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1

On the UV-induced polymeric behavior of Chinese lacquer.  

PubMed

To dry Chinese lacquer rapidly for the protection and restoration of archeological findings coated by lacquer or excavated lacquer wares and the development of new application of this lacquer, we carried out UV curing technology to improve its curing rate using a high-pressure mercury lamp as a UV source in the absence of any additional photoinitiator. The effects of mainly specific components in Chinese lacquer sap and the role of each reactive group of urushiol, namely hydroxyl groups, hydrogen on the phenyl ring, and olefins in the side chain, in the course of UV exposure were well-investigated. The UV-cured Chinese lacquer films were also characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, TGA, and Py-GC/MS. The results showed that urushiol was the main component to form Chinese lacquer films, and decomposed to generate the urushiol semiquinone radicals, which sequentially induced the polymerization of Chinese lacquer by radical polymerization, as well as radical substitution under UV irradiation. In addition, the TG analysis suggested that polysaccharide and glycoproteins were integrated with the UV-cured films by covalent bonding. Furthermore, this method could be suitable to fast cure other phenol bearing long aliphatic unsaturated chain, such as CNSL. PMID:21190328

Xia, Jianrong; Lin, Jinhuo; Xu, Yanlian; Chen, Qinhui

2011-02-01

2

Tales in Sprinkled Gold: Japanese Lacquer for European Collectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the John Paul Getty Museum's online exhibits features Japanese lacquered objects from the Victoria and Albert Museum that were popular among European collectors in the 17th-19th centuries. The highlight of the exhibit is the Mazarin chest, which can be viewed as a slideshow by clicking on "Launch Slideshow", near the top far right hand side of the homepage. Visitors can view the chest from several different angles, use a zoom feature, and pan the images using the arrows below the slideshow images. However, dragging the cursor on the image, instead of using the arrows, allows for more control. Visitors can watch a video entitled "The Making of Japanese Lacquer", by clicking on the link on the far right hand side of the homepage, underneath "Launch Slideshow". For visitors lucky enough to visit the Getty Museum, a multitude of related events can be found under the "Events" tab near the top of the page. Those persons interested in further information on the topic of Asian lacquer can click on the "Publications" tab near the top of the page, which suggests two authoritative books on lacquer. Still more information can be found on the Victoria and Albert Museum website, accessible by the links in the "Learn More" box on the far right hand side of the homepage.

3

Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.  

PubMed Central

We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer bisphenol-A, identified by mass spectrometry, was found as a contaminant not only in the liquid of the preserved vegetables but also in water autoclaved in the cans. The amount of bisphenol-A in the extracts accounted for all the hormonal activity measured. Although the presence of other xenoestrogens cannot be ruled out, it is apparent that all estrogenic activity in these cans was due to bisphenol-A leached from the lacquer coating. The use of plastic in food-packaging materials may require closer scrutiny to determine whether epoxy resins and polycarbonates contribute to human exposure to xenoestrogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 6. PMID:7556016

Brotons, J A; Olea-Serrano, M F; Villalobos, M; Pedraza, V; Olea, N

1995-01-01

4

Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

1998-01-01

5

Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn’t affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

6

Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

1998-01-01

7

Fabrication and characterization of replicated and lacquer-coated grazing incidence optics for X-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication and testing of electroformed replica Wolter I optics made from gold-coated lacquered mandrels are discussed. Also discussed is the testing of gold- and palladium-coated lacquered test flats. X-ray (5 keV for Wolter I mirror and 8-40 keV for test flats) and optical (NCP-1000 profiler) measurements were used to evaluate the mirrors.

Ulmer, Melville P.; Haidle, R.; Altkorn, R.; Georgopoulos, P.; Rodricks, B.; Takacs, P. Z.

1991-01-01

8

Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree ( Rhus vernicifera stokes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were\\u000a below 4 ?g\\/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols\\u000a suggesting that they would

Dong Ho Hong; Sang Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Se Hyung Park; Young Jin Jeon; Myong-Jo Kim; Sang-Soo Kwak; Hwan Mook Kim

1999-01-01

9

Cytotoxicity of urushiols isolated from sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes).  

PubMed

Cytotoxicities of four urushiols, congeners isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), to 29 human cancer cell lines originated from 9 organs were evaluated. Their values of 50% growth inhibition were below 4 microg/ml, and showed cell line specific cytotoxicity. The present result is the first report on the cytotoxicity of urushiols suggesting that they would have an anticancer activity to human cancer cells. PMID:10615873

Hong, D H; Han, S B; Lee, C W; Park, S H; Jeon, Y J; Kim, M J; Kwak, S S; Kim, H M

1999-12-01

10

Evaluation of prolonged exposure of lacquered tinplate cans to a citrate buffer solution using electrochemical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lots of tinplate cans, internally coated with water- and organic solvent-based epoxyphenolic lacquer, were studied. A 0.1 M citric-citrate test buffer solution (pH 3.5) was packed at 90 °C, sterilised at 121 °C and stored at room temperature. A full opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell. Electrochemical a.c. and d.c. experiments were conducted after

J. M. Bastidas; J. M. Cabañes; R. Catalá

1997-01-01

11

Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study  

PubMed Central

In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38–70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48–89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0–21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27–61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

2013-01-01

12

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a Kel-F resin and lacquer  

SciTech Connect

Proton, carbon, and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to determine the concentration of various species present in Kel-F 800 resin and its lacquers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize Kel-F 800 resin and to measure the various chemical species present in a lacquer based on this resin. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of ethyl acetate to xylenes and to estimate the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the water and ethanol content of the lacquer as well as some of its components. Fluorine NMR spectroscopy was also used to estimate the amount of perfluorodecanoate emulsifier present in the Kel-F resin. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the isomeric composition of various batches of xylenes and as an alternate method for measuring the vinylidene fluoride content of the resin. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Rutenberg, A.C.

1985-08-02

13

[Investigation on comparison method of chromatographic fingerprints of lacquer coat of cars and its application].  

PubMed

The comparison method of fingerprints of the lacquer coat of cars (LCC) was established by using thermal desorption instrument with gas chromatography. The actual LCC samples were also analyzed. The samples were cut out to proper size and placed in the desorption furnace of the thermal desorption instrument. The volatile organic compounds in LCC were desorbed from the lacquer coat samples in the furnace under the chosen temperature, then separated in the capillary column and detected on a flame ionization detector of gas chromatography. The incipient judgment whether the two fingerprints of LCC were the same can be made from the contour and figure of the chromatograms. To make farther study of the two similar fingerprints, the overlap ratio of the peaks and relative retention values were given in the article. The two LCC samples can be regarded as the same if the overlap ratio of peaks was more than 90%, and the similarity of the ratio of relative retention times r(t2) and r(t1) and relative peak areas r(A2) and r(A1) in the two fingerprints were more than 99% and 70%, respectively. The method is good in repeatability and is easily carried out. The peaks in the fingerprint can be readily recognized. The fingerprint was characterized quantitatively. The method can be used in the department of traffic police and the comparison result can be used as material evidence in the court. PMID:16499002

Li, Chen; Liang, Bing; Shi, Yanping; Jiang, Shengxiang; Ou, Qingyu

2005-11-01

14

Peripheral Nerve Conduction Study in Workers Exposed to a Mixture of Organic Solvents in Paint and Lacquer Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To compare levels of combined exposure to white spirit, toluene, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and xylene in the manufacturing of paint, cartridge, drying, and top-coat sections of paint and lacquer industry, and peripheral nerve con- duction parameters in the exposed workers. Methods. The exposed group comprised 120 workers while the control group included 110 workers who had never been

Jovica M. Jovanoviæ; Milan M. Jovanoviæ; Mirjana J. Spasiæ; Stevo R. Lukiæ

15

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

16

Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

2014-01-01

17

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

18

Pigments, Paints, Polymer Coatings, Lacquers, and Printing Inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change is constant in the coatings market. As mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships take shape, consolidation and globalization remain prominent. The 80/20 rule (20% of the firms accounting for 80% of business) takes effect as the need for regulatory and environmental compliance continues to plague the market. In 1975, the United States alone supported about 2000 coatings companies. Today, there are less than half that many.

Ryntz, Rose A.

19

Is nanotechnology revolutionizing the paint and lacquer industry? A critical opinion.  

PubMed

Many paints for indoor and outdoor applications contain biocides and additives for protection against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration. The biocides should remain active as long as they are incorporated in the paint. Protection against microbial colonization should last at least a decade. Once the biocides are released they should degrade within a short time so that no accumulation in the environment can occur. The paint industry is not only focusing their research in producing better paint formulations with degradable biocides: they also consider using nanomaterials, such as nanosilver, nanocopper, nanozinc oxide, photocatalytic-active nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of paints, against microbial degradation and physical and chemical deterioration. In the future nanomaterials should replace biodegradable biocides and improve the paint properties as well as impede colonization by microorganisms. At the time there is no guarantee that the nanomaterials in paints and façades will fulfill their task in the long run, since there are no long term studies available. From nanosilver doped paints it is known that silver is easily washed out by rain. Photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide adsorbs ultra violet light (UV-light) and generates hydroxyl radicals, which not only inhibit microbial growth but can also initiate or accelerate the photocatalytic degradation of the paint matrix. Thus at this time it is still unknown if it makes sense to incorporate nanomaterials into paints. Intensive research and development are still needed in order to find the answers. PMID:23178832

Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Zuin, Stefano; Wick, Peter

2013-01-01

20

Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer  

E-print Network

We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the pi+ -> pi0 e+ nu decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-build detection apparatus (RASTA=radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source, cosmic muons and a light emitting diode as complementary probes of the scintillator light response. We have extracted the total light output, axial light collection nonuniformities and timing responses of the individual CsI crystals. These results predict improved performance of the 3 pi sr PIBETA calorimeter due to the painted lateral surfaces of 240 CsI crystals. The wavelength-shifting paint treatment did not affect appreciably the total light output and timing resolution of our crystal sample. The predicted energy resolution for positrons and photons in the energy range of 10-100 MeV was nevertheless improved due to the more favorable axial light collection probability variation. We have compared simulated calorimeter ADC spectra due to 70 MeV positrons and photons with a Monte Carlo calculation of an ideal detector light response.

