Science.gov

Sample records for lacquer

  1. Applying pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the identification of oriental lacquers: study of two lacquered shields.

    PubMed

    Frade, José Carlos; Ribeiro, Maria Isabel; Graça, José; Rodrigues, José

    2009-12-01

    Oriental lacquers have been used as coating materials for thousands of years for wooden, ceramics, leather and metal objects. Lacquers are natural polymers obtained from three species growing in different regions of Asia: Rhus vernicifera (China, Japan and Korea); Rhus succedanea (Vietnam and Taiwan); and Melanorrhoea usitate (Myanmar and Thailand). The identification of lacquer films is important for conservation and restoration purposes, as well as for art history studies because it may help in determining the origin of the lacquered objects. In this work, pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a filament-type pyrolyser was successfully applied to the characterization of oriental lacquers. A method to identify the three kinds of lacquer was developed and applied to the study of two lacquered shields imported from Asia in the sixteenth century. The materials that constitute the shields were also examined by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and details of the lacquering technique are reported. PMID:19705106

  2. On the UV-induced polymeric behavior of Chinese lacquer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianrong; Lin, Jinhuo; Xu, Yanlian; Chen, Qinhui

    2011-02-01

    To dry Chinese lacquer rapidly for the protection and restoration of archeological findings coated by lacquer or excavated lacquer wares and the development of new application of this lacquer, we carried out UV curing technology to improve its curing rate using a high-pressure mercury lamp as a UV source in the absence of any additional photoinitiator. The effects of mainly specific components in Chinese lacquer sap and the role of each reactive group of urushiol, namely hydroxyl groups, hydrogen on the phenyl ring, and olefins in the side chain, in the course of UV exposure were well-investigated. The UV-cured Chinese lacquer films were also characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, TGA, and Py-GC/MS. The results showed that urushiol was the main component to form Chinese lacquer films, and decomposed to generate the urushiol semiquinone radicals, which sequentially induced the polymerization of Chinese lacquer by radical polymerization, as well as radical substitution under UV irradiation. In addition, the TG analysis suggested that polysaccharide and glycoproteins were integrated with the UV-cured films by covalent bonding. Furthermore, this method could be suitable to fast cure other phenol bearing long aliphatic unsaturated chain, such as CNSL. PMID:21190328

  3. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  4. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nida; Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  5. Use of clobetasol in lacquer for plaque psoriasis treatment*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Suze Aparecida; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Torres, Rafael Augusto Tamasauskas; de Oliveira, Raquel Diana; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Clobetasol benefits to control psoriasis lesions are well defined, but there were not studies about its action when used in lacquer vehicle to control skin lesions. A double-blind study was conducted with 40 patients that utilized clobetasol 0.05% in one hemibody and just the vehicle in the other hemibody. Twenty of them used petrolatum as vehicle and the others used lacquer. An assessment was conducted using the clinical index PASI and a quality of life questionnaire (Dermatological Life Quality Index). There was no statistical difference between groups. There was a trend of favorable response particularly in the hemibody treated with clobetasol. PMID:26982794

  6. Transungual delivery of ketoconazole using novel lacquer formulation.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Chiang, Audris; Hornby, Sidney; Maibach, Howard

    2013-11-18

    Onychomycosis, a common fungal infection of the nail, can have a substantial impact on quality of life. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on effective penetration, which can be enhanced using an appropriate delivery method. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel topical lacquer on enhancing [(14)C]-ketoconazole penetration by comparing nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ketoconazole dissolved in the novel lacquer versus a commercial ketoconazole cream. Using the in vitro finite dose model, the formulations were applied daily to human nail plates for 7 days. Drug absorption was measured by monitoring rate of appearance in each nail layer and the supporting bed. After the multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ketoconazole formulated in novel lacquer in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of commercial ketoconazole (p<0.05), as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of causative dermatophytic and yeast species. These results suggest that this novel ketoconazole lacquer has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:24029171

  7. Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

  8. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  9. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  10. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  11. Progressive symmetric vertical macular wide angioid streak-like lacquer crack

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report an unusual case of bilateral vertical lacquer crack with no history of ocular trauma and with progressive marked enlargement and consequent visual loss. Methods Three-year follow-up was completed using best-corrected visual acuity, serial fundus photographs, intravenous fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Results We report the occurrence of lacquer crack in a 43-year-old woman with no history of trauma except for laser in situ keratomileusis surgery for mild myopia (as reported by the patient) in the past 5 years and habitual ocular rubbing. Lacquer crack started in the right eye and became evident 1 year later in the left eye. Serial photography after repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for subfoveal choroidal new vessel showed the lacquer crack widened gradually in both eyes. Axial length measurement revealed the presence of high myopia. Best-corrected visual acuity dropped to 20/200 bilaterally. Conclusion We hypothesize that a thin Bruch’s membrane in high myopia is prone for small rupture initially either spontaneously or following laser in situ keratomileusis and subsequent widening of the rupture by oculopression and intravitreal injections from rise in intraocular pressure. PMID:27186081

  12. Synthesis and properties of a lacquer wax-based quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Lu, Li; Yang, Zhibing

    2014-01-01

    Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA)% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 5 × 10⁻⁴ mol·L⁻¹, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m⁻¹. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min. PMID:24662075

  13. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

  14. Corrosion behavior of lacquered tinplate cans in contact with cockles (cardium edulis) in brine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bastidas, J.M.; Cabanes, J.M.; Catala, R.

    2000-04-01

    Tinplate cans internally coated with an epoxyphenolic plus zinc oxide (ZnO) lacquer were studied. The relationship between lacquer adhesion and total chromium, metallic chromium, and chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) in the passivated layer was analyzed. The thickness of the CrO{sub x} layer is a controlling parameter of adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), direct current (DC) polarization, and atomic absorption (AA) experiments were conducted at different time periods up to 150 days. EIS, DC, and AA results indicated that the passivation treatment with the lowest chromium content (Type 1) showed slightly worse corrosion behavior, with substantial iron dissolution and sulfur staining of the tinplate, than passivation treatments Types 2 and 3, which behaved similarly to each other. A fully opened can was used as the working electrode and electrolytic cell in contact with canned cockles (a mollusc, Cardium edulis).

  15. Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

    2013-05-01

    In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38-70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48-89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0-21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27-61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

  16. Natural coniferous resin lacquer in treatment of toenail onychomycosis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, Pentti; Sipponen, Arno; Lohi, Jouni; Soini, Marjo; Tapanainen, Riikka; Jokinen, Janne J

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro tests, natural coniferous resin from the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is strongly antifungal. In this observational study, we tested the clinical effectiveness of a lacquer composed of spruce resin for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Thirty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled into the study. All patients used topical resin lacquer treatment daily for 9 months. A mycological culture and potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain were done from nail samples in the beginning and in the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective, if a mycological culture was negative and there was an apparent clinical cure. At study entry, 20 patients (20/37; 54%; 95% CI: 38–70) had a positive mycological culture and/or positive KOH stain for dermatophytes. At study end, the result of 13 patients was negative (13/19; 68%; 95% CI: 48–89). In one case (1/14; 7%; 95% CI: 0–21) the mycological culture was initially negative, but it turned positive during the study period. By 14 compliant patients (14/32; 44%; 95% CI: 27–61), resin lacquer treatment was considered clinically effective: complete healing took place in three cases (9%) and partial healing in 11 cases (85%). The results indicate some evidence of clinical efficacy of the natural coniferous resin used for topical treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:23131104

  17. Multimodal imaging including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and confocal near-infrared reflectance for characterization of lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C-F; Liu, L; Lai, C-C; Chou, J CL; Yeh, L-K; Chen, K-J; Chen, Y-P; Wu, W-C; Chuang, L-H; Sun, C-C; Wang, N-K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare multimodal imaging in detecting lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes, and to correlate these findings with those of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods An observational case series study. Patients with a refractive error worse than −8 diopters and lacquer cracks were recruited. The rates of detection of the lacquer cracks using multimodal imaging including near-infrared reflectance (NIR) imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and fluorescence angiography (FA) were compared. The characteristic findings of multimodal imaging were correlated with those of SD-OCT. Results NIR imaging was more sensitive (92.9%) in detecting lacquer cracks than either FAF (12.5%) or FA (67.9%). Lacquer cracks showed hyperreflectance on NIR, and they were consistently associated with a continuous retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane complex, thinner choroid, and acoustic shadows on SD-OCT. Conclusions NIR imaging is superior to blue laser light (FAF and FA) imaging in detecting lacquer cracks. SD-OCT in combination with NIR located primary pathological lacquer cracks in the intact retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane complex as well as thinner choroid. These findings indicate that multimodal cSLO and SD-OCT imaging allow for detecting of lacquer cracks in highly myopic eyes. PMID:25233819

  18. [Investigation on comparison method of chromatographic fingerprints of lacquer coat of cars and its application].

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liang, Bing; Shi, Yanping; Jiang, Shengxiang; Ou, Qingyu

    2005-11-01

    The comparison method of fingerprints of the lacquer coat of cars (LCC) was established by using thermal desorption instrument with gas chromatography. The actual LCC samples were also analyzed. The samples were cut out to proper size and placed in the desorption furnace of the thermal desorption instrument. The volatile organic compounds in LCC were desorbed from the lacquer coat samples in the furnace under the chosen temperature, then separated in the capillary column and detected on a flame ionization detector of gas chromatography. The incipient judgment whether the two fingerprints of LCC were the same can be made from the contour and figure of the chromatograms. To make farther study of the two similar fingerprints, the overlap ratio of the peaks and relative retention values were given in the article. The two LCC samples can be regarded as the same if the overlap ratio of peaks was more than 90%, and the similarity of the ratio of relative retention times r(t2) and r(t1) and relative peak areas r(A2) and r(A1) in the two fingerprints were more than 99% and 70%, respectively. The method is good in repeatability and is easily carried out. The peaks in the fingerprint can be readily recognized. The fingerprint was characterized quantitatively. The method can be used in the department of traffic police and the comparison result can be used as material evidence in the court. PMID:16499002

  19. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure -- develops rapidly NERVOUS SYSTEM Coma (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Brain damage Sleepiness Stupor SKIN Burns Irritation Necrosis (holes) in the skin or underlying tissues

  20. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  1. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  2. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

  3. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: penetration of chloramphenicol from lipophilic vehicles and a nail lacquer.

    PubMed

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C

    1997-03-01

    Lipophilic vehicles and especially nail lacquers are more appropriate for topical application on the nail than aqueous systems because of their better adhesion. This work has, therefore, studied the penetration through the human nail plate of the model compound chloramphenicol from the lipophilic vehicles medium chain triglycerides and n-octanol and from a lacquer based on quaternary poly(methyl methacrylates) (Eudragit RL). The results were compared with data obtained with a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. If the swelling of the nail plate or the hoof membrane is not altered by use of lipophilic vehicles, the maximum flux of the drug is independent of its solubility in the vehicle and is the same as that from a saturated aqueous solution. These vehicles are not able to enter the hydrophilic keratin membrane because of their non-polar character and so cannot change the solubility of the penetrating substance in the barrier. If the concentration of the drug in the nail lacquer is sufficiently high, the maximum flux through both barriers equals that from aqueous vehicles or even exceeds it because of the formation of a supersaturated system. Penetration through the nail plate follows first order kinetics after a lag-time of 400 h. The course of penetration through the hoof membrane is initially membrane-controlled and later becomes a matrix-controlled process because of the membrane's greater permeability. Chloramphenicol is dissolved in the lacquer up to a concentration of 31%. The relative release rates from these solution matrices are independent of the drug concentration but they decrease on changing to a suspension matrix. These results show that drug flux is independent of the character of the vehicle and that penetration of the drug is initially membrane-controlled and changes to being matrix-controlled as the drug content of the lacquer decreases. PMID:9231338

  4. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. PMID:26724272

  5. Thermogelling hydrogels of cyclodextrin/poloxamer polypseudorotaxanes as aqueous-based nail lacquers: application to the delivery of triamcinolone acetonide and ciclopirox olamine.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras-Nieto, Luis; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2013-04-01

    This work investigated the use of in situ gelling hydrogels based on polypseudorotaxanes of Pluronic F-127 and partially methylated β-cyclodextrin as aqueous nail lacquers. N-acetylcysteine and urea were incorporated as penetration enhancers. The formulations were tested for their ability to deliver ciclopirox and triamcinolone across human nail plate and bovine hoof. Simple aqueous solutions of the drugs with N-acetylcysteine provided measurable fluxes across hoof membranes but became quickly depleted of drug. Further, these solutions would have a short residence time upon nail application. Addition of Pluronic F-127 facilitated drug solubilization and provided the formulations with in situ gelling properties but drug entrapment into the micelles slowed down the delivery process. This was solved by addition of methylated β-cyclodextrin; the formulations retained the thermogelling properties, drug solubilization was further increased, and drug delivery was accelerated. The polymer chains compete with the drugs for the cyclodextrin cavity forming polypseudorotaxanes, which facilitated drug release. The permeability of both drugs was higher across bovine hoof than human nail. The new polypseudorotaxanes formulation delivered more ciclopirox across human nail than a marketed organic lacquer which supports the growing hypothesis that aqueous-based nail lacquers represent a superior formulation strategy in nail topical delivery. PMID:23201053

  6. [A chromatographic method of determining the levels of organic solvents in the air, the components of the offset lacquer LO-2].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, M; Czerczak, S

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method was worked out to determine the mixture of ethyl acetate, toluene, buthyl acetate, p,m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl ethylene glycol vapours. These solvents are used as some components of offset lacquer LO-2. Optimum separation conditions were achieved on 3-metre SS column filled with 10% FFAP on Chormosorb W AW DMCS 80-100 mesh. Air samples were collected on activated charcoal placed in glass tubes. The components tested were desorbed from the sorbent material by 10% acetone solution in CS2. The method enables to determine the concentrations of each compound, corresponding to one fifth of their TLVs. PMID:3444421

  7. Air formaldehyde and solvent concentrations during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the woodworking and furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Thorud, Syvert; Gjolstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2005-06-01

    An investigation of contemporary exposure to formaldehyde and organic solvents has been carried out during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the Norwegian woodworking and furniture industry over a period of 3 years. The investigation covered 27 factories of different sizes and with different types of production, and totally 557 parallel formaldehyde and solvent samples were collected. The formaldehyde concentration (geometric mean) was 0.15 ppm (range 0.01-1.48 ppm) with about 10% of the samples exceeding the Norwegian occupational exposure limit of 0.5 ppm. The solvent concentration as additive effect (geometric mean) was 0.13 (range 0.0004-5.08) and about 5% of the samples exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limit. The most frequently occurring solvents from acid-curing lacquers were n-butyl acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate and 1-butanol, which were found in 88-98% of the samples. Toluene, n-butyl acetate and 1-butanol were the only solvents with maximum concentrations exceeding their respective occupational exposure limits. Curtain painting machine operators were exposed to the highest concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric mean 0.51 ppm, range 0.08-1.48 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 1.18, range 0.02-5.08). Other painting application work tasks such as automatic and manual spray-painting, manual painting and dip painting, showed on average considerably lower concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric means 0.07-0.16 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.02-0.18). Non-painting work tasks also displayed moderate concentrations of formaldehyde (geometric means 0.11-0.17 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.04-0.07). PMID:15931419

  8. Ciclopirox 8% HPCH Nail Lacquer in the Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate Onychomycosis: A Randomized, Double-Blind Amorolfine Controlled Study Using a Blinded Evaluator.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Hartmane, Ilona; Derveniece, Andra; Mikazans, Ingmars

    2016-02-01

    This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial with a blinded evaluator, designed to compare the efficacy and safety of the nail lacquer P-3051 with amorolfine 5% in the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. Patients were treated for 48 weeks with P-3051 daily, or twice weekly with amorolfine 5%. Out of 120 evaluable patients, 60 (50.0%) received P-3051 and 60 (50.0%) amorolfine 5%. At baseline, the two groups were homogeneous in terms of race, pathogens, number of affected toenails and severity of the infected target nail area. The statistical superiority of P-3051 versus amorolfine was achieved after 48 weeks (treatment success: 58.3% for P-3051 vs. 26.7% for amorolfine, p < 0.001; complete cure: 35.0% for P-3051 vs. 11.7% for amorolfine, p < 0.001). Mycological cure at week 48 was achieved in all patients treated with P-3051 compared to 81.7% of patients treated with amorolfine (p < 0.001). Moreover, fungal eradication by P-3051 was statistically superior at week 24. The results of this study, and of a previous pivotal study versus the insoluble formulation of ciclopirox 8%, led to consider P-3051 as the gold standard for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate onychomycosis. PMID:27171791

  9. Ciclopirox 8% HPCH Nail Lacquer in the Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate Onychomycosis: A Randomized, Double-Blind Amorolfine Controlled Study Using a Blinded Evaluator

    PubMed Central

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Hartmane, Ilona; Derveniece, Andra; Mikazans, Ingmars

    2016-01-01

    This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial with a blinded evaluator, designed to compare the efficacy and safety of the nail lacquer P-3051 with amorolfine 5% in the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. Patients were treated for 48 weeks with P-3051 daily, or twice weekly with amorolfine 5%. Out of 120 evaluable patients, 60 (50.0%) received P-3051 and 60 (50.0%) amorolfine 5%. At baseline, the two groups were homogeneous in terms of race, pathogens, number of affected toenails and severity of the infected target nail area. The statistical superiority of P-3051 versus amorolfine was achieved after 48 weeks (treatment success: 58.3% for P-3051 vs. 26.7% for amorolfine, p < 0.001; complete cure: 35.0% for P-3051 vs. 11.7% for amorolfine, p < 0.001). Mycological cure at week 48 was achieved in all patients treated with P-3051 compared to 81.7% of patients treated with amorolfine (p < 0.001). Moreover, fungal eradication by P-3051 was statistically superior at week 24. The results of this study, and of a previous pivotal study versus the insoluble formulation of ciclopirox 8%, led to consider P-3051 as the gold standard for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate onychomycosis. PMID:27171791

  10. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  11. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails. PMID:26867498

  12. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin or underlying tissues NERVOUS SYSTEM Coma (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Confusion Dizziness (from sniffing) Feeling of being drunk (euphoria) Incoordination Unsteadiness Convulsions

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  14. Pigments, Paints, Polymer Coatings, Lacquers, and Printing Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryntz, Rose A.

