of nitrocellulose samples. This work reports, for the first time, the qualitative determination of nitrocellulose previously derivatized with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) by capillary electrophoresis (CE-LIF) with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). APTS-labeled nitrocellulose was determined in lowly and highly nitrated nitrocellulose samples present in collodions and smokeless gunpowders, respectively, after their pulverization in liquid nitrogen. The method described enables the visual discrimination of different nitrocelluloses on the basis of the different electrophoretic profiles obtained, and provides a useful tool to determine nitrocellulose. Additionally, the use of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) enabled enhanced sample detection, which made it possible to determine nitrocellulose contained in ∼15 μg of gunpowder. PMID:22938620

  18. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  19. Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, J.; Nagy, G. T.; Šuštarič, P.; Šuštar, T.; Rodič, T.

    2010-06-01

    Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1/s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific issues to be solved are polymer hairs in the process and scuffing or scraping of the coating. A realistic simulation of the wall ironing process is needed to understand the processing conditions that influence these phenomena. The Arruda-Boyce model proved to be a good constitutive model for PET in the as supplied state as well as the deformed state of the coating. An improvement can be made by a full thermomechanical coupling of strain rate, temperature and pressure. The major factor of influence in the wall ironing process is the entry angle of the ironing die. To overcome issues with the required small entry angle and high expansion forces in the die a special die profile has been patented.

  20. [Treatment of onychomycoses].

    PubMed

    Halmy, Klra

    2003-10-12

    The author reviews the prevalence of onychomycoses and the factors influencing it. Among the precipitating factors, age and various predisposing diseases play a role in the development of the disease play a role in the development of the disease. The problem affects the toenails more frequently than the fingernails. Distal subungual onychomycosis caused by dermatophytons is most often seen among the various types of the disease. Yeasts and moulds mainly act as contaminants. New diagnostic methods facilitate more precise diagnosis but they cannot replace basic mycological investigations. Orally administered antifungal agents have appeared in the foreground of treatment. Among them fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafin derivatives can safely be applied in combination with certain cauterants. Each of the three agents are effective in approximately 70-80% of cases, especially when applied on fingernails. Combined therapy, such as the application of oral antimycotics and antifungal lacquerers or oral treatment accompanied by the surgical, laser or chemical removal of the affected nail regions, can improve the results. Surviving fungal residues in the substance of the nail may restart the disease. Relapse may also be attributed to neglecting the desinfection of shoes. When choosing the drugs, drug interaction should also be considered. The above three oral antimycotics have few (1-20%) side effects, gastrointestinal ones being the most common among them. A transitory elevation in hepatic enzyme levels may sometimes occur but the changes go back to normal after treatment is over. PMID:14631892

  1. Ciclopirox: recent nonclinical and clinical data relevant to its use as a topical antimycotic agent.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Alessandro; Monti, Daniela; Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-11-12

    Ciclopirox is a topical antimycotic agent belonging to the chemical class of hydroxypyridones and not related to azoles or any other class of antifungal agents. Its antimicrobial profile includes nearly all of the clinically relevant dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds, and is therefore broader than that of most other antimycotics. It is also active against certain frequently azole-resistant Candida species and against some bacteria. The mechanism of action of ciclopirox is different from that of other topical antifungal drugs, which generally act through ergosterol inhibition. The high affinity of ciclopirox for trivalent metal cations, resulting in inhibition of the metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for the degradation of peroxides within the fungal cell, appears to be the major determinant of its antimicrobial activity. This unique and multilevel mechanism of action provides a very low potential for the development of resistance in pathogenic fungi, with cases of resistance rarely reported. Ciclopirox also displays mild anti-inflammatory effects in biochemical and pharmacological models; effects also shown in small clinical studies. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species released from inflammatory cells is a likely contributor to these anti-inflammatory effects. Ciclopirox, and its olamine salt, is available in multiple topical formulations, suitable for administration onto the skin and nails and into the vagina. The pharmaceutical forms most widely investigated are 1% ciclopirox olamine cream and 8% ciclopirox acid nail lacquer, but lotion, spray, shampoo, pessary, solution, gel and douche formulations have also been used. Ciclopirox penetrates into the deep layers of the skin, mucosal membranes and nail keratin, reaching concentrations exceeding the minimal fungicidal concentrations for most medically important fungi. A large number of clinical trials were and are still being performed with ciclopirox, starting in the early 1980s. Ciclopirox was first developed for fungal skin infections and vaginal candidiasis, and is currently well established in these indications. More recently, the drug has been clinically investigated in seborrhoeic dermatitis and onychomycosis, showing good efficacy and excellent tolerability. Emphasis in this review is given to a ciclopirox medicated nail lacquer, which is based on an original technology and has superior properties in terms of its affinity to keratin and nail permeation. It has been found to have superior efficacy and safety to another commercially available formulation in the treatment of onychomycosis. The safety features of ciclopirox are well known. The topical drug is devoid of systemic adverse reactions. Mild local reactions characterized by a burning sensation of the skin, irritation, redness, pain or pruritus, generally in less than 5% of treated patients, can be observed following skin and vaginal application. With nail application, the most common adverse event is the appearance of mild erythema in 5% of the treated population. As a general conclusion, although less effective than some oral antimycotic agents in various indications, ciclopirox compares very well in terms of the benefit/risk ratio due to its excellent tolerability and complete absence of serious adverse effects. PMID:20964457