E. Frlez; Ch. Broennimann; B. Krause; D. Pocanic; D. Renker; S. Ritt; P. L. Slocum; I. Supek; H. P. Wirtz

2000-06-21

21

Selected Bibliography 1. Casals, U.A. Japanese Art Lacquers. Tokyo: Sophia University, 1961.  

E-print Network

University, 1961. 2. Chang Ch'i­yun, ed. et. al. Chung­wen ta tzu­tien, 1962­68; rpt. Taipei: China Academy in the Seventeenth Century, trans, E­tu Zen Sun and Shiou­chuan Sun. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State #12; 188

Binkley, Jim

22

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

23

Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  

PubMed

One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

2014-02-01

24

Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

2009-07-01

25

Gene expression profiling in the human keratinocyte cell line, hacat exposed to urushiol isolated from sap of korean lacquer tree ( Rhus verniciflua Stokes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is a common poison ivy that causes allergy dermatitis. However, RVS has been widely used in Korea as a traditional\\u000a food preservative and herb. RVS sensitization on skin involves the activation of Langerhans cells and keratinocytes, as well\\u000a as T cell-mediated reaction. While keratinocytes are the first line of immune defense against injury and infection on

Ju Youn Park; Jae Ho Chang; Myong Jo Kim; Ju Sung Kim; Soo-Ki Kim

2010-01-01

26

Genotoxicity of the coating lacquer on food cans, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), its hydrolysis products and a chlorohydrin of BADGE.  

PubMed

The epoxy resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), its hydrolysis products and a chlorohydrin of BADGE (BADGE.2HCl), were examined for their genotoxicity in the micronucleus test (MNT) with human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro, in presence and in absence of an exogenous metabolizing system S9 rat liver. The treatment was done using different compound concentrations up to cytotoxic doses. The concentrations tested ranged between 12.5 to 62.5microg/ml of BADGE, 12.5 to 62.5microg/ml of first BADGE hydrolysis product (BADGE.H(2)O), 25.0 to 100.0microg/ml of second BADGE hydrolysis product (BADGE.2H(2)O) and 6.25 to 50.0microg/ml of BADGE.2HCl. These compounds are able to induce both cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, as revealed by the increases observed in cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) and in micronuclei (MN) frequencies, respectively. PMID:11027977

Suárez, S; Sueiro, R A; Garrido, J

2000-10-31

27

The Chemistry of Coatings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

Griffith, James R.

1981-01-01

28

42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mixture of one volume of clear cellulose nitrate lacquer and one volume of lacquer... (6) The concentration of cellulose nitrate in the test aerosol will be 95-125 milligrams...during testing, weighed as cellulose nitrate, shall not exceed 5 milligrams...

2013-10-01

29

42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mixture of one volume of clear cellulose nitrate lacquer and one volume of lacquer... (6) The concentration of cellulose nitrate in the test aerosol will be 95-125 milligrams...during testing, weighed as cellulose nitrate, shall not exceed 5 milligrams...

2012-10-01

30

46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically...the date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this...MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use...111). MIL-W-15117—Water, drinking, canned,...

2013-10-01

31

46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically...the date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of this...MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use...111). MIL-W-15117—Water, drinking, canned,...

2012-10-01

32

Sax Romer's Use of Oriental Words in His Fiction  

E-print Network

already replaced and hybridized any native one, as in Assyrian, lacquered, khedivial, Coptic, Moorish, Bubastite, gauzy, and Aladdin's. In the eight paired adjectives and nouns, the adjective has been functionally shifted from the noun (n. cashmere 1814... already replaced and hybridized any native one, as in Assyrian, lacquered, khedivial, Coptic, Moorish, Bubastite, gauzy, and Aladdin's. In the eight paired adjectives and nouns, the adjective has been functionally shifted from the noun (n. cashmere 1814...

Cannon, Garland

2005-12-07

33

Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liquid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol

MARK W. ACKLEY

1980-01-01

34

A spark chamber for cosmic ray research  

E-print Network

. The Geiger counters used in this apparatus are made of soft (soda lime) glass tubing 1 I/2" in diameter, 18" long with center wires of 5-mil tungsten. The tubes were coated with Dag 3isper- sion No. 194 conducting lacquer to form an exterior cathode.... The Geiger counters used in this apparatus are made of soft (soda lime) glass tubing 1 I/2" in diameter, 18" long with center wires of 5-mil tungsten. The tubes were coated with Dag 3isper- sion No. 194 conducting lacquer to form an exterior cathode...

Jelinek, Al Vincent

2012-06-07

35

Morphology of enamel surfaces treated with topical fluoride agents: SEM considerations.  

PubMed

Three topical fluoride agents deposited surface coatings of different morphology and thickness on intact human enamel surfaces. The agents studied were an acidic silane fluoride lacquer, a neutral NaF lacquer, and an APF gel. Each agent reacted with the enamel surface differently, producing its own distinctive etching pattern. The smallest particles observed in the surface coatings were from 20 to 30 nm in diameter and appeared to have indistinct morphologies. They often agglomerated into spherical globules ranging from 1-3 micron in diameter. PMID:6581197

Nelson, D G; Jongebloed, W L; Arends, J

1983-12-01

36

Development of a material with reproducible emission of selected volatile organic compounds - ?-Chamber study.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found indoors have the potential to affect human health. Typical sources include building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, etc. To address this risk, chemical emission testing is used to assess the potential of different materials to pollute indoor air. One objective of the European Joint Research Project "MACPoll" (Metrology for Chemical Pollutants in Air) aims at developing and testing a reference material for the quality control of the emission testing procedure. Furthermore, it would enable comparison of measurement results between test laboratories. The heterogeneity of the majority of materials makes it difficult to find a suitable reference sample. In the present study, styrene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-?-pyrrolidone, lindane, n-hexadecane, 1,2-dimethyl- and 1,2-di-n-butyl-phthalate were added to 12 commercially available lacquers (6 alkyd and 6 acrylic polymer based lacquers) serving as carrier substrate. After homogenization, the mixtures were loaded into a Markes Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (?-CTE™) for curing and investigation of the emission behavior for each compound. For almost all of the investigated chemicals, the preferred glossy acrylic lacquer showed emissions that were reproducible with a variation of less than 20% RSD. Such lacquer systems have therefore been shown to be good candidates for use as reference materials in inter-laboratory studies. PMID:24418066

Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Wiegner, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

2014-07-01

37

Jeweled Boxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

Coy, Mary

2009-01-01

38

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

39

An Advanced Continuous Tone Plate and Process Compatible with Present Military Lithographic Reproduction Equipment and Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort was to correct the deficiencies of a Continuous Tone Plate and Process. A new developer was formulated. The lacquer was modified to produce the desirable results by removing the pigments and adding proper solvents and a fixing...

1975-01-01

40

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-print Network

, and Issues: In August, hurricanes disrupted production at two TiO2 pigment plants in Mississippi. Although) pigment, valued at about $3.1 billion, was produced by four companies at eight facilities in seven States. Estimated use of TiO2 pigment by end use was paint (includes lacquers and varnishes) 54%; plastic, 27

41

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-print Network

-per-year Le Havre TiO2 pigment plant was shut down owin an average selling price of $15.93 per kilogram. In 2008, titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment, which was valued use of TiO2 pigment by end use was paint (includes lacquers and varnishes), 59%; plastic, 24%; paper

42

Corrosion resistance of the polymer matrix hard magnetic composite materials Nd–Fe–B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the characteristics of the protective polymer, lacquer, and metal coatings put down onto the hard magnetic composite substrate with the polymer matrix, reinforced with the Nd–Fe–B particles with additions of metal powders. Examinations of the coatings’ structures were made with the scanning electron microscopy method. Hardness, thickness, and adhesion tests of the deposited coatings were also made.

L. A. Dobrza?ski; M. Drak; J. Trzaska

2005-01-01

43

V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing…

Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

44

Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an

J. Ratnasingam; V. Nyugen; F. Ioras

2008-01-01

45

Molecular Structure of Urushiol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urushiol is a yellow oil comprised of a mixture of organic compounds containing a catechol (1,2-hydroxy benzene) and a pentadecyl or heptadecyl side chain; some side chains may be unsaturated. The earliest use of urushiol was in the art of ancient Asia, where works of art were coated in lacquer finishes derived from the trees Toxicodendron vernicifluum or Rhus verniciflua. In fact, the name urushiol is derived from urushi, the Japanese word for the lacquer prepared from the sap of the Japanese lacquer tree ("kiurushi"). During the lacquering process, the phenols oxidize and polymerize with the help of enzymes to yield a coating that is hard and resistant to mechanical stress. Inhabitants of North America are familiar with the more malevolent side of urushiol-as the active ingredient of poison ivy and poison oak. Most people are highly allergic to urushiol and will develop redness, painful itching, and blistering of the skin if they touch even minute amounts of the oil. Interestingly, one of the most effective remedies for poison ivy comes also from a plant. The Jewelweed plant (Impatiens capensis) found in North American hardwood forests produces a chemical called Lawsone (a naphthoquinone) with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the effects of urushiol on the skin.