    Change is constant in the coatings market. As mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships take shape, consolidation and globalization remain prominent. The 80/20 rule (20% of the firms accounting for 80% of business) takes effect as the need for regulatory and environmental compliance continues to plague the market. In 1975, the United States alone supported about 2000 coatings companies. Today, there are less than half that many.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  16. Light response of pure CsI calorimeter crystals painted with wavelength-shifting lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frlež, E.; Brönnimann, Ch.; Krause, B.; Počanić, D.; Renker, D.; Ritt, S.; Slocum, P. L.; Supek, I.; Wirtz, H. P.

    2001-03-01

    We have measured scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter built for a precise determination of the π+→ π0 e+νe decay rate at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). All 240 individual crystals painted with a special wavelength-shifting solution were examined in a custom-built detection apparatus (RASTA - radioactive source tomography apparatus) that uses a 137Cs radioactive gamma source, cosmic muons and a light-emitting diode as complementary probes of the scintillator light response. We have extracted the total light output, axial light collection nonuniformities and timing responses of the individual CsI crystals. These results predict improved performance of the 3 π sr PIBETA calorimeter due to the painted lateral surfaces of 240 CsI crystals. The wavelength-shifting paint treatment did not affect appreciably the total light output and timing resolution of our crystal sample. The predicted energy resolution for positrons and photons in the energy range of 10-100 MeV was nevertheless improved due to the more favorable axial light collection probability variation. We have compared simulated calorimeter ADC spectra due to 70 MeV positrons and photons with a Monte Carlo calculation of an ideal detector light response.

  17. Law of similitude for the surface resistance of lacquered planes moving in a straight line through water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebers, Friedrich

    1925-01-01

    The proof of the validity of the Reynolds law of similitude for the surface resistance of planes has been developed with an accuracy hitherto unattained and for a large range of lengths and speeds. It has been shown that, in addition to the form resistance, the resistance of the longitudinal edges must be taken into account.

  18. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

  19. Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

    2009-07-01

    A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

  20. Lacquered Words: The Evolution of Vietnamese under Sinitic Influences from the 1st Century B.C.E. through the 17th Century C.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, John Duong

    2013-01-01

    As much as three quarters of the modern Vietnamese lexicon is of Chinese origin. The majority of these words are often assumed to have originated in much the same manner as late Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese borrowed forms: by rote memorization of reading glosses that were acquired through limited exposure to spoken Sinitic. However, under closer…

  1. Studies of the Use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Assess the Performance of Lacquers Used to Protect Aluminum Sheet and Can Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammad

    This study involved investigating the feasibility of using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to assess the performance of coatings used to protect aluminum in beverage containers, and developing an accelerated testing procedure. In the preliminary investigation, tests were performed to ensure that the EIS systems at hand are capable, functional and consistent. This was followed by EIS testing of kitchen-aluminum foil and high-impedance epoxy polymer as a baseline for chemically-active and chemically-inert systems. The ability of EIS to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings was tested by investigating deliberately damaged coatings. The effects of varying the pH and oxygen content on the performance of the coated aluminum samples were also tested. From this investigation, it has been concluded that EIS can be used to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings and detect corrosion before it is visually observable. Signatures of corrosion have been recorded and a preliminary testing procedure has been drawn.

  2. Method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface, is described wherein the uncured enamel paint surface is coated with a non-curing lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cured lacquer. The non-curing lacquer adheres to the enamel and a photo resist material satisfactorily adheres to the partially cured lacquer. Once normal photo etching techniques are employed the lacquer coats can be easily removed from the enamel leaving the photo etched image. In the case of edge lighted instrument panels, a coat of uncured enamel is placed over the cured enamel followed by the lacquer coats and the photo resists which is exposed and developed. Once the etched uncured enamel is cured, the lacquer coats are removed leaving an etched panel.

  3. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  4. The Chemistry of Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

  5. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... fume producing paints or lacquers must not be used on the vessel. (h) Mattresses. Polyurethane...

  6. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... fume producing paints or lacquers must not be used on the vessel. (h) Mattresses. Polyurethane...

  7. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... fume producing paints or lacquers must not be used on the vessel. (h) Mattresses. Polyurethane...

  8. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in: Fingernail polish Glues and adhesives Lacquers Octane booster in gasoline Paints Paint thinners Printing and ... anywhere in the United States.This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ...

  9. Benzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    People may be exposed to benzene in factories, refineries, and other industrial settings. Benzene may be found in: Additives to gasoline and diesel fuel Many industrial solvents Various paint, lacquer , and ...

  10. Do You Have Work-Related Asthma? A Guide for You and Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Polyurethane foam • Paints, lacquers, ink, varnishes, sealants, finishes • Insulation materials • Polyurethane rubber • Glues and adhesives • Car manufacture and repair • Building construction (plaster, insulation) • Foam blowing and cutting • Painting • Truck bed liner ...

  11. Intrinsic Hydrophobic Cairnlike Multilayer Films for Antibacterial Effect with Enhanced Durability.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Heo, Jiwoong; Son, Boram; Choi, Daheui; Park, Tai Hyun; Chang, Minwook; Hong, Jinkee

    2015-12-01

    One important aspect of nanotechnology includes thin films capable of being applied to a wide variety of surfaces. Indispensable functions of films include controlled surface energy, stability, and biocompatibility in physiological systems. In this study, we explored the ancient Asian coating material "lacquer" to enhance the physiological and mechanical stability of nanofilms. Lacquer is extracted from the lacquer tree and its main component called urushiol, which is a small molecule that can produce an extremely strong coating. Taking full advantage of layer-by-layer assembly techniques, we successfully fabricated urushiol-based thin films composed of small molecule/polymer multilayers by controlling their molecular interaction. Unique cairnlike nanostructures in this film, produced by urushiol particles, have advantages of intrinsic hydrophobicity and durability against mechanical stimuli at physiological environment. We demonstrated the stability tests as well as the antimicrobial effects of this film. PMID:26561514

  12. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Walter; Dinglreiter, Udo

    2011-08-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new recycling process based on an evaporation process, a fractionated condensation and an after treatment of the condensates is described. The compatibility of the recycled system for lacquers is investigated. After a test with ten recycling loops no accumulation of harmful substances occurs. In comparison to original agents the recycled rinsing liquids show comparable or better cleaning abilities. The comparison of the energy consumption and the disposal of CO2 and of volatile organic compounds between the application of fresh rinsing liquid with disposal after usage and recycled rinsing liquid show major advantages of the recycling process.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  15. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  16. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...

  17. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  18. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  19. 40 CFR 59.110 - Incorporations by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products, IBR approved for § 59.104(d). (2) ASTM D 523-89, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss, IBR approved for § 59.104(e). (b) The materials...

  20. 40 CFR 59.110 - Incorporations by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products, IBR approved for § 59.104(d). (2) ASTM D 523-89, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss, IBR approved for § 59.104(e). (b) The materials...

  1. Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallmeyer, H.

    1988-01-01

    To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

  2. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 g/L to 1 g/L. It is now commonly de...

  3. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  4. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  5. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  6. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  7. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  8. Development of a material with reproducible emission of selected volatile organic compounds - μ-Chamber study.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Wiegner, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found indoors have the potential to affect human health. Typical sources include building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, etc. To address this risk, chemical emission testing is used to assess the potential of different materials to pollute indoor air. One objective of the European Joint Research Project "MACPoll" (Metrology for Chemical Pollutants in Air) aims at developing and testing a reference material for the quality control of the emission testing procedure. Furthermore, it would enable comparison of measurement results between test laboratories. The heterogeneity of the majority of materials makes it difficult to find a suitable reference sample. In the present study, styrene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-α-pyrrolidone, lindane, n-hexadecane, 1,2-dimethyl- and 1,2-di-n-butyl-phthalate were added to 12 commercially available lacquers (6 alkyd and 6 acrylic polymer based lacquers) serving as carrier substrate. After homogenization, the mixtures were loaded into a Markes Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (μ-CTE™) for curing and investigation of the emission behavior for each compound. For almost all of the investigated chemicals, the preferred glossy acrylic lacquer showed emissions that were reproducible with a variation of less than 20% RSD. Such lacquer systems have therefore been shown to be good candidates for use as reference materials in inter-laboratory studies. PMID:24418066

  9. V-TECS Guide for Auto Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for teaching a course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nature and scope of auto body repair; safety; tools; auto body construction; simple metal straightening; welding; painting and refinishing; refinishing complete lacquer; refinishing…

  10. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose..., Standardization Documents Order Desk, Building 4D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, https://assist... (Publication No. 956). (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications referred to in this section shall...

  11. 46 CFR 160.026-1 - Applicable specifications and standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water is packed, form a part of this subpart: (1) Military specifications: MIL-L-7178—Lacquer; cellulose..., Standardization Documents Order Desk, Building 4D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, https://assist... (Publication No. 956). (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications referred to in this section shall...

  12. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  13. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the..., threaded, or threaded and coupled), or surface finish (e.g., bare, lacquered or coated). Redraw hollows...

  14. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  15. The Role of Topical Antifungal Therapy for Onychomycosis and the Emergence of Newer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail unit that is usually caused by a dermatophyte (tinea unguium) and most frequently affects toenails in adults. In most cases, onychomycosis is associated with limited treatment options that are effective in achieving complete clearance in many cases. In addition, recurrence rates are high in the subset of treated patients who have been effectively cleared, usually with an oral antifungal agent. There has been a conspicuous absence of medical therapies approved in the United States since the introduction of topical ciclopirox (8% nail lacquer), with no new effective agents introduced for more than 10 years. Fortunately, newer agents and formulations have been under formal development. While patients might prefer a topical therapy, efficacy with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, the only available agent until the very recent approval of efinaconazole 10% solution, has been disappointing. The poor therapeutic outcomes achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer were not unexpected as the cure rates achieved in the clinical trials were unimpressive, despite concomitant nail debridement, which was an integral part of the pivotal trials with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. Efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are new topical antifungals specifically developed for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis. In Phase 3 clinical trials, both newer agents were applied once daily for 48 weeks without concomitant nail debridement. Mycologic cure rates with efinaconazole 10% solution are markedly superior to what was achieved with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. To add, they appear to be nearly comparable to those achieved with oral itraconazole in pivotal clinical trials. However, it is important to remember that direct comparisons between different studies are not conclusive, are not generally considered to be scientifically sound, and may not be entirely accurate due to differences in study design and other factors. Well-designed and properly powered head-to-head studies are needed in order to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy comparisons between therapies, at least based on academic and regulatory standards. Although tavaborole 5% solution is in an earlier phase of development for onychomycosis, treatment success rates reported thus far for both efinaconazole 10% solution and tavaborole 5% solution are superior to ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. As a result, a new era of onychomycosis appears to be upon us that incorporates topical therapy more effectively than in the past. Not only may these newer topical agents provide viable monotherapy alternatives to oral therapy for onychomycosis, topical therapy for onychomycosis that is effective, well tolerated, and easy to use may also find a role in combination therapy, and/or as continued therapy after initial clearance to reduce recurrence or re-infection. PMID:25053979

  16. An analytical approach to toxic substance replacement in support of pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, I.B.

    1997-12-31

    In support of pollution prevention and in accordance with Executive Order 12856 concerning pollution prevention, all federal agencies must comply with the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) chemical release reduction and pollution prevention planning. The inventory lists hundreds of chemicals and choosing those to replace and finding actual replacement chemicals or procedures is not always clear. This study focuses on an analytical approach to this problem by understanding the application of ethanol. Ethanol is a volatile organic compound (VOC) used as a solvent in ammunition manufacturing. Ethanol`s use as the solvent for shellac in a primer lacquer is characterized in the laboratory. Due to interest in substituting acetone for ethanol, an acetone-based primer lacquer is fabricated and tested in comparison to its ethanol counterpart. The results form the basis for broader application and chemical change.

  17. Some properties of composite panels made from wood flour and recycled polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Turgay; Mengeloglu, Fatih

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified) on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating) were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs. PMID:19330092

  18. Different physicochemical properties of antimycotic agents are relevant for penetration into and through human nails.

    PubMed

    Neubert, R H H; Gensbügel, C; Jäckel, A; Wartewig, S

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the characterization of the physicochemical properties of two important antifungal topical drugs, amorolfine and ciclopirox. Furthermore, the release of the drugs from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis was studied using the online FTIR-ATR technique. Based on the physicochemical background of these two drugs and their release from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis, the suitability of these drugs for optimized local antifungal therapy to human nails is discussed. Amorolfine appears to be more suitable for drug delivery to human nails because it penetrates into the nails via the hydrophilic pathway. Furthermore amorolfine penetrates very well into fungal cells, due to the pH value of the nail, as well as the pKa value of this antimycotic agent and the lipophilic properties of its base form. PMID:16889067

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-236-1725, San Francisco Opera Costume Shop, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, P.L.; Okawa, M.T.

    1986-09-01

    An employee representative of the San Francisco Opera Costume Shop requested an investigation of possible exposure to chemical substances by crafts persons and textile artists. No overexposure to chemicals was found during cloth stripping and dying operations, boot deglazing, hat lacquering, fabric painting or casting operations. During boot spray painting, two personal air samples contained methylene chloride at 11.9 and 25 parts per million; both above the NIOSH recommended criteria for methylene-chloride exposure.

  20. Numerical simulation of polyester coextrusion: Influence of the thermal parameters and the die geometry on interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, O.; Agassant, J.-F.; Laure, P.; Valette, R.; Silva, L.

    2007-04-01

    The polymer coextrusion process is a new method of sheet metal lining. It allows to substitute lacquers for steel protection in food packaging industry. The coextrusion process may exhibit flow instabilities at the interface between the two polymer layers. The objective of this study is to check the influence of processing and rheology parameters on the instabilities. Finite elements numerical simulations of the coextrusion allow to investigate various stable and instable flow configurations.

  1. Process for non-contact removal of organic coatings from the surface of paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  2. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  3. High throughput X-ray optics - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for the production of high-throughput modular arrays of telescopes with net collecting areas exceeding 10 to the 5th sq cm and 20-arsec angular resolution are discussed. Techniques considered include the automated figuring of flats as parabolic reflectors, the replication of cylindrical shells, the alignment of thin lacquer-coated conical foils, electroforming, and the use of large diamond turning machines. High-throughput programs are described, and it is noted that future missions will emphasize high resolution spectroscopy.