  2. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

  3. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  4. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blo, P.; Bhme, A.; Mller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 C and 90 C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  5. In vitro permeation and penetration of ciclopirox olamine from poloxamer 407-based formulations--comparison of isolated human stratum corneum, bovine hoof plates and keratin films.

    PubMed

    Tuber, Anja; Mller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-07-15

    Fungal infections of skin and/or nails are common diseases resulting in major challenges in topical treatment. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to develop a dermal formulation targeting both tinea pedis and onychomycosis. The antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine (CPX) was incorporated into a variety of poloxamer 407-based formulations and analysed regarding its in vitro permeation and penetration behaviour across keratin films (KF) and bovine hoof plates as artificial nail models as well as human stratum corneum (SC). The novel compositions consisted of poloxamer 407 (P407), double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. All the formulations exhibited semi-solid to liquid consistencies and were isotropic under a polarising microscope. Upon CPX incorporation, the formulations became softer and the yield stresses decreased. Increasing temperature led to higher complex viscosities. Permeation coefficients (P) from P407-based formulations across KF and bovine hoof plates and normalised retained CPX amounts in KF and bovine hoof plates were higher in comparison to the nail lacquer Ciclopoli() as a marketed reference. Data of KF and bovine hoof plates were comparable, therefore KF are suggested as artificial nail model for in vitro permeation studies besides the well-accepted nail model of bovine hoof plates. With regard to SC permeation, several liquid formulations indicated higher P in comparison to the references Ciclopoli() and the antimycotic skin formulation Selergo() 1% cream, while the normalised retained API amounts in SC were higher in comparison with Selergo() 1% cream or in the same range as Ciclopoli(). PMID:25895717

  6. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  7. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-P.; Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I.; Chiou, Robin Y.; Kan, L.-S.; Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, S.-B.

    2008-03-15

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

  8. High-resolution, submicron particle size distribution analysis using gravitational-sweep sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Mchtle, W

    1999-02-01

    Sedimentation velocity is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex solutions of macromolecules. However, sample turbidity imposes an upper limit to the size of molecular complexes currently amenable to such analysis. Furthermore, the breadth of the particle size distribution, combined with possible variations in the density of different particles, makes it difficult to analyze extremely complex mixtures. These same problems are faced in the polymer industry, where dispersions of latices, pigments, lacquers, and emulsions must be characterized. There is a rich history of methods developed for the polymer industry finding use in the biochemical sciences. Two such methods are presented. These use analytical ultracentrifugation to determine the density and size distributions for submicron-sized particles. Both methods rely on Stokes' equations to estimate particle size and density, whereas turbidity, corrected using Mie's theory, provides the concentration measurement. The first method uses the sedimentation time in dispersion media of different densities to evaluate the particle density and size distribution. This method works provided the sample is chemically homogeneous. The second method splices together data gathered at different sample concentrations, thus permitting the high-resolution determination of the size distribution of particle diameters ranging from 10 to 3000 nm. By increasing the rotor speed exponentially from 0 to 40,000 rpm over a 1-h period, size distributions may be measured for extremely broadly distributed dispersions. Presented here is a short history of particle size distribution analysis using the ultracentrifuge, along with a description of the newest experimental methods. Several applications of the methods are provided that demonstrate the breadth of its utility, including extensions to samples containing nonspherical and chromophoric particles. PMID:9916040