2006-04-19

46

Association of indigo with zeolites for improved colour stabilization , Martinetto P.a,*  

E-print Network

dyes led several ancient civilizations to the manufacturing of artificial pigments, such as lacquer for centuries in the Meso- American tropical forest. The ageing, non-toxicity and durability of such historical achieved in the laboratory. Our approach is to investigate these ancient, archaeological remains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-print Network

. Estimated use of TiO2 pigment by end use was paint (includes lacquers and varnishes) 56%; plastic and rubber consumption E E E E E Recycling: New scrap metal recycled by the titanium industry totaled about 17,000 tons

48

Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546  

E-print Network

, Kathryn Gray, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Butanol is a type of alcohol that has received.Theboomingautomotiveindustry at that time was utilizing byproducts from the alcohol production industry as solvents for their lacquer paints- tities using a process called acetone- butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Depending on the microorganism

Hayes, Jane E.

49

40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...used to determine the VOM content and density of coatings. If it is demonstrated...used to determine the VOM content and density of rotogravure printing inks and related...D1475-85: Standard Test Method for Density of Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and...

2011-07-01

50

40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used to determine the VOM content and density of coatings. If it is demonstrated...used to determine the VOM content and density of rotogravure printing inks and related...D1475-85: Standard Test Method for Density of Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and...

2010-07-01

51

J. Phi-s. II fYance 7 (1997) 543-582 APRIL 1997, PAGE 543 Interaction of Colloidal Particles with Macromolecules  

E-print Network

recent trends in chemical techilology is a wide use of synthetic and natural polymers as stabilizers characteristics and structure of soil, stabilization of lacquers, dyes, and nutritional and pharmaceutical characterized by different effect of the polymer on stability of the colloidal dispersion are determined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Disinfection with gaseous formaldehyde. Second Part: Influence of test materials on formaldehyde residues and the bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness.  

PubMed

The pararosaniline method for the determination of formaldehyde residues on test surfaces after exposure to gaseous formaldehyde was standardized as well as the methods of collection, preparation and desorption from the samples. The analysis of residues on plates of 5 different materials yielded the following amounts of residues after 60 minutes exposure to 3.2 mg HCHO1-1 air at 45 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of about 90%; silicon rubber 287.2 micrograms, lacquered polyurethane foam 109.6 micrograms, lacquered aluminium 30.3 micrograms, plexiglass 13 micrograms and stainless steel 4 micrograms HCHO 100 cm-2. The residues of formaldehyde on lacquered aluminum after an HCHO exposition with condensing layer at 20 and 30 degrees C were 10(3)-fold higher than after an exposition to gaseous formaldehyde without a condensing layer at a relative humidity of about 90% and a temperature of 40 degrees C. The inactivations of S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores on carriers of 5 different materials were determined under the same conditions (60 min, 3.2 mg HCHO 1-1 air, 45 degrees C and a RH of about 90%). The decimal reductions showed that Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was more readily inactivated on non porous plexiglass with a D-value of 0.7 min or stainless steel D = 1.1 min than on porous silicon rubber D = 3 min. For spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger DSM 675, D-values of 1.6 min for plexiglass, 2.3 min for stainless steel, 2.7 min for lacquered aluminium, 3.2 min for lacquered polyurethane foam and 4.1 min for silicon rubber were registered. PMID:2476137

Casella, M L; Schmidt-Lorenz, W

1989-08-01

53

The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

2014-01-01

54

The role of topical antifungal therapy for onychomycosis and the emergence of newer agents.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

Del Rosso, James Q

2014-07-01

55

Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih

2008-01-01

56

Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics.  

PubMed

Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liguid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol concentration dradients arise when the nozzle is not properly positioned. Filter loading resistance is significantly affected by these concentration variations. With regard to selection of standard aerosol test be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of the particle-size distribution, a more precise definition of the paint and paint thinner chemical compositions, and a narrower concentration range. PMID:6932174

Ackley, M W

1980-05-01

57

Production and evaluation of super-smooth dip-coated foils for high throughput X-ray telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput X-ray telescopes require thin mirrors with supersmooth surfaces, typically with rms surface roughnesses of 5 A. A simple and inexpensive process for coating suitable substrates with an acrylic lacquer to achieve a high-quality surface finish was examined for several candidate materials, including rolled aluminum foil, polyester sheet, and diamond-turned flats. X-ray scattering experiments found that surface roughnesses in the spatial frequency range of 2-70/mm were attenuated by up to a factor of seven. Below 2/mm, the lacquer is unable to reduce the roughness and actually degrades the surface quality. The aluminum foil had striations of depth and width on the order of 1 micron which proved impossible to remove. The polyester surface had a roughness of 11 A rms in the spatial frequency range 18-70/mm, but suffered from large profile errors.

Jalota, L.; Willingale, R.

58

Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC ˜ 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

2012-07-01

59

Heating of thin products by means of transverse-flux inductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some forms of metallic products which do not lend themselves well to induction heating upon first consideration, either because of their shape (small thickness) or their nature (materials with low resistance). In particular, this applies to all products in the form of a thin sheet. Various applications are suggested such as the drying of the sheet after pickling the heating of the sheet in order to dry or harden varnish lacquer, and the heat treatment of aluminium sheet.

1980-02-01

60

Effect of packaging materials on storage stability of crude palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacquered metal cans, green glass bottles, amber glass bottles, clear glass bottles and clear plastic bottles filled with\\u000a freshly produced Nigerian crude palm oil were stored in direct sunlight (401C) and in the dark (271C). Assessment of the\\u000a stability of the oils towards hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration was made periodically by measuring the free fatty acid,\\u000a peroxide and anisidine values

Nnadozie N. Nkpa; F. C. Osanu; T. A. Arowolo

1990-01-01

61

Effect of various packaging materials on storage stability of refined, bleached, deodorized palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refined, bleached, deodorized palm oil (RBD palm oil) was packaged in lacquered metal cans (LMC), green glass bottles (GGB),\\u000a amber glass bottles (AGB), clear glass bottles (CGB), clear plastic bottles (CPB) and sealed polyethylene film (POLET), and\\u000a stored in direct sunlight (40 1C) or in darkness (27 1C). Measurements of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value and\\u000a anisidine value, at

N. N. Nkpa; T. A. Arowolo; F. C. Osanu

1992-01-01

62

Effect of pasteurisation on sensory quality of natural soursop puree under different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasteurisation effects on natural soursop (Annona muricata L.) puree were evaluated in terms of appearance, colour, flavour, odour, consistency and overall acceptability for 12 weeks. The packaging and storage temperature combinations used were laminated aluminium foil (LAF), lacquered can (LC) and high density polyethylene plastic bottle (HDPE) at ambient temperature (28–38°C), 15, 4 and ?20°C. Results showed pasteurisation at 79°C

A Umme; S. S Bambang; Y Salmah; B Jamilah

2001-01-01

63

Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1973-December 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the formulations and processes for radiation curing on polyester resins. Effects of radiation curing on polyester resins are also discussed. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also examined. Applications in adhesives, coatings, lacquers, and printing inks are included. (Contains 200 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-01-01

64

Comparison Between The Thermoelastic Method And Other Experimental Techniques For Stress Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress measuring techniques have, for the last fifty years or so, been centred upon single point methods utilising the resistance strain gauge. Measurements over relatively large areas have been possible using photoelastic coatings and brittle lacquers but truly non-contacting techniques have had to await developments in optical technology to achieve widespread use. This paper reviews available techniques of stress measurement and makes comparison between them.

Everett, G. M.

1989-07-01

65

Special features of point defect accumulation in coatings based on titanium dioxide doped with Al 2 O 3 nanopowders  

Microsoft Academic Search

sublattices of the titanium dioxide pigment undoped and doped with Al2O3 nanopowders are also analyzed. We investigated coatings based on TiO2 pigment of specified purity grade (OSCh) ?-02 and AK-113 lacquer in the 0.7:0.3 ratio. The content of the Al2O3 nanopowder in the pigment was 8 mass%, which was optimal for the given pigmentnanopowder pair [2]. The nanopowders were produced

M. M. Mikhailov; N. V. Dedov; A. N. Sokolovskii; V. V. Sharafutdinova

2007-01-01

66

Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

Holinski, R.

1984-01-01

67

Human Health Risk on Environmental Exposure to Bisphenol-A: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol-A (BPA), identified as an environmental hormone (i.e., endocrine disruptor), is an industrially important chemical that is being used as a primary raw material for the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polycarbonate\\/epoxy resins), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites\\/sealants. From the ecotoxicology, human health and regulatory points of view, it is urgent to restrict the emissions and releases

WEN-TIEN TSAI

2006-01-01

68

New concept of failure of thin organic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings was determined by a nondestructive\\u000a technique (NDT) known as laser shearography. The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premium-grey enamel, a yellow acrylic\\u000a lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20–60\\u000a °C. The

Khaled Habib

2011-01-01

69

Molecular Structure of Cyclohexane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyclohexane exists naturally in petroleum, but is also commercially produced by hydrolyzing benzene. It is relatively volatile with a boiling point lower than that of water. The ability of cyclohexane to assume different conformations lends itself to a vast array of chemistry. Cyclohexane is used as a solvent for lacquers and resins, as a paint intermediate and varnish remover, in the extraction of essential oils, and in analytical chemistry for molecular weight determination. Also it is used in the manufacture of adipic acid, benzene, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexyl chloride, nitrocyclohexane, solid fuel for camp stoves, in industrial recrystallization of steroids, and in fungicidal formulations. Cyclohexane is also used in the preparation of nylon.

