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Sample records for lactate dehydrogenase creatine

  1. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase after anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Pilis, W; Langfort, J; Pilsniak, A; Pyzik, M; Btasiak, M

    1988-04-01

    Eight untrained men performed 15-s and 60-s high-intensity exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Activities of the creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood 3 min and 2, 6, and 24 h after cessation of exercise. The results indicate that anaerobic exercise induces a transient increase in plasma LDH activity and a more prolonged elevation in plasma CK activity. A negative correlation was found between CK activity measured before and 3 min after exercise and mean power, and total external work performed in both test types. A similar correlation was ascertained between pre- and post-exercise CK activity and maximal power output measured in the 60-s test. After the 15-s exercise test, only post-exercise plasma CK activity was negatively correlated with the maximal power output. PMID:3384513

  2. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in serum of patients suffering burns, blunt trauma, or myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Shahangian, S; Ash, K O; Wahlstrom, N O; Warden, G D; Saffle, J R; Taylor, A; Green, L S

    1984-08-01

    Medical records of 53 burn and trauma patients were reviewed to assess the possibility of myocardial damage. Except for electrophoretically detectable creatine kinase MB isoenzyme, none showed evidence of myocardial injury. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme tests, electrocardiograms, myocardial pyrophosphate scans, clinical course, and results of (two) autopsies were all negative for myocardial necrosis or ischemia. Types of patient, number, mean peak value (U/L) for serum creatine kinase, and ranges of percentage MB isoenzyme were as follows. Burns from direct electrical contact: 28, 16 600, 0-29; electrical flash or other thermal burns: 10, 4340, 0-22; blunt trauma (mostly from automobile accidents): 15, 3430, 0-18; myocardial infarction: 57, 1520, 4-46. Evidently creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is nonspecific in burn and trauma patients and should not be the only test result used to assess myocardial involvement. PMID:6744581

  3. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  6. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility. PMID:5917779

  7. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase in serum. Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase in serum. Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase in serum. Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase...

  13. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. PMID:25542170

  14. Creatine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle creatine levels more than creatine alone, creatine sports drinks have become popular. Creatine is allowed by the International Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and professional sports. However, the NCAA no longer allows colleges and ...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate...

  19. ISOZYME PROFILES OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE IN NEONATAL MOUSE HEARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isozyme profiles of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined in cardiac tissue of mice during postnatal development. LDH isozymes 1 and 5 showed a definite developmental change, achieving the adult values by 20 days of age, while the other three...

  20. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  5. Creatine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by mouth does not improve muscle function or quality of life in people with mitochondrial myopathies. However, creatine might improve some measures of muscle strength. Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth ...

  6. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  7. Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.

    1988-12-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

  8. NADP+-Preferring D-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingfeng; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Limin; Dong, Hui; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxy acid dehydrogenases, including l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases (L-LDH and D-LDH), are responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and extensively used in a wide range of biotechnological applications. A common feature of LDHs is their high specificity for NAD(+) as a cofactor. An LDH that could effectively use NADPH as a coenzyme could be an alternative enzymatic system for regeneration of the oxidized, phosphorylated cofactor. In this study, a d-lactate dehydrogenase from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was found to use both NADH and NADPH with high efficiencies and with a preference for NADPH as its coenzyme, which is different from the coenzyme utilization of all previously reported LDHs. The biochemical properties of the D-LDH enzyme were determined by X-ray crystal structural characterization and in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity analyses. The residue Asn(174) was demonstrated to be critical for NADPH utilization. Characterization of the biochemical properties of this enzyme will contribute to understanding of the catalytic mechanism and provide referential information for shifting the coenzyme utilization specificity of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. PMID:26150461

  9. Ionizing radiation induces myofibroblast differentiation via lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Judge, J L; Owens, K M; Pollock, S J; Woeller, C F; Thatcher, T H; Williams, J P; Phipps, R P; Sime, P J; Kottmann, R M

    2015-10-15

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common and dose-limiting side-effect of ionizing radiation used to treat cancers of the thoracic region. Few effective therapies are available for this disease. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an accumulation of myofibroblasts and excess deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although prior studies have reported that ionizing radiation induces fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production, the mechanism remains unclear. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a key profibrotic cytokine that drives myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production. However, its activation and precise role in radiation-induced fibrosis are poorly understood. Recently, we reported that lactate activates latent TGF-? through a pH-dependent mechanism. Here, we wanted to test the hypothesis that ionizing radiation leads to excessive lactate production via expression of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) to promote myofibroblast differentiation. We found that LDHA expression is increased in human and animal lung tissue exposed to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that ionizing radiation induces LDHA, lactate production, and extracellular acidification in primary human lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of LDHA protects against radiation-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, LDHA inhibition protects from radiation-induced activation of TGF-?. We propose a profibrotic feed forward loop, in which radiation induces LDHA expression and lactate production, which can lead to further activation of TGF-? to drive the fibrotic process. These studies support the concept of LDHA as an important therapeutic target in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26254422

  10. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. PMID:26126931

  11. Hereditary deficiency of lactate dehydrogenase H-subunit.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, H; Tsuchiya, M; Yoshino, K; Kaku, K; Shigei, H

    1996-07-01

    We report herein the fifth family of hereditary deficiency of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) H-subunit with an autosomal recessive inheritance including two cases of complete deficiency. Their LDH activities were low both in the serum and in the red blood cells (RBC). Electrophoretic analysis revealed that the patients with the complete deficiency had only the LDH5 isozyme. The complete deficiency was associated with marked elevation of fructose-1, 6-diphosphate (FDP) and dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and a less marked rise in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) among glycolytic intermediates in the RBC. Furthermore, hemolysis was observed in the present cases, but this finding was not included in the other reports. PMID:8842761

  12. Placental enzyme polymorphism among Maharashtrians: alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, B N; Das, S K; Malhotra, K C; Kate, S L; Mutalik, G S; Sainani, G S; Bhidya, S

    1978-09-01

    The distribution of placental alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase types in 635 placentas from various endogamous groups of Maharashtra have been studied by starch gel electrophoresis. In the case of alkaline phosphatase, 6 common phenotypes and 6 rare phenotypes (F2I1, S1S2, S2S3, I1S2, F1S2, F1I2) are encountered. The highest frequency of Pls1 allele (0.7394) and lowest frequency of Pli1 allele (0.0246) have been found in the Nava-Budha. 6 cases of Cal-1 and 5 cases of Cal-2 types of LDH variants have been observed in the total samples, and Muslims possess the highest frequency of Cal-1 types (3.64%). Population groups are compared with respect to Pl alleles. PMID:727701

  13. POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) ON CARDIAC LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND CREATINE KINASE (CK) ISOZYMES IN CD-1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 50 mg HCB/kg body weight on days 6-17 of gestation and studied on day 1 or 21 postpartum (pp). Hearts of the dams and pups were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kina...

  14. D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(-)-lactate and D(+)-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by multiple events of gene duplication in both vertebrates and invertebrates, a shared evolutionary history of this gene in the two groups is apparent. Moreover, the high degree of sequence similarity among D-LDH amino acid sequences suggests that they share a common evolutionary history. PMID:18828920

  15. Nuclear Lactate Dehydrogenase: Bridging Central Metabolism to Epigenetic Modifications in Mammalian Cellular Systems

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    1 Nuclear Lactate Dehydrogenase: Bridging Central Metabolism to Epigenetic Modifications to link central metabolism to epigenetic modifications is indeed a novel role for this enzyme, and further and Disease........................................................................23 1.3.1.Diabetes

  16. The D-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus Also Possessing Reversible Deamination Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingfeng; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Limin; Dong, Hui; Yu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases are responsible for the conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and have a wide range of biotechnological applications. In this study, a D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was experimentally verified to have both the D-LDH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities (reversible deamination). The catalytic mechanism was demonstrated by identification of key residues from the crystal structure analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. The Arg234 and Gly79 residues of this enzyme play a significant role in both D-LDH and GDH activities. His295 and Phe298 in DLDH744 were identified to be key residues for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity only whereas Tyr101 is a unique residue that is critical for GDH activity. Characterization of the biochemical properties contributes to understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this novel D-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. PMID:26398356

  17. Kinetic activation of yeast mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase by carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Arnaud; Vallortigara, Julie; Yoboue, Edgar D; Rigoulet, Michel; Devin, Anne

    2008-10-01

    Aerobically grown yeast cells express mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenases that localize to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The D-lactate dehydrogenase is a zinc-flavoprotein with high acceptor specificity for cytochrome c, that catalyzes the oxidation of D-lactate into pyruvate. In this paper, we show that mitochondrial respiratory rate in phosphorylating or non-phosphorylating conditions with D-lactate as substrate is stimulated by carboxylic acids. This stimulation does not affect the yield of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, this stimulation lies at the level of the D-lactate dehydrogenase. It is non-competitive, hyperbolic and its dimension is directly related to the number of carboxylic groups on the activator. The physiological meaning of such a regulation is discussed. PMID:18640090

  18. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Chahma, M’hamed; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis. PMID:25389710

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene families.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ju; Tsoi, Stephen C-M; Mannen, Hideyuka; Shoei-lung Li, Steven

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences were found to be larger for a human-killifish pair than a human-lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions separately for several species pairs and found that the transitions tend to be saturated in the distantly related species pair, while transversions are increasing. We conclude that transversions maintain a conservative rate through the evolutionary time. Kimura's two-parameter model for multiple-hit correction on transversions only was used to derive a distance measure and then construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Three findings were revealed from the NJ tree: (i) the branching order of the tree is consistent with the common branch pattern of major vertebrates; (ii) Ldh-A and Ldh-B genes were duplicated near the origin of vertebrates; and (iii) Ldh-C and Ldh-A in mammals were produced by an independent gene duplication in early mammalian history. Furthermore, a relative rate test showed that mammalian Ldh-C evolved more rapidly than mammalian Ldh-A. Under a two-rate model, this duplication event was calibrated to be approximately 247 million years ago (mya), dating back to the Triassic period. Other gene duplication events were also discovered in Xenopus, the first duplication occurring approximately 60-70 mya in both Ldh-A and Ldh-B, followed by another recent gene duplication event, approximately 20 mya, in Ldh-B. PMID:11965434

  1. Mechanism of Thermal Adaptation in the Lactate Dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huo-Lei; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Chang, Eric; Deng, Hua; Callender, Robert

    2015-12-10

    The mechanism of thermal adaptation of enzyme function at the molecular level is poorly understood but is thought to lie within the structure of the protein or its dynamics. Our previous work on pig heart lactate dehydrogenase (phLDH) has determined very high resolution structures of the active site, via isotope edited IR studies, and has characterized its dynamical nature, via laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump) relaxation spectroscopy on the Michaelis complex. These particular probes are quite powerful at getting at the interplay between structure and dynamics in adaptation. Hence, we extend these studies to the psychrophilic protein cgLDH (Champsocephalus gunnari; 0 °C) and the extreme thermophile tmLDH (Thermotoga maritima LDH; 80 °C) for comparison to the mesophile phLDH (38-39 °C). Instead of the native substrate pyruvate, we utilize oxamate as a nonreactive substrate mimic for experimental reasons. Using isotope edited IR spectroscopy, we find small differences in the substate composition that arise from the detailed bonding patterns of oxamate within the active site of the three proteins; however, we find these differences insufficient to explain the mechanism of thermal adaptation. On the other hand, T-jump studies of reduced ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) emission reveal that the most important parameter affecting thermal adaptation appears to be enzyme control of the specific kinetics and dynamics of protein motions that lie along the catalytic pathway. The relaxation rate of the motions scale as cgLDH > phLDH > tmLDH in a way that faithfully matches kcat of the three isozymes. PMID:26556099

  2. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313

  3. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  5. Incorporating expression data in metabolic modeling: a case study of lactate dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Joshua Downer; Joel R. Sevinsky; Natalie G. Ahn; Katheryn A. Resing; M. D. Betterton

    2005-11-12

    Integrating biological information from different sources to understand cellular processes is an important problem in systems biology. We use data from mRNA expression arrays and chemical kinetics to formulate a metabolic model relevant to K562 erythroleukemia cells. MAP kinase pathway activation alters the expression of metabolic enzymes in K562 cells. Our array data show changes in expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which activates MAP kinase signaling. We model the change in lactate production which occurs when the MAP kinase pathway is activated, using a non-equilibrium, chemical-kinetic model of homolactic fermentation. In particular, we examine the role of LDH isoforms, which catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Changes in the isoform ratio are not the primary determinant of the production of lactate. Rather, the total concentration of LDH controls the lactate concentration.

  6. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity to body measurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to examine 1) relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of grazing beef cows, and 2) the association between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth weight (BRW), hip height (HH) at weaning, and adjusted weaning weight ...

  7. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  8. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  9. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  10. Structural basis for discriminatory recognition of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase by a DNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yee-Wai; Kwok, Jane; Law, Alan W L; Watt, Rory M; Kotaka, Masayo; Tanner, Julian A

    2013-10-01

    DNA aptamers have significant potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, but the paucity of DNA aptamer-target structures limits understanding of their molecular binding mechanisms. Here, we report a distorted hairpin structure of a DNA aptamer in complex with an important diagnostic target for malaria: Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). Aptamers selected from a DNA library were highly specific and discriminatory for Plasmodium as opposed to human lactate dehydrogenase because of a counterselection strategy used during selection. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed aptamer binding to PfLDH with a dissociation constant of 42 nM and 2:1 protein:aptamer molar stoichiometry. Dissociation constants derived from electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments were consistent. The aptamer:protein complex crystal structure was solved at 2.1-Å resolution, revealing two aptamers bind per PfLDH tetramer. The aptamers showed a unique distorted hairpin structure in complex with PfLDH, displaying a Watson-Crick base-paired stem together with two distinct loops each with one base flipped out by specific interactions with PfLDH. Aptamer binding specificity is dictated by extensive interactions of one of the aptamer loops with a PfLDH loop that is absent in human lactate dehydrogenase. We conjugated the aptamer to gold nanoparticles and demonstrated specificity of colorimetric detection of PfLDH over human lactate dehydrogenase. This unique distorted hairpin aptamer complex provides a perspective on aptamer-mediated molecular recognition and may guide rational design of better aptamers for malaria diagnostics. PMID:24043813

  11. [Repression and derepression of lactate dehydrogenase loci during mouse development].

    PubMed

    Kolombet, L V; Gapienko, E F

    1977-05-01

    The ultramicroelectrophoretic method was applied to the study of the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) spectrum alterations during the developmental phases of mice: ovulated ova--zygote--blastocyte--embryo--oocyte--ovulated ova. Only H-subunits were found in the embryo cells before the 5th day of development. After this M-subunits appeared indicating derepression of LDH-A locus. On the 8th day of the embryonal development deres pression of the LDH-B locus was observed to disappear during the oogenesis, being the result of progressive repression of locus LDH-A. Dictiotena of meios prophase is characterised by active H-subunit synthesis and a gradual decrease of the M-subunit synthesis. During the whole dictiotena phase the LDH-spectrum of the follicular cells was of the M-type. PMID:884268

  12. NAD-Independent l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Required for l-Lactate Utilization in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Wang, Yujiao; Zhang, Yingxin; Lv, Min; Dou, Peipei; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenases (l-iLDHs) play important roles in l-lactate utilization of different organisms. All of the previously reported l-iLDHs were flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidation of l-lactate by the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent mechanism. Based on comparative genomic analysis, a gene cluster with three genes (lldA, lldB, and lldC) encoding a novel type of l-iLDH was identified in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. When the gene cluster was expressed in Escherichia coli, distinctive l-iLDH activity was detected. The expressed l-iLDH was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and successive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the purified l-iLDH indicated that it is a complex of LldA, LldB, and LldC (encoded by lldA, lldB, and lldC, respectively). Purified l-iLDH (LldABC) is a dimer of three subunits (LldA, LldB, and LldC), and the ratio between LldA, LldB, and LldC is 1:1:1. Different from the FMN-containing l-iLDH, absorption spectra and elemental analysis suggested that LldABC might use the iron-sulfur cluster for the l-lactate oxidation. LldABC has narrow substrate specificity, and only l-lactate and dl-2-hydrobutyrate were rapidly oxidized. Mg2+ could activate l-iLDH activity effectively (6.6-fold). Steady-state kinetics indicated a ping-pong mechanism of LldABC for the l-lactate oxidation. Based on the gene knockout results, LldABC was confirmed to be required for the l-lactate metabolism of P. stutzeri A1501. LldABC is the first purified and characterized l-iLDH with different subunits that uses the iron-sulfur cluster as the cofactor. IMPORTANCE Providing new insights into the diversity of microbial lactate utilization could assist in the production of valuable chemicals and understanding microbial pathogenesis. An NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) encoded by the gene cluster lldABC is indispensable for the l-lactate metabolism in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. This novel type of enzyme was purified and characterized in this study. Different from the well-characterized FMN-containing l-iLDH in other microbes, LldABC in P. stutzeri A1501 is a dimer of three subunits (LldA, LldB, and LldC) and uses the iron-sulfur cluster as a cofactor. PMID:25917905

  13. Variability of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in single human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Q.; Yeung, E.S. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA )

    1994-04-01

    Trace amounts of enzymes within single human erythrocytes can be quantified by a combination of on-column reaction and capillary electrophoresis. A detection limit of 1.3 x 10[sup [minus]21] mol of LDH was achieved with laser-induced fluorescence by monitoring the product of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction between lactate and NAD[sup +]. Single erythrocyte analysis clearly isolates the major forms of LDH. The variation of total LDH activity in a population of cells from a single individual is large, but the relative activities of the isoenzymes LDH-1 and LDH-2 are fairly constant. This can be explained by the distribution of cell age in the population. A lower enzyme activity is indicative of senescence. The efficient separation of different LDH forms and the high detection sensitivity opens up the possibility of multiple-enzyme assays with a single mammalian cell. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-01-01

    Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 ?M, while at 2.5 ?M, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

  15. Binding ligands and cofactor to L-lactate dehydrogenase from human skeletal and heart muscles.

    PubMed

    ?widerek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

    2011-05-19

    Binding affinities of cofactor and ligands to the active site of two different isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), heart and skeletal muscles (H4 and M4, respectively), can be used for medical and biological applications. Herein, a hybrid QM/MM computational approach based on free energy perturbation methods has been carried out to estimate binding affinities and binding isotope effects (BIEs) for NADH/NAD(+) and oxamate, pyruvate, L-lactate, and D-lactate ligands to the M4 and H4 isoforms of L-LDH. Here, we show that determining how cofactor and ligands interact with the active site of LDH isoforms advanced the still open discussion on the intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis. In our discussion we deny the key concept of this hypothesis showing, based on interaction energy values, that there is no evidence that the M4 type of LDH in the skeletal muscles cells served as a catalyst of the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Additionally, theoretical determination of BIEs for H4 and M4 types of LDH shows that there is a way of using the BIEs as a tool capable to distinguish these isoforms, and for this purpose D-lactate labeled with deuterium in positions 11 or 7, 8, 9 ([11-2H]-BIE and [7,8,9-2H3]-BIE) or L-lactate labeled only in position 11 ([11-2H]-BIE) could be used. We propose the BIEs as a useful tool which can be applied in order to experimentally determine the types of LDH. PMID:21526780

  16. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  17. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  18. Suppression of lactate dehydrogenase A compromises tumor progression by downregulation of the Warburg effect in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Shuchai; Tong, Jing; Hao, Hui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Zhikun; Wang, Yuxiang

    2016-01-20

    Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer cells, which show a unique metabolic phenotype known as the Warburg effect. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme in the glycolytic process, executes the final step by conversion of lactate into pyruvate. However, little is known about the roles of LDHA in human glioblastoma (GBM). In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of LDHA and elucidate related underlying mechanisms. Data derived from Oncomine database showed that LDHA is commonly upregulated in GBM tissues in comparison with corresponding normal controls. Silencing of LDHA expression resulted in reduced glycolysis, decreased cell growth, increased cell apoptosis, and attenuated invasive ability. In the presence of 2-deoxyglucose, a glycolysis inhibitor, the oncogenic activities of LDHA were completely blocked. These findings provide evidence of the cellular functions of LDHA in the progression of GBM and suggest that LDHA might act as a potential therapeutic target for GBM treatment. PMID:26694942

  19. Cloning of a lactate dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum B643 and expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Contag, P.R.; Williams, M.G.; Rogers, P. )

    1990-12-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum B643 was cloned on two recombinant plasmids. pPC37 and pPC58, that were selected by complementation of Escherichia coli PRC436 (acd), a fermentation-defective mutant that does not grown anaerobically on glucose. E. coli PRC436(pPC37) and PRC436(pPC58) grew anaerobically and fermented glucose to mostly lactate. When pPC37 and pPC58 were transformed into E. coli FMJ39 (ldh pfl), an LDH-deficient strain, the resulting strains grew anaerobically on glucose and produced lactate. Crude extracts of E. coli FMJ39(pPC37) and FMJ39(pPC58) contained high LDH activity only when assayed for pyruvate reduction to lactate, and the LDH activity was activated 15- to 30-fold by the addition of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP). E. coli FMJ39 had no detectable LDH activity, and E. coli LDH from a wild-type strain was not activated by FDP. Maxicell analysis showed that both plasmids pPC37 and pPC58 expressed a protein with an apparent M{sub r} of 38,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Restriction endonuclease mapping of pPC37 and pPC58 and DNA hybridization studies indicated that a 2.1-kb region of these two clones of C. acetobutylicum DNA encodes the FDP-activated LDH.