  4. Monitoring of taints related to printed solid boards with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Heini, R L; Ahvenainen, R

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives were to combine knowledge gathered from the electronic nose (EN) with traditional analytical reference methods for measuring volatile compounds, such as sensory and headspace methods. The impacts of different colouring agents on the sensory properties of packaging materials when analysed by EN were determined. The first step in investigations using the EN was optimization of sample treatment and analysis parameters for the samples. The best resolution was achieved at 60 degrees C in 20 min, and the effect of humidity on the EN sensors was confirmed. A comparison was made of three sensory methods for analysing taints of packaging materials. The study showed that the odour of the packaging itself was often not a reliable indication of the taint perceived in the packed foodstuff and should be regarded only as indicative. Taints caused by pigments of printed solid boards were analysed by EN. Twenty samples were studied, representing unprinted solid board, lacquered solid board, offset printed solid board with 14 different colours and offset printed, lacquered solid board with four colours. The EN succeeded in grouping these materials according to their colouring agents or lacquering, despite slight overlapping of replicates, and the results appeared to reflect at least to some extent the off-flavours perceived in sensory evaluation. The results of this study are only indicative, because the analysis of results from different sources or equipment requires more extensive use of statistical methods. PMID:11962710

  5. Formulation development and optimization of transungual drug delivery system of terbinafine hydrochloride for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayur M; Vora, Zeal M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of present investigation was to develop transungual drug delivery system (nail lacquer) of terbinafine hydrochloride for treatment of onychomycosis. Different types of penetration enhancers, viz. 2-mercaptoethanol, n-acetyl-L-cysteine and thioglycolic acid, were evaluated to determine their effect on drug permeation. Various types of polymers, both hydrophobic (Eudragit® RL 100 and Eudragit® RS 100) and hydrophilic polymers (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) E15), were evaluated for their film-forming and drug permeation characteristics. The nail lacquer was optimised statistically by applying 3(2) full factorial design. Polymer ratio (Eudragit® RL 100/HPMC E15; X 1) and solvent ratio (ethanol/water; X 2) were selected as independent variable, and viscosity (cPs), nail plate hydration (%) and in vitro drug permeated at the end of 24 h (μg/cm(2)) were selected as dependent variable. The optimised batch comprises of polymer ratio (70:30) and solvent ratio (75:25). Ex vivo drug permeation study was performed using human cadaver toe nail plate. The results revealed that the amount of drug permeated at the end of 24 h was 61.55 ± 3.2 μg/cm(2), which was found to be higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of drug. This study confirms that the developed drug-loaded nail lacquer could be used as a promising tool for the effective treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:26926242

  6. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  7. Discharging-phototransistor-integrated high-voltage Si photovoltaic cells for fast driving demonstration of an electrostatic MEMS actuator by wavelength modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Isao; Lebrasseur, Eric; Mita, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the authors propose a high-voltage photovoltaic (PV) cell array integrating discharging phototransistors for the fast driving of an electrostatic MEMS actuator by light with wavelength modulation. A PV cell array and phototransistors are connected in parallel and colored with green and red lacquer, respectively. This circuit repeats the charge and discharge of a MEMS actuator by being illuminated with light whose color periodically changes between red and green. This method requires only a small additional area and can discharge the actuator at an arbitrary timing. The authors extract the parameters of the circuit and also demonstrate the dynamic driving of a MEMS comb-drive actuator.

  8. Lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in foods in welded cans.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S

    1987-01-01

    The levels of lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in fruit and vegetables in welded tinplate cans were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels found were compared with those in foods in soldered tinplate cans and fresh foods. The results show that the lead levels in foods in welded cans were much lower than those in similar foods in soldered cans. Foods in unlacquered welded cans contain much more lead, chromium and tin than foods in lacquered welded cans. The cadmium and iron levels in canned fruit and vegetables in welded cans were similar to those found in the corresponding fresh foods. PMID:3653455

  9. [Express method of laboratory study of the outgassing of thermostable plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Iablochkin, V D; Solomin, G I; Shchirskaia, V A; Glazkova, N A; Demchenko, E A

    1980-01-01

    Time-temperature dependence of concentrations of outgasing products of polymers and rubbers was studied. Applying the principle of time-temperature equilibrium, the exposure time for a laboratory rapid study of polymers at 100 degrees C was estimated to be 1 hr for enamels, lacquers and dyes, 1.5 hr for block and sheet polymers, 2.5 hr for sealants and rubbers, and 4 hr for textile materials, measured from the time when the preassigned temperature was achieved. The rapid method can be recommended for preliminary chemical study of polymers at the stage of their laboratory testing. PMID:7359873

  10. [Factors inducing clinical symptoms of acute hepatic porphyria 1986-1990].

    PubMed

    Tarczyńska-Nosal, S; Ekiert, M; Kostrzewska, E

    1991-01-01

    The most frequent cause of porphyria attacks in this time period were drugs used in symptomatic treatment (in 69 out of 195 cases). In 42 women attacks were induced by sex hormone disturbances, in 21 cases by contact with paints and lacquer in 7 by alcohol and in 3 by calorie deficiencies. The main cause of porphyria attacks in carriers of this metabolic error is lack of porphyria considering in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pains, polyneuropathy and vague mental disorders, which leads to erroneous treatment worsening the course and prognosis of the disease. PMID:1823950

  11. Nanomaterials Transform Hairstyling Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Dennis Morrison, a former scientist at Johnson Space Center, conducted research on microcapsules that were developed in space and designed to deliver drugs to cancerous tumors. This work led to research on nanoceramic materials, and in 2001, Morrison shared his expertise with Farouk Shami, the owner of Farouk Systems Inc., of Houston, Texas. After learning more, Shami developed a ceramic composite for his CHI (Cationic Hydration Interlink) hairstyling irons, brushes, nail lacquers, and hair dryers. Morrison also used his NASA research expertise as a platform to incorporate nanosilver and near-infrared light into the products.

  12. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

  13. Enhanced econazole penetration into human nail by 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Chan, Thomas C K; Barbadillo, Sherry; Lee, Christine; Maibach, Howard I; Wester, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the enhancing effects of 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane on the penetration of econazole, an antifungal drug, into the deeper layers of the human nail where fungal infection resides. Aliquots (10 microL) of Econail lacquer formulation containing 0.45 mg of [(14)C]-econazole with 18% 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (test group) or without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (control group) were applied twice daily for 14 days to human nails that had been washed with ethanol before each morning's application. The hydration of the nail sample was well controlled to simulate normal physiological conditions. After 14 days of dosing, the inner ventral section of the nail plate was assayed for absorbed drug content, using a micrometer-controlled drilling and nail powder removal system. The mass balance values of [(14)C]-econazole in this study were 90.8 and 96.4% for the test and control groups, respectively. The weight-normalized econazole content in the ventral/intermediate nail plate center in the test group was 6-fold greater than that in the control (p = 0.008). The total econazole absorbed into the supporting bed cotton ball in the test group was nearly 200-fold greater than that in the control group (p = 0.008) over the 14-day period. The amount of econazole after dosing in the inner part of the human nail (potential diseased area) was 11.1 +/- 2.6 (SD) microg/mg of nail powder with 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane in the lacquer and 1.78 +/- 0.32 microg/mg without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (p = 0.008). The surface nail contained more econazole (p = 0.004), that is, nonabsorbed drug, where 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane was not part of the dosing solution. Econazole in the support bed under the nail (the total absorbed dose) was 47.5 +/- 22.0 mg in the lacquer with 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane and 0.2 +/- 0.1 mg in the lacquer without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (p = 0.008). Moreover the concentration in the deep nail layer in the test group is 14,000 times higher than minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) believed necessary to inhibit the growth of infecting fungi (Dermatophytes species). In a subsequent study, [(14)C]-dioxolane did not penetrate the nail well. Therefore, the mechanism of enhancement of econazole penetration is at the formulation/nail interface. PMID:12486690

  14. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  15. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  16. Catastrophic models of materials destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Taipova, B. G.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Fursa, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of concentration and type of fillers on mechanical properties of composite material based on polyimide were studied. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyester), polycarbonate (PCAR) and montmorillonite (MM) were used as the fillers. The samples were prepared by mechanically blending the polyimide-based lacquer solutions with different concentrations of the second component. The concentration of filler and its class, especially their internal structure and technology of synthesis determine features of physical and mechanical properties of obtained materials. Models of catastrophic failure of material satisfactorily describe the main features depending on tension ct from deformation e.

  17. Thinner intoxication manifesting as methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Gomber, Sunil

    2009-03-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints is known to contain mixture of various arometic hydrocarbons; halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha, if ingested may rarely cause methemoglobinemia. We report a 3 year old child who presented to us with history of accidental ingestion of thinner, used for removing household paint. Child was having cyanosis with minimal tachypnoea & the colour of his blood was chocolate brown. Later methemoglibulin level estimations were also done, which were suggestive of this diagnosis. Child was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy & vital monitoring, which lead to complete recovery and discharge from hospital later. PMID:19347673

  18. Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, Samuel L.

    1994-01-01

    The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

  19. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved. PMID:25543146

  20. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to hair cosmetic products by the French population.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Dornic, N; Roudot, A C

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic exposure data are limited in Europe and especially in France. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to hair cosmetics using recent consumption data (percentage of users, frequency of use and amount per use) generated for the French population (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for eleven hair products: liquid shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, hair mask, hair serum, hair oil, styling lacquer, styling gel, styling foam, styling wax and styling spray. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. For liquid shampoo, conditioner and some styling products (gel, lacquer and foam), the levels of exposure were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for styling wax and styling spray were lower than SCCS values. Exposure was assessed for the first time for dry shampoo, hair mask, hair serum and hair oil products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at-risk populations. PMID:27090106

  1. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

  2. Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

  3. Network Meta-Analysis of Onychomycosis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditya K.; Daigle, Deanne; Foley, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many onychomycosis treatments have not been directly compared in head-to-head clinical trials. Objective: To determine the relative efficacy of onychomycosis treatments using network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods We conducted a systematic review and NMA of mycological cure rates. Results Nineteen trials were included in the network. Terbinafine 250 mg was significantly superior to all treatments except itraconazole 400 mg pulse therapy. The itraconazole 400 mg pulse regimen was significantly superior to all topicals except efinaconazole 10% nail solution. Itraconazole 200 mg was significantly superior to all topical treatments, while fluconazole 150-450 mg, efinaconazole 10% nail solution, tavaborole 5% nail solution, ciclopirox nail lacquer 8%, terbinafine nail solution, and amorolfine 5% nail lacquer were significantly superior to placebo. Conclusions Newly developed topicals have improved the odds ratios (ORs) of mycological cure, yet these ORs were not significantly greater than preexisting topical treatments. Further experience with these agents will reveal their clinical significance, and head-to-head trials are warranted. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27170937

  4. In-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at a printing press.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Savchuk, Olesya; Genest, Beatrix; Scherzer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the coating weight of printed layers can be determined in-line in a running printing press by near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy assisted by chemometric methods. Three different unpigmented lacquer systems, i.e., a conventional oil-based printing lacquer, an ultraviolet (UV)-curable formulation, and a water-based dispersion varnish, were printed on paper with coating weights between about 0.5 and 7 g m(-2). NIR spectra for calibration were recorded with a special metal reflector simulating the mounting conditions of the probe head at the printing press. Calibration models were developed on the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and evaluated by independent test samples. The prediction performance of the developed models was examined at a sheet-fed offset printing press at line speeds between 90 and 180 m min(-1). Results show an excellent correlation of data predicted in-line from the NIR spectra with reference values obtained off-line by gravimetry. The prediction errors were found to be ? 0.2 g m(-2), which confirms the suitability of the developed spectroscopic method for process control in technical printing processes. PMID:22709830

  5. [Sanitary chemical evaluation and control of hazards in the varnishing ships of the furniture industry].

    PubMed

    Bobev, G; Koen, E

    1976-01-01

    Using theoretical calculations and personal observations and researches, the authors succeeded in demonstrating that evaporation from lacquered surfaces, particularly in the early period of drying, is the primary source of working environment air pollution with toluene and styrol in the varnishing workshops of furniture factories. Three equations are submitted to calculate the quantities of evaporated volatile components from the lacquer film of the machine, and from the varnished surfaces, equations which have been adopted in the practice of pollution sources' sanitary-chemical assay. Against the background thus outlined, the conclusion is reached that the varnishing machine is by no means the primary source of harmful effect provided the technology of varnish application employed does not require tools of the type of a conveyor line, pointing out furthermore that air pollution from the wheel-barrows, containing varnished details, is the most significant. Proceeding from the results of the research, it is recommended to carry out during of the varnished surfaces in a separate room or in a tunnelled drying room which, under conditions of updated technology of applying varnish, prove the most effective from sanitary hygienic viewpoint since they provide for the lowest toxic-vapour concentrations in the air of the working environment, and for optimal working conditions. PMID:1032723

  6. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  7. EuroGeoMars mission and techniques: First results for geology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S. T. M.; Borst, A.; Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Slob, E.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroGeoMars expedition forms part of the European Space Agency's ExoGeoLab research project and is a test campaign at the MDRS (Mars Desert Research Station), which is operated by the Mars Society, in the Utah desert, US. MDRS has yet been used by research groups of various interest as an analogue site to the Martian environment. The goal of this expedition is to simulate the employment of various instruments and sample return under Martian conditions, while carrying out several geological and biological investigations. In this paper we present our methods and first results for the geological and geochemistry investigations. Two main geological investigations have been carried out, of which one includes mapping of the sequence stratigraphy and internal structure of Quaternary alluvial fan deposits, 5 km South-West of the MDRS. Alluvial fans are formed when a stream gradient decreases over a relatively small area and therefore coarse-grained sediments are being deposited. Alluvial fans on Mars are of particular interest because they may have formed, as they do on Earth, a niche for life at deposition time. If any was present, the sediments may contain detritus that was transported by the river from the hinterland. Furthermore, the internal structure and lithology represent the depositional environment, water activity, and climatological perturbations. These three factors provide main implications for the conditions and possibilities of maintaining life. Mineralogical variations represent changes in the source area of the sediments and hence possible tectonic activity. The fan that we investigated measures 1.5 x 1.5 km and is made up of several stratigraphic sequences that we defined by classic geological methods. We followed the sedimentary sequences laterally using a Ground Penetrating Radar system (GPR) and taking samples for ground truth by drilling. All samples were analyzed on mineral content using Raman spectroscopy and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for mineralogical and elemental analysis respectively. We created lacquer peels from several sequences in order to sample and study sedimentary structures. The procedure to make lacquer peels is to poor lacquer over an outcrop and sticking the unconsolidated sediments to a piece of cloth, which is subsequently pasted upon a hardboard plank. Another investigation that was carried out focuses on the possibilities and restrictions to the geologist for future fieldwork on Mars. Hence the investigators did similar type of experiments as for the alluvial fan, wearing spacesuits and spending restricted time outside as they would on a Martian base. The EuroGeoMars expedition is the first in a series of manned planetary mission simulations.

  8. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  9. Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. W.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates was conducted in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the fiber stresses and displacements and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agreed well with those predicted by the models. It was shown that for thin laminates the amount of damage and the fiber displacements do not depend strongly on the number of plies for a given notch width.

  10. Thermal-oxidation stability of diesel fuels. Interim report, October 1983-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Barbee, J.G.; Yost, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    Injector fouling bench tests(IFBT) and modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test(JFTOT, ASTMD 3241) were used to develop methodology for evaluating the thermal stability of diesel fuels. A new method for measuring the thickness of lacquer-type fuel deposits formed on test surfaces at elevated temperatures was developed and applied to a variety of fuels, both with and without MIL-S-53021(additive stabilizer package). The utility of this technique greatly expands the capability for exploring and defining diesel-fuel thermal stability with respect to both material and kinetic studies. Correlation of IFBT and JFTOT type tests including definitions of temperature, flow, test-surface metallurgy and fuel additive effects can now be performed to better understand diesel thermal stability and provide test methodology/test limit information for fuel-specification consideration.

  11. Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Lerman, Zafra M.; Angelos, Sanford A.

    1996-06-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been utilized with nonscience majors in the courses: "Modern Methods in Science: Discovering Molecular Secrets"; "The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things"; "From Ozone to Oil Spills: Chemistry, the Environment and You"; and "Crime Lab Chemistry: Solving Crime through Analytical Chemistry". Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter. Students have also used GC-MS, as a form of alternative assessment, in course projects that have been based on their majors, personal interests, and cultural backgrounds. Students have also conducted advanced independent work in different areas of chemistry, including the analysis of nail polishes and lacquers and eleven aromatic compounds present in three different brands of gasoline.

  12. [The chemical working environment among car painters in Bergen].

    PubMed

    Grønberg, B H; Moen, B E; Bruun, T; Dale, K; Damås, J K; Hovland, A; Lunøe, E; Stanislaus, J; Young, S; Hollund, B E

    1994-08-20

    Official guidelines have been prepared for the working environment in Norwegian spraylacquering garages, in order to reduce the incidence of symptoms and diseases related to exposure to organic solvents. 11 garages were visited to see if the guidelines were being followed. All the sprayers (n = 28) were examined by questionnaire about the occurrence of acute symptoms connected to the central nervous system, the skin, the eyes and the airways during work, and about their use of personal protective equipment. All the garages had specially ventilated rooms for the lacquering procedure, and all the workers used personal respiratory protective equipment. The sprayers did not report more acute symptoms than a control group of office workers employed in the same companies. PMID:7992296

  13. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  14. Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassel, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Freiesleben, H.; Kiesewetter, J.

    1990-11-01

    The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 μgcm-2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method of lacquering a surface of distilled water with a solution of Formvar in 1,2-dichlorethane. The thicknesses of the foils are determined with various methods. Their rupture strength and gas permeability are investigated. The differential energy loss as well as the energy-loss straggling in these foils are measured for 16O-ions using the 4 MV tandem accelerator in Bochum.