2002-08-14

70

Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

2010-01-01

71

Development of techniques for photographing brittle coatings in fracture studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review of photography is presented, introducing the parameters studied and the techniques in use. This information is used as the basis for determining the types of film and corresponding development techniques which are best suited for photographing undirectional composite laminates coated with a brittle lacquer. From the photographs, a film and development procedure were determined which yield the sharpness required. Conclusions and recommendations are presented as well as the photographs used in the analysis. Finally, a detailed procedure for photographing and processing is included.

Crawford, R. K.

1982-12-01

72

Treatment of onychomycosis: an update.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

Shirwaikar, A A; Thomas, T; Shirwaikar, A; Lobo, R; Prabhu, K S

2008-11-01

73

Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.

2008-01-01

74

Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

1992-01-01

75

PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2005-01-01

76

Add fluorescent minitufts to the aerodynamicist's bag of tricks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experience has demonstrated the feasibility of routinely using fluorescent minitufts to visualize low-speed and transonic flows. This extension of the traditional yarn technique permits large numbers of minitufts to be applied to the surfaces of a wind tunnel model, yet produces negligible interference with the flow. Extremely thin fluorescent nylon monofilament (diameter as small as 0.0007 in.) forms the tufts. Small drops of lacquer-type adhesive attach the tufts to the model. Fluorescence photography records the visual data.

Crowder, J. P.

1980-11-01

77

Comparison of dust released from sanding conventional and nanoparticle-doped wall and wood coatings  

PubMed Central

Introduction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into traditional surface coatings (e.g., paints, lacquers, fillers) may result in new exposures to both workers and consumers and possibly also a new risk to their health. During finishing and renovation, such products may also be a substantial source of exposure to ENPs or aggregates thereof. This study investigates the particle size distributions (5.6?nm–19.8??m) and the total number of dust particles generated during sanding of ENP-doped paints, lacquers, and fillers as compared to their conventional counterparts. In all products, the dust emissions from sanding were found to consist of five size modes: three modes under 1??m and two modes around 1 and 2??m. Corrected for the emission from the sanding machine, the sanding dust, was dominated by 100–300?nm size particles, whereas the mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the micrometer modes. Adding ENPs to the studied products only vaguely affected the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes in the sanding dust when compared to their reference products. However, we observed considerable differences in the number concentrations in the different size modes, but still without revealing a clear effect of ENPs on dust emissions from sanding. PMID:20485339

Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Schneider, Thomas

2011-01-01

78

Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn

2013-01-01

79

New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.

2012-06-01

80

Establishment of a Novel Model of Onychomycosis in Rabbits for Evaluation of Antifungal Agents ?  

PubMed Central

We developed a novel model of onychomycosis in which we observed fungi in the deep layer of the nail, and we used the model to evaluate the efficacy of two topical antifungal drugs. To establish an experimental, in vivo model of onychomycosis, we applied Trichophyton mentagrophytes TIMM2789 to the nails of the hind limbs of rabbits that underwent steroid treatment. The nails were taken from the rabbits' feet at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after a 2-week infection. The localization of the fungi was evaluated histopathologically. Some fungi were seen to penetrate to the nail bed, and the infection rate in the sample at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after infection was 57, 87, and 93%, respectively. In addition, fungi proliferated and moved proximally into the nail plate in a manner that depended on the duration of infection. Second, using this model we evaluated antifungal efficacy both by the culture recovery method and histopathological examination. Two topical antifungal drugs, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer, were applied to the nail for 4 weeks in each group. On histopathological examination, two antifungal treatment groups showed no significant difference against the nontreated control group. However, there were a significantly low fungus-positive rate and intensity of the recovery of fungi on culture between antifungal treatment and nontreated control groups. We therefore suggest that we have established an in vivo model of onychomycosis that is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:21555762

Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Saori; Suzuki, Taku; Mukai, Hideki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2011-01-01

81

"Worst case" aerosol testing parameters: I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate.  

PubMed

The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called "worst case" set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory. PMID:2729101

Stevens, G A; Moyer, E S

1989-05-01

82

Comparison of dust released from sanding conventional and nanoparticle-doped wall and wood coatings.  

PubMed

Introduction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into traditional surface coatings (e.g., paints, lacquers, fillers) may result in new exposures to both workers and consumers and possibly also a new risk to their health. During finishing and renovation, such products may also be a substantial source of exposure to ENPs or aggregates thereof. This study investigates the particle size distributions (5.6?nm-19.8??m) and the total number of dust particles generated during sanding of ENP-doped paints, lacquers, and fillers as compared to their conventional counterparts. In all products, the dust emissions from sanding were found to consist of five size modes: three modes under 1??m and two modes around 1 and 2??m. Corrected for the emission from the sanding machine, the sanding dust, was dominated by 100-300?nm size particles, whereas the mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the micrometer modes. Adding ENPs to the studied products only vaguely affected the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes in the sanding dust when compared to their reference products. However, we observed considerable differences in the number concentrations in the different size modes, but still without revealing a clear effect of ENPs on dust emissions from sanding. PMID:20485339

Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Schneider, Thomas

2011-01-01

83

Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

2014-07-01

84

EuroGeoMars mission and techniques: First results for geology and geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EuroGeoMars expedition forms part of the European Space Agency's ExoGeoLab research project and is a test campaign at the MDRS (Mars Desert Research Station), which is operated by the Mars Society, in the Utah desert, US. MDRS has yet been used by research groups of various interest as an analogue site to the Martian environment. The goal of this expedition is to simulate the employment of various instruments and sample return under Martian conditions, while carrying out several geological and biological investigations. In this paper we present our methods and first results for the geological and geochemistry investigations. Two main geological investigations have been carried out, of which one includes mapping of the sequence stratigraphy and internal structure of Quaternary alluvial fan deposits, 5 km South-West of the MDRS. Alluvial fans are formed when a stream gradient decreases over a relatively small area and therefore coarse-grained sediments are being deposited. Alluvial fans on Mars are of particular interest because they may have formed, as they do on Earth, a niche for life at deposition time. If any was present, the sediments may contain detritus that was transported by the river from the hinterland. Furthermore, the internal structure and lithology represent the depositional environment, water activity, and climatological perturbations. These three factors provide main implications for the conditions and possibilities of maintaining life. Mineralogical variations represent changes in the source area of the sediments and hence possible tectonic activity. The fan that we investigated measures 1.5 x 1.5 km and is made up of several stratigraphic sequences that we defined by classic geological methods. We followed the sedimentary sequences laterally using a Ground Penetrating Radar system (GPR) and taking samples for ground truth by drilling. All samples were analyzed on mineral content using Raman spectroscopy and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for mineralogical and elemental analysis respectively. We created lacquer peels from several sequences in order to sample and study sedimentary structures. The procedure to make lacquer peels is to poor lacquer over an outcrop and sticking the unconsolidated sediments to a piece of cloth, which is subsequently pasted upon a hardboard plank. Another investigation that was carried out focuses on the possibilities and restrictions to the geologist for future fieldwork on Mars. Hence the investigators did similar type of experiments as for the alluvial fan, wearing spacesuits and spending restricted time outside as they would on a Martian base. The EuroGeoMars expedition is the first in a series of manned planetary mission simulations.

Peters, S. T. M.; Borst, A.; Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Slob, E.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B.

2009-04-01

85

Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)

1983-01-01

86

Temperature stability of transit time delay for a single-mode fibre in a loose tube cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature on the transit-time delay of a loose-tube-type single-mode optical-fiber cable is investigated experimentally. A 1058-m length of cable was placed loosely coiled in an oven and used to connect a 820-nm single-mode laser diode to a high-speed avalanche-photodiode detector feeding a vector voltmeter; the signal was provided by a high-stability frequency-synthesized generator. Measurements were made every 2 C from -50 to 60 C and compared to those obtained with a 200-m lacquered bare fiber. The phase change of both fibers varied with temperature at a positive slope of 6-7 ppm/C. This value is significantly better than those reported for other cable types, suggesting the application of loose-fiber cables to long-haul gigabit digital transmissions or precision time-base distribution for VLBI.

Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.; Johnston, A. R.

1983-01-01

87

Optical and electrical properties and long term stability of transparent, infrared-reflecting coatings on polymer substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent, infrared (IR) - reflective coatings are commenly used for energy saving because they protect against heat loss due to radiation through windows. Basic physics tells us that the degree of IR-reflection and the electrical conductance are positively correlated , therefore this type of films is also of interest in the field of electro-magnetic shielding, e.g. for data security or for the protection of operators at work-stations against irritation by ejected dust particles. We have prepared such films consisting of the coating sequence dielectric / silver / dielectric by magnetron sputtering on polymer substrates. We investigated their optical and electrical data after preparation and under the influence of corrosive atmosphere. As a further optional element of protection against film-degradation some of the coatings where overcoated with an organic lacquer of low IR-absorbtance. The details of these investigations will be presented in this paper.

Neveling, V.; Muller, Werner; Pytlik, H.

1989-03-01

88

Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

Groshart, E.

1984-01-01

89

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

90

Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols  

PubMed Central

Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110?kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted. PMID:22545205

Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

2012-01-01

91

Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

2013-07-01

92

The microhardness of articular cartilage.  