  9. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  10. Comparison of roll-to-roll replication approaches for microfluidic and optical functions in lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Baum, Christoph; Bastuck, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Economically advantageous microfabrication technologies for lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices substituting commonly used glass etching or injection molding processes are one of the key enablers for the emerging market of microfluidic devices. On-site detection in fields of life sciences, point of care diagnostics and environmental analysis requires compact, disposable and highly functionalized systems. Roll-to-roll production as a high volume process has become the emerging fabrication technology for integrated, complex high technology products within recent years (e.g. fuel cells). Differently functionalized polymer films enable researchers to create a new generation of lab-on-a-chip devices by combining electronic, microfluidic and optical functions in multilayer architecture. For replication of microfluidic and optical functions via roll-to-roll production process competitive approaches are available. One of them is to imprint fluidic channels and optical structures of micro- or nanometer scale from embossing rollers into ultraviolet (UV) curable lacquers on polymer substrates. Depending on dimension, shape and quantity of those structures there are alternative manufacturing technologies for the embossing roller. Ultra-precise diamond turning, electroforming or casting polymer materials are used either for direct structuring or manufacturing of roller sleeves. Mastering methods are selected for application considering replication quality required and structure complexity. Criteria for the replication quality are surface roughness and contour accuracy. Structure complexity is evaluated by shapes producible (e.g. linear, circular) and aspect ratio. Costs for the mastering process and structure lifetime are major cost factors. The alternative replication approaches are introduced and analyzed corresponding to the criteria presented. Advantages and drawbacks of each technology are discussed and exemplary applications are presented.

  11. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    PubMed

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  12. Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.

    2013-04-01

    The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 μg/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 μg/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

  13. A natural matrix (pureed tomato) candidate reference material containing residue concentrations of pesticide chemicals.

    PubMed

    Armishaw, P; Millar, R

    2001-06-01

    NARL (the Australian National Analytical Reference Laboratory) is preparing a pureed tomato reference material spiked with residue concentrations of a range of pesticide chemicals relevant to the Australian horticultural industry. Traceable certified pesticide concentration values will be established using both isotope dilution mass spectrometry primary methods (developed within NARL) and measurements carried out by a number of experienced laboratories. As far as we are aware, there is no other similar CRM available anywhere in the world. The need for such a material is evident from the results of interlaboratory proficiency studies conducted by NARL among Australian and Asia-Pacific residue testing laboratories. Many participants are experiencing difficulties with the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables at concentrations of regulatory significance. Chemicals such as methamidophos (an organophosphorus pesticide widely used on tomato crops) are causing particular problems. In a pilot study, a number of units of control (unspiked tomato) and the candidate reference material were prepared and packaged into lacquered steel cans which were sealed and sterilised by immersion in boiling water. Accelerated stability testing of the packaged material was conducted using isochronous measurement. All of the pesticides showed some degree of degradation after 4 weeks of storage at 50 degrees C, and after 168 days of storage at room temperature. However, all appeared to be stable after 168 days of freezer storage. Homogeneity testing involved duplicate test portions taken from every 50th unit of reference material. An experimental protocol was devised with the aim of minimising the analytical variability and assuring the quality of the data generated. There is some degree of inhomogeneity in the prepared material and a small fill trend is also indicated. Potential improvements to the spiking and preparation procedure have been identified and it is planned to prepare a second batch of both control and spiked material for further homogeneity trials and for certification of the pesticide concentrations. PMID:11451254