  15. Temperature stability of transit time delay for a single-mode fibre in a loose tube cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.; Johnston, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the transit-time delay of a loose-tube-type single-mode optical-fiber cable is investigated experimentally. A 1058-m length of cable was placed loosely coiled in an oven and used to connect a 820-nm single-mode laser diode to a high-speed avalanche-photodiode detector feeding a vector voltmeter; the signal was provided by a high-stability frequency-synthesized generator. Measurements were made every 2 C from -50 to 60 C and compared to those obtained with a 200-m lacquered bare fiber. The phase change of both fibers varied with temperature at a positive slope of 6-7 ppm/C. This value is significantly better than those reported for other cable types, suggesting the application of loose-fiber cables to long-haul gigabit digital transmissions or precision time-base distribution for VLBI.

  16. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  17. Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groshart, E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

  18. Correlation of images: technique for mandible biomechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yachouh, Jacques; Domergue, Sophie; Loosli, Yannick; Goudot, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    Various experimental or physicomathematical methods can be used to calculate the biomechanical behavior of the mandible. In this study, we tested a new tool for the analysis of mandibular surface strain based on the correlation of images. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were placed in a loading device allowing replication of a physiologic biting exercise. Surfaces of the mandibles were prepared with white and black lacquer. Images were recorded by 2 cameras and analyzed with an algorithm to correlate those images. With the Limess Measurement & Software system and VIC 3D software, we obtained data output concerning deformations, strains, and principal strains. This allowed us to confirm strain distribution on the mandibular corpus and to focus on weak points. Image correlation is a new technique to study mandible biomechanics, which provides accurate measurements on a wide bone surface, with high-definition images and without modification of the structure. PMID:21959457

  19. Silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [protecting gas turbine engine vanes and blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A low cost coating protects metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity ovidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion and is particularly useful fo protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrates from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue and increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  20. Using gas chromatography for indoor-air quality control in conservation and renovation studios.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Tomasz; Gorczyca, Piotr; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2005-01-01

    Investigations were carried out in the Department of Conservation of Painting and Polychrome Sculpture and in the Screen Printing Studio of the Faculty of Art at Nicolaus Copernicus University. Concentration of the vapours of organic solvents was measured in 2 workshops: the Art Conservation Studio and the Screen Printing Studio. This study attempts to evaluate the work environment in both studios by analysing the concentration of vapour solvents over 5 to 7 years of measurements. Volatile solvents--aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and ketones--were detected in investigated workplaces. These compounds have a wide range of applications in cleaning and removing old varnishes, lacquers and paints; inhalation is the main route of exposure. Vapour was collected using an active sampling method. PMID:16219154

  1. Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 2: Experimental determination of internal damage growth in unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates is investigated in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. The damage may take the form of longitudinal yielding and splitting in the matrix as well as stable transverse damage consisting of broken fibers and matrix yielding ahead of the notch. A brittle lacquer coating is used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques are used to detemine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the experimental specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model.

  2. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurikovič, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  3. Using optical metrology to reconstruct sound recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E. W.; Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Jin, J.; Nordmeyer, R.; Golden, M.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to 1950 nearly all sound recordings were made on mechanical media such as wax, foil, shellac, lacquer, and plastic. Some of these older recordings contain material of great historical value or interest but are damaged, decaying, or now considered too delicate to play. Archives seek to preserve and also create broad access to their collections. An ongoing effort at Berkeley Lab has applied methods of optical metrology and image processing to reconstruct sound stored on these mechanical carriers. This approach was inspired by the use of precision optical metrology to align and fabricate silicon tracking arrays for high-energy physics experiments and by track finding and fitting data analysis methods. The technology has matured to the point that an optical metrology system for sound restoration has been designed and built for the Library of Congress.

  4. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Determination of ozone removal rates by selected building products using the FLEC emission cell.

    PubMed

    Klenø, J G; Clausen, P A; Weschler, C J; Wolkoff, P

    2001-06-15

    Ozone removal by 16 aged (older than 1-120 months) but unused building products or materials was studied in a test system that included the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC). The ozone removal was studied at 50 +/- 1 ppb ozone, a relative humidity of 50 +/- 5%, a temperature of 21 +/- 2 degrees C, and an air flow rate of 900 +/- 10 mL min(-1) through the FLEC (air velocity ca. 3 cm s(-1)). The ozone removal increased rapidly during the first 1-2 min and either remained at a constant level or decreased asymptotically to reach a steady state-like value. The ozone removal profiles for a given material showed good repeatability during replicate experiments. Ozone deposition velocities for the building products were calculated to be between 0.0007 cm s(-1) (lacquered ash) and 0.8 cm s(-1) (unpainted gypsum board). PMID:11432562

  6. Use of HPLC for the analytical determination of diisocyanates and acid anhydrides in the air of working environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rietz, B.

    1985-06-01

    Measurements of airborne concentrations of (monomeric) 2,4- and 2,6- toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6- TDI), 4,4' - diisocyanato diphenylmethane (MDI) and phthalic anhydride have been performed at 17 Danish atmanufactories using these compounds in the production of polyurethane foams, insulating materials, elastomers, coatings, lacquers and glues. Diisocyanate vapors at workplaces were collected in impingers, containing a solution of 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)-anthracene (1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in toluene. By reaction with this amine compounds the diisocyanates are converted to stable urea derivatives. Phthalic anhydride particles were collected on glass fiber filters. For separation and detection of the diisocyanate derivatives and the phthalic acid formed upon hydrolysis of its anhydride, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography on a bonded octadecylsilyl phase using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water and UV-monitoring at lambda = 254 nm were used. The results obtained for each manufacturer are presented. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  8. Effects of free tin on filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, J.; Yoshida, M. . Nagoya Research and Development Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Filiform corrosion behavior of lightly tin (Sn)-coated steel (LTS) for welded cans was studied in relation to the free Sn coating weight (free Sn coating weight = total Sn [minus] alloyed Sn). Filiform corrosion was found to be retarded by high cathodic polarization in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was > 0.35 g/m[sup 2] and in the region where the free Sn coating weight was <0.1 g/m[sup 2] but where the electrochemically determined chromium (Cr) coating weight was high. In the region where the free Sn coating weight was 0.1 to 0.35 g/m[sup 2], microcells were formed by the coupling of free Sn and the tin-iron alloy below the lacquer film, resulting in acceleration of filiform corrosion.

  9. Directional emittance surface measurement system and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  10. Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (λ > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

  11. Photoenhanced uptakes of NO2 by indoor surfaces: A new HONO source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Soergel, M.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Zetzsch, C.; Wortham, H.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a known household pollutant that can lead to human respiratory tract irritation. HONO acts as the nitrosating agent, e.g. by the formation of the so-called third-hand smoke after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine (1). HONO can be generated indoors directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed water on diverse surfaces (2). Recently a new source was identified as another path of HONO formation in the troposphere (3). Namely, the light-induced heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed organics (known as photosensitizers) on various surfaces such as roads, buildings, rocks or plants leads to enhanced HONO production. The detected values of HONO indoors vary in the range between 2 and 25 parts per billion (ppb). However, like outdoors, the processes leading to HONO formation indoors are not completely understood (4). Indoor photolysis radiation sources include exterior sunlight (λ>350 nm) that enters typically through the windows and indoor illumination sources, i.e., rare gas/mercury fluorescent light bulbs and tungsten and tungsten/halogen light bulbs among others. The present work is showing the importance of indoor sources of HONO recently identified or postulated. We have tested a number of common household chemical agents commonly used for cleaning purposes or coatings of domestic surfaces to better identify different indoor HONO sources. We used a heterogeneous flow tube technique to test the HONO production potentials of these household chemical agents under different experimental conditions, namely with and without light and at different relative humidity levels and different NO2 concentrations. We report uptake kinetics measurements of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase NO2 with lacquer and paint coated on the walls of the reactor. The flow tube was irradiated with four near-ultraviolet (UV) emitting lamps (range of wavelengths 300-420nm). We observed that the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on lacquer surfaces and on white wall paints is substantially enhanced in the presence of light and at higher relative humidity (RH = 60%). In runs carried out applying experimental conditions typically found indoors, i.e., NO2 mixing ratios of 25 ppb and 60% RH%, the observed NO2 uptakes on a surface coated with lacquer and paint showed an enhancement of one order of magnitude in the presence of light as compared to the uptake observed in the dark. Our results indicate, contrary to other study that claimed that humidity does not influence the NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics, that actually both postulated HONO sources combined i.e. heterogeneous NO2 reactions with adsorbed organics (photosensitizers) in presence of elevated humidity leads to even more pronounced HONO production. Reference: 1. M., Sleiman, L. A., Gundel, J. F., Pankow, P., Jacob, B. C., Singer, H., Destaillats, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576 (2010). 2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, K. A. Ramazan, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223 (2003). 3. K., Stemmler, M., Ammann, C., Donders, J., Kleffmann, C., George, Nature 440, 195 (2006). 4. E. Gomez Alvarez, H. Wortham, R. Strekowski, C. Zetzsch, S. Gligorovski, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955 (2012).

  12. What can cross-bedding tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a common transport mechanism associated with explosive eruptions. They behave as particulate density current (flows of particles and fluid, whose driving force is the excess density compared to the ambient fluid). The particles thus are the defining part of the flow acting as the agent of momentum and the resultant deposits, making PDC sedimentology fundamental. We combine wind tunnel measurements with nontraditional field techniques to consider cross-bedding from dilute PDCs from the mm to the km scale. Each deposited particle requires 1) momentum to reach its final location, but 2) sufficiently low shearing to halt at this place. A range of shearing is constrained from wind tunnel measurements. The results are combined with field data from lacquer peel sampling (an outcrop is impregnated with a solidifying glue, preserving the primary organization of the grains). This enables quantification of the grain size of mm-scale laminae, giving an order of magnitude of turbulence during deposition. The lacquer peel technique also imaged cm-scale, soft sediment deformation patterns producing overturned beds. These are interpreted as related to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instabilities between a granular-based flow and the bed. Dune bedform (DBs) cross-stratification at the m scale generally have an overall stoss-aggrading stacking pattern. Often interpreted as indicating supercritical flows, the wind-tunnel results and DBs' geometry rather suggest they are a specificity of particulate density currents with high deposition rates. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the 3D stability in location of a DB over several m depth, although stacking patterns vary with time and laterally. This emphasizes the primary influence of the basal boundary layer in the depositional dynamics. At the 100 m scale, DBs' shape evolves in dimensions and form, calling for 3D datasets. Terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry enable quantification of the evolution of DBs' outer shape and document the depositional history. The understanding of PDC cross-bedding is emerging, but ample evidence of the extreme variability in sedimentary facies in depth and laterally call for 3D acquisition schemes from the mm to km scale to depict correctly and understand the information in the buried deposits.

  13. Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.

  14. Contribution of aluminum from packaging materials and cooking utensils to the daily aluminum intake.

    PubMed

    Müller, J P; Steinegger, A; Schlatter, C

    1993-10-01

    Migration of aluminum (Al) from packaging materials and cooking utensils into foods and beverages was determined at intervals during cooking or during storage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. High amounts of Al migrated into acidic products such as mashed tomatoes during normal processing in normal, non-coated Al pans. After 60 min cooking an Al content of 10-15 mg/kg was measured in tomato sauce. Surprisingly, the Al concentration was also increased up to 2.6 mg/L after boiling tap water for 15 min in Al pans. Storage of Coca-Cola in internally lacquered Al cans resulted in Al levels below 0.25 mg/L. In contrast, non-coated Al camping bottles containing lime blossom tea acidified with lemon juice released up to 7 mg Al/L within 5 days. The Al concentration in coffee was lower than that of the tap water used in its preparation, even if prepared in Al heaters. In Switzerland, where most pans nowadays are made of stainless steel or teflon-coated Al, the average contribution for the use of Al utensils to the daily Al intake of 2-5 mg from the diet is estimated to be less than 0.1 mg. PMID:8249476

  15. Respiratory hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde and solvents in acid-curing paints

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G.

    1988-05-01

    Thirty-eight employees exposed to formaldehyde when working with acid-hardening lacquers and 18 nonexposed control persons employed at the same company were examined to determine lung function (spirometry and nitrogen washout), total immunoglobulin blood concentration, and work-related symptoms. The mean exposure to formaldehyde during an 8-hr workshop was 0.40 mg/m/sup 3/ air, and the mean exposure to peak values was 0.70 mg/m/sup 3/. Mean exposure to solvents was low, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the hygienic effect. Eye, nose, and throat irritation was more common in exposed persons than in controls. Monday morning, after two exposure-free days, forced vital capacity (FVC) values were found to have declined by 0.24 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1.0/) by 0.21 L, compared with normal values. There was a weak correlation between the individual concentration of IgG and decrease in FVC and FEV/sub 1.0/. No significant changes were noted in any other lung function variable before a work shift, and no lung function changes were noted over a full work shift. Deviations in FVC and FEV/sub 1.0/ values did not correlate to peaks or mean exposures or employment time.

  16. Determination of nitrocellulose by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; Torre, Mercedes; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    The industrial application of nitrocellulose depends on its nitrogen content. When nitrocellulose presents high nitrogen content is used in the manufacture of explosives whereas nitrocellulose with low nitrogen content is used to make a wide range of daily and non-explosive products (e.g. cigarettes, paints, lacquers). This fact makes really important to develop a method for the determination and discrimination of nitrocellulose samples. This work reports, for the first time, the qualitative determination of nitrocellulose previously derivatized with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) by capillary electrophoresis (CE-LIF) with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). APTS-labeled nitrocellulose was determined in lowly and highly nitrated nitrocellulose samples present in collodions and smokeless gunpowders, respectively, after their pulverization in liquid nitrogen. The method described enables the visual discrimination of different nitrocelluloses on the basis of the different electrophoretic profiles obtained, and provides a useful tool to determine nitrocellulose. Additionally, the use of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) enabled enhanced sample detection, which made it possible to determine nitrocellulose contained in ∼15 μg of gunpowder. PMID:22938620

  17. Alkaline transition of phytocyanins: a comparison of stellacyanin and umecyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Christopher; Harrison, Mark D; Lawler, Anne T

    2003-01-01

    The effect of pH on Cu(I) and Cu(II) forms of the isolated soluble domain of the stellacyanin from Rhus vernicifera (SCu), the Japanese lacquer tree, has been studied by electronic and NMR spectroscopy and using direct electrochemical measurements. A pK(a) value of 10.1-10.4 is observed for the alkaline transition in this oxidized phytocyanin and results in a slightly altered active-site structure, as indicated by changes in the visible and paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectra. Electrochemical studies show that the pK(a) value for this transition in SCu(I) (reduced SCu) is 11.0. These results are compared with those recently obtained for other phytocyanins, and in particular umecyanin. In all cases, the alkaline transition is caused by the deprotonation of the surface lysine residue adjacent to the axial ligand. This lysine residue is completely conserved in known phytocyanin sequences. Also highlighted in these studies are the remarkable active-site similarities between stellacyanin and umecyanin. PMID:12529171

  18. Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1998-06-01

    There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Marion/Bragg Landfill, Marion, Indiana, (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    The Marion/Bragg Landfill is a 72-acre site located near the southeastern city limits of Marion, Indiana. The site is bordered on the north and east by the Mississinewa River. Main features of the site include a 45-acre landfill and a 15-acre pond. From 1935 to 1961 the site was used as a sand and gravel quarry, and from 1949 to 1970 portions of the site, leased by Radio Corporation of America and Bragg Construction Company, were used for industrial and municipal waste disposal, respectively. Throughout this period, the Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH) noted the disposal of acetone, plasticizers, lacquer thinner, and enamels. Drummed wastes were also accepted and contents were allegedly emptied from the drums and worked into the landfill waste with a bulldozer, causing several fires on site. Drums were allegedly rinsed and resold. In 1975 Bragg Construction company ceased operation of the landfill. In 1975, Waste Reduction Systems constructed a transfer station to properly transfer solid wastes to an approved landfill. The transfer station was closed in 1977.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Echt, A.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

  1. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:24128521

  2. Polymer Modelling in Wall Ironing Simulations of a PET-Steel Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, J.; Nagy, G. T.; Šuštarič, P.; Šuštar, T.; Rodič, T.

    2010-06-01

    Steel laminates with a poly(ethylene terephthalate) coating can provide an environmental friendlier solution for packaging applications than current lacquered processes. One of the most challenging applications is the beer and beverage can where the PET layer is subjected to high temperatures (>100° C), high strain rates (>3000 1/s) and high hydrostatic pressure (>500 MPa) in the wall ironing process. Specific issues to be solved are polymer hairs in the process and scuffing or scraping of the coating. A realistic simulation of the wall ironing process is needed to understand the processing conditions that influence these phenomena. The Arruda-Boyce model proved to be a good constitutive model for PET in the as supplied state as well as the deformed state of the coating. An improvement can be made by a full thermomechanical coupling of strain rate, temperature and pressure. The major factor of influence in the wall ironing process is the entry angle of the ironing die. To overcome issues with the required small entry angle and high expansion forces in the die a special die profile has been patented.