  20. Impact of high pyruvate concentration on kinetics of rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Matthew Warren; Byrne, Mark E; Chambers, Robert P

    2011-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of L: -lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle as a regenerative catalyst of the biologically important cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the kinetics over broad concentrations were studied to develop a suitable kinetic rate expression. Despite robust literature describing the intricate complexations, the mammalian rabbit muscle LDH lacks a quantitative kinetic rate expression accounting for simultaneous inhibition parameters, specifically at high pyruvate concentrations. Product inhibition by L: -lactate was observed to reduce activity at concentrations greater than 25 mM, while expected substrate inhibition by pyruvate was significant above 4.3 mM concentration. The combined effect of ternary and binary complexes of pyruvate and the coenzymes led to experimental rates as little as a third of expected activity. The convenience of the statistical software package JMP allowed for effective determination of experimental kinetic constants and simplification to a suitable rate expression: [formula: see text] where the last three terms represent the inhibition complex terms for lactate, pyruvate, and pyruvate-NAD, respectively. The corresponding values of K (I-Lac), K (I-Pyr), and K (I-Pyr-NAD) for rabbit muscle LDH are 487.33 mM(-1) and 29.91 mM and 97.47 mM at 22 °C and pH 7.8. PMID:21625872

  1. Genistein inhibits activities of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and lactate dehydrogenase, enzymes which use NADH as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Micha?; Banecki, Bogdan; Kadzi?ski, Leszek; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Ka?mierkiewicz, Rajmund; Gabig-Cimi?ska, Magdalena; W?grzyn, Grzegorz; W?grzyn, Alicja; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta

    2015-09-25

    Genistein (5, 7-dihydroxy-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a natural isoflavone revealing many biological activities. Thus, it is considered as a therapeutic compound in as various disorders as cancer, infections and genetic diseases. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that genistein inhibits activities of bacterial methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MetF) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Both enzymes use NADH as a substrate, and results of biochemical as well as molecular modeling studies with MetF suggest that genistein may interfere with binding of this dinucleotide to the enzyme. These results have implications for our understanding of biological functions of genistein and its effects on cellular metabolism. PMID:26253470

  2. Lactate Dehydrogenase A is a potential prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 90% of cancer-related deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are caused by tumor relapse and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need for new molecular markers that can potentiate the efficacy of the current clinical-based models of prognosis assessment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential significance of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), assessed by immunohistochemical staining, as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcome. Methods We assessed the expression of LDHA at the protein level, by immunohistochemistry, and correlated its expression with multiple clinicopathological features including tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, disease-free and overall survival in 385 patients with primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We also correlated the LDHA expression with overall survival, at mRNA level, in an independent data set of 170 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for the potential clinicopathological factors were used to test for associations between the LDHA expression and both disease-free survival and overall survival. Results There is statistically significant positive correlation between LDHA level of expression and tumor size, clinical stage and histological grade. Moreover, LDHA expression shows significantly inverse correlation with both disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our results are validated by examining LDHA expression, at the mRNA level, in the independent data set of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases which also shows that higher lactate dehydrogenase A expression is associated with significantly shorter overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicate that LDHA up-regulation can be a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Thus, it represents a potential prognostic biomarker that can boost the accuracy of other prognostic models in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24885701

  3. The Core of Allosteric Motion in Thermus caldophilus l-Lactate Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Yoko; Arai, Kazuhito; Furukawa, Nayuta; Ohno, Tadashi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakajima, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Taguchi, Hayao

    2014-01-01

    For Thermus caldophilus l-lactate dehydrogenase (TcLDH), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) reduced the pyruvate S0.5 value 103-fold and increased the Vmax value 4-fold at 30 °C and pH 7.0, indicating that TcLDH has a much more T state-sided allosteric equilibrium than Thermus thermophilus l-lactate dehydrogenase, which has only two amino acid replacements, A154G and H179Y. The inactive (T) and active (R) state structures of TcLDH were determined at 1.8 and 2.0 ? resolution, respectively. The structures indicated that two mobile regions, MR1 (positions 172–185) and MR2 (positions 211–221), form a compact core for allosteric motion, and His179 of MR1 forms constitutive hydrogen bonds with MR2. The Q4(R) mutation, which comprises the L67E, H68D, E178K, and A235R replacements, increased Vmax 4-fold but reduced pyruvate S0.5 only 5-fold in the reaction without FBP. In contrast, the P2 mutation, comprising the R173Q and R216L replacements, did not markedly increase Vmax, but 102-reduced pyruvate S0.5, and additively increased the FBP-independent activity of the Q4(R) enzyme. The two types of mutation consistently increased the thermal stability of the enzyme. The MR1-MR2 area is a positively charged cluster, and its center approaches another positively charged cluster (N domain cluster) across the Q-axis subunit interface by 5 ?, when the enzyme undergoes the T to R transition. Structural and kinetic analyses thus revealed the simple and unique allosteric machinery of TcLDH, where the MR1-MR2 area pivotally moves during the allosteric motion and mediates the allosteric equilibrium through electrostatic repulsion within the protein molecule. PMID:25258319

  4. Development of L-lactate dehydrogenase biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavities as fluorescence enhancers.

    PubMed

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Prieto-Simon, Beatriz; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-12-15

    The up-regulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an intracellular enzyme present in most of all body tissues, is indicative of several pathological conditions and cellular death. Herein, we demonstrate LDH detection using porous silicon (pSi) microcavities as a luminescence-enhancing optical biosensing platform. Non-fluorescent resazurin was covalently attached onto the pSi surface via thermal hydrocarbonisation, thermal hydrosylilation and acylation. Each surface modification step was confirmed by means of FTIR and the optical shifts of the resonance wavelength of the microcavity. Thermal hydrocarbonisation also afforded excellent surface stability, ensuring that the resazurin was not reduced on the pSi surface. Using a pSi microcavity biosensor, the fluorescence signal upon detection of LDH was amplified by 10 and 5-fold compared to that of a single layer and a detuned microcavity, respectively, giving a limit of detection of 0.08 U/ml. The biosensor showed a linear response between 0.16 and 6.5 U/ml, covering the concentration range of LDH in normal as well as damaged tissues. The biosensor was selective for LDH and did not produce a signal upon incubation with another NAD-dependant enzyme L-glutamic dehydrogenase. The use of the pSi microcavity as a sensing platform reduced reagent usage by 30% and analysis time threefold compared to the standard LDH assay in solution. PMID:26201980

  5. Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm–1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

  6. Free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: A network analysis of atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoliang; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the structure of a protein is a hierarchy of conformations interconverting on multiple time scales. However, the conformational heterogeneity is rarely considered in the context of enzymatic catalysis in which the reactant is usually represented by a single conformation of the enzyme/substrate complex. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of two forms of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+). Recent experimental results suggest that multiple substates exist within the Michaelis complex of LDH, and they are catalytic competent at different reaction rates. In this study, millisecond-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed on LDH to explore the free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex, and network analysis was used to characterize the distribution of the conformations. Our results provide a detailed view of the kinetic network the Michaelis complex and the structures of the substates at atomistic scale. It also shed some light on understanding the complete picture of the catalytic mechanism of LDH.

  7. Positive selection on D-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifeng; Gong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii has been widely used for yogurt fermentation. It has genes encoding both D- and L-type lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) that catalyse the production of L(+) or D(-) stereoisomer of lactic acid. D-lactic acid is the primary lactate product by L. delbrueckii, yet it cannot be metabolised by human intestine. Since it has been domesticated for long time, an interesting question arises regarding to whether the selection pressure has affected the evolution of both L-LDH and D-LDH genes in the genome. To answer this question, in this study the authors first investigated the evolution of these two genes by constructing phylogenetic trees. They found that D-LDH-based phylogenetic tree could better represent the phylogenetic relationship in the acidophilus complex than L-LDH-based tree. They next investigated the evolutions of LDH genes of L. delbrueckii at amino acid level, and found that D-LDH gene in L. delbrueckii is positively selected, possibly a consequence of long-term domestication. They further identified four amino acids that are under positive selection. One of them, V261, is located at the centre of three catalytic active sites, indicating likely functional effects on the enzyme activity. The selection from the domestication process thus provides direction for future engineering of D-LDH. PMID:26243834

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase-A inhibition induces human glioblastoma multiforme stem cell differentiation and death

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Simona; Giacomelli, Chiara; Zappelli, Elisa; Granchi, Carlotta; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Minutolo, Filippo; Martini, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Therapies that target the signal transduction and metabolic pathways of cancer stem cells (CSCs) are innovative strategies to effectively reduce the recurrence and significantly improve the outcome of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). CSCs exhibit an increased rate of glycolysis, thus rendering them intrinsically more sensitive to prospective therapeutic strategies based on the inhibition of the glycolytic pathway. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), which catalyses the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate, is up-regulated in human cancers, including GBM. Although several papers have explored the benefits of targeting cancer metabolism in GBM, the effects of direct LDH-A inhibition in glial tumours have not yet been investigated, particularly in the stem cell subpopulation. Here, two representative LDH-A inhibitors (NHI-1 and NHI-2) were studied in GBM-derived CSCs and compared to differentiated tumour cells. LDH-A inhibition was particularly effective in CSCs isolated from different GBM cell lines, where the two compounds blocked CSC formation and elicited long-lasting effects by triggering both apoptosis and cellular differentiation. These data demonstrate that GBM, particularly the stem cell subpopulation, is sensitive to glycolytic inhibition and shed light on the therapeutic potential of LDH-A inhibitors in this tumour type. PMID:26494310

  9. Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Duowei; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Rao, Xinfeng; Qi, Xinzhang; Wang, Xiaojun; Ma, Benyuan

    2013-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. In mammals the, Ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000–5000 m above sea levelon the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the expression pattern of six LDH isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to be the same as those in testis and sperm, suggesting that LDH-C4 was expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pika. Here we report the detection of LDHC in the somatic tissues of plateau pika using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that Ldh-c mRNA is transcribed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. In somatic tissues LDHC was translated in the cytoplasm, while in testis it was expressed in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. The third band from cathode to anode in LDH isoenzymes was identified as LDH-C4. The finding that Ldh-c is expressed in both somatic tissues and testis of plateau pika provides important implications for more in-depth research into the Ldh-c function in mammals. PMID:23772382

  10. Energy Landscape of the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase: Relationship to Catalytic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the “live” reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ? LDH·NAD+·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate’s C2=O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2=O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2=O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2=O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure–activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

  11. Development of an enzymatic assay system of d-lactate using d-lactate dehydrogenase and a UV-LED fluorescent spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Yu, Han-Yin

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we aimed to develop a new enzymatic assay system of d-lactate with good precision, accuracy, and sensitivity for the determination of d-lactate concentrations in rat serum. d-Lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH) was utilized to catalyze d-lactate and NAD(+) to pyruvate and NADH, respectively. The generated NADH was excited by using a 340-nm UV-light-emitting diode (LED), and the fluorescence at 491nm was detected to determine the concentration of d-lactate in rat serum. The optics, consisting of the sample cuvette, were set on three-dimensional stages to receive the most intensive fluorescence signal into the spectrometer. The optimal conditions of the d-LDH reaction were pH 8.5 and 25°C for 90min. The results showed that the new d-lactate assay system had good linearity (R(2)=0.9964) in the calibration range from 5 to 150?M. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies were in the range of 103.96-109.09% and 102.84-104.59%, respectively, and the intra-day and inter-day precision was 4.28-6.82% and 4.04-12.40%, respectively. Finally, serum d-lactate concentrations determined by the proposed enzymatic assay system were compared with those obtained by a conventional HPLC method. The newly developed d-lactate assay system could detect 10-15 samples in 90min, whereas the HPLC method could detect only one sample over the same time period. PMID:26265307

  12. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  13. Hypoxically inducible barley lactate dehydrogenase: cDNA cloning and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D. ); Hanson, A.D. Univ. de Montreal, Quebec )

    1990-09-01

    In the roots of barley and other cereals, hypoxia induces a set of five isozymes of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; (S)-lactate:NADH oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). Biochemical and genetic data indicate that the five LDH isozymes are tetramers that arise from random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library derived from hypoxically treated barley roots. The library was screened with antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approx}3,000-fold by an improved three-step procedure. Immunopositive clones were rescreened with a cDNA probe synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction using primers modeled from the amino acid sequences of two tryptic LDH peptides. Two types of LDH clones were found. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one representative insert of each type (respectively, 1,305 and 1,166 base pairs) revealed open reading framed encoding 10 peptide fragments of LDH. The 1,305-base-pair insert included the entire coding region of a 356-residue LDH monomer. The nucleotide sequences of the two LDH cDNAs were 92% identical in the coding region, but highly divergent in the 3{prime} noncoding region, and thus probably correspond to the two postulated Ldh loci. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs were 96% identical to each other and very similar to those from vertebrate and bacterial LDHs. RNA blot hybridization showed a single mRNA band of 1.5 kilobases whose level rose about 8-fold in roots during hypoxic induction, as did the level of translatable LDH message.

  14. Glycoconjugates Influence Caspase Release and Minimize Production of Lactate Dehydrogenase upon Pathogen Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Many pathogens stimulate cell death of immune cells while promoting survival of pathogens. Early cell death is characterized by the release of mediators, namely Caspases (Cas). Infections caused by pathogens can be eradicated if immune cells could resist cell death and kill pathogens upon exposure. In this research, we studied whether glycoconjugates (GCs) influence Cas release and cytotoxicity upon pathogen damage. GC1 and GC3 constituted samples studied principally. Bacterial spores were used as a pathogen model. GC effects were determined "prior to," "during," and "following" pathogen exposure throughout phagocytosis. Cytotoxic damage was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) production. Our data show that GC3 was more effective than GC1 during phagocytosis. GC3 controls Cas release under all three exposure conditions. Minimum production of LDH was noticed in the "following" exposure condition compared to the "prior to" and "during" exposure conditions for GC1 and GC3. The present study provided the selection method of GC ligands bearing anti-cytotoxic and anti-apoptotic properties.

  15. Gene expression variation in duplicate lactate dehydrogenase genes: do ecological species show distinct responses?

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E; Demiri, Bora; Altshuler, Ianina; Crease, Teresa J

    2014-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been shown to play an important role in adaptation of several aquatic species to different habitats. The genomes of Daphnia pulex, a pond species, and Daphnia pulicaria, a lake inhabitant, encode two L-LDH enzymes, LDHA and LDHB. We estimated relative levels of Ldh gene expression in these two closely related species and their hybrids in four environmental settings, each characterized by one of two temperatures (10°C or 20°C), and one of two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 6.5-7 mg/l or 2-3 mg/l). We found that levels of LdhA expression were 4 to 48 times higher than LdhB expression (p<0.005) in all three groups (the two parental species and hybrids). Moreover, levels of LdhB expression differed significantly (p<0.05) between D. pulex and D. pulicaria, but neither species differed from the hybrid. Consistently higher expression of LdhA relative to LdhB in both species and the hybrid suggests that the two isozymes could be performing different functions. No significant differences in levels of gene expression were observed among the four combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (p>0.1). Given that Daphnia dwell in environments characterized by fluctuating conditions with long periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration, we suggest that these species could employ regulated metabolic depression to survive in such environments. PMID:25080082

  16. A radiotracer probe to study metal interaction with human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.; Wright, C.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The electrophilic Ag+ ion was found to destroy completely the enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-1 while other transition metal ions reduced its activity in varying degrees. A radiotracer probe involving 110mAg-labeled silver ion was used to understand the mechanism of denaturation of LDH and also to determine the number of active sites, if any, for substrate binding with the enzyme. Purified LDH-l was reacted with 110mAg-labeled silver ion and the mixture was passed through the sephadex G-75-120 gel to separate the 110mAg-LDH complex that might be formed during the reaction. The resulting elution curve revealed that a stable complex was formed. From the total radioactivity of 110mAg bound LDH, the specific activity of labeled Ag+ and the amount of LDH used the ratio of the number of moles of Ag+ reacted with 1 mol of LDH was computed. This was found to be approximately 4.0, indicating that there are four binding sites in LDD, probably one on each subunit. Kinetic studies of LDH catalysis of L-P reaction in the presence and absence of Ag+ ion suggest that silver ion is involved in competitive inhibition and that the interaction conforms to the lock-and-key model. The inhibition of catalysis by other metals is presumably of a noncompetitive type.

  17. The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Alzahri, Mohammad S; Mousa, Shaker A; Almomen, Abdulkareem M; Hasanato, Rana M; Polimeni, John M; Racz, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. It is present in up to 21% of patients with sickle cell disease. Although screening for microalbuminuria and proteinuria is the current acceptable practice to detect and follow renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease, there is a crucial need for other, more sensitive biomarkers. This becomes especially true knowing that those biomarkers start to appear only after more than 60% of the kidney function is lost. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) correlates with other, direct and indirect bio-markers of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty-five patients with an established diagnosis of sickle cell disease were recruited to in the study. Blood samples were taken and 24-h urine collection samples were collected. Using Statcrunch, a data analysis tool available on the web, we studied the correlation between LDH and other biomarkers of kidney function as well as the distribution and relationship between the variables. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between serum LDH and creatinine clearance, R (correlation coefficient) = -0.44, P = 0.0008. This correlation was more significant at younger age. This study shows that in sickle cell patients LDH correlates with creatinine clearance and, therefore, LDH could serve as a biomarker to predict renal insufficiency in those patients. PMID:26586054

  19. Gene Expression Variation in Duplicate Lactate dehydrogenase Genes: Do Ecological Species Show Distinct Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Melania E.; Demiri, Bora; Altshuler, Ianina; Crease, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been shown to play an important role in adaptation of several aquatic species to different habitats. The genomes of Daphnia pulex, a pond species, and Daphnia pulicaria, a lake inhabitant, encode two L-LDH enzymes, LDHA and LDHB. We estimated relative levels of Ldh gene expression in these two closely related species and their hybrids in four environmental settings, each characterized by one of two temperatures (10°C or 20°C), and one of two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 6.5–7 mg/l or 2–3 mg/l). We found that levels of LdhA expression were 4 to 48 times higher than LdhB expression (p<0.005) in all three groups (the two parental species and hybrids). Moreover, levels of LdhB expression differed significantly (p<0.05) between D. pulex and D. pulicaria, but neither species differed from the hybrid. Consistently higher expression of LdhA relative to LdhB in both species and the hybrid suggests that the two isozymes could be performing different functions. No significant differences in levels of gene expression were observed among the four combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (p>0.1). Given that Daphnia dwell in environments characterized by fluctuating conditions with long periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration, we suggest that these species could employ regulated metabolic depression to survive in such environments. PMID:25080082

  20. Low intensity microwave radiation as modulator of the L-lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, Elena; Cosic, Irena

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated experimentally the possibility of modulating protein activity by low intensity microwaves by measuring alternations of L: -Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) activity. The LDH enzyme solutions were irradiated by microwaves of the selected frequencies and powers using the Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell. The kinetics of the irradiated LDH was measured by continuous monitoring of nicotine adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH) absorbance at 340 nm. A comparative analysis of changes in the activity of the irradiated LDH enzyme versus the non-radiated enzyme was performed for the selected frequencies and powers. It was found that LDH activity can be selectively increased only by irradiation at the particular frequencies of 500 MHz [electric field: 0.02 V/m (1.2 × 10?? W/m²)-2.1 V/m (1.2 × 10?² W/m²)] and 900 MHz [electric field: 0.021-0.21 V/m (1.2 × 10?? W/m²)]. Based on results obtained it was concluded that LDH enzyme activity can be modulated by specific frequencies of low power microwave radiation. This finding can serve to support the hypothesis that low intensity microwaves can induce non-thermal effects in bio-molecules. PMID:21308416