  14. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  15. Obtainment of pellets using the standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trcul (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Omar Paulino Silva; Oliveira, Leandra Almeida Ribeiro; Martins, Frederico Severino; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Freitas, Osvaldo; da Conceio, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trcul is an alternative for the treatment of vitiligo. There is a shortage of solid oral dosage forms developed from standardized extracts of this plant specie. Objective: This study is aimed to obtain pellets with a standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii. Results: The standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii was obtained through maceration and percolation with a 55% ethanol-water solution (v/v). Pellets were obtained through a mixture of extract of 500 g of B. gaudichaudii standardized extract, 500 g of microcrystalline cellulose PH101 and 10 g of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100. The pellets obtained presented a homogeneity yield of 92%, aspect ratio of 1.16 0.65, shape fator eR of 0.35 0.09 and Feret diammeter of 0.87 0.27. These pellets were coated with a suspension composed of titanium dioxide, aluminum red lacquer, ethyl cellulose, talc and magnesium stearate. Before the photostability test, the uncoated pellets showed psoralen content equal to 0.13 0.01% and to the 5-MOP was 1.40 0.27%. After exposure to one level (3 J.cm-2) of UVB irradiation the uncoated pellets presented a degradation of 2.16% of psoralen and 8.1% of 5-MOP. After exposure to three levels (10, 20 and 30 J.cm-2) of UVA irradiation the uncoated pellets exhibited photodegradation of 9.78, 17.64, 24.21% of psoralen and 18.95, 23.68, 28.48% for 5-MOP. The coated pellets where unaffected after photostability test. Conclusion: Pellets were obtained with the standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii and coating is a technological alternative to ensure the stability of the formula. PMID:25709229

  16. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perring, Loïc; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99+/-5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. PMID:12324843

  17. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  18. Comparison of user-friendliness and treatment cost of Loceryl® vs. Ciclopoli®--a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Jäckel, A; Müller, J; Borelli, C

    2015-10-01

    Topical monotherapy is a valid therapeutic approach in onychomycosis. Due to its lengthy course and its non-reimbursed product status, cost and compliance are important issues and non-pharmacological properties such as over-the-counter price and ease of use should be considered when deciding which product to recommend. We investigated surrogate parameters for patient-friendliness and treatment cost in Germany in a questionnaire-based prospective, comparative, intra-individual, open-label trial of the two common topical antifungal nail lacquers Loceryl(®) (amorolfine 5%) and Ciclopoli(®) (ciclopirox 8%) in eight patients with clinically diagnosed onychomycosis. The 2.5 ml bottle of Loceryl(®) covered a treatment period of 308 days, resulting in treatment costs of €0.10 per day in comparison to the 3.3 ml bottle of Ciclopoli(®), covering 127 days at €0.21 per day, given once-daily application for Ciclopoli(®) and once-weekly application for Loceryl(®) in accordance with regulatory approval. Six out of eight patients favoured the Loceryl(®) treatment regimen. Furthermore, four out of eight patients found Loceryl(®) easier to apply, whereas three preferred Ciclopoli(®). In total, seven out of eight stated a clear preference for Loceryl(®) over Ciclopoli(®). Loceryl(®) therapy is less expensive and less time-consuming. The therapeutic period that can be covered is longer and more patients stated a clear preference for Loceryl(®) in comparison to Ciclopoli(®). The differences are statistically significant, underlining probable clinical relevance. PMID:26393437

  19. Distribution and change of DDT and HCH levels in oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) from coast of Guangdong, China between 2003 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ju L; Jia, Xiao P; Jia, Ting; Lin, Qin; Cai, Wen G

    2009-11-01

    This investigation was undertaken to understand the temporal trend, the spatial distribution and the residue level of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzenes(HCHs) in bivalves from the coast of the South China in recent years. Jinjiang oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) were sampled from 15 bays along the coast of Guangdong province, China between 2003 and 2007. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector was used to quantify the contents of HCH isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH), DDT isomers (p,p'-, o,p'-DDT), p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE in the oyster tissues. The results demonstrate that annual level of DDTs in the tissue increase throughout the study, particularly between 2004 and 2006. The DDTs content in the tissue varied significantly among sampling regions and some sampling sites (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the HCHs content was significantly lower than DDTs content in the tissue (p < 0.01), and remain constant among sampling years, sampling regions and sampling sites (p > 0.10). Predominance of isomer form of DDTs and higher ratio of gamma-HCH/HCHs at some sites indicated that recent input of DDT and lindane in the coastal waters of Guangdong, which might be caused by dicofol spraying in crop planting and lacquer painting on fisher boat. In the soft tissues of the oysters, the highest content of HCHs was 1.21 ng/g (wet weight), and DDTs levels ranged from 0.11 ng/g to 76.3 ng/g (wet weight), far below the Maximum Residual Limits in China and many developed nations. PMID:20183095

  20. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort addresses reported traces of BPA detected using different analytical techniques. In this study, the presence of BPA in different baby feeding bottles was determined. In general, the concentration of BPA released increased with increasing time of heating and longer use. The experimental results also showed that BPA is present in those plastic containers, even though labeled " BPA free". Research and studies done by scientists and other health organizations have agreed to measure BPA levels in human tissue, and determine its negative effects to human health. At this time the source and level of exposure to BPA is unknown. For this reason, much more research is needed to uncover more evidence of this toxic chemical.