  3. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  4. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  5. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  6. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. PMID:26276254

  7. Properties of screen printed electrocardiography smartware electrodes investigated in an electro-chemical cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ECG (Electrocardiogram) measurements in home health care demands new sensor solutions. In this study, six different configurations of screen printed conductive ink electrodes have been evaluated with respect to electrode potential variations and electrode impedance. Methods The electrode surfaces consisted of a Ag/AgCl-based ink with a conduction line of carbon or Ag-based ink underneath. On top, a lacquer layer was used to define the electrode area and to cover the conduction lines. Measurements were performed under well-defined electro-chemical conditions in a physiologic saline solution. Results The results showed that all printed electrodes were stable and have a very small potential drift (less than 3 mV/30 min). The contribution to the total impedance was 2% of the set maximal allowed impedance (maximally 1 kΩ at 50 Hz), assuming common values of input impedance and common mode rejection ratio of a regular amplifier. Conclusion Our conclusions are that the tested electrodes show satisfying properties to be used as elements in a skin electrode design that could be suitable for further investigations by applying the electrodes on the skin. PMID:23827015

  8. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-298-2182, Gibson Flatiron, Erica Shell Manufacturing, Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.

    1992-02-01

    In response to a request from the Montana State Health Department, an evaluation was undertaken of exposures to wood dust and lacquer vapors at the Gibson Flatiron/Erica Shell Manufacturing Companies (SIC-3931), Bozeman, Montana. Gibson Flatiron manufactured mandolins and banjoes. Erica Shell Manufacturing Company cuts and grinds abalone and other sea shells into small pieces to be used in designs inlayed into mandolins and banjos. Measured wood dust levels ranged from 0.8 to 32mg/cu m with an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 1.2 to 30mg/cu m. Rib construction and assembly, and planing bulk ebony wood had TWA exposures above the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 5mg/cu m for wood dust. Application of dyes and finishes resulted in low exposures to acetone (67641), toluene (108883), xylene (1330207), and butyl-acetate (123864). No solvent air concentrations were above 10% of their respective PELs. The author concludes that a health hazard existed for exposure to wood dusts. The author recommends the establishment of a respiratory protection program and a hearing conservation program. Emergency egress routes should be marked in the buildings.

  10. Drug delivery to the nail following topical application.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2002-04-01

    The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, following topical application to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders, such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states. In this paper, the recent research into ungual drug delivery is reviewed. The nail unit and the two most common diseases affecting the nail--onychomycosis and nail psoriasis--are briefly described to set the scene and to give an overview of the nature and scope of the problem. The factors, which affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail plate such as solute molecular size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, charge, and the nature of the vehicle, are then discussed, followed by ways of enhancing drug transport into and through the nail plate. Finally, drug-containing nail lacquers which, like cosmetic varnish, are brushed onto the nail plates to form a film, and from which drug is released and penetrates into the nail, are reviewed. PMID:11891066

  11. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  12. An implementation of the HACCP system in the production of food-packaging material.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, A-M; Sillanpää, J; Sipiläinen-Malm, T; Weber, A; Raaska, L

    2002-04-01

    The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system according to the Codex Alimentarius model was applied to the processes of five paper and paperboard mills and four plants further converting paper or board intended for contact with foodstuffs. The generalised flow diagrams of the processes are presented. Each of the overall processes contained 40-150 process steps. Normally three to five sessions with HACCP teams and additional private negotiations were needed for each mill or plant. Hazards leading to critical control points (CCPs) were microbiological (handling/storage, circulation water, starch, process environment) and physical (process environment) in mills, and microbiological (storage, lacquers or glues, packaging and process environment), chemical (printing) and physical (storage of products, packaging and process environment) in plants. Specifications, critical limits (e.g., based on different kinds of reports and instructions), monitoring methods (microbiological and visual) and frequency, responsibilities and corrective actions of the processes are presented. Most of the improvements focused on improving the process environment. In five cases, hygiene training was included in the implementation of the HACCP system. PMID:11986922

  13. Trace analysis of airborne 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate and the related aminoisocyanate and diamine by glass capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Mathiasson, L

    1988-01-15

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the analysis of complex air mixtures of 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The method is based on derivatization in the sampling step of the reactive isocyanate groups to corresponding urethane groups by the alkaline ethanolic solvent and a subsequent derivatization of remaining amino groups to amide groups with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. The overall procedure, including sampling, gave a linear response at air concentrations of 3-300 micrograms/m3 for 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate with a precision of ca. 4% at 15 micrograms/m3 and a detection limit of ca. 0.2 microgram/m3 using nitrogen selective detection. In a field measurement of air concentrations in welding work on lacquered metal parts at a motor-car workshop, concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate above 600 micrograms/m3 were found. Also 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine were found at concentrations of the order of 15% of the 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate concentration. PMID:3356757

  14. A glycosylated byssal precursor protein from the green mussel Perna viridis with modified dopa side-chains.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Kousaku; Nishida, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Waite, J Herbert

    2004-04-01

    Foot tissue of the green mussel Perna viridis contains a variety of byssal precursor proteins with the unusual redox-active amino acid, Dopa (-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alpha-alanine). Eight proteins were detectable in acidic extracts of the Perna foot by a redox cycling assay with nitroblue tetrazolium. In one of these, however, P. viridis foot protein-1 (Pvfp-1), activity was not due to Dopa, but to another redox-active derivative. Based on specific colorimetric derivatization with Arnow's reagent, ninhydrin and phenylisothiocyanate (Edman), mass spectrometry, the redox-active derivative in Pvfp-1 is not consistent with any known modification. Another uncommon modification of Pvfp-1 involves O-glycosylation of threonine by mannose, glucose or fucose. As in previously characterized fp-1s, the primary sequence of the Pvfp-1 (apparent mass 89 kDa) has two consensus decapeptide motifs; one is APPKPX1TAX2K and the other is APPPAX1TAX2K, where P is Pro/Hyp, and X1 and X2 are difucosylated threonine and a redox sensitive derivative of tyrosine or Dopa, respectively. Of these two unusual residues, X2 is unique to Pvfp-1, whereas O-glycosylated Thr has been previously detected in freshwater mussel fp-1. The sequence homology of Pvfp-1 with the common structural motifs of the fp-1 protein family strongly suggests that the Pvfp-1 functions as the byssal coating (lacquer) protein. PMID:15203964

  15. An analysis of the ``accidental painting'' technique of D.A. Siqueiros: the Rayleigh Taylor instability as a tool to create explosive textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetina, S.; Zenit, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the spring of 1936, the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros organized an experimental painting workshop in New York: a group of artists focused in developing painting techniques through empirical experimentation of modern and industrial materials and tools. Among the young artists attending the workshop was Jackson Pollock. They tested different lacquers and a number of experimental techniques. One of the techniques, named by Siqueiros as a ``controlled accident,'' consisted in pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. After a brief time, the paint from the lower layer emerged from bottom to top creating a relatively regular pattern of blobs. This technique led to the creation of explosion-inspired textures and catastrophic images. We conducted an analysis of this process. We experimentally reproduced the patterns ``discovered'' by Siquieros and analyzed the behavior of the flow. We found that the flow is driven by the well-known Rayleigh Taylor instability: different colors paints have different densities; a heavy layer on top of a light one is an unstable configuration. The blobs and plumes that result from the instability create the aesthetically pleasing patterns. We discuss the importance of fluid mechanics in artistic creation.

  16. Controlled nail delivery of a novel lipophilic antifungal agent using various modern drug carrier systems as well as in vitro and ex vivo model systems.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Sandy; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Kiesow, Andreas; Mrestani, Yahya; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2014-04-28

    The penetration behavior into human nails and animal hoof membranes of a novel antifungal agent (EV-086K) for the treatment of onychomycosis was investigated in this study. The new drug provides a high lipophilicity which is adverse for penetration into nails. Therefore, four different formulations were developed, with particular focus on a colloidal carrier system (CCS) due to its penetration enhancing properties. On the one hand, ex vivo penetration experiments on human nails were performed. Afterwards the human nail plates were cut by cryomicrotome in order to quantify the drug concentration in the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail layer using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. On the other hand, equine and bovine hoof membranes were used to determine the in vitro penetration of the drug into the acceptor compartment of an online diffusion cell coupled with Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. In combination, both results should exhibit a correlation between the EV-086K penetration behavior in human nail plates and animal hoof membranes. The investigations showed that the developed CCS could increase drug delivery through the human nail most compared to other formulations (nail lacquer, solution and hydrogel). Using animal hooves in the online diffusion cell, we were able to calculate pharmacokinetic data of the penetration process, especially diffusion and permeability coefficients. Finally, a qualitative correlation between the penetration results of human nails and equine hooves was established. PMID:24560884

  17. Transungual delivery: deliberations and creeds.

    PubMed

    Thatai, P; Sapra, B

    2014-10-01

    Although considered as trifling illness, nail diseases have a reasonably high occurrence and a noteworthy impact on the patients' quality of life. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the topical treatment for nail diseases to avoid drug interactions and to reduce side effects associated with oral therapy. Topical drug delivery to the nails has established amplified consideration lately. Strategies (such as chemical enhancers, formulation strategies, physical and mechanical methods) are being investigated in order to improve drug permeability across the nail plate. The rationale of this review is to present contemporary information on the structure of human nail along with its comparison with animal hooves. Precincts of nail permeability have been briefly discussed with respect to factors like permeant's molecular size, hydrophilicity, charge and the nature of the vehicle. These factors affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail. Formulations like nail lacquers which mimic cosmetic varnish and colloidal carriers along with nail substitutes that can be utilized for transungual delivery have also been discussed. PMID:24888698

  18. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate. PMID:25940933

  19. Occupation, occupational exposure to chemicals and rheumatological disease. A register based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Alfredsson, L; Plato, N; Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was compared between different occupations, and between different exposure groups based on a job-exposure matrix (JEM). The study population comprised those subjects who in 1980 lived in one of 13 Swedish counties, were born between 1905 and 1945, and who had stated the same occupation in the censuses of 1960 and 1970, a total of 375,035 men and 140,139 women. The study population was followed concerning hospital care for rheumatoid arthritis in 1981-1983 by lineage to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. In general there were rather small differences in the relative risk of RA in different exposure groups and different occupations. Most of the occupations associated with an increased risk of RA were occupations in which it was possible to work when the disease was present, i.e. cost accountants, estimating clerks and working proprietors in the retail trade. However, an increased relative risk of RA was also observed in some occupations where selection of RA patients out of heavy work should have biased genuinely increased relative risks towards unity. Such occupations were farmers, upholsterers, lacquerers, concrete workers, and hair-dressers. Substantial handling of organic solvents, according to the JEM, was associated with an increased relative risk. PMID:7801054

  20. Method of protecting a surface with a silicon-slurry/aluminide coating. [coatings for gas turbine engine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Young, S. G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low cost coating for protecting metallic base system substrates from high temperatures, high gas velocity oxidation, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion is described. The coating is particularly useful for protecting vanes and blades in aircraft and land based gas turbine engines. A lacquer slurry comprising cellulose nitrate containing high purity silicon powder is sprayed onto the superalloy substrates. The silicon layer is then aluminized to complete the coating. The Si-Al coating is less costly to produce than advanced aluminides and protects the substrate from oxidation and thermal fatigue for a much longer period of time than the conventional aluminide coatings. While more expensive Pt-Al coatings and physical vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings may last longer or provide equal protection on certain substrates, the Si-Al coating exceeded the performance of both types of coatings on certain superalloys in high gas velocity oxidation and thermal fatigue. Also, the Si-Al coating increased the resistance of certain superalloys to hot corrosion.

  1. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  2. A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keiko; Saito, Fumio; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    The allergens causing mango dermatitis have long been suspected to be alk(en)yl catechols and/or alk(en)yl resorcinols on the basis of observed cross-sensitivity reactions to mango in patients known to be sensitive to poison ivy and oak (Toxicodendron spp.). Earlier, we reported the 3 resorcinol derivatives: heptadecadienylresorcinol (I), heptadecenylresorcinol (II) and pentadecylresorcinol (III); collectively named 'mangol', as mango allergens. In this study, we extracted the 1st 2 components (I and II) from the Philippine mango, adjusted them to 0.05% concentration in petrolatum and patch tested the components on 2 subjects with mango dermatitis. Both subjects reacted to I. 1 subject also elicited a weaker positive reaction to II. To investigate the cross-reaction between mangol and urushiol, we also patch tested the same subjects with urushiol. The subject sensitive to II reacted to urushiol. 6 subjects with a history of lacquer contact dermatitis and positive reactions to urushiol were similarly patch tested. 5 persons reacted to I. 2 subjects also exhibited a slower but positive reaction to II. This is the 1st report in which heptadec(adi)enyl resorcinols known to be present in mango have been shown to elicit positive patch test reactions in mango-sensitive patients. PMID:15606656

  3. Worst case aerosol testing parameters: II. Efficiency dependence of commercial respirator filters on humidity pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relative humidity has a degrading effect on the performance of commercially available particulate air-purifying respirator filters. That degradation results from a reduction of charge within the filter. This study was done to evaluate the time-dependent effects of relative humidity pretreatment and the reduction of charge on filter penetration against a most penetrating, ''worst case'' aerosol challenge. Filters of the dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency types were tested after being pretreated in an environment of 38 degrees C and 85% relative humidity for periods up to 42 days. After various intervals of pretreatment (1, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days), the filters were tested against neutralized worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols for percent penetration. The results showed a drop in filter efficiency of approximately 2%-6% depending on preconditioning time, except for the high efficiency filters tested which showed no detectable change.

  4. Widely tunable LP11 cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anitha S; Sudeep Kumar, V P; Joe, Hubert

    2015-03-10

    A record tunability of 35 nm for the LP(11) cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating using standard single-mode communication fiber is demonstrated. By forming the LP(11) resonance far away from its cut-off wavelength and modifying the grooves of the grating in the form of smooth semicircular humps, a high twist sensitivity of 8.75 nm/(rad/cm) and a controlled tunability of 35 nm is achieved. The fiber with its lacquer coating is not broken even at a severe twist rate of 5.44 rad/cm. The present design can be used as a novel variable optical selective wavelength attenuator since the bandwidth, rejection efficiency, and center wavelength can be controlled by changing the grating length, pressure over the grating, and fiber twist, respectively. Using the results, a cost-effective tunable variable optical attenuator for selective channel-blanking applications is also demonstrated. A fine tunability of 1.5 nm is achieved for a twist rate change of 0.1 rad/cm. PMID:25968376

  5. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  6. Analysis of the Henze precipitate from the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancio, Aurelio; Scippa, Silvia; Nette, Geoffrey; De Vincentiis, Mario

    The Henze precipitate, a peculiar blue-green microparticulate obtained by lysis of the blood cells of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Protochordata), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The precipitate was collected from the Henze solution, an unstable red-brown product obtained by treating blood with distilled water, whose degradation yields a characteristic blue-green product. The microparticulates measured 50-100 µm in diameter and appeared irregular in shape. SEM examination showed smooth, roughly round boundaries. The microparticulate surface examined with AFM appeared as an irregular matrix formed by 70-320-nm-wide mammillate composites, including and embedding small (500-800 nm wide) crystal-like multilayered formations. X- ray analysis showed that the elements present in these same precipitates were mainly C, Si, Al and O. The microparticulate composition appeared close to those of natural waxes or lacquers, embedding amorphous silicates and/or other Si-Al components. The unusual occurrence of Si in ascidian blood and its role are discussed.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): New Lyme, Ashtabula County, Ohio, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The New Lyme Landfill is located near State Route 11 on Dodgeville Road in Ashtabula County, approximately 20 miles south of the City of Ashtabula, Ohio. The landfill occupies about 40 acres of a 100-acre tract. Operations began at the site in 1969, and were initially managed by two farmers. In 1971, the landfill was licensed by the State of Ohio and operations were taken over by a licensed landfill operator. According to documentation, the New Lyme Landfill received household, industrial, commercial, and institutional wastes and construction and demolition debris. However, numerous violations of the license occurred, including: open dumping; improper spreading and compacting of wastes; no State approval for disposal of certain industrial wastes; and excavation of trenches into the shale bedrock. In August 1978, the landfill was closed by the Ashtabula County Health Department. Documents indicate that wastes at the New Lyme Landfill site included: coal tar distillates, asbestos, coal tar, resins and resin tar, paint sludge, oils, paint lacquer thinner, peroxide, corrosive liquids, acetone, xylene, toluene, kerosene, naptha, benzene, linseed oil, mineral oil, fuel oil, chlorinated solvents, 2,4-D, and laboratory chemicals. The selected remedial action is included.