  1. Quantification of lactate-dehydrogenase and cell viability in postmortem human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Caviedes-Bucheli, Javier; Avendaño, Nuvia; Gutierrez, Rhina; Hernández, Sandra; Moreno, Gloria Cristina; Romero, María Consuelo; Muñoz, Hugo Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Understanding pulp repair and regeneration requires being familiar with this tissue's behavior under extreme conditions, such as postmortem state where an abrupt interruption of tissue blood supply occurs. The purpose of this study was to quantify cell viability and the amount of lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) expressed in human pulp tissue 6, 12, and 24 hours postmortem to establish how long dental pulp remains viable after death. Pulp samples were obtained from 14 unidentified corpses of people who had received lethal injuries in car accidents or from gunshot wounds; they had at least three caries- and restoration-free incisors. Half of each sample was used for determining cell viability at three different time intervals. The rest of each sample was used for quantifying LDH expression at the same time intervals. Another 14 pulp samples were obtained from live patients' healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons to assess normal LDH value in pulp tissue. The results showed cell viability decreasing from 89 to 68 to 41% measured 6, 12, and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. LDH expression in healthy pulps was 246 U/mg pulp weight. Expression increased after death from 249 U/mg at 6 hours to 337 U/mg at 12 hours. LDH expression decreased to 131 U/mg 24 hours postmortem. These findings are valuable in understanding dental pulp survival capability under extreme conditions that may have important clinical significance in terms of repair and regeneration. PMID:16500222

  2. Acrosome reaction in bovine spermatozoa: role of reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase C4.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, C; Breininger, E; Beorlegui, N; Beconi, M T

    2005-10-30

    After capacitation, mammalian spermatozoa accomplish the acrosome reaction (AR), a well-controlled exocytosis process crucial to fertilize mature oocytes that involves several protein kinases such as protein kinase A (PKA), C (PKC), and tyrosine kinase (PTK). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in both bovine sperm capacitation and AR. Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) was associated with bovine and mouse sperm capacitation. Our aims were to study the participation of LDH-C4 to contribute with the status redox required for AR and the role of ROS in the regulation of PKA, PKC, and PTK involved in the exocytotic event. Sodium oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH-C4, prevented the AR induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) or NADH. Hydrogen peroxide promoted and superoxide dismutase (scavenger of superoxide), catalase (scavenger of hydrogen peroxide), diphenyleneiodinum, diphenyliodonium, cibacron blue, and lapachol (inhibitors of NADPH oxidase) prevented the AR, suggesting that ROS and a sperm oxidase are involved in the AR induced by these compounds. Inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and PTK also prevented the AR induced by LPC or NADH, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in the process. These results suggest that LDH-C4 may participate in the regulation of the redox status required to achieve the AR in bovine spermatozoa and that ROS are key elements in the regulation of protein kinases associated with the AR process. PMID:16112812

  3. Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat

    2014-03-01

    Organisms inhabiting submarine canyons can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW Mediterranean canyon (i.e. Blanes canyon) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the canyon (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside canyon (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the canyon. PMID:24296242

  4. Immunomagnetic capture and colorimetric detection of malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Markwalter, Christine F; Davis, Keersten M; Wright, David W

    2016-01-15

    We report a sensitive, magnetic bead-based colorimetric assay for Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in which the biomarker is extracted from parasitized whole blood and purified based on antigen binding to antibody-functionalized magnetic particles. Antigen-bound particles are washed, and PfLDH activity is measured on-bead using an optimized colorimetric enzyme reaction (limit of detection [LOD] = 21.1 ± 0.4 parasites/?l). Enhanced analytical sensitivity is achieved by removal of PfLDH from the sample matrix before detection and elimination of nonspecific reductases and species that interfere with the optimal detection wavelength for measuring assay development. The optimized assay represents a simple and effective diagnostic strategy for P. falciparum malaria with time-to-result of 45 min and detection limits similar to those of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, which can take 4-6 h. This method could be expanded to detect all species of malaria by switching the capture antibody on the magnetic particles to a pan-specific Plasmodium LDH antibody. PMID:26475567

  5. Regulation of the Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenases from Four Lactic Acid Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L.; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C.; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ? Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ? Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs. PMID:23720742

  6. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species. PMID:24953504

  7. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use. PMID:21779323

  8. Identification of substituted 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidines as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dragovich, Peter S; Fauber, Benjamin P; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ge, HongXiu; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hunsaker, Thomas; Labadie, Sharada; Liu, Yichin; Malek, Shiva; Pan, Borlan; Peterson, David; Pitts, Keith; Purkey, Hans E; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; VanderPorten, Erica; Wei, BinQing; Xu, Qing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Xuying

    2013-06-01

    A novel 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-containing inhibitor of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was identified by high-throughput screening (IC50=8.1 ?M). Biochemical, surface plasmon resonance, and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments indicated that the compound specifically associated with human LDHA in a manner that required simultaneous binding of the NADH co-factor. Structural variation of the screening hit resulted in significant improvements in LDHA biochemical inhibition activity (best IC50=0.48 ?M). A crystal structure of an optimized compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and explained many of the observed structure-activity relationships. PMID:23628333

  9. Pre-treatment serum lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase as predictors of metastases in extremity osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Leonard C.; Bertie, Julia; Rodseth, Reitze; Sartorius, Benn; Ferreira, Nando

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognosis of patients with metastatic osteosarcoma remains poor. However, the chance of survival can be improved by surgical resection of all metastases. In this study we investigate the value of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting the presence of metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Methods Sixty-one patients with histologically confirmed conventional osteosarcoma of the extremity were included in the study. Only 19.7% of cases presented without evidence of systemic spread of the disease. Pre-treatment serum ALP and LDH were analysed in patients with and without skeletal or pulmonary metastases. Results Serum LDH and ALP levels were not significantly different in patients with or without pulmonary metastases (p=0.88 and p=0.47, respectively). The serum LDH and ALP levels did however differ significantly in patients with or without skeletal metastases (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). The optimal breakpoint for serum LDH as a marker of skeletal metastases was 849 IU/L (AUC 0.839; Sensitivity=0.88; Specificity=0.73). LDH >454 IU/L equated to 100% sensitivity for detected bone metastases (positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR)=1.32). With a cut-off of 76 IU/L a sensitivity of 100% was reached for serum ALP predicting the presence of skeletal metastases (positive DLR=1.1). In a multivariate analysis both LDH ?850 IU/L (odds ratio [OR]=9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–44.3) and ALP ?280 IU/L (OR=10.3; 95% CI 2.1–50.5) were predictive of skeletal metastases. LDH however lost its significance in a multivariate model which included pre-treatment tumour volume. Conclusion In cases of osteosarcoma with LDH >850 IU/L and/or ALP >280 IU/L it may be prudent to consider more sensitive staging investigations for detection of skeletal metastases. Further research is required to determine the value and the most sensitive cut-off points of serum ALP and LDH in the prediction of skeletal metastases. PMID:26587373

  10. The effect of carbon sources and lactate dehydrogenase deletion on 1,2-propanediol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Berríos-Rivera, Susana J; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2003-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that cofactor manipulations can potentially be used as a tool in metabolic engineering. In this study, sugars similar to glucose, that can feed into glycolysis and pyruvate production, but with different oxidation states, were used as substrates. This provided a simple way of testing the effect of manipulating the NADH/NAD+ ratio or the availability of NADH on the metabolic patterns of Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions and on the production of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), which requires NADH for its synthesis. Production of 1,2-PD was achieved by overexpressing the two enzymes methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum and glycerol dehydrogenase from E. coli. In addition, the effect of eliminating a pathway competing for NADH by using a ldh(-) strain (without lactate dehydrogenase activity) on the production of 1,2-PD was investigated. The oxidation state of the carbon source significantly affected the yield of metabolites, such as ethanol, acetate and lactate. However, feeding a more reduced carbon source did not increase the yield of 1,2-PD. The production of 1,2-PD with glucose as the carbon source was improved by the incorporation of a ldh(-) mutation. The results of these experiments indicate that our current 1,2-PD production system is not limited by NADH, but rather by the pathways following the formation of methylglyoxal. PMID:12545384

  11. Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification. Results In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation. Knock out of ldhA had little influence on the yield of 2,3-BD, whereas knock out of adhE or pta significantly improved the formation of 2,3-BD. The accumulation of the intermediate of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, acetoin, was decreased in all the mutants. The mutants were then tested in five different carbon sources and increased 2,3-BD was observed. Also a double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA was constructed which resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. In fed-batch culture this strain achieved more than 100 g/L 2,3-BD from glucose with a relatively high yield of 0.49 g/g. Conclusion 2,3-BD production was dramatically improved with the inactivation of adhE and pta. The inactivation of ldhA could advance faster cell growth and shorter fermentation time. The double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. These results provide new insights for industrial production of 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae. PMID:24669952

  12. Production of optically pure L-phenyllactic acid by using engineered Escherichia coli coexpressing L-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhao, Mingyue; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-08-10

    L-Phenyllactic acid (L-PLA) is a novel antiseptic agent with broad and effective antimicrobial activity. In addition, L-PLA has been used for synthesis of poly(phenyllactic acid)s, which exhibits better mechanical properties than poly(lactic acid)s. However, the concentration and optical purity of L-PLA produced by native microbes was rather low. An NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-nLDH) from Bacillus coagulans NL01 was confirmed to have a good ability to produce L-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). In the present study, l-nLDH gene and formate dehydrogenase gene were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli. Through two coupled reactions, 79.6mM l-PLA was produced from 82.8mM PPA in 40min and the enantiomeric excess value of L-PLA was high (>99%). Therefore, this process suggested a promising alternative for the production of chiral l-PLA. PMID:26008622

  13. Disruption of lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase for increased hydrogen production and its effect on metabolic flux in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxin; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Chong; Yang, Cheng; Xing, Xinhui

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes from glucose was enhanced by deleting the targeted ldhA and adh genes responsible for two NADH-consuming pathways which consume most NADH generated from glycolysis. Compared with the wild-type, the hydrogen yield of IAM1183-?ldhA increased 1.5 fold. Metabolic flux analysis showed both IAM1183-?ldhA and IAM1183-?adh exhibited significant changes in flux, including enhanced flux towards the hydrogen generation. The lactate production of IAM1183-?ldhA significantly decreased by 91.42%, while the alcohol yield of IAM1183-?adh decreased to 30%. The mutant IAM1183-?ldhA with better hydrogen-producing performance was selected for further investigation in a 5-L fermentor. The hydrogen production of IAM1183-?ldhA was 2.3 times higher than the wild-type. Further results from the fermentation process showed that the pH decreased to 5.39 levels, then gradually increased to 5.96, indicating that some acidic metabolites might be degraded or uptaken by cells. PMID:26188552

  14. Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones of anaerobically induced lactate dehydrogenase from barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    In barley roots during hypoxia, five lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes accumulate with a concomitant increase in enzyme activity ({approximately}20-fold). These isozymes are thought to be tetramers resulting from the random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH have been isolated from a {lambda}gt11 library using antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approximately}3,000-fold and using nucleic acid probes synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction. Two cDNA clones were obtained (1,305 and 1,166 bp). The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs are 96% identical to each other, and 50% and 40% identical to vertebrate and bacterial LDHs, respectively. Northern blots identified a single mRNA band ({approximately}1.5 kb) whose level rose 8-fold during hypoxia.

  15. Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

  16. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  17. Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

  18. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase A negatively regulated by miRNAs promotes aerobic glycolysis and is increased in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Hui; Liu, Aifen; Fang, Changge; Hao, Jianguo; Wang, Zhenghui

    2015-08-14

    Reprogramming metabolism of tumor cells is a hallmark of cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Previous studies has shown higher levels of LDHA is related with colorectal cancer (CRC), but its role in tumor maintenance and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been established. Here, we investigated miRNAs-induced changes in LDHA expression. We reported that colorectal cancer express higher levels of LDHA compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of LDHA resulted in decreased lactate and ATP production, and glucose uptake. Colorectal cancer cells with knockdown of LDHA had much slower growth rate than control cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-34a, miR-34c, miR-369-3p, miR-374a, and miR-4524a/b target LDHA and regulate glycolysis in cancer cells. There is a negative correlation between these miRNAs and LDHA expression in colorectal cancer tissues. More importantly, we identified a genetic loci newly associated with increased colorectal cancer progression, rs18407893 at 11p15.4 (in 3'-UTR of LDHA), which maps to the seed sequence recognized by miR-374a. Cancer cells overexpressed miR-374a has decreased levels of LDHA compared with miR-374a-MUT (rs18407893 at 11p15.4). Taken together, these novel findings provide more therapeutic approaches to the Warburg effect and therapeutic targets of cancer energy metabolism. PMID:26062441

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase A negatively regulated by miRNAs promotes aerobic glycolysis and is increased in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aifen; Fang, Changge; Hao, Jianguo; Wang, Zhenghui

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming metabolism of tumor cells is a hallmark of cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Previous studies has shown higher levels of LDHA is related with colorectal cancer (CRC), but its role in tumor maintenance and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been established. Here, we investigated miRNAs-induced changes in LDHA expression. We reported that colorectal cancer express higher levels of LDHA compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of LDHA resulted in decreased lactate and ATP production, and glucose uptake. Colorectal cancer cells with knockdown of LDHA had much slower growth rate than control cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-34a, miR-34c, miR-369-3p, miR-374a, and miR-4524a/b target LDHA and regulate glycolysis in cancer cells. There is a negative correlation between these miRNAs and LDHA expression in colorectal cancer tissues. More importantly, we identified a genetic loci newly associated with increased colorectal cancer progression, rs18407893 at 11p15.4 (in 3?-UTR of LDHA), which maps to the seed sequence recognized by miR-374a. Cancer cells overexpressed miR-374a has decreased levels of LDHA compared with miR-374a-MUT (rs18407893 at 11p15.4). Taken together, these novel findings provide more therapeutic approaches to the Warburg effect and therapeutic targets of cancer energy metabolism. PMID:26062441

  1. The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic Enzymes (Lactate Dehydrogenase)

    E-print Network

    The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic Enzymes THE COST OF CAPTURING PREY: MEASURING LARGEMOUTH BASS FORAGING ACTIVITY USING GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES (LACTATE #12;11 The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic

  2. Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    product of anaerobic energy production and its fate in cerebral metabolism has not been precisely@laurentian.ca Introduction Since lactate is produced during anaerobic energy metabolism, this monocarboxylic acid has been postulated that this monocarboxylic acid may be supporting oxidative respiration in the neurons. This may

  3. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic. PMID:20604468

  4. Creatine measurement in serum and urine with an automated enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Beyer, C

    1993-08-01

    I describe an automated enzymatic procedure to quantitate creatine in both serum and urine. In this assay, which requires no pretreatment of the sample, creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) and pyruvate kinase (EC 2.1.7.40) are used as auxiliary enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) is used in the indicator reaction. CK is also used as the starting reagent. Data obtained with the present method for creatine measurement in serum were compared with those from the Jaffé method and an enzymatic method: y = 1.13x - 7.58, SE = 4.48, and r = 0.925 (Jaffé); and y = 1.17x + 2.73, SE = 5.06, and r = 0.962 (enzymatic); for creatine measurement in urine: y = 0.63x + 39.74, SE = 296.7 and r = 0.719 (Jaffé). The present method provides improved precision: the total CVs for serum, determined by the present and comparative methods, respectively, were 3.5-8.9%, 8.2-43.0%, and 5.3-16%; for urine, the CVs were 3.3-5.1% and 9.6-21.2% for the present and comparative method, respectively. I established the normal reference interval as 13-74 and 13-89 mumol/L for creatine in serum, and as 175-700 and 150-1200 mumol/24 h for creatine in urine for men and women, respectively. PMID:8353946

  5. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed terms of redox balance.

  6. Cryptosporidium Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Associated with the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane and Is a Potential Target for Developing Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haili; Guo, Fengguang; Zhu, Guan

    2015-11-01

    The apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum, possesses a bacterial-type lactate dehydrogenase (CpLDH). This is considered to be an essential enzyme, as this parasite lacks the Krebs cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, and mainly-if not solely, relies on glycolysis to produce ATP. Here, we provide evidence that in extracellular parasites (e.g., sporozoites and merozoites), CpLDH is localized in the cytosol. However, it becomes associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) during the intracellular developmental stages, suggesting involvement of the PVM in parasite energy metabolism. We characterized the biochemical features of CpLDH and observed that, at lower micromolar levels, the LDH inhibitors gossypol and FX11 could inhibit both CpLDH activity (Ki = 14.8 ?M and 55.6 ?M, respectively), as well as parasite growth in vitro (IC50 = 11.8 ?M and 39.5 ?M, respectively). These observations not only reveal a new function for the poorly understood PVM structure in hosting the intracellular development of C. parvum, but also suggest LDH as a potential target for developing therapeutics against this opportunistic pathogen, for which fully effective treatments are not yet available. PMID:26562790

  7. Characterisation of the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with Tween-20 using isothermal titration calorimetry, interfacial rheometry and surface tension measurements.

    PubMed

    McAuley, William J; Jones, David S; Kett, Vicky L

    2009-08-01

    In this study the nature of the interaction between Tween-20 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). In addition the effects of the protein and surfactant on the interfacial properties were followed with interfacial rheology and surface tension measurements in order to understand the mechanism by which the surfactant prevents protein adsorption to the air-water interface. Comparisons were made with Tween-40 and Tween-80 in order to further investigate the mechanism. ITC measurements indicated a weak, probably hydrophobic, interaction between Tween-20 and LDH. Prevention of LDH adsorption to the air-water interface by the Tween surfactants was correlated with surface energy rather than surfactant CMC. While surface pressure appears to be the main driving force for the displacement of LDH from the air-water interface by Tween-20 a solubilisation mechanism may exist for other protein molecules. More generally the results of this study highlight the value of the use of ITC and interfacial measurements in characterising the surface behaviour of mixed surfactant and protein systems. PMID:19472341

  8. Biochemical, biophysical, and molecular genetic studies on the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from E. coli has been used as a model system in order to study structure-function relationships in membrane proteins. This enzyme is activated by various lipids and detergents in vitro, and appears to provide energy for the active transport of amino acids and sugars in E. coli membrane vesicles. In order to obtain sufficient amounts of enzyme for /sup 19/F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) experiments, the cloned dld gene was used to construct a plasmid in which the expression of D-LDH is induced by a temperature shift. Upon temperature induction, the presence of this plasmid results in levels of D-LDH in the cell which are 300-fold higher than wild type levels. The cloned dld gene was also sequenced and the primary structure of D-LDH, as deduced from the DNA sequence, was verified by determination of the amino-terminal sequence and the amino acid composition of D-LDH. The dld gene codes for a protein which does not contain a signal sequence and is 571 residues long.

  9. Cryptosporidium Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Associated with the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane and Is a Potential Target for Developing Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum, possesses a bacterial-type lactate dehydrogenase (CpLDH). This is considered to be an essential enzyme, as this parasite lacks the Krebs cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, and mainly–if not solely, relies on glycolysis to produce ATP. Here, we provide evidence that in extracellular parasites (e.g., sporozoites and merozoites), CpLDH is localized in the cytosol. However, it becomes associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) during the intracellular developmental stages, suggesting involvement of the PVM in parasite energy metabolism. We characterized the biochemical features of CpLDH and observed that, at lower micromolar levels, the LDH inhibitors gossypol and FX11 could inhibit both CpLDH activity (Ki = 14.8 ?M and 55.6 ?M, respectively), as well as parasite growth in vitro (IC50 = 11.8 ?M and 39.5 ?M, respectively). These observations not only reveal a new function for the poorly understood PVM structure in hosting the intracellular development of C. parvum, but also suggest LDH as a potential target for developing therapeutics against this opportunistic pathogen, for which fully effective treatments are not yet available. PMID:26562790

  10. Molecular basis of evolutionary adaptation at the lactate dehydrogenase-B locus in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D L; Powers, D A

    1989-01-01

    At the extremes of its natural distribution, populations of the common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus experience a difference of more than 15 degrees C in mean annual temperature. These populations are virtually fixed for two different codominant alleles at the heart-type lactate dehydrogenase locus (Ldh-B) which code for allozymes with different and adaptive kinetic responses to temperature. Two populations near the extremes of the species range (i.e., Maine and Georgia) were further studied for thermal adaptation at this locus. In the absence of any kinetic differences one would predict that to maintain a constant reaction velocity, 2 to 3 times as much enzyme would be required for each 10 degrees C decrease in environmental temperature. Consistent with this adaptive strategy and in addition to the adaptive kinetic characteristics, the LDH-B4 enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) concentration and its mRNA concentration were approximately twice as great in the northern population as in the southern population. Acclimation experiments allow us to conclude that these differences are due to a combination of fixed genetic traits (evolutionary adaptation) and plastic responses to temperature (physiological acclimation). Furthermore, our calculations show that the LDH-B4 reaction velocities are essentially equivalent for these two populations, even though they live in significantly different thermal environments. PMID:2594773

  11. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  12. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles.