  1. Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (λ= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

  2. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  3. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.

    2009-05-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine (Grafica Flextronica, Vasai, India) using the screen printing ink viz. CARBO PASTE DC-1000M and DC-20 (Dozen Tech, Korea). A surface resistivity of a few hundred kΩ/square was obtained on a 100 mm thick polyester sheet of dimension 0.7 M×1.2 M. Curing was done for ˜30 minutes at 150 °C. We are planning to test this film on a glass RPC very soon.

  4. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Gttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Squard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Gttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  5. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of <0.5, 161, 264 and 529 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato juice in 20 volunteers (Study 1) and tin migrated from packaging at concentrations of <0.5, 201 and 267 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (<1000 Da) tin species in the soluble fraction of food products. Results show that the chemical form of tin and not the elemental concentration per se determines the severity of AEs. A clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563391

  6. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an ordinary coating pigment. The char found on intumescence is better in terms of yield and physical properties than chars obtained from many previously known intumescent materials. Prior to intumescence, the coating has a density of 85 pounds per cubic foot. After intumescence, the density is approximately 0.3 pounds per cubic loot. The linear expansion of the coatings ranges from 70 to 200 times the applied coating thickness.

  7. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (

  8. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/bisphenol.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR. PMID:19407859

  9. The structure and genesis of Weichselian to early hologene aeolian sand sheets in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, J.

    1988-03-01

    Weischselian to Early Holocene aeolian sands are widespread in the lowlands of western Europe. To a large extent these deposits occur in the form of sheet-like coversands with slipfaced dunes being much rarer. Whereas the latter type of landform corresponds to a single facies with dune-foreset cross-bedding (= aeolian facies 1), two structurally different facies are distinguishable in the sand sheets. This paper concentrates on the two sand-sheet facies which are referred to as aeolian facies 2 and aeolian facies 3. Data on these two types are based on (1) a survey of existing literature, and (2) a detailed analysis of lacquer peels and larger-scale exposures in England, The Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. Aeolian facies 2 is defined by the spatial position of its beds, which may be either horizontal, inclined or oppositely dipping in the case of structures formed by fluctuating winds. Horizontal bedding is by far the most common type. Inclined bedding is related either to small, isolated dome dunes or to scoop-shaped deflation surfaces. The structures resulting from fluctuating winds are rare and do not represent an inherently large measure of directional variability of the wind regime. The internal structure of the beds is dominated by aeolian planebed lamination with or without concordantly infilled wind-scours. Degradation of this stratification type because of interference by coarse particles is discussed. Aeolian facies 3 is uniquely typified by the alternation of coarser- and finer-grained horizontal thin beds that are either wavy or even in shape. Depositional models of facies 3 are given at both the local and regional scales. In both cases the coarser-grained layers result from tractional deposition of saltating and creeping grains whilst the finer-grained strata were laid down by settling from suspension. Periodic changes in surface wind speed, the presence of a damp depositional surface and the availability of both sand and silt in the source area are necessary conditions for the working of the models. The large-scale model is associated with specific environmental conditions of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial. The local-scale model accounts for the fact that facies 3 is also found in units of Weichselian Late Glacial or Early Holocene age. The regional-scale model involves stepwise tractional transport over long distances so that grains of distant provenance were mixed with material from sources nearer to the receiving site. This process was an important control on the mineralogical composition of the resultant deposits. The prevalence of aeolian planebed lamination in both facies 2 and the coarser-grained layers of facies 3 is attributed to the interaction of three factors, viz. the rarity of topographic barriers, the sparseness of vegetation cover and a high ratio between wind energy and sand availability during the processes of transport and deposition. In the lowlands of Europe, sand sheets are gradually replaced in an easterly direction by coeval wind dunes. The possible causes of this phenomenon are considered.