PubMed

The standard metallurgical technique of microhardness testing was useful for investigations on the physical properties of articular cartilage. The problem of visco-elasticity of the cartilage was overcome by using a brittle lacquer coating as a memory device. The surface layer was the hardest plane when the superficial layer was intact. Removal of the superficial layer however, made this plane the softest. There was no variation in hardness with depth. The plane at right angles to the vector of movement of the joint was harder than the plane parallel to the vector of movement. This indicates the presence of a secondary fiber system in the middle layer of articular cartilage. The fibers in this system run predominantly at right angles to the direction of motion of the joint. PMID:1139832

Cameron, H U; Pillar, R M; Macnab, I

1975-05-01

93

Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates was conducted in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the fiber stresses and displacements and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agreed well with those predicted by the models. It was shown that for thin laminates the amount of damage and the fiber displacements do not depend strongly on the number of plies for a given notch width.

Jones, F. W.; Goree, J. G.

1983-01-01

94

Directional emittance surface measurement system and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

95

Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (inventors)

1985-01-01

96

Measurement of surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films by a combination of optical shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shearography techniques were applied again to measure the surface resistivity/conductivity of different organic thin films on a metallic substrate. The coatings were ACE premium-grey enamel (spray coating), a yellow Acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a carbon steel substrate. The investigation was focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coatings by shearography between 20 and 60 °C. Then, the alternating current (AC) impedance (resistance) of the same coated samples was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.0% NaCl solution at room temperature. As a result, the proportionality constant (resistivity or conductivity = 1/surface resistivity) between the determined AC impedance and the in-plane displacement was obtained. The obtained resistivity of all investigated coatings, 40:15 × 106-24:6 × 109?cm, was found in the insulator range.

Habib, Khaled

2013-11-01

97

Penetration of ((14)C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors' nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors' findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

Zeichner, Joshua A; Stein Gold, Linda; Korotzer, Andrew

2014-09-01

98

Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically.

Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

2014-01-01

99

Survey of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.  

PubMed

2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to find out if there is migration of BADGE from can coatings into foods, a 'worst case' sampling exercise has been conducted to survey those canned foods where the propensity for migration of BADGE was judged to be highest. The foods surveyed include canned fish in oil, meat and milk and, altogether, BADGE was determined in 181 retail samples. Analysis for BADGE was conducted, in duplicate, by HPLC with fluorescence detection with confirmation of BADGE identity by GC/MS analysis using selected ion monitoring. BADGE was found at levels exceeding 1 mg/kg in seven of the 15 canned anchovy samples and five of the 22 sardine samples purchased during the period September 1995-July 1996. Infrared analysis of the can coatings provided strong evidence that the higher BADGE levels found were associated with use of PVC organosol lacquers, although in some cases cans coated with organosols gave low BADGE results. For canned sardine samples found to contain greater than 0.5 mg/kg BADGE in the total contents, a replicate can was opened and separate analyses performed on the drained fish and the oil. The results clearly showed that BADGE concentrations in the oil were about 20 times higher than in the drained fish. Further samples of canned sardines and anchovies were purchased in June/July 1997 and, in all cases, BADGE levels were found to be below 1 mg/kg. In the other retail canned foods, BADGE was not detectable (DL = 0.02 mg/kg) or detected at concentrations well below the temporary SML of 1 mg/kg. PMID:10211191

Summerfield, W; Goodson, A; Cooper, I

1998-10-01

100

Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (? > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

2014-10-01

101

Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (?>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.

2012-12-01

102

Migration of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and its reaction products in canned foods.  

PubMed

Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is used as an additive or starting agent in coatings for cans. The presence of hydrochloric acid in the organosol (PVC-based) lacquers results in formation of chlorohydroxy compounds of BADGE. These compounds, as well as BADGE itself, are potential migrants into the preserved food and are of toxicological concern. In the present investigation the presence of BADGE and the chlorohydroxy compounds (BADGE.HCl and BADGE.2HCl) in various kinds of canned foods from 30 brands have been determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. BADGE was found in levels up to 5.1 mg/kg in the food and only in food from cans containing BADGE.HCl and BADGE.2HCl in the lacquers. BADGE was found both in fish in oil and in fish in tomato sauce, however, the highest amounts were found in the fatty foodstuffs. BADGE.HCl and BADGE.2HCl were found in concentrations up to 2.4 mg/kg and 8.3 mg/kg, respectively. Unlike BADGE, BADGE.2HCl was found in similar concentrations in fish in oil and in fish in tomato sauce. In aqueous and acidic foodstuffs BADGE readily hydrolyses into mono- and dihydrolysed products (BADGE.H2O and BADGE.2H2O). In this study BADGE.H2O was not found in any food sample, whereas BADGE.2H2O was found in levels up to 2.6 mg/kg. The Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) of the European Commission has proposed that a limit of restriction of 1 mg/kg food shall include BADGE itself and BADGE.H2O, BADGE.HCl, BADGE.2HCl and BADGE.HCL.H2O. The present results indicate that the migration of BADGE.HCl and BADGE.2HCl, compounds with almost no data on toxicity, implies a greater problem than BADGE.H2O and BADGE.2H2O. PMID:11271708

Hammarling, L; Gustavsson, H; Svensson, K; Oskarsson, A

2000-11-01

103

Effects of the Acrylic Polyol Structure and the Selectivity of the Employed Catalyst on the Performance of Two-Component Aqueous Polyurethane Coatings  

PubMed Central

Two kinds of aqueous acrylic polyols (single step and multi step synthesis type) have been investigated for their performance in the two-component aqueous polyurethane application, by using more selective catalysts. The aliphatic polyfunctional isocyanates based on hexamethylen diisocyanates have been employed as suitable hardeners. The complex of zirconium, commercially known as K-KAT®XC-6212, and manganese (III) complexes with mixed ligands based on the derivative of maleic acid have been used as catalysts in this study. Both of the aqueous polyols give good results, in terms of application and hardness, when elevated temperatures and more selective catalysts are applied. A more selective catalyst promotes the reaction between the isocyanate and polyol component. This increases the percentage of urethane bonds and the degree of hardness in the films formed from the two components of aqueous polyurethane lacquers. The polyol based on the single step synthesis route is favourable concerning potlife and hardness. The obtained results show that the performance of the two-component aqueous polyurethane coatings depends on the polymer structure of the polyols as well as on the selectivity of the employed catalyst.

Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Stamenkovic, Jakov; Ristic, Nikola; Takic, Ljiljana; Barac, Miroljub; Gligoric, Miladin

2007-01-01

104

Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (inventors)

1982-01-01

105

The effect of light exposure on the degradation of latent fingerprints on brass surfaces: the use of silver electroless deposition as a visualization technique.  

PubMed

We have studied the degradation of sebaceous fingerprints on brass surfaces using silver electroless deposition (SED) as a visualization technique. We have stored fingerprints on brass squares either (i) in a locked dark cupboard or (ii) in glass-filtered natural daylight for periods of 3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. We find that fingerprints on brass surfaces degrade much more rapidly when kept in the light than they do under dark conditions with a much higher proportion of high-quality prints found after 3 or 6 weeks of aging when stored in the dark. This process is more marked than for similar fingerprints on black PVC surfaces. Identifiable prints can be achieved on brass surfaces using both SED and cyanoacrylate fuming (CFM). SED is quick and straightforward to perform. CFM is more time-consuming but is versatile and can be applied to a wider range of metal surfaces than SED, for example brass surfaces which have been coated by a lacquer. PMID:25182300

Payne, Imogen C; McCarthy, Imogen; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

2014-09-01

106

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-01-01

107

Onychomycosis Caused by Chaetomium globosum  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. The genus Chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. We report the first Korean case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. The patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th). Direct microscopic examination of scraping on the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed septate hyphae and repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide slants showed the same fast-growing colonies, which were initially velvety white then turned to dark gray to brown. However, there was no growth of colony on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Brown-colored septated hyphae, perithecia and ascospores were shown in the slide culture. The DNA sequence of internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of C. globosum strain ATCC 6205 (GenBank accession number EF524036.1). We confirmed C. globosum by KOH mount, colony, and light microscopic morphology and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated with 250 mg oral terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. PMID:23717019

Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Myung Hoon; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo; Choi, Jong Soo

2013-01-01

108

Alternative FIB TEM sample preparation method for cross-sections of thin metal films deposited on polymer substrates.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) are proven tools to produce site-specific samples in which to study devices from initial processing to causes for failure, as well as investigating the quality, defects, interface layers, etc. However, the use of polymer substrates presents new challenges, in the preparation of suitable site-specific TEM samples, which include sample warping, heating, charging, and melting. In addition to current options that address some of these problems such as cryo FIB, we add an alternative method and FIB sample geometry that address these challenges and produce viable samples suitable for TEM elemental analysis. The key feature to this approach is a larger than usual lift-out block into which small viewing windows are thinned. Significant largely unthinned regions of the block are left between and at the base of the thinned windows. These large unthinned regions supply structural support and thermal reservoirs during the thinning process. As proof-of-concept of this sample preparation method, we also present TEM elemental analysis of various thin metallic films deposited on patterned polycarbonate, lacquer, and poly-di-methyl-siloxane substrates where the pattern (from low- to high-aspect ratio) is preserved. PMID:23800729

Rivera, Felipe; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

2013-08-01

109

Industrial surface inspection by wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet analysis is a processing method for the description of single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales and therefore well suited for describing technical surfaces with variable resolution. Here optically measured height data of technical surfaces are wavelet-transformed along two dimensions with two different objectives: One is the representation with only a few coefficients in the sense of an efficient data compression, the other is the reliable detection of defects, which can be regarded as a pattern recognition task. A systematic comparison of various wavelet families results in the choice of the biorthogonal pseudo-coiflets for representing the surfaces, and differentiating wavelets like Burt-Adelson-wavelet or short-range Daubechies-wavelets for solving the defect detection problem. It is shown that the representation can be improved by not using the most significant wavelet-values - which can be interpreted as low-pass filtered coefficients, but to maintain those with the largest weights. Thus the variance between the original surface and that reconstructed from the representation data is minimized by a factor up to 4. Defect detection is best performed with separate transformation in two orthogonal directions with subsequent superposition. The procedures obtained here are applied to surfaces like a coin-surface, a copper-mirror surface, and a lacquered surface.