  13. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  14. The effect of foetal bovine serum supplementation upon the lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay: Important considerations for in vitro toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martin G; Marwood, Roxanne M; Parsons, Anna E; Parsons, Richard B

    2015-12-25

    The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay is a commonly-used tool for assessing toxicity in vitro. However, anecdotal reports suggest that foetal bovine serum (FBS) may contain LDH at concentrations significant enough to interfere with the assay and thus reduce its sensitivity. A series of experiments were performed to determine whether addition of FBS to culture medium significantly elevated culture media LDH content, and whether replacement of FBS with heat inactivated foetal bovine serum (HI-FBS) reduced LDH content and interfered with cell response to cytotoxic challenge. The addition of FBS at 5, 10 and 15% final concentrations increased culture medium LDH content in a dose-dependent manner. The substitution of HI-FBS for FBS reduced culture medium LDH content and increased the dynamic range of the assay. Cell viability of the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and N27 rat mesencephalic neurone cell lines were significantly reduced as measured using the MTT reduction assay, whilst HI-FBS only affected toxicity response in a cell- and toxin-specific manner, although these effects were small. Hence, for cell lines with a high FBS requirement, the use of HI-FBS or alternative toxicity assays can be considered, or the use of alternative formulations, such as chemically-defined serum-free media, be adopted. PMID:26498060

  15. Identification of N-acylhydrazone derivatives as novel lactate dehydrogenase A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rupiani, Sebastiano; Buonfiglio, Rosa; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Vettraino, Marina; Giacomini, Elisa; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio

    2015-08-28

    Glycolysis is drastically increased in tumors and it is the main route to energy production with a minor use of oxidative phosphorylation. Among the key enzymes in the glycolytic process, LDH is emerging as one of the most interesting targets for the development of new inhibitors. In this context, in the present work, we carried out a virtual screening procedure followed by chemical modifications of the identified structures according to a "hit-to-lead" process. The effects of the new molecules were preliminary probed against purified human LDH-A. The compounds active at low micromolar level were additionally characterized for their activity on some cellular metabolic processes by using Raji human cell line. Within the series, 1 was considered the best candidate, and a more detailed characterization of its biological properties was performed. In Raji cells exposed to compound 1 we evidenced the occurrence of effects usually observed in cancer cells after LDH-A inhibition: reduced lactate production and NAD/NADH ratio, apoptosis. The flow cytometry analysis of treated cells also showed cell cycle changes compatible with effects exerted at the glycolytic level. Finally, in agreement with the data obtained with other inhibitors or by silencing LDH-A expression, compound 1 was found to increase Raji cells response to some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Taken together, all these finding are in support of the LDH-A inhibiting activity of compound 1. PMID:26114812

  16. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase A and B genes in different tissues of rats adapted to chronic hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Solares, Magali; Balanza, Elfride; Coudert, Jean; Clottes, Eric

    2003-05-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a tetramer made up of two different subunits A and B. In cellular models, severe hypoxia increases LDH A gene expression whereas LDH B gene does not exhibit any regulation. The aim of our work was to characterise LDH expression in different tissues of rats bred at high altitude. For this purpose, we chose a Sprague-Dawley rat strain adapted to chronic hypoxia in La Paz (3700 m), Bolivia. Two normoxic control groups were bred at low altitude in Clermont-Ferrand (350 m), France, one group was ad libitum with free access to food and water as was the hypoxic one, and the second normoxic group was nourished with the food intakes measured for the animals from La Paz. We measured total LDH specific activity, isoform distribution and LDH A and B mRNA amounts in three skeletal muscles (soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), plantaris), heart and brain. Our study demonstrates that, unlike what has been shown in cellular models under severe hypoxia, LDH A gene is not systematically up-regulated in tissues of rats living at high altitude. Furthermore, chronic hypoxia limits LDH B gene transcription or its mRNA stability in both soleus and EDL. These regulations occur at various molecular levels like gene transcription, mRNA stabilisation or translation and protein stability, depending on the tissue studied, and are partly attributed to caloric restriction provoked by high altitude. These data provide insight into LDH gene expression underlying the diverse and complex tissue-specific response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:12682909

  17. Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter A.; Somero, George N.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic adaptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (?1.86 to 1°C) and three South American (4 to 10°C) notothenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis–Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American species, but no relationship exists between adaptation temperature and the rate at which activity is lost because of heat denaturation. In all species, active site residues are conserved fully, and differences in kcat and Km are caused by substitutions elsewhere in the molecule. Within geographic groups, identical kinetic properties are generated by different substitutions. By combining our data with A4-LDH sequences for other vertebrates and information on roles played by localized conformational changes in setting kcat, we conclude that notothenioid A4-LDHs have adapted to cold temperatures by increases in flexibility in small areas of the molecule that affect the mobility of adjacent active-site structures. Using these findings, we propose a model that explains linked temperature-adaptive variation in Km and kcat. Changes in sequence that increase flexibility of regions of the enzyme involved in catalytic conformational changes may reduce energy (enthalpy) barriers to these rate-governing shifts in conformation and, thereby, increase kcat. However, at a common temperature of measurement, the higher configurational entropy of a cold-adapted enzyme may foster conformations that bind ligands poorly, leading to high Km values relative to warm-adapted orthologs. PMID:9736762

  18. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan ; Chen, Chien-Jen; Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan ; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li; Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  19. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  20. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D.; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K.; Tasca, Carla I.; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; López, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) and GSK3? (Serine9). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  1. Cloning of the Staphylococcus aureus ddh gene encoding NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase and insertional inactivation in a glycopeptide-resistant isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle-Vavra, S; de Jonge, B L; Ebert, C C; Daum, R S

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of low-level glycopeptide resistance among staphylococci is not known. A cytoplasmic protein, provisionally called Ddh (W. M. Milewski, S. Boyle-Vavra, B. Moreira, C. C. Ebert, and R. S. Daum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:166-172, 1996), and the RNA transcript that contains the ddh gene, which encodes Ddh, are present in increased amounts in a vancomycin-resistant isolate, 523k, compared with the susceptible parent isolate, 523. Sequence analysis had previously revealed that Ddh is related to NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) and VanH. This latter protein is essential for high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis by synthesizing the D-lactate needed for biosynthesis of D-lactate-terminating peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity for vancomycin. We now provide the direct evidence that the ddh gene product is Staphylococcus aureus D-nLDH and hereafter refer to the protein as D-nLDH. However, overproduction of this protein in isolate 523k did not result in production of D-lactate-containing peptidoglycan precursors, and susceptibility testing of ddh mutants of 523k demonstrated that S. aureus D-nLDH is not necessary for glycopeptide resistance in this isolate. We conclude that the mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in this isolate is distinct from that in enterococci. PMID:9352927

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... value range is 105 - 333 IU/L (international units per liter). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the ...

  3. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5wk before treatment and until 8wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However, in general, the changes in milk production, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and interquarter yield ratio showed parallels, suggesting that the recovery period continued for weeks after antibiotic treatment. These results call for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery, limit milk loss, and ensure animal welfare during the period after mastitis. PMID:26364092

  4. Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Xu, Yanbing; Sun, Xiucheng; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91±0.28mM and 2613.57±6.43?mol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55°C and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55°C and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50°C. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate. PMID:24412354

  5. Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Elizabeth A; Touabi, Malek; Ahrer, Margareta; Hutagalung, Robert; Htun, Khayae; Luchavez, Jennifer; Dureza, Christine; Proux, Stephane; Leimanis, Mara; Lwin, Myo Min; Koscalova, Alena; Comte, Eric; Hamade, Prudence; Page, Anne-Laure; Nosten, François; Guerin, Philippe J

    2009-01-01

    Background In areas where non-falciparum malaria is common rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) capable of distinguishing malaria species reliably are needed. Such tests are often based on the detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods In Dawei, southern Myanmar, three pLDH based RDTs (CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan), CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, Pf) and OptiMAL-IT®)were evaluated in patients presenting with clinically suspected malaria. Each RDT was read independently by two readers. A subset of patients with microscopically confirmed malaria had their RDTs repeated on days 2, 7 and then weekly until negative. At the end of the study, samples of study batches were sent for heat stability testing. Results Between August and November 2007, 1004 patients aged between 1 and 93 years were enrolled in the study. Slide microscopy (the reference standard) diagnosed 213 Plasmodium vivax (Pv) monoinfections, 98 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) mono-infections and no malaria in 650 cases. The sensitivities (sens) and specificities (spec), of the RDTs for the detection of malaria were- CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan) test: sens 89.1% [CI95 84.2-92.6], spec 97.6% [CI95 96.5-98.4] OptiMal-IT®: Pf+/- other species detection: sens 95.2% [CI95 87.5-98.2], spec 94.7% [CI95 93.3-95.8]; non-Pf detection alone: sens 89.6% [CI95 83.6-93.6], spec 96.5% [CI95 94.8-97.7] CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan, Pf): Pf+/- other species: sens 93.5% [CI9585.4-97.3], spec 97.4% [95.9-98.3]; non-Pf: sens 78.5% [CI9571.1-84.4], spec 97.8% [CI95 96.3-98.7] Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all tests (kappa > 0.9). The median time for the RDTs to become negative was two days for the CareStart™ Malaria tests and seven days for OptiMAL-IT®. Tests were heat stable up to 90 days except for OptiMAL-IT® (Pf specific pLDH stable to day 20 at 35°C). Conclusion None of the pLDH-based RDTs evaluated was able to detect non-falciparum malaria with high sensitivity, particularly at low parasitaemias. OptiMAL-IT® performed best overall and would perform best in an area of high malaria prevalence among screened fever cases. However, heat stability was unacceptable and the number of steps to perform this test is a significant drawback in the field. A reliable, heat-stable, highly sensitive RDT, capable of diagnosing all Plasmodium species has yet to be identified. PMID:19860920

  6. Reanalysis of mGWAS results and in vitro validation show that lactate dehydrogenase interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa Ja; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Klinken, Jan Bert

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of causative genes to noncoding variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is challenging. We show how combination of knowledge from gene and pathway databases and chromatin interaction data leads to reinterpretation of published quantitative trait loci for blood metabolites. We describe a previously unidentified link between the rs2403254 locus, which is associated with the ratio of 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate and alpha-hydroxyisovalerate levels, and the distal LDHA gene. We confirmed that lactate dehydrogenase can catalyze the conversion between these metabolites in vitro, suggesting that it has a role in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Examining datasets from the ENCODE project we found evidence that the locus and LDHA promoter physically interact, showing that LDHA expression is likely under control of distal regulatory elements. Importantly, this discovery demonstrates that bioinformatic workflows for data integration can have a vital role in the interpretation of GWAS results. PMID:26014429

  7. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  8. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

    2012-08-31

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

  10. Discovery of N-hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase isoform A (LDH-A) as starvation agents against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Granchi, Carlotta; Roy, Sarabindu; Giacomelli, Chiara; Macchia, Marco; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Martinelli, Adriano; Lanza, Mario; Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Lucacchini, Antonio; Funel, Nicola; León, Leticia G; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Calvaresi, Emilia C; Hergenrother, Paul J; Minutolo, Filippo

    2011-03-24

    Highly invasive tumor cells are characterized by a metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, from "normal" oxidative phosphorylation to increased glycolysis even under sufficiently oxygenated conditions. This dependence on glycolysis also confers a growth advantage to cells present in hypoxic regions of the tumor. One of the key enzymes involved in glycolysis, the muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A), is overexpressed by metastatic cancer cells and is linked to the vitality of tumors in hypoxia. This enzyme may be considered as a potential target for new anticancer agents, since its inhibition cuts cancer energetic and anabolic supply, thus reducing the metastatic and invasive potential of cancer cells. We have discovered new and efficient N-hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of LDH-A, which are isoform-selective (over LDH-B) and competitive with both the substrate (pyruvate) and the cofactor (NADH). The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was confirmed on a series of cancer cell lines, and they proved to be particularly effective under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, NMR experiments showed that these compounds are able to reduce the glucose-to-lactate conversion inside the cell. PMID:21332213

  11. The lactate dehydrogenase--reduced nicotinamide--adenine dinucleotide--pyruvate complex. Kinetics of pyruvate binding and quenching of coeznyme fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Südi, J

    1974-04-01

    The stopped-flow kinetic studies described in this and the following paper (Südi, 1974) demonstrate that a Haldane-type description of the reversible lactate dehydrogenase reaction presents an experimentally feasible task. Combined results of these two papers yield numerical values for the six rate constants defined by the following equilibrium scheme, where E represents lactate dehydrogenase: [Formula: see text] The experiments were carried out at pH8.4 at a relatively low temperature (6.3 degrees C) with the pig heart enzyme. Identification of the above two intermediates and determination of the corresponding rate constants actually involve four series of independent observations in these studies, since (a) the reaction can be followed in both directions, and (b) both the u.v. absorption and the fluorescence of the coenzymes are altered in the reaction, and it is shown that these two spectral changes do not occur simultaneously. Kinetic observations made in the reverse direction are reported in this paper. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence of NADH can no longer be observed in the ternary complex E(NADH) (Pyr). Even though the oxidation-reduction reaction rapidly follows the formation of this complex, the numerical values of k(-4) (8.33x10(5)m(-1).s(-1)) and k(+4) (222s(-1)) are easily obtained from a directly observed second-order reaction step in which fluorescent but not u.v.-absorbing material is disappearing. U.v.-absorption measurements do not clearly resolve the subsequent oxidation-reduction step from the dissociation of lactate. It is shown that this must be due partly to the instrumental dead time, and partly to a low transient concentration of E(NAD+) (Lac) in the two-step sequential reaction in which the detectable disappearance of u.v.-absorbing material takes place. It is estimated that about one-tenth of the total change in u.v. absorption is due to a ;burst reaction' in which E(NAD+) (Lac) is produced, and this estimation yields, from k(obs.)=120s(-1), k(-2)=1200s(-1). PMID:4377095

  12. The intrinsically disordered protein LEA7 from Arabidopsis thaliana protects the isolated enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and enzymes in a soluble leaf proteome during freezing and drying.

    PubMed

    Popova, Antoaneta V; Rausch, Saskia; Hundertmark, Michaela; Gibon, Yves; Hincha, Dirk K

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in plants is associated with tolerance against stresses such as freezing and desiccation. Two main functions have been attributed to LEA proteins: membrane stabilization and enzyme protection. We have hypothesized previously that LEA7 from Arabidopsis thaliana may stabilize membranes because it interacts with liposomes in the dry state. Here we show that LEA7, contrary to this expectation, did not stabilize liposomes during drying and rehydration. Instead, it partially preserved the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during drying and freezing. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed no evidence of aggregation of LDH in the dry or rehydrated state under conditions that lead to complete loss of activity. To approximate the complex influence of intracellular conditions on the protective effects of a LEA protein in a convenient in-vitro assay, we measured the activity of two Arabidopsis enzymes (glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) in total soluble leaf protein extract (Arabidopsis soluble proteome, ASP) after drying and rehydration or freezing and thawing. LEA7 partially preserved the activity of both enzymes under these conditions, suggesting its role as an enzyme protectant in vivo. Further FTIR analyses indicated the partial reversibility of protein aggregation in the dry ASP during rehydration. Similarly, aggregation in the dry ASP was strongly reduced by LEA7. In addition, mixtures of LEA7 with sucrose or verbascose reduced aggregation more than the single additives, presumably through the effects of the protein on the H-bonding network of the sugar glasses. PMID:25988244

  13. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying; Liu Lizhi; Li Li; Lin Aihua; Ma Jun

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  14. Duck lens epsilon-crystallin and lactate dehydrogenase B4 are identical: a single-copy gene product with two distinct functions.

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, W; Mulders, J W; Bibby, M A; Slingsby, C; Bloemendal, H; de Jong, W W

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether or not duck lens epsilon-crystallin and duck heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) B4 are the product of the same gene, we have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones of duck epsilon-crystallin. By using these clones we demonstrate that there is a single-copy Ldh-B gene in duck and in chicken. In the duck lens this gene is overexpressed, and its product is subject to posttranslational modification. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the LDH protein family reveals that the mammalian Ldh-C gene most probably originated from an ancestral Ldh-A gene and that the amino acid replacement rate in LDH-C is approximately 4 times the rate in LDH-A. Molecular modeling of LDH-B sequences shows that the increased thermostability of the avian tetramer might be explained by mutations that increase the number of ion pairs. Furthermore, the replacement of bulky side chains by glycines on the corners of the duck protein suggests an adaptation to facilitate close packing in the lens. Images PMID:3174623

  15. Immune evasion mediated by tumor-derived lactate dehydrogenase induction of NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells in glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Crane, Courtney A; Austgen, Kathryn; Haberthur, Kristen; Hofmann, Carly; Moyes, Kara White; Avanesyan, Lia; Fong, Lawrence; Campbell, Michael J; Cooper, Stewart; Oakes, Scott A; Parsa, Andrew T; Lanier, Lewis L

    2014-09-01

    Myeloid cells are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment, governing local immune responses. Here we report that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and circulating monocytes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) express ligands for activating the Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, which cause down-regulation of NKG2D on natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-infiltrating NK cells isolated from GBM patients fail to lyse NKG2D ligand-expressing tumor cells. We demonstrate that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform 5 secreted by glioblastoma cells induces NKG2D ligands on monocytes isolated from healthy individuals. Furthermore, sera from GBM patients contain elevated amounts of LDH, which correlate with expression of NKG2D ligands on their autologous circulating monocytes. NKG2D ligands also are present on circulating monocytes isolated from patients with breast, prostate, and hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinomas. Together, these findings reveal a previously unidentified immune evasion strategy whereby tumors produce soluble factors that induce NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells, subverting antitumor immune responses. PMID:25136121

  16. A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

    2014-07-01

    Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124. PMID:24861375

  17. Production of natural antimicrobial compound D-phenyllactic acid using Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 whole cells involving highly active D-lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Shin, S-Y; Lee, K W; Han, N S

    2014-10-01

    Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound naturally synthesized in various fermented foods and its D-form of PLA is known to be more active than the L-isomer. In this study, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 cells, elaborating D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-ldh) were used to produce D-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). When cultured in the presence of PPA (?50 mmol l(-1)), growing cells produced a maximum yield of 35 mmol l(-1) of D-PLA, and the yields were between 75·2 and 83·3%. Higher conversion yields were obtained at pH 6·0-7·0 when growing cells were used, while the optimum pH range was broader for resting cells. The time required for the complete conversion of PPA into PLA could be shortened to 3 h using resting cells. D-ldh, an enzyme encoded by the LEUM_1756 gene of Leuc. mesenteroides ATCC 8293, was found to be responsible for the conversion of PPA into PLA. The Km and kcat values of the enzyme for PPA were found to be 15·4 mmol l(-1) and 5645 s(-1), respectively. The conditions required for the efficient production of D-PLA were optimized for both growing and resting cells of Leuc. mesenteroides, with special emphasis on achieving high stereoselectivity and conversion yield. Significance and impact of the study: This is the first study on the production of D-phenyllactic acid, which is a natural antimicrobial compound, from phenylpyruvate using Leuconostoc mesenteroides cells. The strain, ATCC 8293, that was used in the study, possesses high stereoselectivity and delivers a high yield. Therefore, it might be a promising candidate for use in large-scale production facilities and in fermented foods. PMID:24888766

  18. Pretreatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase and N Classification Predict Long-Term Survival and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Who Have A Positive Family History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenna; Chen, Yupei; Zhou, Guanqun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lei; Tang, Linglong; Mao, Yanping; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate prognostic factors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from the endemic area of southern China who have a positive family history (FH) of cancer. Retrospective analysis of 600 patients with nondisseminated NPC and a positive FH was conducted. The prognostic value of different factors for overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS) were assessed using Cox regression models. The 3-year OS, DMFS, DFS, and LRFS rates were 93.8%, 91.3%, 86.3%, and 93.8%, respectively. The FH tumor type was NPC for 226/600 (37.7%) patients and other cancers for 374/600 (62.3%) patients. The 3-year OS and DMFS rates for patients with an FH of NPC were 91.2% and 89.8%, respectively. Thirty of 600 (5.0%) patients had elevated pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH >245.0?IU/L). In multivariate analysis, N classification (HR 4.56, 95% CI 2.13–9.74, P?