  10. Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor concentrations using a Licor LI-7000 and dew point (Buck Research Instruments model CR-1A). A suite of experiments was conducted in which the; (i) Aerosol particle composition was varied (4 chemical compounds) (ii) Aerosol particle GMD was varied (40-80 nm) (iii) Aerosol particle total number concentration was varied (2 orders of magnitude) (iv) Tree type was varied (using a range of species and alternately lacquering the trees to prevent active uptake) (v) Light, water vapor content and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber were varied in order to mimic the range of conditions observed at our experimental particle flux site in southern Indiana (see related abstract by Pryor and Hornsby that describes the in situ flux estimates). The results of these laboratory experiments are used to quantify the relative importance of these factors in dictating aerosol particle uptake and specifically the importance of the foliage collection mechanisms at the leaf scale and deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements.

  11. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are produced and filled in Europe per annum, about 20% of these having plain internal (unlacquered) tin-coated steel bodies. Worldwide, the total for food packaging is approximately 80,000 million cans. Tinplate is also extensively used for the production of beverage cans. Europe produces and fills over 15,000 million tinplate beverage cans per annum all of which are internally lacquered. The use of tinplate for food and beverage packaging, will result in some tin dissolving into the food content, particularly when plain uncoated internal surfaces are used. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for tin is 14 mg/kg body weight and recommended maximum permissible levels of tin in food are typically 250 mg/kg (200 mg/kg UK) for solid foods and 150 mg/kg for beverages. However, the question arises as to whether evidence exists that such elevated levels of tin in food in any way constitute a risk to human health. This review considers the factors affecting the dissolution of tin, the reported measurements/surveys of actual levels of tin in canned foods and the studies and reports of acute (short term) toxicity relating to the ingestion of elevated levels of tin in food products. Chronic studies are mentioned, but are not covered in detail, since the review is mainly concerned with possible effects from the ingestion of single high doses. From published data, there appears to be a small amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of food or beverages containing tin at concentrations at or below 200 ppm has caused adverse gastrointestinal effects in an unknown but possibly small proportion of those exposed. However, the evidence supporting this assertion is derived from reports of adverse effects which offer data that are limited, incomplete or of uncertain veracity. Clinical studies provide greater confidence regarding the effects of exposure concentration and dose, but few relevant studies have been made. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were observed in limited clinical studies at concentrations of 700 ppm or above, although no adverse gastrointestinal effects were also reported in two studies at higher concentrations. Overall, therefore, the published data do not present a particularly comprehensive profile on the toxic hazard to man of acute exposure to divalent inorganic tin. A food survey suggested that the contents of almost 4% of plain internal tinplate food cans contain over 150 mg/kg of tin and over 2.5 million such cans are consumed every year in the UK alone. Despite this, in the last 25 years, there have been no reports of acute effects attributable to tin contamination in the range 100-200 ppm. These facts strongly suggest that there is little evidence for an association between the consumption of food containing tin at concentrations up to 200 ppm and significant acute adverse gastrointestinal effects. Clearly though, only further clinical studies will generate unequivocal evidence that current legislative limits provide safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563390