Kreis, Thomas; Rosenboom, Lars; Jüptner, Werner

2011-05-01

110

Surface description and defect detection by wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet analysis is a method to describe single- or multi-dimensional signals in multiple scales. Optically measured two-dimensional height data describing engineering surfaces are effectively represented by wavelet transforms enabling a reliable description of even complicated formed surfaces by a drastically reduced number of coefficients as well as the detection of component defects of different types. Reconstruction with only 0.1% of all wavelet coefficients of 4-4-pseudo-coiflets leads to a variance of the difference image between original and reconstructed surface of less than 0.07 of the variance of the original surface. Keeping the coefficients with highest values gives an up to four times better result than keeping the coefficients belonging to the lowest frequencies. Defects are effectively detected with the help of Burt-Adelson and Daubechies wavelets. Local defects in the range of 8 nm can be made visible. Lacquer pits are localized in the higher resolution stages of 4-4-pseudo-coiflet-transforms.

Rosenboom, Lars; Kreis, Thomas; Jüptner, Werner

2011-04-01

111

Reduction of volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing  

SciTech Connect

Automobile refinishing (repainting) is a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The study was conducted to evaluate available techniques that can be used to reduce VOC emissions from this source. The document provides information on the steps involved in the refinishing process which result in emissions, available emission reduction techniques, VOC emission levels, VOC emission reductions, and costs associated with the reduction techniques. Techniques investigated include (1) reduced-VOC cleaners, (2) replacement of lacquers with enamels, (3) replacement of enamels with polyurethanes, (4) replacement of solvent-borne primers with waterborne primers, (5) replacement of conventional clearcoats with higher-solids clearcoats, (6) installation of cleanup solvent recovery systems, (7) replacement of conventional spray guns with higher transfer efficiency equipment, and (8) add-on controls. The primary conclusions from the study are: (1) the use of available techniques could result in VOC emission reductions ranging from 3-50% of the current estimated baseline emissions from typical refinishing shops; and (2) the annualized costs for many of the available techniques are less than the cost of current practices.

Athey, C.; Hester, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Neulicht, R.M.; Turner, M.B.

1988-10-01

112

Chamber testing of organic emission from building and furnishing materials.  

PubMed

The equipment and the procedure employed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the volatile organic compounds emitted from samples of building and furnishing materials are described. The equipment includes two small test chambers (0.45 m3), with accurately controlled temperature, relative humidity and air flow rate, and instrumentation for sampling and analysis (Tenax tubes, GC-FID and GC-MS). To find quasi-steady-state emission conditions, the procedure includes the determination of the time profiles of the organic compounds concentration, which develop after the introduction of the samples into the chamber. A best-fitting, double exponential equation is used for this purpose. The procedure has been applied to three materials: particle board with carpet; gypsum board with wallpaper; and plywood with polyurethane lacquer, for which the steady-state emission factors (mg m-2 h-1) of several compounds are given. Many other compounds were identified, but were not quantified. Some comments are given on the health significance of the compounds emitted from the materials when used indoors. PMID:2320999

Colombo, A; De Bortoli, M; Pecchio, E; Schauenburg, H; Schlitt, H; Vissers, H

1990-02-01

113

Results of a community-university partnership to reduce deadly hazards in hardwood floor finishing.  

PubMed

A community-university partnership used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to design, implement, and evaluate a multi-cultural public health campaign to eliminate flammable products and reduce use of products high in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in hardwood floor finishing in Massachusetts. Leading participants were Vietnamese-American organizations and businesses. Following the public health campaign, a multi-lingual survey of self-reported experiences with fires, product use, exposure to outreach activities, and changes made, was conducted with floor finishers. One hundred nine floor finishers responded. Over 40% reported fires at their companies' jobs, mostly caused by lacquer sealers. Over one third had heard radio or TV shows about health and safety in floor finishing, and over half reported making changes as a result of outreach. Exposure to various outreach activities was associated with reducing use of flammable products, increasing use of low-VOC products, and greater knowledge about product flammability. However, most respondents still reported using flammable products. Outreach led by community partners reached large proportions of floor finishers, was associated with use of safer products, and adds to recent work on CBPR with immigrant workers. Continued use of flammable products supports the belief that an enforceable ban was ultimately necessary to eradicate them. PMID:21267640

Azaroff, Lenore S; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Do, Tuan; Gore, Rebecca; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy

2011-08-01

114

Electron beams in research and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

Mehnert, R.

1995-11-01

115

Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop  

SciTech Connect

This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31

116

Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.

Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.

1983-01-01

117

After the Day of Infamy: 'Man-on-the-Street' Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress presents this seasonal collection of field recordings of over 200 ordinary Americans' reactions to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. Made between December 8, 1941, and February 1942, the original recordings used a technology called direct-to-disk, which created fragile, lacquer-coated, aluminum disks that could be played at 33 1/3 or 78 RPMs. The site includes transcripts and audio of the recordings, biographies of the people who conducted the interviews, and information on how the disks have been preserved since the 1940s (in the 1960s, most of the collection was copied onto magnetic tape). There are also a few documents, primarily letters and communications between Alan Lomax, "assistant in charge" of the Library of Congress Archive of American Folk Song, who managed the project, and field workers. The interview transcripts can be searched by keyword, and browsing by names, subjects, titles, and geographic locations is possible. In addition, the interviews have been arranged into series, or sets, of recordings made by one interviewer in a particular location, for example five 8-inch discs recorded in Bloomington and Mishawaka, Indiana, by Robert E. Barton Allen.

2002-01-01

118

Contribution of aluminum from packaging materials and cooking utensils to the daily aluminum intake.  

PubMed

Migration of aluminum (Al) from packaging materials and cooking utensils into foods and beverages was determined at intervals during cooking or during storage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. High amounts of Al migrated into acidic products such as mashed tomatoes during normal processing in normal, non-coated Al pans. After 60 min cooking an Al content of 10-15 mg/kg was measured in tomato sauce. Surprisingly, the Al concentration was also increased up to 2.6 mg/L after boiling tap water for 15 min in Al pans. Storage of Coca-Cola in internally lacquered Al cans resulted in Al levels below 0.25 mg/L. In contrast, non-coated Al camping bottles containing lime blossom tea acidified with lemon juice released up to 7 mg Al/L within 5 days. The Al concentration in coffee was lower than that of the tap water used in its preparation, even if prepared in Al heaters. In Switzerland, where most pans nowadays are made of stainless steel or teflon-coated Al, the average contribution for the use of Al utensils to the daily Al intake of 2-5 mg from the diet is estimated to be less than 0.1 mg. PMID:8249476

Müller, J P; Steinegger, A; Schlatter, C

1993-10-01

119

Laccase from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Polymerizes Monolignols  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of the final oxidative steps leading to lignin deposition in trees and other higher plants is limited with respect to what enzymes are involved, where they are localized, how they are transported, and what factors regulate them. With the use of cell suspension cultures of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), an in-depth study of laccase, one of the oxidative enzymes possibly responsible for catalyzing the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols in the extracellular matrix, was undertaken. The time course for secretion of laccase into suspension culture medium was determined with respect to age and mass of the cells. Laccase was completely separated from peroxidase activity by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and its purity was assessed with different types of gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing-, native-, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Amino acid and glycosyl analyses of the purified enzyme were compared with those reported from previous studies of plant and fungal laccases. The specific activity of laccase toward several common substrates, including monolignols, was determined. Unlike a laccase purified from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera), laccase from sycamore maple oxidized sinapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols to form water-insoluble polymers (dehydrogenation polymers). ImagesFigure 3 PMID:16668984

Sterjiades, Raja; Dean, Jeffrey F. D.; Eriksson, Karl-Erik L.

1992-01-01

120

Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra  

PubMed Central

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thony-Meyer, Linda

2013-01-01

121

Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

2010-06-01

122

Temperature and humidity influences on inactivation kinetics of enteric viruses on surfaces.  