  19. A study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma by gel electrophoresis method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Golgire, Someshwar

    2014-01-01

    Context: The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is found in almost all the cells of body tissues, can be separated into five fractions and the isoenzyme pattern is believed to vary according to the metabolic requirement of each tissue. LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be considered to be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate salivary LDH isoenzyme pattern in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate between LDH isoenzyme levels and histopathologic grading in selected cases of OL and OSCC. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed 30 cases each of OL and OSCC were selected for the study and 30 healthy individuals of comparable age served as control. Unstimulated whole saliva was aseptically collected and was processed immediately for LDH isoenzymes measurement by agarose gel electrophoresis. Biopsy specimen obtained was processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Sections of OL and OSCC cases were scrutinized histopathologically and appropriately graded for epithelial dysplasia and differentiation of carcinoma respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two sample t test for testing the significance of difference between two group means was used. Results and Conclusion: The present salivary analysis for LDH isoenzyme reveals an overall increased salivary LDH isoenzyme level in OL and OSCC cases and a significant correlation between levels of salivary LDH isoenzymes and histopathologic grades of dysplasia in OL and OSCC. Salivary analysis of LDH will definitely provide the clinician and/or the patient himself with an efficient, non invasive and friendly new tool for diagnosis and monitoring of oral precancer and cancer. PMID:25364177

  20. Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Partl, Richard; Richtig, Erika; Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea; Kapp, Karin S.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ?70 and LDH ?240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ?70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ?240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

  1. Bioactivity-Guided Identification and Cell Signaling Technology to Delineate the Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibition Effects of Spatholobus suberectus on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1? and subsequent accelerated HIF-1? proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1?/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

  2. Complete inhibition of creatine kinase in isolated perfused rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Fossel, E.T.; Hoefeler, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transient exposure of an isolated isovolumic perfused rat heart to low concentrations (0.5 mM) of perfusate-born iodoacetamide resulted in complete inhibition of creatine kinase and partial inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the heart. At low levels of developed pressure, hearts maintained mechanical function, ATP, and creatine phosphate levels at control values. However, iodoacetamide-inhibited hearts were unable to maintain control values of end diastolic pressure or peak systolic pressure as work load increased. Global ischemia resulted in loss of all ATP without loss of creatine phosphate, indicating lack of active creatine kinase. These results indicate that isovolumic perfused rat hearts are able to maintain normal function and normal levels of high-energy phosphates without active creatine kinase at low levels of developed pressure. /sup 31/P-NMR of the heart was carried out.

  3. Age-dependent poliomyelitis of mice: expression of endogenous retrovirus correlates with cytocidal replication of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in motor neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Contag, C H; Plagemann, P G

    1989-01-01

    The widespread presence of endogenous retroviruses in the genomes of animals and humans has suggested that these viruses may be involved in both normal and abnormal developmental processes. Previous studies have indicated the involvement of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in the development of age-dependent poliomyelitis caused by infection of old C58 or AKR mice by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). The only genetic components which segregate with susceptibility to LDV-induced paralytic disease are multiple proviral copies of ecotropic MuLV and the permissive allele, at the Fv-1 locus, for N-tropic, ecotropic virus replication (Fv-1n/n). Using in situ hybridization and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization, we have correlated the expression of the endogenous MuLV, both temporally and spatially, with LDV infection of anterior horn motor neurons and the development of paralysis. Our data indicate that treatment of 6- to 7-month-old C58/M mice with cyclophosphamide, which renders these mice susceptible to LDV-induced paralytic disease, results in transient increases in ecotropic MuLV RNA levels in motor neurons throughout the spinal cord. Peripheral inoculation of C58/M mice with LDV, at the time of elevated MuLV RNA levels, results in a rapid spread of LDV to some spinal cord motor neurons. LDV infections then spread slowly but progressively throughout the spinal cord, involving an increasing number of motor neurons. LDV replication is cytocidal and results in neuron destruction and paralysis of the infected animals 2 to 3 weeks postinfection. The slow replication of LDV in the spinal cord contrasts sharply with the rapid replication of LDV in macrophages, the normal host cells for LDV, during the acute phase of infection. The data indicate that the interaction between the endogenous MuLV with the generally nonpathogenic murine togavirus LDV occurs at the level of the motor neuron. We discuss potential mechanisms for the novel dual-virus etiology of age-dependent poliomyelitis of mice. Images PMID:2550670

  4. Efficient reduction of the formation of by-products and improvement of production yield of 2,3-butanediol by a combined deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase, acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase, and lactate dehydrogenase genes in metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca in mineral salts medium.

    PubMed

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Khunnonkwao, Panwana; Chan, Sitha; Sangproo, Maytawadee; Khor, Kirin; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn

    2015-07-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca KMS005 (?adhE?ackA-pta?ldhA) was metabolically engineered to improve 2,3-butanediol (BDO) yield. Elimination of alcohol dehydrogenase E (adhE), acetate kinase A-phosphotransacetylase (ackA-pta), and lactate dehydrogenase A (ldhA) enzymes allowed BDO production as a primary pathway for NADH re-oxidation, and significantly reduced by-products. KMS005 was screened for the efficient glucose utilization by metabolic evolution. KMS005-73T improved BDO production at a concentration of 23.5±0.5 g/L with yield of 0.46±0.02 g/g in mineral salts medium containing 50 g/L glucose in a shake flask. KMS005-73T also exhibited BDO yields of about 0.40-0.42 g/g from sugarcane molasses, cassava starch, and maltodextrin. During fed-batch fermentation, KMS005-73T produced BDO at a concentration, yield, and overall and specific productivities of 117.4±4.5 g/L, 0.49±0.02 g/g, 1.20±0.05 g/Lh, and 27.2±1.1 g/gCDW, respectively. No acetoin, lactate, and formate were detected, and only trace amounts of acetate and ethanol were formed. The strain also produced the least by-products and the highest BDO yield among other Klebsiella strains previously developed. PMID:25895450

  5. Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase; and supplemented-trained (TCr) rats were given a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine and subjected to intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase. At the end of the experimental period, concentrations of creatine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx) and catalase (CAT). Liver tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were also determined. Results Hepatic creatine levels were highest in the CCr and TCr groups with increased concentration of H2O2 observed in the T and TCr animal groups. SOD activity was decreased in the TCr group. GSH-GPx activity was increased in the T and TCr groups while CAT was elevated in the CCr and TCr groups. GSH, GGS and the GSH/GSSG ratio did not differ between all animal subsets. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that creatine supplementation acts in an additive manner to physical training to raise antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. However, because markers of liver oxidative stress were unchanged, this finding may also indicate that training-induced oxidative stress cannot be ameliorated by creatine supplementation. PMID:24325803

  6. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  7. [Creatine kinase (CK)].

    PubMed

    Shoji, S

    1995-05-01

    Creatine kinase is a key enzyme for energy metabolism of contraction and relaxation in skeletal muscle. This enzyme also correlated to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Distribution of this enzyme is quite wide, including skeletal muscle, myocard, central nervous system, and smooth muscle. Creatine kinase has three main isoenzymes; CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK-BB. Mitochondrial isoenzyme (CKm) is the fourth isoenzyme migrating electrophoretically toward the cathode. Moreover serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (mainly CK-MB and CK-BB) and lesions in the myocard, skeletal muscle, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, renal and urogenital systems, or acute psychosis, intoxication, pregnancy, labor, and cord blood are also explained. A compendium on CK-BB is also done. PMID:7602768

  8. In VivoLactate Editing with Simultaneous Detection of Choline, Creatine, NAA, and Lipid Singlets at 1.5 T Using PRESS Excitation with Applications to the Study of Brain and Head and Neck Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star-Lack, Josh; Spielman, Daniel; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Kurhanewicz, John; Terris, David J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    1998-08-01

    Two T2-independentJ-difference lactate editing schemes for the PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy localization sequence are introduced. The techniques, which allow for simultaneous acquisition of the lactate doublet (1.3 ppm) and edited singlets upfield of and including choline (3.2 ppm), exploit the dependence of the in-phase intensity of the methyl doublet upon the time interval separating two inversion (BASING) pulses applied to its coupling partner after initial excitation. Editing method 1, which allows for echo times TE =n/J(n= 1, 2, 3, …), alters the BASING carrier frequency for each of two cycles so that, for one cycle, the quartet is inverted, whereas, for the other cycle, the quartet is unaffected. Method 2, which also provides water suppression, allows for editing for TE > 1/Jby alternating, between cycles, the time interval separating the inversion pulses. Experimental results were obtained at 1.5 T using a Shinnar Le-Roux-designed maximum phase inversion pulse with a filter transition bandwidth of 55 Hz. Spectra were acquired from phantoms andin vivofrom the human brain and neck. In a neck muscle study, the lipid suppression factor, achieved partly through the use of a novel phase regularization algorithm, was measured to be over 103. Spectra acquired from a primary brain and a metastatic neck tumor demonstrated the presence of lactate and choline signals consistent with abnormal spectral patterns. The advantages and limitations of the methods are analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and significance of the results is discussed.

  9. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Matthew B; Rybalka, Emma; Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr) ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i) Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7); or ii) carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7). Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher) and isometric (21% higher) knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84%) after 48 hrs (P < 0.01), 72 hrs (P < 0.001), 96 hrs (P < 0.0001), and 7 days (P < 0.001) recovery in the Cr-supplemented group. Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury. PMID:19490606

  10. Indoleamine 2,3?dioxygenase downregulates T?cell receptor complex ??chain and c?Myc, and reduces proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase levels and mitochondrial glutaminase in human T?cells.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Tsogka, Konstantina; Sounidaki, Maria; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3?dioxygenase (IDO), through L?tryptophan depletion, activates general control non?derepressible (GCN) 2 kinase and suppresses T?cell proliferation, in addition to suppressing aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which are required for these rapidly proliferating cells. A number of, however not all of these alterations, are partially mediated through IDO?induced p53 upregulation. In two?way mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), IDO reduced cellular proliferation. In MLR?derived T?cells, IDO induced the expression levels of p53 and p21, however concurrently reduced the levels of ??chain, c?Myc, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH?A) and glutaminase (GLS)2. However, p53 had no effect on the expression of the above proteins. These results were recapitulated in T?cells activated with anti?CD2, anti?CD3 and anti?CD28 by direct activation of the GCN2 kinase with tryptophanol. In conclusion, IDO, through GCN2 kinase activation, downregulates the levels of TCR?complex ??chain and c?Myc, resulting in the suppression of T?cell proliferation and a reduction in the levels of LDH?A and GLS2, which are key enzymes involved in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, respectively. PMID:26647830

  11. The Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Some Specific Proteins in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Before and After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Rahsan; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Erdem, Fuat; Kiki, lhami; Bilici, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure serum C reactive protein, ?2 microglobulin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and transferrin levels in patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma before and after treatment, and to determine whether any differences occur with treatment, investigate relationship between these parameters and systemic symptoms, and to determine whether they could be used as tumor markers. Materials and Methods: The parameters listed above were studied before and after treatment in sera of 27 patients with the diagnosis of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma who admitted to our department. Of the patients, 10 (37%) were females and 17 (63%) were males. Mean age was 57.7 ± 16.5 (19–82) years. The subjects were newly diagnosed and treatment. Results: Post-treatment serum ferritin and CRP levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with NHL compared to pre-treatment levels (p=0.009 and p=0.015, respectively). In addition, ferritin levels measured before treatment were significantly lower in subjects with B symptoms than those without B symptoms (p=0.02). IgA levels of patients with B symptom were significantly increased compared to those without B symptoms following treatment (p=0.03). Conclusions: We are in the opinion that serum ferritin and CRP parameters may be used as tumor markers and may be indicators in the efficacy evaluation of treatment in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. PMID:25610096

  12. Effects of 28 Days of Beta-Alanine and Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Muscle Carnosine, Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active Females 

    E-print Network

    Kresta, Julie Yong

    2012-07-16

    Early research with beta-alanine (beta-ALA) supplementation has shown increases in muscle carnosine as well as improvements in body composition, exercise performance and blood lactate levels. Creatine monohydrate supplementation ...

  13. D-lactate metabolism in starved Octopus ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomomi; Akagi, Shinsuke; Kawase, Michi; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Ohmori, Shinji

    2005-06-01

    The concentrations of D- and L-lactate, methylglyoxal and pyruvate were measured in tissues of normal and starved Octopus ocellatus. D-Lactate was always more abundant than L-lactate in the tissues. D-Lactate, pyruvate and methylglyoxal were present in 320, 94 and 43 times higher concentrations in tentacle of O. ocellatus of control group than those in normal rat skeletal muscle. The D-lactate concentration in the tentacle of O. ocellatus was 17-fold higher than that in Octopus vulgars. The activities of enzymes involved with D-lactate metabolism such as pyruvate kinase, octopine dehydrogenase, glyoxalase I and II and lactate dehydrogenase were measured in those tissues. The activities of glyoxalase I and II, and D-lactate dehydrogenase were increased in mantle and tentacle of starved octopus, while the levels of D-lactate and related metabolites were lowered in these tissues. The experimental results presented in this report and up to the present indicate that D-lactate is actively used for energy production in the tentacle and mantle of the starved animals. In octopus, especially starved octopus D-lactate was actively produced from methylglyoxal, which is formed via aminoacetone from threonine and glycine. PMID:15880764

  14. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test...

  19. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  20. Free creatine available to the creatine phosphate energy shuttle in isolated rat atria

    SciTech Connect

    Savabi, F. )

    1988-10-01

    To measure the actual percentage of intracellular free creatine participating in the process of energy transport, the incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C)creatine into the free creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) pools in spontaneously beating isolated rat atria, under various conditions, was examined. The atria were subjected to three consecutive periods, control, anoxia, and postanoxic recover, in medium containing tracers of (1-{sup 14}C)creatine. The tissue content and specific activity of creatine and PCr were determined at the end of each period. The higher specific activity found for tissue PCr (1.87 times) than creatine, independent of the percentage of total intracellular creatine that was present as free creatine, provides evidence for the existence of two separate pools of free creatine. Analysis of the data shows that in the normal oxygenated state {approx} 9% of the total intracellular creatine is actually free to participate in the process of energy transport (shuttle pool). About 36% of the total creatine is bound to unknown intracellular components and the rest exists as PCr. The creatine that was taken up and the creatine that was released from the breakdown of PCr have much greater access to the site of phosphorylation than the rest of the intracellular creatine. A sharp increase in the specific activity of residual PCr on prolongation of anoxic time was also observed. This provides evidence for a nonhomogeneous pool of PCr, for the most recently formed (radioactive) PCr appeared to be hydrolyzed last.

  1. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better clinical outcome. PMID:25904838

  2. Augmentation of Creatine in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Angela J.; Lygate, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Creatine is a principle component of the creatine kinase (CK) phosphagen system common to all vertebrates. It is found in excitable cells, such as cardiomyocytes, where it plays an important role in the buffering and transport of chemical energy to ensure that supply meets the dynamic demands of the heart. Multiple components of the CK system, including intracellular creatine levels, are reduced in heart failure, while ischaemia and hypoxia represent acute crises of energy provision. Elevation of myocardial creatine levels has therefore been suggested as potentially beneficial, however, achieving this goal is not trivial. This mini-review outlines the evidence in support of creatine elevation and critically examines the pharmacological approaches that are currently available. In particular, dietary creatine-supplementation does not sufficiently elevate creatine levels in the heart due to subsequent down-regulation of the plasma membrane creatine transporter (CrT). Attempts to increase passive diffusion and bypass the CrT, e.g. via creatine esters, have yet to be tested in the heart. However, studies in mice with genetic overexpression of the CrT demonstrate proof-of-principle that elevated creatine protects the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. This suggests activation of the CrT as a major unmet pharmacological target. However, translation of this finding to the clinic will require a greater understanding of CrT regulation in health and disease and the development of small molecule activators. PMID:26202199

  3. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  4. Creatine as nutritional supplementation and medicinal product.

    PubMed

    Benzi, G; Ceci, A

    2001-03-01

    Because of assumed ergogenic effects, the creatine administration has become popular practice among subjects participating in different sports. Appropriate creatine monohydrate dosage may be considered a medicinal product since, in accordance with the Council Directive 65/65/EEC, any substance which may be administered with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions in humans beings is considered a medicinal product. Thus, quality, efficacy and safety must characterise the substance. In addition, the European Court of Justice has held that a product which is recommended or described as having preventive or curative properties is a medicinal product even if it is generally considered as a foodstuff and even if it has no known therapeutic effect in the present state of scientific knowledge. In biochemical terms, creatine administration increases creatine and phosphocreatine muscle concentration, allowing for an accelerated rate of ATP synthesis. In thermodynamics terms, creatine stimulates the creatine-creatine kinase-phosphocreatine circuit, which is related to the mitochondrial function as a highly organised system for the control of the subcellular adenylate pool. In pharmacokinetics terms, creatine entry into skeletal muscle is initially dependent on the extracellular concentration, but the creatine transport is subsequently downregulated. In pharmacodynamics terms, the creatine enhances the possibility to maintain power output during brief periods of high-intensity exercises. In spite of uncontrolled daily dosage and long-term administration, no researches on creatine monohydrate safety in humans were set up by standardised protocols of clinical pharmacology and toxicology, as currently occurs in phases I and II for products for human use. More or less documented side effects induced by creatine monohydrate are weight gain; influence on insulin production; feedback inhibition of endogenous creatine synthesis; long-term damages on renal function. A major point that related to the quality of creatine monohydrate products is the amount of creatine ingested in relation to the amount of contaminants present. During the industrial production of creatine monohydrate from sarcosine and cyanamide, variable amounts of contaminants (dicyandiamide, dihydrotriazines, creatinine, ions) are generated and, thus, their tolerable concentrations (ppm) must be defined and made consumers known. Furthermore, because sarcosine could originate from bovine tissues, the risk of contamination with prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) can t be excluded. Thus, French authorities forbade the sale of products containing creatine. Creatine, as other nutritional factors, can be used either at supplementary or therapeutic levels as a function of the dose. Supplementary doses of nutritional factors usually are of the order of the daily turnover, while therapeutic ones are three or more times higher. In a subject of 70 kg with a total creatine pool of 120 g, the daily turnover is approximately of 2 g. Thus, in healthy subjects nourished with fat-rich, carbohydrate, protein-poor diet and participating in a daily recreational sport, the oral creatine monohydrate supplementation should be of the order of the daily turnover, i.e., less than 2.5-3 g per day, bringing the gastrointestinal absorption to account. In healthy athletes submitted daily to high-intensity strength or sprint training, the maximal oral creatine monohydrate supplementation should be of the order of two times the daily turnover, i.e., less than 5-6 g per day for less than two weeks, and the creatine monohydrate supplementation should be taken under appropriate medical supervision. The oral administration of more that 6 g per day of creatine monohydrate should be considered as a therapeutic intervention and should be prescribed by physicians only in the cases of suspected or proven deficiency, or in conditions of severe stress and/or injury. The incorporation of creatine into the medicinal product class is supported also by the use i

  5. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes...

  6. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant ?26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant ?32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species. PMID:26167158

  7. Creatine biosynthesis and transport in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Voicu, Pia-Manuela; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Porchet, Nicole; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Cheillan, David; Vamecq, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Creatine is physiologically provided equally by diet and by endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine with successive involvements of arginine glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT] and guanidinoacetate methyl transferase [GAMT]. A specific plasma membrane transporter, creatine transporter [CRTR] (SLC6A8), further enables cells to incorporate creatine and through uptake of its precursor, guanidinoacetate, also directly contributes to creatine biosynthesis. Breakthrough in the role of creatine has arisen from studies on creatine deficiency disorders. Primary creatine disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive (mutations affecting GATM [for glycine-amidinotransferase, mitochondrial]) and GAMT genes) or X-linked (SLC6A8 gene) traits. They have highlighted the role of creatine in brain functions altered in patients (global developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders). Creatine modulates GABAergic and glutamatergic cerebral pathways, presynaptic CRTR (SLC6A8) ensuring re-uptake of synaptic creatine. Secondary creatine disorders, addressing other genes, have stressed the extraordinary imbrication of creatine metabolism with many other cellular pathways. This high dependence on multiple pathways supports creatine as a cellular sensor, to cell methylation and energy status. Creatine biosynthesis consumes 40% of methyl groups produced as S-adenosylmethionine, and creatine uptake is controlled by AMP activated protein kinase, a ubiquitous sensor of energy depletion. Today, creatine is considered as a potential sensor of cell methylation and energy status, a neurotransmitter influencing key (GABAergic and glutamatergic) CNS neurotransmission, therapeutic agent with anaplerotic properties (towards creatine kinases [creatine-creatine phosphate cycle] and creatine neurotransmission), energetic and antioxidant compound (benefits in degenerative diseases through protection against energy depletion and oxidant species) with osmolyte behavior (retention of water by muscle). This review encompasses all these aspects by providing an illustrated metabolic account for brain and body creatine in health and disease, an algorithm to diagnose metabolic and gene bases of primary and secondary creatine deficiencies, and a metabolic exploration by (1)H-MRS assessment of cerebral creatine levels and response to therapeutic measures. PMID:26542286

  8. Effect of manual lymph drainage on removal of blood lactate after submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Yesim; Coknaz, Hakk?; Karl?, Ümid; Semsek, Önder; Ser?n, Erdinc; Pala, Ömer Osman

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] It has been well-established that exercise-induced muscle damage occurs following intense exercise. Massage is commonly used to manage muscle damage resulting from exercise. However the effect of massage after exercise is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manual lymph drainage on muscle damage and on the removal of blood lactate following submaximal exercise (SE), as part of a solution to the challenging problem in sports medicine of muscular recovery after exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy male students, with moderate exercise training, were randomly assigned to either receive manual lymph drainage (MLD) or serve as controls. Both groups were subjected to a graded exercise test, performed on a treadmill ergometer, to determine each subject's individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Seven days later, all subjects were made to run for 30 minutes on the same treadmill ergometer, at a running speed equivalent to the IAT. One group received MLD treatment, while the control subjects received no treatment. [Results] Following an increase immediately after exercise, lactic acid (LA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels dropped rapidly and significantly at the end of MLD application and two hours after SE in the subjects receiving MLD. The course of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin levels was comparable, and with myoglobin showing a significant difference at 2?h after SE, and CK at 24?h after SE. [Conclusion] Manual lymph drainage after SE correlated with a more rapid fall in LA and of the muscular enzymes of LDH, CK and myoglobin, and may have resulted in an improvement in the regenerative processes elicted by structural damage to the muscle cells. PMID:26696704

  9. Effect of manual lymph drainage on removal of blood lactate after submaximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bakar, Yesim; Coknaz, Hakk?; Karl?, Ümid; Semsek, Önder; Ser?n, Erdinc; Pala, Ömer Osman

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It has been well-established that exercise-induced muscle damage occurs following intense exercise. Massage is commonly used to manage muscle damage resulting from exercise. However the effect of massage after exercise is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manual lymph drainage on muscle damage and on the removal of blood lactate following submaximal exercise (SE), as part of a solution to the challenging problem in sports medicine of muscular recovery after exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy male students, with moderate exercise training, were randomly assigned to either receive manual lymph drainage (MLD) or serve as controls. Both groups were subjected to a graded exercise test, performed on a treadmill ergometer, to determine each subject’s individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Seven days later, all subjects were made to run for 30 minutes on the same treadmill ergometer, at a running speed equivalent to the IAT. One group received MLD treatment, while the control subjects received no treatment. [Results] Following an increase immediately after exercise, lactic acid (LA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels dropped rapidly and significantly at the end of MLD application and two hours after SE in the subjects receiving MLD. The course of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin levels was comparable, and with myoglobin showing a significant difference at 2?h after SE, and CK at 24?h after SE. [Conclusion] Manual lymph drainage after SE correlated with a more rapid fall in LA and of the muscular enzymes of LDH, CK and myoglobin, and may have resulted in an improvement in the regenerative processes elicted by structural damage to the muscle cells. PMID:26696704

  10. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in bovine tissue.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Oehme, F W

    1985-07-01

    Brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and urinary bladder from healthy cattle were analyzed for creatine kinase isoenzymes as a possible aid in the diagnosis of myocardial disease. Creatine kinase was detected in all organs evaluated. In addition, 6 different fluorescing bands were detected by isoenzyme analysis. Large quantities of the same isoenzymes were in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in other organs. Creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis does not necessarily indicate cardiac damage, but may narrow the range of tissue damage possibilities to be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:4026022

  11. [Changes of serum enzymes, lactate and hemoglobin concentrations in the blood of young trotting horses due to training exertion].