  8. Cloning, expression, and spectroscopic characterization of Cucumis sativus stellacyanin in its nonglycosylated form.

    PubMed Central

    Nersissian, A. M.; Mehrabian, Z. B.; Nalbandyan, R. M.; Hart, P. J.; Fraczkiewicz, G.; Czernuszewicz, R. S.; Bender, C. J.; Peisach, J.; Herrmann, R. G.; Valentine, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the 182 amino acid long precursor stellacyanin from Cucumis sativus was isolated and characterized. The protein precursor consists of four sequence domains: I, a 23 amino acid hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide with features characteristic of secretory proteins; II, a 109 amino acid copper-binding domain; III, a 26 amino acid hydroxyproline- and serine-rich peptide characteristic of motifs found in the extension family, extracellular structural glycoproteins found in plant cell walls; and IV, a 22 amino acid hydrophobic extension. Maturation of the protein involves posttranslational processing of domains I and IV. The copper-binding domain (domain II), which shares high sequence identity with other stellacyanins, has been expressed without its carbohydrate attachment sites, refolded from the Escherichia coli inclusion bodies, purified, and characterized by electronic absorption, EPR, ESEEM, and RR spectroscopy. Its spectroscopic properties are nearly identical to those of stellacyanin from the Japanese lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, the most extensively studied and best characterized stellacyanin, indicating that this domain folds correctly, even in the absence of its carbohydrate moiety. The presence of a hydroxyproline- and serine-rich domain III suggests that stellacyanin may have a function other than that of a diffusible electron transfer protein, conceivably participating in redox reactions localized at the plant cell wall, which are known to occur in response to wounding or infection of the plant. PMID:8931137

  9. Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis. PMID:26936348

  10. Routes of drug delivery into the nail apparatus: Implications for the efficacy of topical nail solutions in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    The route of antifungal drug entry into the nail plate and the underlying nail bed plays an important role in determining the efficacy of therapy. Oral antifungal agents reach the nail bed and nail plate by being ingested and achieving antifungal levels in the blood stream that are well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The reticular circulation at the distal end of the digit enables the drug to reach the nail bed, the proximal matrix and the lateral nail folds. The drug then diffuses into the proximal, ventral and lateral nail plate. The primary route of drug delivery for topical lacquers is transungual, with drug applied to the dorsal aspect of the nail plate and penetrating to the underlying nail bed. The new topical agents approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis are solutions with lower viscosity and increased nail penetration characteristics; therefore, these agents penetrate through the transungual route, but also through the space between the nail plate and the nail bed. This subungual route is an important method of drug delivery and is able to in part circumvent the thickness of the nail plate. PMID:25983025

  11. Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  12. Plastic substrate hardening by PE-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichella, Stefania; Misiano, Carlo; Simonetti, Enrico; De Carlo, L.

    1994-09-01

    The usage of plastic substrates has known a big enhancement driven by ophthalmic applications, but a further spreading can be foreseen in higher technological fields too. As known, two drawbacks are outlined when using these substrate: low scratching resistance; high thermal expansion coefficient, thus bad compatibility with the optical coatings made of inorganic layers. The most widespread solution up to now is a hardening and mechanical matching lacquer coating by dipping, which is well accepted in ophthalmics, but cannot be utilized in precision optics due to its intrinsic thickness disuniformity. Recently similar layers have been realized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. This paper describes Ce.Te.V.'s activities and results in setting up this coating by RF PE-CVD, aimed to both ophthalmics and precision optics. The two different functions (hardening and mechanical matching) and the performances of the coating-with special attention to scratch and thermal shock resistance-are examined. The experimental equipment and the optical and environmental characteristics are described.

  13. Application of plasma polymerization on ophthalmic lenses: equipment and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlrab, Christian; Hofer, Markus

    1995-09-01

    The use of plastic as a substrate material for optical lenses has been increasing in importance due to its smaller density, simpler machining, and lower price. However, scratches present a major problem wherever the lens surface is exposed to the environment. Various processes have thus been developed to protect the surfaces with hard coatings. The most common technique is dipping, but spinning and spraying are other methods to apply lacquer. Common to all these techniques are the required posttreatments such as drying and heat or UV curing. Safety consideration, as well as the long processing time and the handling required between the different steps, have led to the development of new technologies. Plasma polymerization, a technology relying on plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition, is used to deposit dense organic layers with reproducible, well-defined surface properties. In contrast to dip coating, plasma polymerization coats even strongly curved structures with good uniformity, This is important for bifocal or trifocal lenses, which have sharp edges on the surface. Due to the wide range of refraction indexes (about n equals 1.5 to 1.8) available by using different monomers, even the latest high-index materials can be coated without disturbing interference fringes. After a survey of plasma polymerization basics, some aspects of industrial equipment and processes for ophthalmic applications are presented. An outlook into the future of plasma polymerization of optical applications concludes the paper.

  14. The Alcan fluidized bed decoater: A new generation of decoating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, F.; Litalien, M.; Stephens, D.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that removal of organic material such as lacquer, paint, plastic prior to melting improves aluminum recovery. In addition to being ail important economically, decoating of aluminum scrap has a positive impact on the environment, through better control of gaseous emissions. Most of the existing thermal decoaters for aluminum have been designed to operate with scrap containing a level of organic material lower than 10%. The main field of their present application is for recycling of used aluminum can, where levels of organic material are lower than 4%. Alcan has recently developed a new thermal decoating system in order to extend applications of this process to a much wider variety of aluminum scrap. The new decoater efficiently processes aluminum scrap with a level of organic material LIP to 50%. This new technology features the use of fluidized bed technology to thermally control the process. This innovative feature improves both performance and control over conventional delacquering systems based on hot air convection. This paper describes the basic principles of the technology and the design of the first industrial unit commissioned by the Alcan Recycling plant in Shelbyville (TN) at the beginning of 1994. Typical applications in operating advantages are discussed.

  15. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  16. Modification of lignin for the production of new compounded materials.

    PubMed

    Hüttermann, A; Mai, C; Kharazipour, A

    2001-05-01

    The cell walls of woody plants are compounded materials made by in situ polymerization of a polyphenolic matrix (lignin) into a web of fibers (cellulose), a process that is catalysed by polyphenoloxidases (laccases) or peroxidases. The first attempt to transform the basic strategy of this natural process for use in human craftsmanship was the ancient lacquer method. The sap of the lacquer tree (Rhus verniciflua) contains large amounts of a phenol (urushiol), a polysaccharide and the enzyme laccase. This oil-in-water emulsion solidifies in the presence of oxygen. The Chinese began using this phenomenon for the production of highly creative artwork more than 6,000 years ago. It was the first example of an isolated enzyme being used as a catalyst to create an artificial plastic compound. In order to apply this process to the production of products on an industrial scale, an inexpensive phenol must be used, which is transferred by an enzyme to active radicals that react with different components to form a compounded material. At present, the following approaches have been studied: (1) In situ polymerization of lignin for the production of particle boards. Adhesive cure is based on the oxidative polymerization of lignin using phenoloxidases (laccase) as radical donors. This lignin-based bio-adhesive can be applied under conventional pressing conditions. The resulting particle boards meet German performance standards. By this process, 80% of the petrochemical binders in the wood-composite industry can be replaced by materials from renewable resources. (2) Enzymatic copolymerization of lignin and alkenes. In the presence of organic hydroperoxides, laccase catalyses the reaction between lignin and olefins. Detailed studies on the reaction between lignin and acrylate monomers showed that chemo-enzymatic copolymerization offers the possibility to produce defined lignin-acrylate copolymers. The system allows control of the molecular weights of the products in a way that has not been possible with chemical catalysts. This is a novel attempt to enzymatically induce grafting of polymeric side chains onto the lignin backbone, and it enables the utilization of lignin as part of new engineering materials. (3) Enzymatic activation of the middle-lamella lignin of wood fibers for the production of wood composites. The incubation of wood fibers with a phenol oxidizing enzyme results in oxidative activation of the lignin crust on the fiber surface. When such fibers are pressed together, boards are obtained which meet the German standards for medium-density fiber boards (MDF). The fibers are bound together in a way that comes close to that by which wood fibers are bound together in naturally grown wood. This process will, for the first time, yield wood composites that are produced solely from naturally grown products without any addition of resins. PMID:11398916

  17. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perring, Loïc; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99+/-5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. PMID:12324843

  18. Occupational lung cancer risk for men in Germany: results from a pooled case-control study.

    PubMed

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Möhner, M; Pohlabeln, H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U; Kreienbrock, L; Kreuzer, M; Jahn, I; Wichmann, H E; Jöckel, K H

    2000-02-15

    Occupational exposures such as crystalline silica, diesel engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and man-made mineral fibers are strongly suspected to increase lung cancer risk. Two case-control studies in Germany conducted between 1988 and 1996 were pooled for a joint analysis. A total of 3,498 male cases and 3,541 male population controls, frequency matched for age and region, were included in the study. The lifelong history of all jobs and industries was coded and occupational exposures were evaluated by expert rating. Odds ratios, crude and adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure, were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Job-related evaluation showed a statistically significant increased odds ratio adjusted for smoking among farmers; forestry workers, fishermen, and livestock workers; miners and quarrymen; chemical processors; cabinet makers and related wood workers; metal producers and processors; bricklayers and carpenters; road construction workers, pipelayers and well diggers; plasterers, insulators, and upholsterers; painters and lacquerers; stationary engine and heavy equipment operators; transport workers and freight handlers; and service workers. With regard to specific occupational exposures, elevated odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for lung cancer risk adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure were observed for man-made mineral fibers (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.17, 1.88); crystalline silica (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.22, 1.62); diesel engine exhaust (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.23, 1.67); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.04). The risk of asbestos exposure, adjusted for smoking was also increased (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.24, 1.60). PMID:10695597

  19. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

  20. XIIth international meeting on radiation processing Avignon 25-30 March 2001 (Polymer irradiation: past-present and future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapiro, Adolphe

    2002-03-01

    Radiations are used efficiently and economically for the production of new or modified polymers. The following processes are considered: Radiation curing; Radiation cross-linking; Radiation grafting. These processes are commonly used today in industry and provide a broad range of new potential applications in various fields. The history of their development is briefly reported. The chemical reactions underlying these processes are described. (1) Radiation curing is used commercially on a large scale for the production of improved coatings, lacquers and inks. The process can be conducted at very high speeds. Curing of magnetic formulations leads to particularly stable products, which compete favourably with more conventional materials. (2) Radiation cross-linking is an established technology in the wire and cable industry. It emparts to the modified insulators improved resistance to solvents, to ageing and to elevated temperatures. The resulting cross-linked network also reduces the migration of fillers and thereby stabilizes in time any message imprinted with magnetic or colored pigments dispersed in a polymer. (3) Radiation grafting is a powerful method for modifying more profoundly the properties of a polymer and for creating numerous, entirely new materials. The chemical modification can be applied at will into the bulk of the material or limited to a surface zone of any desired depth. This method can be used for instance, for introducing polar groups in the bulk or on the surface of non-polar polymers, for increasing or reducing the wettability of a polymer, for imparting a better compatibility of a polymer to a specific coating and the like. The irradiation of water-soluble polymers in aqueous solutions, with or without the addition of another monomer gives rise to a variety of cross-linked gels which find useful applications in the biomedical field. Other promising applications will be considered.

  1. Cyclohexane produces behavioral deficits associated with astrogliosis and microglial reactivity in the adult hippocampus mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Zarate-Lopez, David; Galvez-Contreras, Alma Y; Moy-Lopez, Norma; Guzman-Muniz, Jorge; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile substance that has been utilized as a safe substitute of several organic solvents in diverse industrial processes, such as adhesives, paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, and rubber industry. A number of these commercial products are ordinarily used as inhaled drugs. However, it is not well known whether cyclohexane has noxious effects in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cyclohexane inhalation on motor behavior, spatial memory, and reactive gliosis in the hippocampus of adult mice. We used a model that mimics recreational drug use in male Balb/C mice (P60), divided into two groups: controls and the cyclohexane group (exposed to 9,000 ppm of cyclohexane for 30 days). Both groups were then evaluated with a functional observational battery (FOB) and the Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, the relative expression of AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), and the number of astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were quantified in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings indicated that cyclohexane produced severe functional deficits during a recreational exposure as assessed by the FOB. The MWM did not show statistically significant changes in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory. Remarkably, a significant increase in the number of astrocytes and microglia cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of these cells were observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of cyclohexane-exposed mice. This cellular response was associated with an increase in the expression of APE1 in the same brain regions. In summary, cyclohexane exposure produces functional deficits that are associated with an important increase in the APE1 expression as well as the number of astrocytes and microglia cells and their cytoplasmic complexity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the adult hippocampus. PMID:25433657

  2. Obtainment of pellets using the standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Omar Paulino Silva; Oliveira, Leandra Almeida Ribeiro; Martins, Frederico Severino; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Freitas, Osvaldo; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The standardized liquid extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul is an alternative for the treatment of vitiligo. There is a shortage of solid oral dosage forms developed from standardized extracts of this plant specie. Objective: This study is aimed to obtain pellets with a standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii. Results: The standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii was obtained through maceration and percolation with a 55% ethanol-water solution (v/v). Pellets were obtained through a mixture of extract of 500 g of B. gaudichaudii standardized extract, 500 g of microcrystalline cellulose PH101 and 10 g of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100. The pellets obtained presented a homogeneity yield of 92%, aspect ratio of 1.16 ± 0.65, shape fator eR of 0.35 ± 0.09 and Feret diammeter of 0.87 ± 0.27. These pellets were coated with a suspension composed of titanium dioxide, aluminum red lacquer, ethyl cellulose, talc and magnesium stearate. Before the photostability test, the uncoated pellets showed psoralen content equal to 0.13 ± 0.01% and to the 5-MOP was 1.40 ± 0.27%. After exposure to one level (3 J.cm-2) of UVB irradiation the uncoated pellets presented a degradation of 2.16% of psoralen and 8.1% of 5-MOP. After exposure to three levels (10, 20 and 30 J.cm-2) of UVA irradiation the uncoated pellets exhibited photodegradation of 9.78, 17.64, 24.21% of psoralen and 18.95, 23.68, 28.48% for 5-MOP. The coated pellets where unaffected after photostability test. Conclusion: Pellets were obtained with the standardized liquid extract of B. gaudichaudii and coating is a technological alternative to ensure the stability of the formula. PMID:25709229

  3. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  4. Comparison of roll-to-roll replication approaches for microfluidic and optical functions in lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Baum, Christoph; Bastuck, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Economically advantageous microfabrication technologies for lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices substituting commonly used glass etching or injection molding processes are one of the key enablers for the emerging market of microfluidic devices. On-site detection in fields of life sciences, point of care diagnostics and environmental analysis requires compact, disposable and highly functionalized systems. Roll-to-roll production as a high volume process has become the emerging fabrication technology for integrated, complex high technology products within recent years (e.g. fuel cells). Differently functionalized polymer films enable researchers to create a new generation of lab-on-a-chip devices by combining electronic, microfluidic and optical functions in multilayer architecture. For replication of microfluidic and optical functions via roll-to-roll production process competitive approaches are available. One of them is to imprint fluidic channels and optical structures of micro- or nanometer scale from embossing rollers into ultraviolet (UV) curable lacquers on polymer substrates. Depending on dimension, shape and quantity of those structures there are alternative manufacturing technologies for the embossing roller. Ultra-precise diamond turning, electroforming or casting polymer materials are used either for direct structuring or manufacturing of roller sleeves. Mastering methods are selected for application considering replication quality required and structure complexity. Criteria for the replication quality are surface roughness and contour accuracy. Structure complexity is evaluated by shapes producible (e.g. linear, circular) and aspect ratio. Costs for the mastering process and structure lifetime are major cost factors. The alternative replication approaches are introduced and analyzed corresponding to the criteria presented. Advantages and drawbacks of each technology are discussed and exemplary applications are presented.

  5. Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.