PubMed

Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are pathogenic enteric viruses responsible for public health concerns worldwide. The viral transmission occurs through fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, or direct contact. However, the difficulty in cultivating these viruses makes it a challenge to characterize the resistance to various environmental stresses. In this study, we characterized the inactivation rates of murine norovirus (MNV), MS2, and HAV on either lacquer coating rubber tree wood or stainless steel under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The viruses were analyzed at temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C, 32 °C, and 40 °C and at RHs of 30%, 50%, and 70% for 30 days. Overall, they survived significantly longer on wood than on steel at lower temperature (P < 0.05). The inactivation rate of MS2 and MNV increased at higher RH levels, whereas HAV survived the best at a medium RH level (50%). The effect of RH was significant only for MS2 (P < 0.05). MS2 persisted longest under all of the environmental conditions examined. Both a linear and a nonlinear Weibull model were used to describe the viral inactivation data in this study. The data produced a better fit to the survival curves that were predicted by the Weibull model. PMID:23152976

Kim, Su Jung; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo

2012-12-18

123

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

124

Urushiol Induces Apoptosis via a p53-dependent Pathway in Human Gastric Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Urushiols are mixtures of olefinic catechols which is isolated from the sap of Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes). The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer effects of urushiol in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The cytotoxicity of urushiols was assessed by MTT assays on the two gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines, MKN-45 (wild type of p53) and MKN-28 (mutant type of p53). We also examined the action mechanisms of urushiol by analyzing its effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction. Results: The cytotoxic results from MTT assays indicated that urushiol inhibited human gastric cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of approximately 15 and 20 ?g/ml on MKN-45 and MKN-28 cells, respectively. Urushiol mediated cell death on these two cancer cell lines through different pathways. Urushiol induced apoptosis on MKN-45 cells, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear change, DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and apoptotic body formation via extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. However, no apoptotic features were induced by urushiol treatment on MKN-28 cells. Urushiol induced cytostatic cell growth inhibition via upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 proteins and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4 proteins in a p53-independent manner. Conclusions: These data provide evidence that urushiol has the potential to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent in human gastric cancer. PMID:25337543

Kim, Seaho; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Chung, Hae Young; Na, Chun Soo; Kim, Nam Deuk

2013-01-01

125

New concept of failure of thin organic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings was determined by a nondestructive technique (NDT) known as laser shearography. The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premium-grey enamel, a yellow acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20-60 °C. The value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings was derived from the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature. The integrity of the coatings with respect to time was assessed by comparison the measured coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) to the critical (steady state) or asymptotic value of CTE. By shearography, measurement of coating properties could be performed independent of parameters such as UV exposure, humidity, presence of chemical species, and other parameters which may normally interfere with conventional methods of the assessing of the integrity of coatings. Therefore, one may measure CTE of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Also, the obtained shearography data were found to be in a reasonable trend with the data of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3%NaCl solution.

Habib, Khaled

2011-07-01

126

Failure of thin organic films by a combination of shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: the new concept of resistivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical (steady state) value of the resistivity of different organic coatings was determined by a combination of optical shearography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of organic coatings, i.e., ACE premiumgray enamel, white enamel, beige enamel (spray coatings), a yellow acrylic lacquer, and a gold nail polish on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated over a temperature range of 20-60 °C. The value of the resistivity of coatings was determined by correlating the in-plan displacement of the coating (by shearography over a temperature range of 20- 60 °C) and the value of the alternating current (A.C) impedance of the coating by EIS in 3% NaCl solution. The integrity of the coatings with respect to time was assessed by comparison the measured value of resistivity to the critical (steady state) or asymptotic value of resistivity. In other words, by shearography, measurement of coating properties could be performed independent of parameters such as UV exposure, humidity, presence of chemical species, and other parameters which may normally interfere with conventional methods of the assessing of the integrity of coatings. Therefore, one may measure the resistivity of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Also, the obtained shearography data were found to be in a reasonable trend with the data of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3%NaCl solution.

Habib, Khaled

2012-04-01

127

Ovarian development in Wistar rat treated prenatally with single dose diisobutyl phthalate.  

PubMed

Phthalates are a class of industrial compounds with an array of toxicological properties used in day to day life. Diisobutyl phthalate on (DIBP) is used as an additive to keep the plastics soft or flexible (plasticizer) in nitrocellulose plastic, nail polish, explosives, lacquer manufacturing etc. Although DIBP exposure in humans is generally low, people in adhesive industries and pharmaceutical industries are exposed to higher levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single dose of DIBP on developing ovary of Wistar rat. One hundred and eight adult pregnant Wistar rats were divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in experimental group were given DIBP on day 10, 12 and 14 of gestation at 0.375, 0.75 and 1.25 ml/kg body weight dose intraperitoneally in a single dose. Sections of ovaries collected on day 21 of gestation were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined and Masson's trichrome histologically. Sections belonging to the control group showed the presence of oocytes in clusters separated by thin fibrous septa. Degeneration oocytes, empty follicles surrounded by follicular cells without gonocytes in the center were observed in ovarian stroma. Blood vessels in the ovarian stroma were prominent and congested. Around a bunch of follicles total architectural disarray was observed although on special staining fibrosis was not evident. As pregnant women are constantly exposed, effect of DIBP on ovary of a developing fetus would denote the long term consequence in future generations (Fig. 5, Ref. 39). PMID:23094893

Ray, B; D'Souza, A S; Kumar, V; Pugazhandhi, B; D'Souza, M R; Nayak, D; Sushma, R K; Shetty, P; Singh, H; Krishna, L; Bhat, K M; Rao, A C; Chakraborti, S; Kumar, N; Saxena, A

2012-01-01

128

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

Echt, A.

1992-01-01

129

Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.  

PubMed

A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

2014-08-01

130

Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 ?g/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 ?g/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.

2013-04-01

131

Biomechanics of the weakened mandible: use of image correlation analysis.  

PubMed

Uninterrupted resection of mandibular bone is often necessary during maxillofacial operations for cancer. This weakens the mandible, and increases the risk of fracture. To our knowledge no biomechanical analysis has been made of deformations and strains that occur during chewing if this happens, so we have made such an analysis of the weakened mandible using a new technique: image correlation. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were prepared with black and white lacquer, and placed in a loading device that allowed replication of a physiological biting exercise. Calibrated pieces of bone were resected from the right body of each mandible. Images of the mandibular surface were recorded by 2 cameras and analysed with an algorithm to correlate them, which allowed us to confirm the distribution of strain on the body of the mandible, and to focus on the weak points. Before the bone was resected, we noted tensile strains on the alveolar border of the body, and compressive strains on the basilar border. The intensity of the strains in the posterior angle of the resected bony area then increased, with reduction in the height of the bone until fracture. The orientation of the fracture line started at the lower posterior angle of the resection area and spread in a lower posterior direction until it reached the basilar border of the mandible. Image correlation is a new technique for the study of mandibular biomechanics that provides accurate measurements on a wide bony surface with high definition images and without modification of the structure. Its application to weakened mandible provided reliable images of modifications to strains during simulated biting exercises. PMID:22901525

Yachouh, J; Domergue, S; Hoarau, R; Loosli, Y; Goudot, P

2013-10-01

132

The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

2014-07-01

133

Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated vineyard posts in Marlborough, New Zealand.  

PubMed

There have been conflicting reports as to the extent that copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) treatments leach from timber. In New Zealand, vineyards utilise CCA-treated posts at a rate of 579 posts per hectare. This represents a potential CCA burden on the soil of 12, 21, and 17 kg/ha, respectively, for the three elements. Given a replacement rate of 4% per year, the use of CCA-treated posts may result in an accumulation of these elements in the soil, possibly leading to groundwater contamination. We undertook a general survey to determine the extent of CCA leaching from treated vineyard posts. Treated Pinus radiata posts were sampled at six sites around the Marlborough region of New Zealand to represent a range of post ages and soil types. For each post, above- and belowground wood samples were taken. As well, the soil adjacent to the post was sampled at a 50 mm horizontal and 100 mm vertical distances from the post. The belowground wood samples of the posts had significantly lower CCA concentrations than the aboveground portions, which were not significantly different from new posts. This indicates leaching. Soils surrounding the posts had significantly higher CCA concentrations than control soils. Higher CCA concentrations were measured under the posts than laterally. Some 25% of the samples exceeded 100 mg/kg As, the Australian National Environment Protection Council (ANEPC) guideline level for As in agricultural soil, and 10% exceeded 100 mg/kg Cr, the ANEPC limit for chromium. At one site, we found a significant positive correlation between post age and CCA-leaching. The CCA issue could be eliminated by using alternative posts, such as steel, concrete, or untreated woods such as Eucalyptus or beech. Alternatively, CCA-treated posts could, for example, be lacquered or otherwise protected, to reduce the rate of CCA leaching. PMID:16150477

Robinson, Brett; Greven, Marc; Green, Steve; Sivakumaran, Siva; Davidson, Peter; Clothier, Brent

2006-07-01

134

A case-reference study of neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents in the Danish wood and furniture industry.  

PubMed

A case-reference study was conducted to estimate the association between neuropsychiatric diseases leading to early retirement pensioning and exposure to organic solvents in the Danish wood industry. Cases were defined as all members of the Carpenter/Cabinet Makers' Trade Union who were diagnosed with a neuropsychiatric disease and received disability or early old-age pensions during the period January 1, 1971 to December 31, 1975. The case group comprised 171 disability pensioners and 35 early old-age pensioners. A reference group of equal size was selected among union members with other diseases who were pensioned over the same time-period. Controls were matched to cases according to age and type of pension. Among a total of 412 eligible study subjects, 342 (i.e., 287 disability pensioners and 55 early old-age pensioners) could be located in 1978. Of these, 9.8% of the disability pensioners and 12.7% of the early old-age pensioners did not respond to the questionnaire. Information regarding occupational exposure and vocational training was obtained both directly from study subjects and from the files of the trade union. Medical diagnoses were obtained through registry linkage and by manual search of hospital records. Former employees with high levels of exposure to organic solvents were more likely to receive disability pensions for neuropsychiatric reasons compared to more modestly-exposed individuals. Cabinet-makers and especially cabinet-makers with high exposure to lacquers and glues had a higher risk of receiving a disability pension for a neuropsychiatric disease than carpenters. Possible sources of bias are discussed in the article. PMID:6452685

Olsen, J; Sabroe, S

1980-01-01

135

Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

Huang, C.-P. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Robin Y. [Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Kan, L.-S. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.-B. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sblin@ntu.edu.tw

2008-03-15

136

Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)  