    PubMed

    Krzywanek, H; Mohr, E; Mill, J; Scharpenack, M

    1996-08-01

    Until the age of about 2 years, trotters normally grow up on pasture without any kind of training. In the stud farm Lindenhof (Templin, Germany), however, these first 2 years are used for a special fitness training for the young animals: 2-3 times a week, a group of the yearlings is forced to run a distance of about 1700 m on a track at an average speed of up to 10 m/s. Until now, little was known about changes of blood parameters which may occur during such special exercise. This study therefore investigated the activity of selected serum enzymes (aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (gamma-GT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), creatine kinase (CK)) and the variations of hematocrit, hemoglobin, lactate, protein, and urea concentration before and after exercise. Except for activity of AP and CK and concentration of urea, all parameters showed a distinct increase after exercise. In particular, the rise in lactic-acid concentration with values up to 23.08 mmol/l was remarkable, however, none of the parameters reached a pathological level. It is therefore concluded that exercise for young trotters over a medium distance-even at high speed-does not cause any injury of myocardium, skeletal muscles or liver cells. PMID:9005684

  12. [High-efficiency L-lactate production from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kangming; Shi, Guiyang; Lu, Fuping; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-09-01

    High-efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate is beneficial for the development of both oil hydrolysis industry and biodegradable materials manufacturing industry. In order to construct an L-lactate producer, we first cloned a coding region of gene BcoaLDH encoding an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans CICIM B1821 and the promoter sequence (P(ldhA)) of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhA) from Escherichia coli CICIM B0013. Then we assembled these two DNA fragments in vitro and yielded an expression cassette, P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH. Then, the cassette was chromosomally integrated into an ldhA mutant strain, Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-080C, by replacing lldD encoding an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. An L-lactate higher-producer strain, designated as E. coli B0013-090B, possessing genotype of lldD::P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH, deltaack-pta deltapps deltapflB deltadld deltapoxB deltaadhE deltafrdA and deltaldhA, was generated. Under the optimal condition, 132.4 g/L L-lactate was accumulated by B0013-090B with the lactate productivity of 4.90 g/Lh and the yield of 93.7% in 27 h from glycerol. The optical purity of L-lactate in broth is above 99.95%. PMID:24409690

  13. Comparison of Different Forms of Creatine on Creatine Availability, Retention, and Training Adaptations 

    E-print Network

    Jagim, Andrew Ryan

    2013-03-25

    creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM (20 g/d for 7-days, 5 g/d for 21-days). There was no evidence that supplementing the diet with a buffered form of creatine resulted in fewer side effects than CrM. These findings...

  14. Utilization of d-Lactate as an Energy Source Supports the Growth of Gluconobacter oxydans

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Binbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yingxin; Jiang, Tianyi; Deng, Sisi; Kong, Jian; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    d-Lactate was identified as one of the few available organic acids that supported the growth of Gluconobacter oxydans 621H in this study. Interestingly, the strain used d-lactate as an energy source but not as a carbon source, unlike other lactate-utilizing bacteria. The enzymatic basis for the growth of G. oxydans 621H on d-lactate was therefore investigated. Although two putative NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenases, GOX1253 and GOX2071, were capable of oxidizing d-lactate, GOX1253 was the only enzyme able to support the d-lactate-driven growth of the strain. GOX1253 was characterized as a membrane-bound dehydrogenase with high activity toward d-lactate, while GOX2071 was characterized as a soluble oxidase with broad substrate specificity toward d-2-hydroxy acids. The latter used molecular oxygen as a direct electron acceptor, a feature that has not been reported previously in d-lactate-oxidizing enzymes. This study not only clarifies the mechanism for the growth of G. oxydans on d-lactate, but also provides new insights for applications of the important industrial microbe and the novel d-lactate oxidase. PMID:25862219

  15. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant malate dehydrogenase. However, when expressed in a strain of E. coli unable to ferment glucose, the mutant enzyme restored growth and produced lactic acid as the sole fermentation product.

  16. A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress. PMID:25214213

  17. Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Matthew T J; Faull, Richard L M; Christie, David L; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2015-04-01

    Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:25159005

  18. Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

  19. Creatine transporter activity and content in the rat heart supplemented by and depleted of creatine.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ernest; Chan, Sharon; Monfared, Mina; Wallimann, Theo; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan

    2003-02-01

    The intracellular creatine concentration is an important bioenergetic parameter in cardiac muscle. Although creatine uptake is known to be via a NaCl-dependent creatine transporter (CrT), its localization and regulation are poorly understood. We investigated CrT kinetics in isolated perfused hearts and, by using cardiomyocytes, measured CrT content at the plasma membrane or in total lysates. Rats were fed control diet or diet supplemented with creatine or the creatine analog beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA). Creatine transport in control hearts followed saturation kinetics with a K(m) of 70 +/- 13 mM and a V(max) of 3.7 +/- 0.07 nmol x min(-1) x g wet wt(-1). Creatine supplementation significantly decreased the V(max) of the CrT (2.7 +/- 0.17 nmol x min(-1) x g wet wt(-1)). This was matched by an approximately 35% decrease in the plasma membrane CrT; the total CrT pool was unchanged. Rats fed beta-GPA exhibited a >80% decrease in tissue creatine and increase in beta-GPA(total). The V(max) of the CrT was increased (6.0 +/- 0.25 nmol x min(-1) x g wet wt(-1)) and the K(m) decreased (39.8 +/- 3.0 mM). The plasma membrane CrT increased about fivefold, whereas the total CrT pool remained unchanged. We conclude that, in heart, creatine transport is determined by the content of a plasma membrane isoform of the CrT but not by the total cellular CrT pool. PMID:12531746

  20. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  4. Crystal structure of human muscle creatine kinase

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yue-quan; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Lin, Zheng-jiong

    2001-08-01

    (Muhlebach et al., 1994) and they have high amino-acid sequence identity. Since 1996, several creatine kinase crystal struc- tures have been solved, including mitochondrial CK from sarcomas (sMtCK; Fritz- Wolf et al., 1996), MM-type CK from rabbit (RCK; Rao... of rabbit muscle creatine kinase determined at 2.4 A Ê (Rao et al., 1998) with high sequence identity (?96%) was selected as a search model. Residues with discrepant sequences were replaced with alanine. In the early stage of the molecular replacement...

  5. Production of optically pure d-lactate from glycerol by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Xian, Mo; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Rubing; Zhao, Guang

    2014-11-01

    In this study, glycerol was used to produce optically pure d-lactate by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. In the recombinant strain, d-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA was overexpressed, and two genes, dhaT and yqhD for biosynthesis of main byproduct 1,3-propanediol, were knocked out. To further improve d-lactate production, the culture condition was optimized and the results demonstrated that aeration rate played an important role in d-lactate production. In microaerobic fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain accumulated 142.1g/L optically pure d-lactate with a yield of 0.82g/g glycerol, which represented the highest d-lactate production from glycerol so far. This study showed that K. pneumoniae strain has high efficiency to convert glycerol into d-lactate and high potentiality in utilization of crude glycerol from biodiesel industry. PMID:25270041

  6. The effects of lactate on nitrosylmyoglobin formation from nitrite and metmyoglobin in a cured meat system.

    PubMed

    McClure, Brooke N; Sebranek, Joseph G; Kim, Yuan H; Sullivan, Gary A

    2011-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of lactate on nitrite during meat curing. In the first experiment, using a model system, eight reaction components including nitrite and lactate, were used to assess the effect of each component on metmyoglobin reducing activity by excluding one component at a time. Excluding lactate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS) resulted in no reducing activity. A second experiment, utilising a meat mixture, investigated the effects of lactate (0%, 2%, 4% or 6%), nitrite (0 or 156ppm), and packaging (oxygen-permeable or vacuum) on residual nitrite, meat colour and pH. Addition of lactate reduced residual nitrite in the meat mixtures. Both experiments support the hypothesis that lactate generates NADH which then reduces metmyoglobin to deoxymyoglobin. The resulting greater concentration of reduced myoglobin subsequently reacted with nitrite to produce more nitric oxide, reducing nitrite concentration and accelerating curing reactions. PMID:25212339

  7. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  8. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210....1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure... and endocrine disorders including hyperthyroidism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  10. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210....1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure... and endocrine disorders including hyperthyroidism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  11. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210....1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure... and endocrine disorders including hyperthyroidism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  12. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210....1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure... and endocrine disorders including hyperthyroidism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  13. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210....1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure... and endocrine disorders including hyperthyroidism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification....

  15. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification....

  17. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification....

  18. Homofermentative Lactate Production Cannot Sustain Anaerobic Growth of Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Possible Consequence of Energy-Dependent Lactate Export

    PubMed Central

    van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Winkler, Aaron A.; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2004-01-01

    Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

  19. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  20. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration.

    PubMed

    Burke, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Parise, Gianni; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Candow, Darren G

    2003-09-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid has been found to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in animal models. Studies have also found that the co-ingestion of carbohydrate along with creatine increases muscle creatine uptake by a process related to insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid on human skeletal muscle creatine uptake by directly measuring intramuscular concentrations of creatine, phosphocreatine, and adenosine triphosphate when creatine monohydrate was co-ingested with alpha-lipoic acid. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the vastus lateralis m. of 16 male subjects (18-32 y) before and after the experimental intervention. After the initial biopsy, subjects ingested 20 g x d(-1) of creatine monohydrate, 20 g x d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + 100 g x d(-1) of sucrose, or 20 g x d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + 100 g x d(-1) of sucrose + 1000 mg x d(-1) of alpha-lipoic acid for 5 days. Subjects refrained from exercise and consumed the same balanced diet for 7 days. Body weight increased by 2.1% following the nutritional intervention, with no differences between the groups. There was a significant increase in total creatine concentration following creatine supplementation, with the group ingesting alpha-lipoic acid showing a significantly greater increase (p < .05) in phosphocreatine (87.6 --> 106.2 mmol x kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) and total creatine (137.8 --> 156.8 mmol x kg(-1) dm). These findings indicate that co-ingestion of alpha-lipoic acid with creatine and a small amount of sucrose can enhance muscle total creatine content as compared to the ingestion of creatine and sucrose or creatine alone. PMID:14669930

  1. Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Korey M.; McDonald, Thomas L.; Drescher, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host’s well-being, in particular the host’s ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements – creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN - largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. PMID:21575742

  2. Metabolic control analysis of L-lactate synthesis pathway in Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei; Chang, Shu; Chen, Xiaoju; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Yang, Peizhou; Wu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the metabolic flux and the activities of the pyruvate branching enzymes of Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686 during L-lactate fermentation was investigated using the perturbation method of aeration. The control coefficients for five enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), were calculated. Our results indicated significant correlations between PDH and PC, PDC and LDH, PDC and ADH, LDH and ADH, and PDC and PC. It also appeared that PDH, PC, and LDH strongly controlled the L-lactate flux; PDH and ADH strongly controlled the ethanol flux; while PDH and PC strongly controlled the acetyl coenzyme A flux and the oxaloacetate flux. Further, the flux control coefficient curves indicated that the control of the system gradually transferred from PDC to PC during the steady state. Therefore, PC was the key rate-limiting enzyme that controls the flux distribution. PMID:26288952

  3. Lactate Racemization as a Rescue Pathway for Supplying d-Lactate to the Cell Wall Biosynthesis Machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Deghorain, Marie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Tytgat, Isabelle; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that produces d- and l-lactate using stereospecific NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases (LdhD and LdhL, respectively). However, reduction of glycolytic pyruvate by LdhD is not the only pathway for d-lactate production since a mutant defective in this activity still produces both lactate isomers (T. Ferain, J. N. Hobbs, Jr., J. Richardson, N. Bernard, D. Garmyn, P. Hols, N. E. Allen, and J. Delcour, J. Bacteriol. 178:5431-5437, 1996). Production of d-lactate in this species has been shown to be connected to cell wall biosynthesis through its incorporation as the last residue of the muramoyl-pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor. This particular feature leads to natural resistance to high concentrations of vancomycin. In the present study, we show that L. plantarum possesses two pathways for d-lactate production: the LdhD enzyme and a lactate racemase, whose expression requires l-lactate. We report the cloning of a six-gene operon, which is involved in lactate racemization activity and is positively regulated by l-lactate. Deletion of this operon in an L. plantarum strain that is devoid of LdhD activity leads to the exclusive production of l-lactate. As a consequence, peptidoglycan biosynthesis is affected, and growth of this mutant is d-lactate dependent. We also show that the growth defect can be partially restored by expression of the d-alanyl-d-alanine-forming Ddl ligase from Lactococcus lactis, or by supplementation with various d-2-hydroxy acids but not d-2-amino acids, leading to variable vancomycin resistance levels. This suggests that L. plantarum is unable to efficiently synthesize peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanine and that the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in this species is specifically dedicated to the production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-lactate. In this context, the lactate racemase could thus provide the bacterium with a rescue pathway for d-lactate production upon inactivation or inhibition of the LdhD enzyme. PMID:16166538

  4. Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.

    2000-09-12

    It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver...myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver...myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  7. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

  8. Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake

    PubMed Central

    Nabuurs, C I; Choe, C U; Veltien, A; Kan, H E; van Loon, L J C; Rodenburg, R J T; Matschke, J; Wieringa, B; Kemp, G J; Isbrandt, D; Heerschap, A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in muscle energy homeostasis by its participation in the ATP–phosphocreatine phosphoryl exchange reaction mediated by creatine kinase. Given that the consequences of Cr depletion are incompletely understood, we assessed the morphological, metabolic and functional consequences of systemic depletion on skeletal muscle in a mouse model with deficiency of l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT?/?), which catalyses the first step of Cr biosynthesis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a near-complete absence of Cr and phosphocreatine in resting hindlimb muscle of AGAT?/? mice. Compared with wild-type, the inorganic phosphate/?-ATP ratio was increased fourfold, while ATP levels were reduced by nearly half. Activities of proton-pumping respiratory chain enzymes were reduced, whereas F1F0-ATPase activity and overall mitochondrial content were increased. The Cr-deficient AGAT?/? mice had a reduced grip strength and suffered from severe muscle atrophy. Electron microscopy revealed increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid droplets and crystal formation within mitochondria of AGAT?/? muscle fibres. Ischaemia resulted in exacerbation of the decrease of pH and increased glycolytic ATP synthesis. Oral Cr administration led to rapid accumulation in skeletal muscle (faster than in brain) and reversed all the muscle abnormalities, revealing that the condition of the AGAT?/? mice can be switched between Cr deficient and normal simply by dietary manipulation. Systemic creatine depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular energy deficiency, as well as structural and physiological abnormalities. The consequences of AGAT deficiency are more pronounced than those of muscle-specific creatine kinase deficiency, which suggests a multifaceted involvement of creatine in muscle energy homeostasis in addition to its role in the phosphocreatine–creatine kinase system. PMID:23129796

  9. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure. PMID:21411845

  10. On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2001-03-01

    The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H2O or D2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

  11. Detection of intracellular lactate with localized diffusion { 1H- 13C}-spectroscopy in rat glioma in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Josef; Lin, Joseph C.; DelaBarre, Lance; Ugurbil, Kamil; Garwood, Michael

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion characteristic of lactate and alanine in a brain tumor model to that of normal brain metabolites known to be mainly intracellular such as N-acetylaspartate or creatine. The diffusion of 13C-labeled metabolites was measured in vivo with localized NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 T (400 MHz) using a previously described localization and editing pulse sequence known as ACED-STEAM ('adiabatic carbon editing and decoupling'). 13C-labeled glucose was administered and the apparent diffusion coefficients of the glycolytic products, { 1H- 13C}-lactate and { 1H- 13C}-alanine, were determined in rat intracerebral 9L glioma. To obtain insights into { 1H- 13C}-lactate compartmentation (intra- versus extracellular), the pulse sequence used very large diffusion weighting (50 ms/?m 2). Multi-exponential diffusion attenuation of the lactate metabolite signals was observed. The persistence of a lactate signal at very large diffusion weighting provided direct experimental evidence of significant intracellular lactate concentration. To investigate the spatial distribution of lactate and other metabolites, 1H spectroscopic images were also acquired. Lactate and choline-containing compounds were consistently elevated in tumor tissue, but not in necrotic regions and surrounding normal-appearing brain. Overall, these findings suggest that lactate is mainly associated with tumor tissue and that within the time-frame of these experiments at least some of the glycolytic product ([ 13C] lactate) originates from an intracellular compartment.

  12. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  13. Hyperpolarized 13C NMR observation of lactate kinetics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Mo; Josan, Sonal; Mayer, Dirk; Hurd, Ralph E; Chung, Youngran; Bendahan, David; Spielman, Daniel M; Jue, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The production of glycolytic end products, such as lactate, usually evokes a cellular shift from aerobic to anaerobic ATP generation and O2 insufficiency. In the classical view, muscle lactate must be exported to the liver for clearance. However, lactate also forms under well-oxygenated conditions, and this has led investigators to postulate lactate shuttling from non-oxidative to oxidative muscle fiber, where it can serve as a precursor. Indeed, the intracellular lactate shuttle and the glycogen shunt hypotheses expand the vision to include a dynamic mobilization and utilization of lactate during a muscle contraction cycle. Testing the tenability of these provocative ideas during a rapid contraction cycle has posed a technical challenge. The present study reports the use of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate and [2-(13)C]pyruvate in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR experiments to measure the rapid pyruvate and lactate kinetics in rat muscle. With a 3 s temporal resolution, (13)C DNP NMR detects both [1-(13)C]lactate and [2-(13)C]pyruvate kinetics in muscle. Infusion of dichloroacetate stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and shifts the kinetics toward oxidative metabolism. Bicarbonate formation from [1-(13)C]lactate increases sharply and acetyl-l-carnitine, acetoacetate and glutamate levels also rise. Such a quick mobilization of pyruvate and lactate toward oxidative metabolism supports the postulated role of lactate in the glycogen shunt and the intracellular lactate shuttle models. The study thus introduces an innovative DNP approach to measure metabolite transients, which will help delineate the cellular and physiological role of lactate and glycolytic end products. PMID:26347554

  14. Energetic status and mitochondrial oxidative capacity of rat skeletal muscle in response to creatine analogue ingestion.