    2013-04-01

    The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 μg/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 μg/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

  6. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  7. An examination of the relation between intraocular pressure, fundal stretching and myopic pathology.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-03-01

    Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure. These changes include reduced collagen synthesis, altered collagen fibres, tissue loss, altered proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Such changes are associated with reduced scleral rigidity and related increased potential to stretch in response to intraocular pressure. As axial elongation progresses, the sclera appears likely to continue to reduce in thickness and in its capacity to resist intraocular pressure, especially when pressure becomes elevated. Tessellation, lacquer cracks, myopic crescents, staphylomata, chorioretinal atrophy and retinal detachment are examined within a model for stretching of the fundus. Age, refractive error and axial length, for example, are associated with increased pathological progression. Myopic pathological progression can become dominated by vascular changes and include a greater risk of loss of acuity and blindness. Measures to control myopic pathology, which successfully slow or prevent stretching of the fundus, appear to be key factors in reducing or even avoiding permanent visual loss associated with this condition. For example, limiting axial elongation and related myopic fundus pathology by inhibiting changes which reduce the elastic modulus of scleral tissue is a desirable outcome from interventions to control myopia. Similarly, reducing exposure to the distending stress of elevated intraocular pressure appears to be a desirable form of intervention to control myopia, especially if myopic pathology can be reduced or prevented. PMID:26840631

  8. Comparison of user-friendliness and treatment cost of Loceryl® vs. Ciclopoli®--a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Jäckel, A; Müller, J; Borelli, C

    2015-10-01

    Topical monotherapy is a valid therapeutic approach in onychomycosis. Due to its lengthy course and its non-reimbursed product status, cost and compliance are important issues and non-pharmacological properties such as over-the-counter price and ease of use should be considered when deciding which product to recommend. We investigated surrogate parameters for patient-friendliness and treatment cost in Germany in a questionnaire-based prospective, comparative, intra-individual, open-label trial of the two common topical antifungal nail lacquers Loceryl(®) (amorolfine 5%) and Ciclopoli(®) (ciclopirox 8%) in eight patients with clinically diagnosed onychomycosis. The 2.5 ml bottle of Loceryl(®) covered a treatment period of 308 days, resulting in treatment costs of €0.10 per day in comparison to the 3.3 ml bottle of Ciclopoli(®), covering 127 days at €0.21 per day, given once-daily application for Ciclopoli(®) and once-weekly application for Loceryl(®) in accordance with regulatory approval. Six out of eight patients favoured the Loceryl(®) treatment regimen. Furthermore, four out of eight patients found Loceryl(®) easier to apply, whereas three preferred Ciclopoli(®). In total, seven out of eight stated a clear preference for Loceryl(®) over Ciclopoli(®). Loceryl(®) therapy is less expensive and less time-consuming. The therapeutic period that can be covered is longer and more patients stated a clear preference for Loceryl(®) in comparison to Ciclopoli(®). The differences are statistically significant, underlining probable clinical relevance. PMID:26393437

  9. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-P.; Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I.; Chiou, Robin Y.; Kan, L.-S.; Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, S.-B.

    2008-03-15

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

  10. A natural matrix (pureed tomato) candidate reference material containing residue concentrations of pesticide chemicals.

    PubMed

    Armishaw, P; Millar, R

    2001-06-01

    NARL (the Australian National Analytical Reference Laboratory) is preparing a pureed tomato reference material spiked with residue concentrations of a range of pesticide chemicals relevant to the Australian horticultural industry. Traceable certified pesticide concentration values will be established using both isotope dilution mass spectrometry primary methods (developed within NARL) and measurements carried out by a number of experienced laboratories. As far as we are aware, there is no other similar CRM available anywhere in the world. The need for such a material is evident from the results of interlaboratory proficiency studies conducted by NARL among Australian and Asia-Pacific residue testing laboratories. Many participants are experiencing difficulties with the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables at concentrations of regulatory significance. Chemicals such as methamidophos (an organophosphorus pesticide widely used on tomato crops) are causing particular problems. In a pilot study, a number of units of control (unspiked tomato) and the candidate reference material were prepared and packaged into lacquered steel cans which were sealed and sterilised by immersion in boiling water. Accelerated stability testing of the packaged material was conducted using isochronous measurement. All of the pesticides showed some degree of degradation after 4 weeks of storage at 50 degrees C, and after 168 days of storage at room temperature. However, all appeared to be stable after 168 days of freezer storage. Homogeneity testing involved duplicate test portions taken from every 50th unit of reference material. An experimental protocol was devised with the aim of minimising the analytical variability and assuring the quality of the data generated. There is some degree of inhomogeneity in the prepared material and a small fill trend is also indicated. Potential improvements to the spiking and preparation procedure have been identified and it is planned to prepare a second batch of both control and spiked material for further homogeneity trials and for certification of the pesticide concentrations. PMID:11451254

  11. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  12. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  13. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    PubMed

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  14. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  15. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  16. Copper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Michael L.M.; Leão, Versiane A.; Gomes, Otavio; Lambert, Fanny; Bastin, David; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Copper bioleaching from PCB (20 mm) by moderate thermophiles was demonstrated. • Larger PCB sheets enable a cost reduction due to the elimination of fine grinding. • Crushing generated cracks in PCB increasing the copper extraction. • A pre-treatment step was necessary to remove the lacquer coating. • High copper extractions (85%) were possible with pulp density of up to 25.0 g/L. - Abstract: The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake flasks to assess the effects of particle size (−208 μm + 147 μm), ferrous iron concentration (1.25–10.0 g/L) and pH (1.5–2.5) on copper leaching using mesophile and moderate thermophile microorganisms. Only at a relatively low solid content (10.0 g/L) complete copper extraction was achieved from the particle size investigated. Conversely, high copper extractions were possible from coarse-ground PCB (20 mm-long) working with increased solids concentration (up to 25.0 g/L). Because there was as the faster leaching kinetics at 50 °C Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was selected for experiments in a rotating-drum reactor with the coarser-sized PCB sheets. Under optimal conditions, copper extraction reached 85%, in 8 days and microscopic observations by SEM–EDS of the on non-leached and leached material suggested that metal dissolution from the internal layers was restricted by the fact that metal surface was not entirely available and accessible for the solution in the case of the 20 mm-size sheets.

  17. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  18. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of <0.5, 161, 264 and 529 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato juice in 20 volunteers (Study 1) and tin migrated from packaging at concentrations of <0.5, 201 and 267 mg/kg in 250 ml tomato soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (<1000 Da) tin species in the soluble fraction of food products. Results show that the chemical form of tin and not the elemental concentration per se determines the severity of AEs. A clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563391

  19. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.

    2009-05-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine (Grafica Flextronica, Vasai, India) using the screen printing ink viz. CARBO PASTE DC-1000M and DC-20 (Dozen Tech, Korea). A surface resistivity of a few hundred kΩ/square was obtained on a 100 mm thick polyester sheet of dimension 0.7 M×1.2 M. Curing was done for ˜30 minutes at 150 °C. We are planning to test this film on a glass RPC very soon.

  20. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort addresses reported traces of BPA detected using different analytical techniques. In this study, the presence of BPA in different baby feeding bottles was determined. In general, the concentration of BPA released increased with increasing time of heating and longer use. The experimental results also showed that BPA is present in those plastic containers, even though labeled " BPA free". Research and studies done by scientists and other health organizations have agreed to measure BPA levels in human tissue, and determine its negative effects to human health. At this time the source and level of exposure to BPA is unknown. For this reason, much more research is needed to uncover more evidence of this toxic chemical.

  1. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (

  2. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Gttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Squard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Gttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17?-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  3. Runoff Triggering at the Plot Scale: from Indices of Structural and Functional Connectivity to the Hydrograph Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C.

    2009-12-01

    Structural connectivity refers to continuum properties of state variables (such as altitude or soil properties) in space, whereas functional connectivity is process-based and reflects the capacity (or the rate of transfer) of water (and associated particles or molecules) to move in the system in response to a boundary stimulus. Although connectivity is conceptually acknowledged as a key factor of catchment hydrological behavior, a meaningful quantitative evaluation of it is still in development, especially in surface hydrology. Based on numerical runoff experiments, we found that, among a number of structural connectivity indices (namely the semivariogram, the bivariate entropy, the n-point rectilinear connectivity, the connectivity function integral scale, the percolation probability and the Euler number) and a recently proposed functional connectivity index (namely the relative surface connection function, that is the ratio of surface connected as a function of the surface storage filling), the functional connectivity index was the most robust and directly linkable to the runoff dynamic. The relative surface connection function is evaluated using elevation data and a depression filling algorithm, considering a spatially uniform effective rain (rain - infiltration). This connectivity function only depends on the depression storage and the interconnection between the depressions. In order to use the connectivity function to generate real hydrographs, one must also take into account the friction forces acting on the runoff and the resulting backwater effects, which determines surface detention. Therefore, a corrective procedure is implemented where the simplified (i.e. without surface detention) hydrograph produced by the relative surface connection function is adjusted by convolving its derivative with a theoretical hydrograph for a similar flat plane. This indirect method allows to efficiently mimic the global hydraulic behavior of a small plot and to describe the effect of the micro-topography on runoff triggering by few (1 or 2) effective parameters implementable in hillslope models. In order to validate the methodology, we developed a fast and cheap in-situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates stable and almost impermeable reproductions of the soil micro-topography, to within 1 mm. Ten molds (0.5 m2) were made, representing different stages of erosion of a bare soil in field conditions. We measured their elevation fields with a laser scanner, to determine their respective relative surface connection function. Then we subjected the molds to various artificial rainfall intensities. The resulting hygrographs were directly measured and compared with the ones generated with the relative surface connection function, to assess the level of discrepancy of the method.

  4. Alteration of the MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway related to tumour progression during urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schlott, Thilo; Quentin, Thomas; Korabiowska, Monika; Budd, Bettina; Kunze, Ekkehard

    2004-11-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder develop by a multistep process characterized by various stages of transformation differing in their grade of malignancy and biological behaviour. Since the prospective clinical outcome cannot be reliably predicted on histopathological grounds, we analysed the mRNA expression of the MDM2-p73-P14ARF tumour surveillance pathway in an attempt to detect alterations of gene activity, allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for conversion of low to high malignant TCC. Expression of the mRNA was determined in 71 TCC of various grades and stages using the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway was dominated by the MDM2 gene, the mRNA expression of which proved to be significantly (5-fold) lower in advanced high-grade, high-stage than in superficial low-grade, low-stage TCC. Conversely, the expression of p73 mRNA increased with increasing tumour grades and stages, while the activity of the P14ARF gene was not substantially altered during early and late phases of urothelial carcinogenesis. Analysing the expression of spliced variants of MDM2 mRNA, we found a heterogeneous pattern including a novel splicing transcript coding for an abnormal protein. Promoter hypermethylation of P14ARF occurred in 10% of the TCC with an under-expression of mRNA. An analysis of the effects of lifestyle and occupational bladder cancer risk factors revealed that TCC of smokers showed a 2-fold elevated expression of MDM2 mRNA and an approximately 2-fold lower expression of P14ARF mRNA, whereas the activity of the p73 gene was unchanged. Heavy coffee consumption was associated with a 2-fold decreased expression level of P14ARF mRNA. Exposure to certain occupational hazards (plastic products, paints and lacquer, polycyclic hydrocarbons, chemical solvents) was observed to modulate the activity of the genes analysed. Our findings suggest that an alteration in the MDM2-p73-P14ARF pathway is involved in the progression of bladder cancer to a more malignant and aggressive form. PMID:15492852

  5. 10′(Z),13′(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10′(Z), 13′(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  6. Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (λ= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

  7. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an ordinary coating pigment. The char found on intumescence is better in terms of yield and physical properties than chars obtained from many previously known intumescent materials. Prior to intumescence, the coating has a density of 85 pounds per cubic foot. After intumescence, the density is approximately 0.3 pounds per cubic loot. The linear expansion of the coatings ranges from 70 to 200 times the applied coating thickness.

  8. Altered mRNA expression of the Rb and p16 tumor suppressor genes and of CDK4 in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder associated with tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Thomas; Henke, Christian; Korabiowska, Monika; Schlott, Thilo; Zimmerman, Britt; Kunze, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    Based on the concept that tumor suppressor genes are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder carcinogenesis, we analysed the mRNA expression of the retinoblastoma (Rb) and p16 (CDKN2, INK4A, MTS1) genes as well as of the proto-oncogene cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in 71 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder in relation to the tumor grades and stages, and with reference to certain lifestyle and occupational risk factors. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, high-stage muscle invasive TCC expressed the Rb, p16 and CDK4 mRNA at lower levels than low-stage superficial cancers, indicating down-regulation to be linked with tumor progression. The drop of the expression in the group of grade 2 TCC when invading the muscle layer compared to grade 2 carcinomas with a superficial pattern of growth is considered to represent a key event in promoting urothelial carcinogenesis in this subset of carcinomas. The protein expression of the Rb gene evaluated by immunohistochemistry proved to be closely related to the tumor grades and stages as well as to the mRNA expression, high-grade and high-stage TCC disclosing a lower rate of positive immunoreactivity than low-grade and low-stage carcinomas. The p16 protein product was expressed at a lower level in grade 3 than in grade 1 TCC, but there was no correlation with the tumor stages or the mRNA expression. TCC with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the INK4A region showed a decreased expression of p16 mRNA compared to those without an allelic loss. Tobacco smoke was not identified to substantially modulate the Rb/p16/CDK4 pathways, except for a ten-fold elevated mRNA expression of the p16 gene in TCC of light compared to heavy smokers. Heavy coffee consumption was associated with a reduced expression of CDK4 mRNA. Among occupational exposures, TCC of patients in contact with stone dust, paints and lacquer, plastics, wood and wood preservers and chemical solvents and adhesives displayed altered partly elevated, partly reduced levels of Rb, p16 and CDK4 mRNA compared to non-exposed subjects. Although the underlying molecular-genetic pathways are not yet fully understood, the current results suggest functional reduction of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p16 to be associated with progression of bladder cancer to a more malignant and aggressive behaviour. PMID:15161057

  9. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/bisphenol.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR. PMID:19407859

  10. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are produced and filled in Europe per annum, about 20% of these having plain internal (unlacquered) tin-coated steel bodies. Worldwide, the total for food packaging is approximately 80,000 million cans. Tinplate is also extensively used for the production of beverage cans. Europe produces and fills over 15,000 million tinplate beverage cans per annum all of which are internally lacquered. The use of tinplate for food and beverage packaging, will result in some tin dissolving into the food content, particularly when plain uncoated internal surfaces are used. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for tin is 14 mg/kg body weight and recommended maximum permissible levels of tin in food are typically 250 mg/kg (200 mg/kg UK) for solid foods and 150 mg/kg for beverages. However, the question arises as to whether evidence exists that such elevated levels of tin in food in any way constitute a risk to human health. This review considers the factors affecting the dissolution of tin, the reported measurements/surveys of actual levels of tin in canned foods and the studies and reports of acute (short term) toxicity relating to the ingestion of elevated levels of tin in food products. Chronic studies are mentioned, but are not covered in detail, since the review is mainly concerned with possible effects from the ingestion of single high doses. From published data, there appears to be a small amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of food or beverages containing tin at concentrations at or below 200 ppm has caused adverse gastrointestinal effects in an unknown but possibly small proportion of those exposed. However, the evidence supporting this assertion is derived from reports of adverse effects which offer data that are limited, incomplete or of uncertain veracity. Clinical studies provide greater confidence regarding the effects of exposure concentration and dose, but few relevant studies have been made. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were observed in limited clinical studies at concentrations of 700 ppm or above, although no adverse gastrointestinal effects were also reported in two studies at higher concentrations. Overall, therefore, the published data do not present a particularly comprehensive profile on the toxic hazard to man of acute exposure to divalent inorganic tin. A food survey suggested that the contents of almost 4% of plain internal tinplate food cans contain over 150 mg/kg of tin and over 2.5 million such cans are consumed every year in the UK alone. Despite this, in the last 25 years, there have been no reports of acute effects attributable to tin contamination in the range 100-200 ppm. These facts strongly suggest that there is little evidence for an association between the consumption of food containing tin at concentrations up to 200 ppm and significant acute adverse gastrointestinal effects. Clearly though, only further clinical studies will generate unequivocal evidence that current legislative limits provide safe levels for adults in the general population. PMID:14563390

  11. An updated review of environmental estrogen and androgen mimics and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, C; Soto, A M

    1998-04-01

    For the last 40 y, substantial evidence has surfaced on the hormone-like effects of environmental chemicals such as pesticides and industrial chemicals in wildlife and humans. The endocrine and reproductive effects of these chemicals are believed to be due to their ability to: (1) mimic the effect of endogenous hormones, (2) antagonize the effect of endogenous hormones, (3) disrupt the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous hormones, and (4) disrupt the synthesis and metabolism of hormone receptors. The discovery of hormone-like activity of these chemicals occurred long after they were released into the environment. Aviation crop dusters handling DDT were found to have reduced sperm counts, and workers at a plant producing the insecticide kepone were reported to have lost their libido, became impotent and had low sperm counts. Subsequently, experiments conducted in lab animals demonstrated unambiguously the estrogenic activity of these pesticides. Man-made compounds used in the manufacture of plastics were accidentally found to be estrogenic because they fouled experiments conducted in laboratories studying natural estrogens. For example, polystyrene tubes released nonylphenol, and polycarbonate flasks released bisphenol-A. Alkylphenols are used in the synthesis of detergents (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and as antioxidants. These detergents are not estrogenic; however, upon degradation during sewage treatment they may release estrogenic alkylphenols. The surfactant nonoxynol is used as intravaginal spermicide and condom lubricant. When administered to lab animals it is metabolized to free nonylphenol. Bisphenol-A was found to contaminate the contents of canned foods; these tin cans are lined with lacquers such as polycarbonate. Bisphenol-A is also used in dental sealants and composites. We found that this estrogen leaches from the treated teeth into saliva; up to 950 microg of bisphenol-A were retrieved from saliva collected during the first hour after polymerization. Other xenoestrogens recently identified among chemicals used in large volumes are the plastizicers benzylbutylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, the antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole, the rubber additive p-phenylphenol and the disinfectant o-phenylphenol. These compounds act cumulatively. In fact, feminized male fish were found near sewage outlets in several rivers in the U.K.; a mixture of chemicals including alkyl phenols resulting from degradation of detergents during sewage treatment seemed to be the causal agent. Estrogen mimics are just a class of endocrine disruptors. Recent studies identified antiandrogenic activity in environmental chemicals such as vinclozolin, a fungicide, and DDE, and insecticide. Moreover, a single chemical may produce neurotoxic, estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects. It has been hypothesized that endocrine disruptors may play a role in the decrease in the quantity and quality of human semen during the last 50 y, as well as in the increased incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in males and breast cancer incidence in both females and males in the industrialized word. To explore this hypothesis it is necessary to identify putative causal agents by the systematic screening of environmental chemicals and chemicals present in human foods to assess their ability to disrupt the endocrine system. In addition, it will be necessary to develop methods to measure cumulative exposure to (a) estrogen mimics, (b) antiandrogens, and (c) other disruptors. PMID:9699867

  12. The structure and genesis of Weichselian to early hologene aeolian sand sheets in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, J.