SciTech Connect

Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

John A. Sinsel

2003-06-30

137

Sorting out meandering and braiding: discriminating formative conditions and stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For various river channel patterns, the necessary formative conditions differ, but how is not entirely understood. Furthermore, not only the morphology and dynamics differ, but also the resulting stratigraphy differs, of which understanding is required to infer past environmental conditions and predict reservoir behaviour. Our objective is to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for forming dynamic meandering and braided rivers. We reproduced both patterns experimentally and with a physics-based numerical model, and produced synthetic stratification from bed elevation maps and control lacquer peels for the experiments. Experimental meandering was produced using a mixture of poorly sorted sediment and silt-sized silica flour and a transversely moving inflow boundary. Braiding was produced in exactly the same conditions but without the silica flour. These experiments represent gravel-bed rivers in nature, where both experimental meandering and braiding channels were close to the transition between the types. Onset meandering was also produced in the numerical model (Delft3D) with a similar transversely moving inflow boundary, whilst braided rivers formed with fixed inflow or some noise on the transverse discharge distribution at the inflow boundary. The silica flour deposited on crevasse splays and in chute channels, forming new floodplain. This caused much less chute cutoffs and stronger banks. The resulting meandering river formed multiple sets of scroll bars forming pointbars, overlain by splays and floodplain. The braided river, in contrast, showed mid-channel bars and multiple active channels, faster and more haphazard bar and channel migration, and frequent chute cutoffs. Apart from the floodplain, stratification in meandering rivers consisted of sigmoidally stratified units formed by scroll bars and channel fills, usually formed after chute cutoff. Braided rivers had similar units but much smaller and more. In both cases the highest preservation potential is in the deepest channels. We conclude that some floodplain-filling sediment or vegetation is required for meandering to prevent chute cutoffs to lead to weak braiding, but, more importantly, that some dynamics are required at the upstream boundary, where periodic perturbation causes meandering whilst stochastic perturbation causes braiding. Furthermore, morphology and stratification in braided gravel-bed rivers have much smaller morphological and stratigraphic units relative to average channel width than the meandering rivers, even though active bar dimensions are comparable.

Kleinhans, M. G.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Schuurman, F.; Van Dijk, W. M.

2011-12-01

138

Decomposition of 1,4-dioxane by photo-Fenton oxidation coupled with activated sludge in a polyester manufacturing process.  

PubMed

The cyclic ether 1,4-dioxane is a synthetic industrial chemical that is used as a solvent in producing paints and lacquers. The EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) classified 1,4-dioxane as a GROUP B2(probable human) carcinogen. 1,4-dioxane is also produced as a by-product during the manufacture of polyester. In this research, a polyester manufacturing company (i.e. K Co.) in Gumi, Korea was investigated regarding the release of high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane (about 600 mg/L) and whether treatment prior to release should occur to meet with the level of the regulation standard (e.g., 5 mg/L in 2010). A 10 ton/day pilot-scale treatment system using photo-Fenton oxidation was able to remove approximately 90% of 1,4-dioxane under the conditions that concentrations of 2800 ppm H(2)O(2) and 1,400 ppm FeSO(4) were maintained along with 10 UV-C lamps (240 microW/cm(2)) installed and operated continuously during aeration. However, the effluent concentration of 1,4-dioxane was still high at about 60 mg/L where TOC concentration in the effluent had been moreover increased due to decomposed products such as aldehydes and organic acids. Thus, further investigation is needed to see whether the bench scale (reactor volume, 8.9 L) of activated sludge could facilitate the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane and their by-products (i.e., TOC). As a result, 1,4-dioxane in the effluent has been decreased as low as 0.5 mg/L. The optimal conditions for the activated sludge process that were obtained are as follows: DO, 3-3.5 mg/L; HRT, 24 h; SRT 15 d; MLSS, 3,000 mg/L. Consequently, photo-Fenton oxidation coupled with activated sludge can make it possible to efficiently decompose 1,4-dioxane to keep up with that of the regulation standard. PMID:19273900

So, M H; Han, J S; Han, T H; Seo, J W; Kim, C G

2009-01-01

139

Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 ? cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 k?/square to 1 M?/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred k?/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred k?/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine (Grafica Flextronica, Vasai, India) using the screen printing ink viz. CARBO PASTE DC-1000M and DC-20 (Dozen Tech, Korea). A surface resistivity of a few hundred k?/square was obtained on a 100 mm thick polyester sheet of dimension 0.7 M×1.2 M. Curing was done for ˜30 minutes at 150 °C. We are planning to test this film on a glass RPC very soon.

Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.

2009-05-01

140

Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  

PubMed

As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (

Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

2006-01-01

141

Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort addresses reported traces of BPA detected using different analytical techniques. In this study, the presence of BPA in different baby feeding bottles was determined. In general, the concentration of BPA released increased with increasing time of heating and longer use. The experimental results also showed that BPA is present in those plastic containers, even though labeled " BPA free". Research and studies done by scientists and other health organizations have agreed to measure BPA levels in human tissue, and determine its negative effects to human health. At this time the source and level of exposure to BPA is unknown. For this reason, much more research is needed to uncover more evidence of this toxic chemical.

Bidabadi, Fatemeh

142

Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

2014-01-01

143

Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (?= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

2011-12-01

144

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of tetralin (CAS No. 119-64-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).  

PubMed

Tetralin is used as an industrial solvent primarily for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; as a solvent for pesticides, rubber, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene); as a dye solvent carrier in the textile industry; as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; in paint thinners and as a paint remover; in alkali-resistant lacquers for cleaning printing ink from rollers and type; as a constituent of motor fuels and lubricants; for the removal of naphthalene in gas distribution systems; and as an insecticide for clothes moths. Tetralin was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity and disposition studies because of its structure, high production volume, and high potential for worker and consumer exposure. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetralin (at least 97% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years; male NCI Black Reiter (NBR) rats were exposed to tetralin by inhalation for 2 weeks. Male NBR rats do not produce 2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of 2u-globulin and renal lesion induction. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male (F344/N and NBR) and five female (F344/N) rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 12 exposures. All rats survived to the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of female rats exposed to 120 ppm and mean body weight gains of female rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Final mean body weights of exposed groups of male NBR rats and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male rats were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in all 120 ppm rats. Squinting, weeping, or matted fur around the eyes were noted in the majority of F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. The 2u-globulin concentrations in the kidney of male F344/N rats were significantly greater in all exposed groups than in the chamber control group. The absolute kidney weight of 60 ppm females and the relative kidney weights of male F344/N rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater and female rats exposed to 15 ppm or greater were significantly increased. The absolute liver weight of 120 ppm NBR male rats and the relative liver weights of male and female rats exposed to 60 or 120 ppm were significantly increased. In the nose, the incidences of mononuclear cell cellular infiltration were generally significantly increased in all exposed groups of rats, and incidences of olfactory epithelium degeneration and glandular hypertrophy occurred in all male F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 13 exposures. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of male and female mice were similar to those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in most of the exposed mice. The absolute and relative liver weights of 60 and 120 ppm males and 30 and 120 ppm females and the relative liver weights of 60 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. In the nose, the incidences of olfactory epithelium atrophy were significantly increased in 60 and 120 ppm males and females. Glandular dilatation occurred in all 120 ppm females, and glandular hyperplasia occurred in all 120 ppm males and females. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. The same exposure concentrations were given to additional groups of 10 male and

2011-04-01

145

200,000 historic recordings are making their way to the Library of Congress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Universal Music Donating 200K Master Recordings to Library of Congresshttp://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/universal-music-donating-200k-master-69817A Digital Library Race, and Playing Catch-Up [Free registration may be required]http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09stream.html?src=buslnPerforming Arts Encyclopediahttp://www.loc.gov/performingarts/Music for the Nationhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mussmhtml/mussmhome.htmlOmaha Indian Musichttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/omhhtml/omhhome.htmlAs the nation's repository for published works small and large (and in-between), the Library of Congress remains one of the greatest cultural assets in the United States. This venerable institution received an excellent piece of news this week when the Universal Music Group announced that it would be giving the Library approximately 200,000 metal, glass, and lacquer master discs from 1926 to 1948. Many of these rare items have been stored at Iron Mountain, a former limestone mine in Pennsylvania which holds various government and corporate records. This tremendous archive contains songs from just about every genre, including jazz, blues, light classical, and some spoken-word numbers. As part of the agreement negotiated between the Library of Congress and Vivendi (the parent company of Universal), the Library has been granted ownership of the physical discs, while Vivendi will retain the formal copyright to the music recorded on the discs. Over the coming years, the Library of Congress will preserve and digitize many of these recordings, and curious parties will be able to eventually listen to them online. Gene DeAnna, head of the recorded sound section of the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division of the Library, remarked, "This is going to be the gift that keeps giving, that keeps our engineers and staff here busy for years. Our challenge right now is to decide where to start, because the sheer numbers are just staggering."The first link will take visitors to a New York Times article from Monday about this recent gift to the Library of Congress. The second link leads to a similar piece from the Hollywood Reporter. Moving along, the third link will take interested parties to a thoughtful piece from this Saturday's New York Times about the race to create an effective digital library in the United States and other nations. The fourth link leads to the Library of Congress's Performing Arts Encyclopedia. Here visitors can view digitized music collections, look over special presentations, and learn about upcoming concerts at the Library. The fifth link will take users to the Music for the Nation collection. This collection is part of the Library's American Memory Project, and visitors can peruse over 62,000 pieces of historical sheet music from 1820 to 1885. Finally, the last link leads to the remarkable Omaha Indian Music collection from the American Memory Project. Here visitors can listen to songs and speeches from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration and listen to historic wax cylinder recordings recorded between 1892 and 1897.

Grinnell, Max

2010-01-14