    PubMed

    Freyssenet, D; Berthon, P; Barthélémy, J C; Busso, T; Geyssant, A; Denis, C

    1995-03-14

    A creatine analogue, beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA), was administered in the food (1% w/w) of 8 male rats for 6 weeks, while 8 control rats received a standard diet. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity and cytosolic modulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (free ADP, ATP-to-free ADP ratio) were evaluated in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Mitochondrial adaptation to the diet was significantly different between muscles. Citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate were 35 and 45% higher in EDL muscle, respectively, whereas they were virtually unchanged in the soleus muscle. In both muscles, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected. Regardless of muscle type, creatine, phosphocreatine and ATP concentrations, as well as the total adenine nucleotide content (ATP + ADP + AMP), were significantly lower in beta-GPA fed rats. Whereas free ADP concentration remained unchanged, a significantly greater decrease in ATP-to-free ADP ratio was observed in EDL than in the soleus muscle. It is suggested that regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, through changes in metabolite concentrations, could be an important factor to consider for mitochondrial adaptation induced by beta-GPA feeding. PMID:7893727

  15. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  16. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint swimming performance.Creatine supplementation does improve repeated interval swim set performance.Creatine supplementation does improve power development in swimmers when measured on a swim bench ergometer.As a result of the high energy demands of the butterfly and breaststroke competitive swimming styles, potentially, the benefits associated with creatine supplementation and swimming performance could be greater when swimming butterfly or breaststroke, compared to the commonly examined freestyle swimming stroke. PMID:24198677

  17. Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Horjus, D. L.; Nieuwland, R.; Boateng, K. B.; Schaap, M. C. L.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Clark, J. F.; Sturk, A.; Brewster, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy is an increasing clinical challenge. However, the inter-individual variation in this risk is poorly understood. We assessed whether the level of plasma creatine kinase, the enzyme that utilizes ADP and phosphocreatine to rapidly regenerate ATP, may modulate bleeding risk through a dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation. Exogenous creatine kinase (500 to 4000?IU/L, phosphocreatine 5?mM) added to human plasma induced a dose-dependent reduction to complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Accordingly, endogenous plasma creatine kinase, studied in 9 healthy men (mean age 27.9?y, SE 3.3; creatine kinase 115 to 859?IU/L, median 358), was associated with reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ?0.6; p < 0.05). After exercise, at an endogenous creatine kinase level of 4664, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was undetectable, normalizing after rest, with a concomitant reduction of creatine kinase to normal values. Thus, creatine kinase reduces ADP-induced platelet activation. This may promote bleeding, in particular when patients use platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors. PMID:25298190

  18. Lactate does not activate NF-?B in oxidative tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Van Hée, Vincent F.; Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Cacace, Andrea; Copetti, Tamara; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The lactate anion is currently emerging as an oncometabolite. Lactate, produced and exported by glycolytic and glutaminolytic cells in tumors, can be recycled as an oxidative fuel by oxidative tumors cells. Independently of hypoxia, it can also activate transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumor and endothelial cells, promoting angiogenesis. These protumoral activities of lactate depend on lactate uptake, a process primarily facilitated by the inward, passive lactate-proton symporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1); the conversion of lactate and NAD+ to pyruvate, NADH and H+ by lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH-1); and a competition between pyruvate and ?-ketoglutarate that inhibits prolylhydroxylases (PHDs). Endothelial cells do not primarily use lactate as an oxidative fuel but, rather, as a signaling agent. In addition to HIF-1, lactate can indeed activate transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in these cells, through a mechanism not only depending on PHD inhibition but also on NADH alimenting NAD(P)H oxidases to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). While NF-?B activity in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis, NF-?B activation in tumor cells is known to stimulate tumor progression by conferring resistance to apoptosis, stemness, pro-angiogenic and metastatic capabilities. In this study, we therefore tested whether exogenous lactate could activate NF-?B in oxidative tumor cells equipped for lactate signaling. We report that, precisely because they are oxidative, HeLa and SiHa human tumor cells do not activate NF-?B in response to lactate. Indeed, while lactate-derived pyruvate is well-known to inhibit PHDs in these cells, we found that NADH aliments oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria rather than NAD(P)H oxidases in the cytosol. These data were confirmed using oxidative human Cal27 and MCF7 tumor cells. This new information positions the malate-aspartate shuttle as a key player in the oxidative metabolism of lactate: similar to glycolysis that aliments OXPHOS with pyruvate produced by pyruvate kinase and NADH produced by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), oxidative lactate metabolism aliments OXPHOS in oxidative tumor cells with pyruvate and NADH produced by LDH1. PMID:26528183

  19. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD. PMID:25611453

  20. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ?adhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. PMID:20924198

  1. Temperature dependent Raman and DFT study of creatine.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan K

    2015-11-01

    Temperature dependent Raman spectra of creatine powder have been recorded in the temperature range 420-100K at regular intervals and different clusters of creatine have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) in order to determine the effect of temperature on the hydrogen bonded network in the crystal structure of creatine. Vibrational assignments of all the 48 normal modes of the zwitterionic form of creatine have been done in terms of potential energy distribution obtained from DFT calculations. Precise analysis gives information about thermal motion and intermolecular interactions with respect to temperature in the crystal lattice. Formation of higher hydrogen bonded aggregates on cooling can be visualized from the spectra through clear signature of phase transition between 200K and 180K. PMID:26010702

  2. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deficiency? This condition is inherited in an X-linked pattern. The gene associated with this condition is located on the ... Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding X-linked creatine ... inheritance ; inherited ; microcephaly ; motor ; mutation ; neurological ; ...

  4. Modeling Extended Lactations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modeling extended lactations for the US Holsteins is useful as a majority (>55%) of the cows in the present population produce lactations longer than 305 d. In this study nine empirical and mechanistic models were compared on their suitability for modeling 305-d and 999-d lactations of US Holsteins...

  5. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  6. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A {sup 13}C-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[2-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[3-{sup 13}C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  7. 75 FR 17769 - In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of Commission Issuance...the Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester of Respondents Found in Default...certain products advertised as containing creatine ethyl ester by reason of false...

  8. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  9. Non-invasive Monitoring of Lactate Dynamics in Human Forearm Muscle After Exhaustive Exercise by 1H-MRS at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance in energy metabolism, lactate in human skeletal muscle has been difficult to detect by non-invasive 1H MRS mainly due to interference from large water and lipid signals. Long echo-time (TE) acquisitions at 7 Tesla effectively attenuates the water and lipid signals in forearm muscle allowing direct observation of both lactate resonances, the methine at 4.09 ppm and the methyl at 1.31 ppm. Using this approach, we are able to monitor lactate dynamics at a temporal resolution of 32 sec. While lactate was not detectable at rest, immediately after an acute period of exercise to fatigue the forearm muscle, lactate rose to a level comparable to that of creatine (~30 mmol/kg wet weight). In a typical 1H MR spectrum collected using a TE of 140 ms, the lactate methine and methyl resonances both appear as doublets with an unusually large splitting of ~20 Hz due to residual dipolar coupling. During muscle recovery following exercise, the lactate signals decay rapidly with a time constant of t½ = 2.0 ± 0.6 min (n = 12 subjects). This fast and simple lactate detection method may prove valuable for monitoring lactate metabolism in cancer and in sports medicine applications. PMID:23192863

  10. A Creatine-Driven Substrate Cycle Enhances Energy Expenditure and Thermogenesis in Beige Fat.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a ?3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26496606

  11. Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in dermatomyositis: a noncardiac source

    SciTech Connect

    Larca, L.J.; Coppola, J.T.; Honig, S.

    1981-03-01

    Three patients with polymyositis had elevated serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. The presence of this isoenzyme is used extensively to diagnose myocardial infarction, but the isoenzyme is also found in sera of patients with primary muscular and neuromuscular disorders. Researchers studied cardiac function in two of our patients with electrocardiograms, technetium stannous pyrophosphate scanning, and technetium 99m-labeled erythrocyte gated blood pool imaging and in the third patient by postmortem examination. There was no evidence of myocardial involvement to account for the high serum levels of isoenzyme. Creatine kinase MB in the sera of patients with polymyositis does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis.

  12. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase bb in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1980-03-03

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure in two schizophrenic populations. The data would indicate that in the schizophrenic populations examined there is insufficient tissue disruption to cause abnormal build-up of brain creatine kinase levels. However the possibility of a rapid removal of creatine kinase BB from the circulation exists. The elevated creatine kinase reported in acute schizophrenics is most likely not of brain origin.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with...

  14. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  15. Four-Angle Saturation Transfer (FAST) Method for Measuring Creatine Kinase Reaction Rates In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Four-Angle Saturation Transfer (FAST) Method for Measuring Creatine Kinase Reaction Rates In Vivo to the effects of exchange are evaluated for creatine kinase (CK) metab- olism modeled for skeletal and heart rates; creatine kinase; high-energy phosphate; energy metabolism Compromised energy metabolism

  16. Crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY

    E-print Network

    Crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY *, Grzegorz BujaczY , Alexander Abstract The crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase, solved at 2.35 Aî resolution by X; Rabbit muscle; Enzyme; Crystal structure 1. Introduction Creatine kinase [1^3] (CK; adenosine 5P

  17. MODELING EXTENDED LACTATIONS IN HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation for predicting average yield of cows still in milk from 1 to 999 days. Test day yields (kg/d) of 903,529 lactations of 305,202 Holstein cows calved between 1997 and 2003 were used. Average daily yield (Y) for each 30-d interval of lactation wa...

  18. Characterization of dehydration behavior of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate powders.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yukoh; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Creatine, which is well known as an important substance for muscular activity, is synthesized from amino acids such as glycine, arginine and ornithine in liver and kidney. It then accumulates in skeletal muscle as creatine phosphoric acid. The aim of this study was to understand the dehydration behavior of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate at various temperatures. The removal of crystal water was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction pattern of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate agreed with reported data for creatine monohydrate. However, the diffraction peaks of the (100), (200) and (300) planes of pulverized creatine monohydrate were much stronger than those of untreated creatine monohydrate. On the other hand, the diffraction peaks of the (012) and (013) planes of untreated creatine monohydrate were much stronger than those of pulverized creatine monohydrate. The dehydration of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate was investigated at various storage temperatures, and the results indicated that untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were transformed into the anhydrate at more than 30 degrees C. After dehydration, the particles of untreated and pulverized creatine anhydrate had many cracks. The dehydration kinetics of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were analyzed by the Hancock-Sharp equation on the basis of the isothermal DSC data. The dehydrations of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate both followed a zero-order mechanism (Polany-Winger equation). However, the transition rate constant, calculated from the slope of the straight line, was about 2.2-7.7 times higher for pulverized creatine monohydrate than for untreated creatine monohydrate. The Arrhenius plots (natural logarithm of the dehydration rate constant versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature) of the isothermal DSC data for untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were linear. The activation energies of dehydration in the 40-60 degrees C range for untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were 15.02 and 10.1 kJ/mol, respectively. Dehydration of untreated creatine monohydrate had a pronounced effect on the particle size of the powder. Compared with pulverized creatine monohydrate, the particle size of untreated creatine monohydrate was significantly decreased by dehydration. PMID:15261030

  19. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  20. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatine test system. 862.1210 Section 862.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  5. In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Graves, Edward; Pinto, Harlan; Brown, J. Martin; Spielman, Daniel

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

  6. Systematic Engineering of Escherichia coli for d-Lactate Production from Crude Glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zei Wen; Saini, Mukesh; Lin, Li-Jen; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2015-11-01

    Crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel production is an abundant and renewable resource. However, the impurities in crude glycerol usually make microbial fermentation problematic. This issue was addressed by systematic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of d-lactate from crude glycerol. First, mgsA and the synthetic pathways of undesired products were eliminated in E. coli, rendering the strain capable of homofermentative production of optically pure d-lactate. To direct carbon flux toward d-lactate, the resulting strain was endowed with an enhanced expression of glpD-glpK in the glycerol catabolism and of a heterologous gene encoding d-lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, the strain was evolved to improve its utilization of cruder glycerol and subsequently equipped with the FocA channel to export intracellular d-lactate. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation with two-phase culturing was carried out with a bioreactor. As a result, the engineered strain enabled production of 105 g/L d-lactate (99.9% optical purity) from 121 g/L crude glycerol at 40 h. The result indicates the feasibility of our approach to engineering E. coli for the crude glycerol-based fermentation. PMID:26477354

  7. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  8. Assignment of the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8) to human chromosome Xq28 telomeric to G6PD

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, P.; Nash, S.R.; Caron, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle has important functions in the temporal and spatial maintenance of the energy supply to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Muscle cells do not synthesize creatine, but take it up via a specific sodium-dependent transporter - the creatine transporter. Thus, the creatine transporter has an important role in muscular physiology. Furthermore, inhibition of creatine transport in experimental animals causes muscle weakness. Recently, creatine transporter cDNAs have been isolated and characterized from rabbit and human. In this communication we report mapping of the creatine transporter gene to human chromosome Xq28. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of...

  11. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined...

  12. Towards an effective biosensor for monitoring AD leachate: a knockout E. coli mutant that cannot catabolise lactate.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Joseph; Murphy, Cormac D; McDonnell, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Development of a biosensor for the convenient measurement of acetate and propionate concentrations in a two-phase anaerobic digestor (AD) requires a bacterium that will be unresponsive to the other organic acids present in the leachate, of which lactate is the most abundant. Successive gene knockouts of E.coli W3110 D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld), L-lactate dehydrogenase (lldD), glycolate oxidase (glcD) and a suspected L-lactate dehdrogenase (ykgF) were performed. The resulting quadruple mutant (IMD Wldgy) was incapable of growth on D- and L-lactate, whereas the wild type grew readily on these substrates. Furthermore, the O2 consumption rates of acetate-grown IMD Wldgy cell suspensions supplied with either acetate (0.1 mM) or a synthetic leachate including acetate (0.1 mM) and DL-lactate (1 mM) were identical (2.79 and 2.70 mg l(-1) min(-1), respectively). This was in marked contrast to similar experiments with the wild type which gave initial O2 consumption rates of 2.00, 2.36 and 2.97 mg l(-1) min(-1) when cell suspensions were supplied with acetate (0.1 mM), acetate (0.1 mM) plus D-lactate (1 mM) or acetate (0.1 mM) plus L-lactate (1 mM), respectively. The knockout strain provides a platform for the design of a biosensor that can accessibly monitor acetate and propionate concentrations in AD leachate via O2-uptake measurements. PMID:26272093

  13. Lactate Utilization Is Regulated by the FadR-Type Regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min

    2012-01-01

    NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an l-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a d-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses d-iLDH and l-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldRM, lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. l-Lactate and d-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, l-iLDH and d-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of l-lactate or d-lactate. PMID:22408166

  14. Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

  15. Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+-Cl?-creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization

    PubMed Central

    Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A A

    2002-01-01

    In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [14C]Creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na+: 1 Cl?: 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a Km for creatine of 29 ?m. [14C]Creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, ?-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

  16. Improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C.S.; Mumm, S.R.; Roberts, R.

    1981-11-01

    We describe convenient and relatively rapid procedures for purifying creatine kinase isoenzymes MM, BB, and MB, and their use in an improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma. The modifications include use of: (a) BB with a specific activity of 400 kU/G, which can be labeled with a specific radioactivity of 20 Ci/g; (b) albumin-free purified MB as inhibitor; (c) antiserum to MB creatine kinase; and (d) a second-antibody technique that necessitates only a 15-min incubation. The radioimmunoassay for MB has a sensitivity of 0.2 ..mu..g/L (80 mU/L) and a CV of <5%. Plasma MB average 22 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 normal subjects; 24 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 patients with chest pain without infarction; and 23 (SD 7) ..mu..g/L in 43 patients with renal disease, whether measured before or after dialysis. Peak values for plasma MB averaged 191 (SD 86) ..mu..g/L in 325 patients with documented myocardial infarction; BB was negligible. Extensive clinical experience indicates the radioimmunoassay to be suitably rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable as a diagnostic assay for MB on plasma.

  17. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  18. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of ?,?-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  19. Development of an enzymatic chromatography strip with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium coupling reactions for quantitative l-lactate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lan, Min-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lai, Wei-Shiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsiung, Kuang-Pin; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2015-02-15

    In this study, a dry assay of l-lactate via the enzymatic chromatographic test (ECT) was developed. An l-lactate dehydrogenase plus a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration reaction were applied simultaneously. Various tetrazolium salts were screened to reveal visible color intensities capable of determining the lactate concentrations in the sample. The optimal analysis conditions were as follows. The diaphorase (0.5 ?l, 2(-6)U/?l) was immobilized in the test line of the ECT strip. Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (5 ?l, 12 mM), l-lactate dehydrogenase (1 ?l, 0.25U/?l), and NAD(+) (2?l, 1.5×10(-5)M) were added into the mobile phase (100 ?l) composed of 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20 in 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), and the process was left to run for 10 min. This detection had a linear range of 0.039 to 5mM with a detection limit of 0.047 mM. This quantitative analysis process for l-lactate was easy to operate with good stability and was proper for the point-of-care testing applications. PMID:25454507

  20. Isolation and expression of the gene encoding yeast mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister-Henn, L; Thompson, L M

    1987-01-01

    The mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme malate dehydrogenase was purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an antibody to the purified enzyme was obtained in rabbits. Immunoscreening of a yeast genomic DNA library cloned into a lambda gt11 expression vector with anti-malate dehydrogenase immunoglobulin G resulted in identification of a lambda recombinant encoding an immunoreactive beta-galactosidase fusion protein. The yeast DNA portion of the coding region for the fusion protein translates into an amino acid sequence which is very similar to carboxy-terminal sequences of malate dehydrogenases from other organisms. In s. cerevisiae transformed with a multicopy plasmid carrying the complete malate dehydrogenase gene, the specific activity and immunoreactivity of the mitochondrial isozyme are increased by eightfold. Expression of both the chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes is repressed by growth on glucose. Disruption of the chromosomal malate dehydrogenase gene in haploid S. cerevisiae produces mutants unable to grow on acetate and impaired in growth on glycerol plus lactate as carbon sources. Images PMID:3312168

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Table of Contents Overview ... of the National Institutes of Health. Overview Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  2. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  3. Creatine supplementation enhances corticomotor excitability and cognitive performance during oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-01-28

    Impairment or interruption of oxygen supply compromises brain function and plays a role in neurological and neurodegenerative conditions. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound involved in the buffering, transport, and regulation of cellular energy, with the potential to replenish cellular adenosine triphosphate without oxygen. Creatine is also neuroprotective in vitro against anoxic/hypoxic damage. Dietary creatine supplementation has been associated with improved symptoms in neurological disorders defined by impaired neural energy provision. Here we investigate, for the first time in humans, the utility of creatine as a dietary supplement to protect against energetic insult. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of oral creatine supplementation on the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of healthy young adults during acute oxygen deprivation. Fifteen healthy adults were supplemented with creatine and placebo treatments for 7 d, which increased brain creatine on average by 9.2%. A hypoxic gas mixture (10% oxygen) was administered for 90 min, causing global oxygen deficit and impairing a range of neuropsychological processes. Hypoxia-induced decrements in cognitive performance, specifically attentional capacity, were restored when participants were creatine supplemented, and corticomotor excitability increased. A neuromodulatory effect of creatine via increased energy availability is presumed to be a contributing factor of the restoration, perhaps by supporting the maintenance of appropriate neuronal membrane potentials. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation augments neural creatine, increases corticomotor excitability, and prevents the decline in attention that occurs during severe oxygen deficit. This is the first demonstration of creatine's utility as a neuroprotective supplement when cellular energy provision is compromised. PMID:25632150

  4. Boosting D-lactate production in engineered cyanobacteria using sterilized anaerobic digestion effluents.

    PubMed

    Hollinshead, Whitney D; Varman, Arul M; You, Le; Hembree, Zachary; Tang, Yinjie J

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an environmentally friendly approach to waste treatment, which can generate N and P-rich effluents that can be used as nutrient sources for microalgal cultivations. Modifications of AD processes to inhibit methanogenesis leads to the accumulation of acetic acid, a carbon source that can promote microalgal biosynthesis. This study tested different AD effluents from municipal wastes on their effect on D-lactate production by an engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (carrying a novel lactate dehydrogenase). The results indicate that: (1) AD effluents can be supplemented into the modified BG-11 culture medium (up to 1:4 volume ratio) to reduce N and P cost; (2) acetate-rich AD effluents enhance D-lactate synthesis by ? 40% (1.2g/L of D-lactate in 20 days); and (3) neutral or acidic medium had a deleterious effect on lactate secretion and biomass growth by the engineered strain. This study demonstrates the advantages and guidelines in employing wastewater for photomixotrophic biosynthesis using engineered microalgae. PMID:25084044