  12. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of tetralin (CAS No. 119-64-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Tetralin is used as an industrial solvent primarily for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; as a solvent for pesticides, rubber, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene); as a dye solvent carrier in the textile industry; as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; in paint thinners and as a paint remover; in alkali-resistant lacquers for cleaning printing ink from rollers and type; as a constituent of motor fuels and lubricants; for the removal of naphthalene in gas distribution systems; and as an insecticide for clothes moths. Tetralin was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity and disposition studies because of its structure, high production volume, and high potential for worker and consumer exposure. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetralin (at least 97% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years; male NCI Black Reiter (NBR) rats were exposed to tetralin by inhalation for 2 weeks. Male NBR rats do not produce 2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of 2u-globulin and renal lesion induction. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male (F344/N and NBR) and five female (F344/N) rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 12 exposures. All rats survived to the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of female rats exposed to 120 ppm and mean body weight gains of female rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Final mean body weights of exposed groups of male NBR rats and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male rats were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in all 120 ppm rats. Squinting, weeping, or matted fur around the eyes were noted in the majority of F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. The 2u-globulin concentrations in the kidney of male F344/N rats were significantly greater in all exposed groups than in the chamber control group. The absolute kidney weight of 60 ppm females and the relative kidney weights of male F344/N rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater and female rats exposed to 15 ppm or greater were significantly increased. The absolute liver weight of 120 ppm NBR male rats and the relative liver weights of male and female rats exposed to 60 or 120 ppm were significantly increased. In the nose, the incidences of mononuclear cell cellular infiltration were generally significantly increased in all exposed groups of rats, and incidences of olfactory epithelium degeneration and glandular hypertrophy occurred in all male F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 13 exposures. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of male and female mice were similar to those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in most of the exposed mice. The absolute and relative liver weights of 60 and 120 ppm males and 30 and 120 ppm females and the relative liver weights of 60 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. In the nose, the incidences of olfactory epithelium atrophy were significantly increased in 60 and 120 ppm males and females. Glandular dilatation occurred in all 120 ppm females, and glandular hyperplasia occurred in all 120 ppm males and females. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. The same exposure concentrations were given to additional groups of 10 male and 10 female clinical pathology study rats for up to 6 weeks and five male renal toxicity rats for 2 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. During the first 4 weeks of exposure, dark-stained urine was observed in the catch pans of rats exposed to 30, 60, or 120 ppm. Tetralin induced a minimal decrease in the erythron in both sexes that resulted in a hematopoietic response. Tetralin increased urine aspartate aminotransferase and urine lactate dehydrogenase activities (males and females) and glucose/creatinine ratio (males), suggestive of renal injury. The absolute kidney weights of 60 and 120 ppm females and the relative kidney weights of males and females exposed to 15 ppm or greater were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Concentrations of 2u-globulin in the kidney of exposed male rats were generally greater than those of the chamber controls at all time points and greater at 6 and 14 weeks than at 2 weeks. There were significantly increased incidences of olfactory epithelium necrosis in rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater and of olfactory epithelium regeneration in 60 and 120 ppm rats. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of 120 ppm males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in the catch pans of mice exposed to 30, 60, or 120 ppm during the first month of the study. Tetralin induced a minimal decrease in the erythron in both sexes that resulted in a hematopoietic response. The relative liver weights of 120 ppm males and 30 ppm or greater females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Incidences of olfactory epithelium metaplasia in 60 and 120 ppm males and females, respiratory epithelium hyaline droplet accumulation in 120 ppm males and 60 and 120 ppm females, cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules within the transitional epithelium lining the urinary bladder in all exposed groups of males and females, and ovarian atrophy and uterine atrophy in 60 and 120 ppm females were significantly increased. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Additional groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to the same concentrations for 12 months. Survival of all exposed groups of rats was similar to that of the chamber controls. Mean body weights of 120 ppm females were 6% less than those of the chamber controls after week 29. Dark-stained urine was observed in all exposed groups of rats. Creatinine-adjusted levels of all urinary metabolites increased with increasing exposure concentration in males and females. In the standard evaluation of the kidney, there were slightly increased incidences of cortical renal tubule adenoma in male rats. In the combined analysis of single and step sections, the incidence of cortical renal tubule adenoma was significantly increased in the 120 ppm group. In the combined analysis, there was also a significantly increased incidence of renal tubule hyperplasia in the 120 ppm group. In 120 ppm males in the standard evaluation, the severity of chronic nephropathy was increased and the incidence of transitional epithelial hyperplasia in the renal pelvis was significantly increased. Three hepatocellular adenomas occurred in 120 ppm females, and one hepatocellular carcinoma each was observed in the 60 and 120 ppm groups. The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and endometrium hyperplasia were significantly increased in 120 ppm females. Incidences of interstitial cell adenoma and germinal epithelium atrophy of the testis in 30 and 120 ppm males were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. The incidences of olfactory epithelium degeneration, metaplasia, basal cell hyperplasia, suppurative inflammation, and mineralization (except 30 ppm females) in the nose were significantly increased in all exposed groups of rats. The incidences of glandular dilatation were significantly increased in 120 ppm males and all exposed groups of females. The incidences of respiratory epithelium chronic inflammation were significantly increased in males exposed to 60 or 120 ppm and all exposed groups of females. The incidences of lens cataract in 120 ppm females were significantly increased. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Additional groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to the same concentrations for 12 months. Survival of 60 and 120 ppm female mice was significantly greater than that of the chamber controls. The mean body weights of all exposed groups of male and female mice were similar to those of the chamber controls by the end of the study. Dark-stained urine was observed in all exposed groups of male mice and in females exposed to 60 or 120 ppm. Creatinine-adjusted levels of all urinary metabolites increased with increasing exposure concentration in males and females. The incidence of hemangiosarcoma of the spleen was increased in 120 ppm females and exceeded the historical control range for inhalation studies. The incidences of olfactory epithelium atrophy, respiratory metaplasia, glandular hyperplasia, and suppurative inflammation in exposed groups of mice were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. Transitional epithelium cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules were present in the urinary bladder of all exposed mice. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:21685956