    1988-03-01

    Weischselian to Early Holocene aeolian sands are widespread in the lowlands of western Europe. To a large extent these deposits occur in the form of sheet-like coversands with slipfaced dunes being much rarer. Whereas the latter type of landform corresponds to a single facies with dune-foreset cross-bedding (= aeolian facies 1), two structurally different facies are distinguishable in the sand sheets. This paper concentrates on the two sand-sheet facies which are referred to as aeolian facies 2 and aeolian facies 3. Data on these two types are based on (1) a survey of existing literature, and (2) a detailed analysis of lacquer peels and larger-scale exposures in England, The Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. Aeolian facies 2 is defined by the spatial position of its beds, which may be either horizontal, inclined or oppositely dipping in the case of structures formed by fluctuating winds. Horizontal bedding is by far the most common type. Inclined bedding is related either to small, isolated dome dunes or to scoop-shaped deflation surfaces. The structures resulting from fluctuating winds are rare and do not represent an inherently large measure of directional variability of the wind regime. The internal structure of the beds is dominated by aeolian planebed lamination with or without concordantly infilled wind-scours. Degradation of this stratification type because of interference by coarse particles is discussed. Aeolian facies 3 is uniquely typified by the alternation of coarser- and finer-grained horizontal thin beds that are either wavy or even in shape. Depositional models of facies 3 are given at both the local and regional scales. In both cases the coarser-grained layers result from tractional deposition of saltating and creeping grains whilst the finer-grained strata were laid down by settling from suspension. Periodic changes in surface wind speed, the presence of a damp depositional surface and the availability of both sand and silt in the source area are necessary conditions for the working of the models. The large-scale model is associated with specific environmental conditions of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial. The local-scale model accounts for the fact that facies 3 is also found in units of Weichselian Late Glacial or Early Holocene age. The regional-scale model involves stepwise tractional transport over long distances so that grains of distant provenance were mixed with material from sources nearer to the receiving site. This process was an important control on the mineralogical composition of the resultant deposits. The prevalence of aeolian planebed lamination in both facies 2 and the coarser-grained layers of facies 3 is attributed to the interaction of three factors, viz. the rarity of topographic barriers, the sparseness of vegetation cover and a high ratio between wind energy and sand availability during the processes of transport and deposition. In the lowlands of Europe, sand sheets are gradually replaced in an easterly direction by coeval wind dunes. The possible causes of this phenomenon are considered.

  13. Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor concentrations using a Licor LI-7000 and dew point (Buck Research Instruments model CR-1A). A suite of experiments was conducted in which the; (i) Aerosol particle composition was varied (4 chemical compounds) (ii) Aerosol particle GMD was varied (40-80 nm) (iii) Aerosol particle total number concentration was varied (2 orders of magnitude) (iv) Tree type was varied (using a range of species and alternately lacquering the trees to prevent active uptake) (v) Light, water vapor content and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber were varied in order to mimic the range of conditions observed at our experimental particle flux site in southern Indiana (see related abstract by Pryor and Hornsby that describes the in situ flux estimates). The results of these laboratory experiments are used to quantify the relative importance of these factors in dictating aerosol particle uptake and specifically the importance of the foliage collection mechanisms at the leaf scale and deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements.

  14. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of tetralin (CAS No. 119-64-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Tetralin is used as an industrial solvent primarily for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; as a solvent for pesticides, rubber, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene); as a dye solvent carrier in the textile industry; as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; in paint thinners and as a paint remover; in alkali-resistant lacquers for cleaning printing ink from rollers and type; as a constituent of motor fuels and lubricants; for the removal of naphthalene in gas distribution systems; and as an insecticide for clothes moths. Tetralin was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity and disposition studies because of its structure, high production volume, and high potential for worker and consumer exposure. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetralin (at least 97% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years; male NCI Black Reiter (NBR) rats were exposed to tetralin by inhalation for 2 weeks. Male NBR rats do not produce 2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of 2u-globulin and renal lesion induction. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male (F344/N and NBR) and five female (F344/N) rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 12 exposures. All rats survived to the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of female rats exposed to 120 ppm and mean body weight gains of female rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Final mean body weights of exposed groups of male NBR rats and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male rats were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in all 120 ppm rats. Squinting, weeping, or matted fur around the eyes were noted in the majority of F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. The 2u-globulin concentrations in the kidney of male F344/N rats were significantly greater in all exposed groups than in the chamber control group. The absolute kidney weight of 60 ppm females and the relative kidney weights of male F344/N rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater and female rats exposed to 15 ppm or greater were significantly increased. The absolute liver weight of 120 ppm NBR male rats and the relative liver weights of male and female rats exposed to 60 or 120 ppm were significantly increased. In the nose, the incidences of mononuclear cell cellular infiltration were generally significantly increased in all exposed groups of rats, and incidences of olfactory epithelium degeneration and glandular hypertrophy occurred in all male F344/N rats exposed to 120 ppm. 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 13 exposures. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of male and female mice were similar to those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in most of the exposed mice. The absolute and relative liver weights of 60 and 120 ppm males and 30 and 120 ppm females and the relative liver weights of 60 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. In the nose, the incidences of olfactory epithelium atrophy were significantly increased in 60 and 120 ppm males and females. Glandular dilatation occurred in all 120 ppm females, and glandular hyperplasia occurred in all 120 ppm males and females. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. The same exposure concentrations were given to additional groups of 10 male and 10 female clinical pathology study rats for up to 6 weeks and five male renal toxicity rats for 2 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. During the first 4 weeks of exposure, dark-stained urine was observed in the catch pans of rats exposed to 30, 60, or 120 ppm. Tetralin induced a minimal decrease in the erythron in both sexes that resulted in a hematopoietic response. Tetralin increased urine aspartate aminotransferase and urine lactate dehydrogenase activities (males and females) and glucose/creatinine ratio (males), suggestive of renal injury. The absolute kidney weights of 60 and 120 ppm females and the relative kidney weights of males and females exposed to 15 ppm or greater were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Concentrations of 2u-globulin in the kidney of exposed male rats were generally greater than those of the chamber controls at all time points and greater at 6 and 14 weeks than at 2 weeks. There were significantly increased incidences of olfactory epithelium necrosis in rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater and of olfactory epithelium regeneration in 60 and 120 ppm rats. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of 120 ppm males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark-stained urine was observed in the catch pans of mice exposed to 30, 60, or 120 ppm during the first month of the study. Tetralin induced a minimal decrease in the erythron in both sexes that resulted in a hematopoietic response. The relative liver weights of 120 ppm males and 30 ppm or greater females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Incidences of olfactory epithelium metaplasia in 60 and 120 ppm males and females, respiratory epithelium hyaline droplet accumulation in 120 ppm males and 60 and 120 ppm females, cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules within the transitional epithelium lining the urinary bladder in all exposed groups of males and females, and ovarian atrophy and uterine atrophy in 60 and 120 ppm females were significantly increased. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Additional groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to the same concentrations for 12 months. Survival of all exposed groups of rats was similar to that of the chamber controls. Mean body weights of 120 ppm females were 6% less than those of the chamber controls after week 29. Dark-stained urine was observed in all exposed groups of rats. Creatinine-adjusted levels of all urinary metabolites increased with increasing exposure concentration in males and females. In the standard evaluation of the kidney, there were slightly increased incidences of cortical renal tubule adenoma in male rats. In the combined analysis of single and step sections, the incidence of cortical renal tubule adenoma was significantly increased in the 120 ppm group. In the combined analysis, there was also a significantly increased incidence of renal tubule hyperplasia in the 120 ppm group. In 120 ppm males in the standard evaluation, the severity of chronic nephropathy was increased and the incidence of transitional epithelial hyperplasia in the renal pelvis was significantly increased. Three hepatocellular adenomas occurred in 120 ppm females, and one hepatocellular carcinoma each was observed in the 60 and 120 ppm groups. The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and endometrium hyperplasia were significantly increased in 120 ppm females. Incidences of interstitial cell adenoma and germinal epithelium atrophy of the testis in 30 and 120 ppm males were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. The incidences of olfactory epithelium degeneration, metaplasia, basal cell hyperplasia, suppurative inflammation, and mineralization (except 30 ppm females) in the nose were significantly increased in all exposed groups of rats. The incidences of glandular dilatation were significantly increased in 120 ppm males and all exposed groups of females. The incidences of respiratory epithelium chronic inflammation were significantly increased in males exposed to 60 or 120 ppm and all exposed groups of females. The incidences of lens cataract in 120 ppm females were significantly increased. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Additional groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to the same concentrations for 12 months. Survival of 60 and 120 ppm female mice was significantly greater than that of the chamber controls. The mean body weights of all exposed groups of male and female mice were similar to those of the chamber controls by the end of the study. Dark-stained urine was observed in all exposed groups of male mice and in females exposed to 60 or 120 ppm. Creatinine-adjusted levels of all urinary metabolites increased with increasing exposure concentration in males and females. The incidence of hemangiosarcoma of the spleen was increased in 120 ppm females and exceeded the historical control range for inhalation studies. The incidences of olfactory epithelium atrophy, respiratory metaplasia, glandular hyperplasia, and suppurative inflammation in exposed groups of mice were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls. Transitional epithelium cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules were present in the urinary bladder of all exposed mice. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:21685956

  15. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies 2-Butoxyethanol (CAS NO. 111-76-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    2-Butoxyethanol is a member of a family of ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers. It is used extensively as a solvent in surface coatings such as lacquers, enamels, varnishes, and latex paint; in paint thinners, paint stripping formulations, and inks; and in degreasers and industrial and household cleaners. 2-Butoxyethanol was nominated for study because of its widespread use in industrial and consumer applications, the potential for exposure to workers and the general population, and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation (primary route of human exposure) for 14 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the bone marrow of male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. One female rat in the 250 ppm group was killed moribund during week 8; four females in the 500 ppm group were killed moribund during week 1 and one during week 5. Final mean body weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Clinical findings included abnormal breathing, pallor, red urine stains, nasal and eye discharge, lethargy, and increased salivation and/or lacrimation. Due to vascular thrombosis and infarction in the tail vertebrae of 500 ppm female rats, the tails became necrotic and either sloughed off or were chewed off. The primary effect on the hematopoietic system was an anemia characterized as macrocytic, normochromic, and regenerative in males exposed to 125 ppm or greater and, to a greater extent, in all exposed groups of females. Compared to the chamber controls, kidney weights of males exposed to 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater and liver weights of males exposed to 250 or 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater were significantly increased, and thymus weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly less. In female rats killed moribund, there was considerable histologic evidence of thrombosis in tissues and organs including the nasal cavity, incisors, liver, lung, and heart. In addition to thrombosis, infarction occurred in the vertebrae of the tail resulting in necrosis and loss of the distal portion of the tail. There were also inflammation, necrosis, and ulceration of the forestomach; necrosis and centrilobular degeneration of the liver; renal tubule degeneration; and atrophy of the spleen and thymus. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of Kupffer cell pigmentation, forestomach inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia, bone marrow hyperplasia, splenic hematopoietic cell proliferation, and renal tubule pigmentation were observed in male and/or female rats surviving to the end of the study. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Two male and two female mice exposed to 500 ppm died and two males and two females were killed moribund during the first 2 weeks of the study. Final mean body weights of 125, 250, and 500 ppm male mice were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Clinical findings were observed only in 500 ppm males and females that died or were killed moribund and included abnormal breathing, red urine stains, and lethargy. Hematologic evaluation indicated an anemia that was characterized as normocytic, normochromic, and regenerative in mice exposed to 62.5 ppm or greater; the anemia was more pronounced in females. Liver weights of males exposed to 500 ppm were significantly greater than the chamber controls. In mice either dying early or killed moribund, there were inflammation, necrosis, and ulceration of the forestomach; mediastinal pleura and peritoneal inflammationmmation associated with the forestomach lesions; liver necrosis; renal tubule degeneration; atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and mandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes; and degeneration of the testis. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of hematopoietic cell proliferation and hemosiderin pigmentation of the spleen, Kupffer cell hemosiderin pigmentation of the liver, inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach, and renal tubule hemosiderin pigmentation occurred in male and/or female mice surviving to the end of the study. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31.2, 62.5, or 125 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. For hematology and bone marrow analyses, additional groups of 27 male and 27 female rats were exposed to 0, 62.5, or 125 ppm for evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months and nine male and nine female rats were exposed to 31.2 ppm for evaluation at 3 (hematology only) and 6 months. Survival and Body Weights: Survival of exposed male and female rats was similar to the chamber control groups. The mean body weights of females exposed to 125 ppm were generally less than the chamber control group. Hematology and Bone Marrow Cellularity: The most consistent exposure-related effect on the hematopoietic system was an exposure concentration-related mild macrocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia present at 3, 6, and 12 months, with females more affected than males. Significant increases in bone marrow cellularity and decreases in the myeloid/erythroid ratio relative to the chamber controls were observed at all time points in females exposed to 125 ppm, and a decrease in the myeloid/erythroid ratio was observed in males exposed to 125 ppm at 12 months. Pathology Findings: The incidence of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in females exposed to 125 ppm was not significantly increased compared to the chamber controls but exceeded the historical control range. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of hyaline degeneration of the olfactory epithelium and Kupffer cell pigmentation of the liver were observed in male and female rats. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. For hematology and bone marrow analyses, additional groups of 30 male and 30 female mice were exposed to 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm for evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months. Survival and Body Weights: Survival of male mice exposed to 125 or 250 ppm was significantly less than that of the chamber control group. The mean body weights of exposed males were generally less than those of the chamber control group during the last 6 months of the study. The mean body weights of exposed female mice were less than those of the chamber control group; the reductions were greater and occurred earlier than those observed in males. Hematology: The most consistent exposure-related effect on the hematopoietic system was an exposure concentration-related minimal normocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia present at 3, 6, and 12 months, with females affected slightly more than males. Pathology Findings: In females exposed to 250 ppm, incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma and squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased relative to the chamber controls, and these incidences exceeded the ranges in historical chamber controls. In 2-butoxyethanol exposed males, there were possible exposure-related increases in the incidences of squamous cell papilloma of the forestomach, although the increases were not significant and the incidences were within the historical control range for chamber controls. Accompanying these neoplasms in females and, to a lesser extent, in males were exposure-related increases in the incidences of ulcer and epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach. In male mice exposed to 250 ppm, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma of the liver was significantly increased relative to chamber controls and exceeded the range in historical controls; in addition, there were possible exposure-related increases in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Incidences of hemosiderin pigmentation in the Kupffer cells were significantly increased in 125 and 250 ppm males and all exposed groups of females. The incidences of splenic hematopoietic cell proliferation and hemosiderin pigmentation were generally increased in males and females, and the incidences of bone marrow hyperplasia were increased in males. The incidences of hyaline degeneration of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia of the nose were increased in female mice. GENETIC TOXICOLOGY: 2-Butoxyethanol did not induce mutations in any of the S. typhimurium strains tested, with or without induced hamster or rat liver S9. 2-Butoxyethanol induced cycle delay but did not induce either sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells with or without S9. 2-Butoxyethanol did not induce micronuclei in bone marrow cells of male rats or mice administered the chemical by intraperitoneal injection three times at 24-hour intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these 2-year inhalation studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male F344/N rats exposed to 31.2, 62.5, or 125 ppm. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in female F344/N rats based on the increased combined incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (mainly benign) of the adrenal medulla. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hemangiosarcoma of the liver. A marginal increase in the incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma and an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma may have been exposure related. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of fore stomach squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (mainly papilloma). Increased incidences of forestomach neoplasms in male and female mice occurred in groups in which ulceration and hyperplasia were also present. Exposure to 2-butoxyethanol caused a mild regenerative anemia and effects secondary to the anemia. Synonyms: 2-Butoxy-1-ethanol; m-butyl ether; butyl glycol; ethylene glycol monobutyl ether Trade name: Butyl Cellosolve PMID:12571679