  13. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Commercial Grade 2,4 (80%)- and 2,6 (20%)- Toluene Diisocyanate (CAS No. 26471-62-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is commercially produced as an approximate 80:20 mixture of the 2,4- and 2,6-isomers. In 1980, 580,000 pounds of this chemical were produced in the United States, primarily for use in the manufacture of flexible polyurethane foams. These foam elastomers are found in furniture and automobile cushions, carpet underlays, pillow filling, mattresses, insulation, shoes, purses, and toys. TDI is also used to produce polyurethane coatings for lacquers and wood finishes. Groups of 50 female F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice were administered commercial grade toluene diisocyanate (80% 2,4- and 20% 2,6-) in corn oil by gavage at doses of 60 or 120 mg/kg body weight, 5 days per week for 105 or 106 weeks. Groups of 50 male F344/N rats received 30 or 60 mg/kg and groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice received 120 or 240 mg/kg on the same schedule. Dosage analyses of toluene diisocyanate indicated that the chemical had reacted in the corn oil vehicle, resulting in actual gavage concentrations 77% to 90% of theoretical values. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil only and served as vehicle controls. Survival in all groups of dosed rats in the 2-year studies were shorter (P

  14. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrahydrofuran (CAS No. 109-99-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Tetrahydrofuran is used as a reaction medium for Grignard and metal hydride reactions; in the synthesis of butyrolactone, succinic acid, and 1,4-butanediol diacelate; in the fabrication of articles for packaging, transporting, and storing of foods; as a solvent for dyes and lacquers; and as a chemical intermediate in polymerization solvent for fat oils, unvulcanized rubber, resins, and plastics. Tetrahydrofuran is also an indirect food additive when it is in contact with the surface of articles intended for use in food processing. Tetrahydrofuran was nominated for study because of the potential for occupational exposure in humans. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetrahydrofuran (approximately 99% pure) by inhalation for 13 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood cells erythrocites. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to 0 (chamber control), 66, 200, 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 14 weeks. All rats survived until the end of the study. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed groups of male and female rats were similar to those of the chamber controls. Immediately after exposure, male and female rats in the 5,000 ppm groups exhibited ataxia. Hematologic and serum chemistry changes were minimal, with most values falling within physiologic ranges. Absolute and relative thymus and spleen weights of male and female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Absolute and relative liver weights of female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Increased incidences of minimal to mild hyperplasia of the forestomach were observed in male and female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm. Minimal suppurative inflammation was associated with forestomach hyperplasia in two male rats and four female rats exposed to 5,000 ppm. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 66, 200, 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 14 weeks. Two male mice exposed to 5,000 ppm died during weeks 2 and 8 of the study; one male mouse from the 5,000 ppm group was killed in a moribund state during week 4. All female mice survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male mice were similar to those of the chamber controls. The final mean body weight and mean body weight gain of the 5,000 ppm female mice were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Male and female mice exposed to 1,800 or 5,000 ppm were observed in a state of narcosis (described by stupor) during exposure periods. Mice exposed to 1,800 ppm were fully awake and alert immediately after exposure; however, mice exposed to 5,000 ppm required up to 2 hours for recovery. Absolute and relative liver weights of male mice exposed to 600 ppm or greater and of female mice exposed to 1800 or 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Absolute and relative thymus weights of male mice exposed to 600, 1,800, or 5,000 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. The incidences of minimal to mild centrilobular cytomegaly of the liver in male and female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. The adrenal glands of all female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm had mild degeneration of the X-zone of the innermost cortex. Uterine atrophy was observed in all female mice exposed to 5,000 ppm. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to 0, 200, 600, or 1,800 ppm tetrahydrofuran by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 105 weeks. Survival, Body Weights, and Clinical Findings Survival and mean body weights of male and feman