  5. Role of creatine supplementation in exercise-induced muscle damage: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungho; Yoon, Daeyoung; Kim, Jieun; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    Muscle damage is induced by both high-intensity resistance and endurance exercise. Creatine is a widely used dietary supplement to improve exercise performance by reducing exercise-induced muscle damage. Many researchers have suggested that taking creatine reduces muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, regulating calcium homeostasis, and activating satellite cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of creatine and muscle damage have not been clarified. Therefore, this review discusses the regulatory effects of creatine on muscle damage by compiling the information collected from basic science and sports science research. PMID:26535213

  6. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Donohoe, Rachel

    2011-04-01

    Creatine when combined with P forms phosphocreatine that acts as a reserve of high-energy phosphate. Creatine is found mostly in meat, fish and other animal products, and the levels of muscle creatine are known to be lower in vegetarians. Creatine supplementation influences brain functioning as indicated by imaging studies and the measurement of oxygenated Hb. Given the key role played by creatine in the provision of energy, the influence of its supplementation on cognitive functioning was examined, contrasting the effect in omnivores and vegetarians. Young adult females (n 128) were separated into those who were and were not vegetarian. Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task. PMID:21118604

  7. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  8. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans. PMID:26592720

  9. Role of creatine supplementation in exercise-induced muscle damage: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungho; Yoon, Daeyoung; Kim, Jieun; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-10-01

    Muscle damage is induced by both high-intensity resistance and endurance exercise. Creatine is a widely used dietary supplement to improve exercise performance by reducing exercise-induced muscle damage. Many researchers have suggested that taking creatine reduces muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, regulating calcium homeostasis, and activating satellite cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of creatine and muscle damage have not been clarified. Therefore, this review discusses the regulatory effects of creatine on muscle damage by compiling the information collected from basic science and sports science research. PMID:26535213

  10. Creatine Protects against Excitoxicity in an In Vitro Model of Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Genius, Just; Geiger, Johanna; Bender, Andreas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Klopstock, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Creatine has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging, neurodegenerative conditions and brain injury. As a common molecular background, oxidative stress and disturbed cellular energy homeostasis are key aspects in these conditions. Moreover, in a recent report we could demonstrate a life-enhancing and health-promoting potential of creatine in rodents, mainly due to its neuroprotective action. In order to investigate the underlying pharmacology mediating these mainly neuroprotective properties of creatine, cultured primary embryonal hippocampal and cortical cells were challenged with glutamate or H2O2. In good agreement with our in vivo data, creatine mediated a direct effect on the bioenergetic balance, leading to an enhanced cellular energy charge, thereby acting as a neuroprotectant. Moreover, creatine effectively antagonized the H2O2-induced ATP depletion and the excitotoxic response towards glutamate, while not directly acting as an antioxidant. Additionally, creatine mediated a direct inhibitory action on the NMDA receptor-mediated calcium response, which initiates the excitotoxic cascade. Even excessive concentrations of creatine had no neurotoxic effects, so that high-dose creatine supplementation as a health-promoting agent in specific pathological situations or as a primary prophylactic compound in risk populations seems feasible. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that the protective potential of creatine was primarily mediated by its impact on cellular energy metabolism and NMDA receptor function, along with reduced glutamate spillover, oxidative stress and subsequent excitotoxicity. PMID:22347384

  11. Creatine and the Control of Myosin Synthesis in Differentiating Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ingwall, Joanne S.; Morales, Manuel F.; Stockdale, Frank E.

    1972-01-01

    These experiments provide evidence that creatine, an end product of contraction unique to muscle, is involved in the control of muscle-protein synthesis. Skeletal muscle cells formed both in vitro and in vivo synthesize myosin heavy chain faster when supplied creatine in vitro. The response is apparent within four hours after addition of creatine to the culture medium, and is dependent on concentration over a range of 10-100 ?M creatine. The effect seems to be selective for cell-specific proteins(s), since the rate of total protein synthesis is unaffected. PMID:4506094

  12. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg?1·min?1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  13. Antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Babu, Girish N; Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S

    2015-07-01

    Research on psychotropic medications during pregnancy and lactation is limited as often involves complex ethical issues. Information on safety of psychotropic drugs during these critical phases is either inconclusive or undetermined. Many women with severe mental illness have unplanned pregnancies and require antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation. Multiple issues have to be considered while choosing safe treatments for pregnant and lactating women and the best approach is to individualize the treatment. Medication should be guided primarily by its safety data and by the psychiatric history of the patient. Important issues to be kept in mind include pre-pregnancy counseling for all women, including planning pregnancies; folate supplementation, discussion with patient and family regarding options, and active liaison with obstetricians, ultrasonologists and pediatricians. Whenever possible, non-pharmacological approaches should be used in addition. PMID:26330648

  14. Antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Girish N.; Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychotropic medications during pregnancy and lactation is limited as often involves complex ethical issues. Information on safety of psychotropic drugs during these critical phases is either inconclusive or undetermined. Many women with severe mental illness have unplanned pregnancies and require antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation. Multiple issues have to be considered while choosing safe treatments for pregnant and lactating women and the best approach is to individualize the treatment. Medication should be guided primarily by its safety data and by the psychiatric history of the patient. Important issues to be kept in mind include pre-pregnancy counseling for all women, including planning pregnancies; folate supplementation, discussion with patient and family regarding options, and active liaison with obstetricians, ultrasonologists and pediatricians. Whenever possible, non-pharmacological approaches should be used in addition. PMID:26330648

  15. L-lactate utilization by dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

  16. The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yuan Hwan

    2009-05-15

    in highoxygen modified atmosphere package, irradiated, stored in the dark at 1°C for 14 days. Instrumental color, TRA, lipid oxidation, and NADH were measured. LD remained the most red, whereas PM was most discolored. LD had a significantly higher level of LDH-1...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2009-12-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

  2. Cell–cell and intracellular lactate shuttles

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, George A

    2009-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. ‘Cell–cell’ and ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell–cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

  3. Training volume, androgen use and serum creatine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, K; Alén, M

    1989-09-01

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activities were investigated in elite male strength athletes (n = 20) during normal weight training and bodybuilding training (one training session per day), during high volume strength training (two sessions per day) and during strength training (one session per day) with the use of high dose synthetic androgens (five athletes in each subgroup). The findings demonstrated that the increase in serum CK was highest in the subgroup using androgens. These results suggest that strength training with the use of androgenic steroids leads to higher serum CK activities than normal strength training. PMID:2620237

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (?0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276). Conclusion We conclude that Cr monohydrate supplementation associated with a specific resistance program promoted a meaningful increase in muscle strength without inducing changes in body composition. The observed significant increase in uric acid and the decrease in TAS suggest that creatine supplementation, despite promoting acute effects on muscle strength improvement, might induce oxidative stress and decreases total antioxidant status of subjects. PMID:23259853

  5. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with...

  6. The origin and evolution of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of mammary glands are the defining morphological feature of mammals, and a successful lactation is crucial to mammalian reproductive strategies. Among mammalian species, the nature of lactation and the composition of milk vary greatly. The evolution of lactation and its diversity amon...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (1996), pp. 154 to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW.... It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of...

  9. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    PubMed

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26466183

  10. BREASTFEEDING SUPPORT Campus Lactation Rooms

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    BREASTFEEDING SUPPORT On Campus Campus Lactation Rooms Equipped with hospital-grade, electric-mail Health*Matters. Product descriptions are available on the Health*Matters website. Breastfeeding Your Baby breastfeeding basics and problem solving. The last hour focuses on planning for return-to work or school

  11. Guanidinoacetate Is More Effective than Creatine at Enhancing Tissue Creatine Stores while Consequently Limiting Methionine Availability in Yucatan Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    McBreairty, Laura E.; Robinson, Jason L.; Furlong, Kayla R.; Brunton, Janet A.; Bertolo, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is an important high-energy phosphate buffer in tissues with a high energy demand such as muscle and brain and is consequently a highly consumed nutritional supplement. Creatine is synthesized via the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent methylation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) which is not regulated by a feedback mechanism. The first objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of GAA at increasing tissue Cr stores. Because SAM is required for other methylation reactions, we also wanted to determine whether an increased creatine synthesis would lead to a lower availability of methyl groups for other methylated products. Three month-old pigs (n = 18) were fed control, GAA- or Cr-supplemented diets twice daily. On day 18 or 19, anesthesia was induced 1–3 hours post feeding and a bolus of [methyl-3H]methionine was intravenously infused. After 30 minutes, the liver was analyzed for methyl-3H incorporation into protein, Cr, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and DNA. Although both Cr and GAA led to higher hepatic Cr concentration, only supplementation with GAA led to higher levels of muscle Cr (P < 0.05). Only GAA supplementation resulted in lower methyl-3H incorporation into PC and protein as well as lower hepatic SAM concentration compared to the controls, suggesting that Cr synthesis resulted in a limited methyl supply for PC and protein synthesis (P < 0.05). Although GAA is more effective than Cr at supporting muscle Cr accretion, further research should be conducted into the long term consequences of a limited methyl supply and its effects on protein and PC homeostasis. PMID:26110793

  12. Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Human Muscle Creatine Kinase

    E-print Network

    Tang, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Lin, Zheng-jiong

    1999-03-01

    Creatine kinase is a key enzyme in the energy homeostasis of cells and tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands. Human muscle MM creatine kinase is a dimeric protein with a molecular weight of \\sim43 kDa for each subunit. It has been...

  13. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baroncelli, Laura; Alessandrì, Maria Grazia; Tola, Jonida; Putignano, Elena; Migliore, Martina; Amendola, Elena; Gross, Cornelius; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT) gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1), an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352). CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT ?/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease. PMID:25485098

  14. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  15. Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

  16. Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

  17. Formate dehydrogenase of Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C L; Mortenson, L E

    1984-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from N2-fixing cells of Clostridium pasteurianum W5. The purified enzyme has a minimal Mr of 117,000 with two nonidentical subunits with molecular weights of 76,000 and 34,000, respectively. It contains 2 mol of molybdenum, 24 mol of nonheme iron, and 28 mol of acid-labile sulfide per mol of enzyme; no other metal ions were detected. Analysis of its iron-sulfur centers by ligand exchange techniques showed that 20 iron atoms of formate dehydrogenase can be extruded as Fe4S4 centers. Fluorescence analysis of its isolated molybdenum centers suggests it is a molybdopterin. The clostridial formate dehydrogenase has a pH optimum between 8.3 and 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 52 degrees C. The Km for formate is 1.72 mM with a Vmax of 551 mumol of methyl viologen reduced per min per mg of protein. Sodium azide competes competitively with formate (K1 = 3.57 microM), whereas the inactivation by cyanide follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with K = 5 X 10(2) M-1 s-1. PMID:6547435

  18. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  19. Regulation of intracellular creatine in erythrocytes and myoblasts: influence of uraemia and inhibition of Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S E; Bevington, A; Walls, J

    1994-06-01

    The regulation of intracellular creatine concentration in mammalian cells is poorly understood, but is thought to depend upon active sodium-linked uptake of creatine from extracellular fluid. In normal human erythrocytes, creatine influx into washed cells was inhibited by 40 per cent in the absence of extracellular sodium. In washed cells from uraemic patients, sodium-independent creatine influx was normal, whereas the sodium-dependent component of creatine influx was 3.3 times higher than normal, possibly reflecting the reduced mean age of uraemic erythrocytes. In spite of this, the intracellular creatine concentration was no higher than normal in uraemic erythrocytes, implying that some factor in uraemic plasma in vivo inhibits sodium-dependent creatine influx. Both in normal and uraemic erythrocytes, the creatine concentration was 10 times that in plasma, and the concentration in the cells showed no detectable dependence on that in plasma, suggesting that the intracellular creatine concentration is controlled by an active saturable process. Active sodium-dependent accumulation of creatine was also demonstrated in L6 rat myoblasts and was inhibited when transport was measured in the presence of 10(-4) M ouabain or digoxin, implying that uptake was driven by the transmembrane sodium gradient. However, when creatine influx was measured immediately after ouabain or digoxin had been washed away, it was higher than in control cells, suggesting that Na,K-ATPase and/or sodium-linked creatine transport are up-regulated when treated with inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase. PMID:8044895

  20. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), ?-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  1. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), ?-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  2. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  3. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BRAIN BIOENERGETICS: LACTATE AS A KEY MEDIATOR

    E-print Network

    E, Lezi

    2013-12-31

    Carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone FOXO1 Forkhead box protein O1 FOXO3a Forkhead box O3 G6Pase Glucose 6-phosphatase GAPDH Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GSK3? Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta HBSS Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution HDAC...1 Histone deacetylase 1 HIF-1? Hypoxia-inducible factor alpha HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance IL-1? Interleukin-1 beta LAC Lactate LSD Fisher’s Least Significant Difference post-hoc test MCT Monocarboxylate...

  4. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) and adrenaline ?2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11?-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11?-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during lactation. PMID:26337632

  5. Targeting metabolic flexibility by simultaneously inhibiting respiratory complex I and lactate generation retards melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Chaube, Balkrishna; Malvi, Parmanand; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Mohammad, Naoshad; Meena, Avtar Singh; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2015-11-10

    Melanoma is a largely incurable skin malignancy owing to the underlying molecular and metabolic heterogeneity confounded by the development of resistance. Cancer cells have metabolic flexibility in choosing either oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or glycolysis for ATP generation depending upon the nutrient availability in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the involvement of respiratory complex I and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in melanoma progression. We show that inhibition of complex I by metformin promotes melanoma growth in mice via elevating lactate and VEGF levels. In contrast, it leads to the growth arrest in vitro because of enhanced extracellular acidification as a result of increased glycolysis. Inhibition of LDH or lactate generation causes decrease in glycolysis with concomitant growth arrest both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking lactate generation in metformin-treated melanoma cells results in diminished cell proliferation and tumor progression in mice. Interestingly, inhibition of either LDH or complex I alone does not induce apoptosis, whereas inhibiting both together causes depletion in cellular ATP pool resulting in metabolic catastrophe induced apoptosis. Overall, our study suggests that LDH and complex I play distinct roles in regulating glycolysis and cell proliferation. Inhibition of these two augments synthetic lethality in melanoma. PMID:26484566

  6. Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    Reardon, T F; Ruell, P A; Fiatarone Singh, M A; Thompson, C H; Rooney, K B

    2006-10-01

    The benefits of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle performance are generally related to an increase in muscle phosphocreatine content. However, creatine supplementation may benefit endurance sports through increased glycogen re-synthesis following exercise. This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle glycogen content, submaximal exercise fuel utilisation and endurance performance following 4 weeks of endurance training. Thirteen healthy, physically active, non-vegetarian subjects volunteered to take part and completed the study. Subjects were supplemented with either creatine monohydrate (CREAT, n = 7) or placebo-maltodextrin (CON, n = 6). Submaximal fuel utilisation and endurance performance were assessed before and after a 4 week endurance training program. Muscle biopsies were also collected before and following training for assessment of muscle creatine and glycogen content. Training increased quadriceps glycogen content to the same degree (approximately 20%) in both groups (P = 0.04). There was a significant training effect on submaximal fuel utilisation and improved endurance performance. However, there was no significant treatment effect of creatine supplementation. Creatine supplementation does not effect metabolic adaptations to endurance training. PMID:16896727

  7. Functional differences between dimeric and octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, P; Wallimann, T

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) consists of octameric and dimeric molecules that are interconvertible. In the present study, the kinetic properties of purified chicken heart Mi-CK (Mib-CK) dimers and octamers were investigated separately under highly controlled conditions. Gel-permeation chromatography was performed before and after kinetic measurements in order to clearly define the proportions of octamers and dimers. 'Dimeric' Mi-CK solutions consisted of > or = 90% dimers throughout the experiment whereas 'octameric' Mi-CK solutions consisted in the beginning of 90% octamers, but upon measuring with the highest concentrations of creatine (Cr) and ATP approximately one-third of the octamers dissociated into dimers. These proper controls enabled us to pinpoint the observed kinetic differences between dimers and octamers solely to the oligomeric state of Mib-CK. Both dimeric and octameric Mi-CK displayed synergism in substrate binding (Kd values are higher than Km values), meaning that binding of the first substrate facilities subsequent binding of the second substrate. Most interestingly, Km(Cr) and Kd(Cr) values are both 2-3 times higher for octameric than for dimeric Mi-CK. Thus, at low Cr concentrations, the dimer is kinetically favoured for the forward direction of the reaction (phosphorylcreatine synthesis) compared with the octamer. The possible physiological significance of the lower Kd(Cr) value of dimeric versus octameric Mib-CK, as well as the apparent negative cooperativity of ATP binding at higher [Cr], are discussed within the context of a possible functional role for dimeric Mib-CK in vivo. PMID:7772050

  8. Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2006 What is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency? Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  10. Pharmacological Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Diet-Induced Obesity Regulates Mitochondrial Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Arrabal, Sergio; Lucena, Miguel Angel; Canduela, Miren Josune; Ramos-Uriarte, Almudena; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Decara, Juan; Vargas, Antonio; Baixeras, Elena; Martín-Rufián, Mercedes; Márquez, Javier; Fernández-Llébrez, Pedro; De Roos, Baukje; Grandes, Pedro; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors peripherally modulate energy metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of CB1 receptors in the expression of glucose/pyruvate/tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in rat abdominal muscle. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), a flavoprotein component (E3) of ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes with diaphorase activity in mitochondria, was specifically analyzed. After assessing the effectiveness of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 mg kg-1, 14 days) on food intake and body weight, we could identified seven key enzymes from either glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle—regulated by both diet and CB1 receptor activity—through comprehensive proteomic approaches involving two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/LC-ESI trap mass spectrometry. These enzymes were glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase (Eno3), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHa), glyoxalase-1 (Glo1) and the mitochondrial DLD, whose expressions were modified by AM251 in hypercaloric diet-induced obesity. Specifically, AM251 blocked high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced expression of GPI, TPI, Eno3 and LDHa, suggesting a down-regulation of glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways under glucose availability. AM251 reversed the HCD-inhibited expression of Glo1 and DLD in the muscle, and the DLD and CB1 receptor expression in the mitochondrial fraction. Interestingly, we identified the presence of CB1 receptors at the membrane of striate muscle mitochondria. DLD over-expression was confirmed in muscle of CB1-/- mice. AM251 increased the pyruvate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in C2C12 myotubes, and the diaphorase/oxidative activity in the mitochondria fraction. These results indicated an up-regulation of methylglyoxal and TCA cycle activity. Findings suggest that CB1 receptors in muscle modulate glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways and mitochondrial oxidative activity by targeting DLD. PMID:26671069

  11. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  12. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  13. Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Savabi, F.; Geiger, P.J.; Bessman, S.P.

    1984-03-01

    Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual P/sub i/ is described. 20 references.

  14. Creatine as a booster for human brain function. How might it work?

    PubMed

    Rae, Caroline D; Bröer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Creatine, a naturally occurring nitrogenous organic acid found in animal tissues, has been found to play key roles in the brain including buffering energy supply, improving mitochondrial efficiency, directly acting as an anti-oxidant and acting as a neuroprotectant. Much of the evidence for these roles has been established in vitro or in pre-clinical studies. Here, we examine the roles of creatine and explore the current status of translation of this research into use in humans and the clinic. Some further possibilities for use of creatine in humans are also discussed. PMID:26297632

  15. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  20. The effect of exercise on lactate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Judith L.

    1973-01-01

    1. An I.V. injection of 5 ?c [U-14C]sodium L(+)-lactate was given to four subjects at rest and again 10 min after beginning a 40-50 min period of heavy exercise at an estimated 62-72% of their maximum aerobic power (V?O2 max.). Both blood lactate concentration and V?O2 remained relatively constant after the first few minutes of exercise. 2. In all subjects both at rest and during exercise blood lactate and total radioactivity were measured at frequent intervals after injection of [14C]lactate. Timed expired gas collections were made and the quantity of 14CO2 present in each collection measured. In two subjects the specific activity of lactate and of glucose isolated from blood was also measured. 3. It was found that during 30 min of exercise 35-68% of the administered [14C]lactate was recovered as 14CO2 in the expired gas, whereas at rest only 3-7% was recovered in the same period. 4. After injection of [14C]lactate the blood 14C concentration and the specific activity of the blood lactate declined very rapidly. This decline was more rapid during exercise than at rest. 5. In the two subjects in whom it was measured the specific activity of blood glucose was lower during exercise than at rest. 6. These results show that both at rest and during heavy exercise, lactate is removed from the blood and metabolized, and that during exercise this metabolism is much more rapid. 7. In the light of these findings the sustained blood lactate concentration observed in these experiments is regarded as representing a dynamic equilibrium between the production and metabolism of lactate during exercise. The results give no support to the hypothesis that lactate is produced only during the first few minutes of submaximal work. PMID:4715350

  1. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any integer up to...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  4. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Russell, Aaron P; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R; Snow, Rodney J

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT(-/y)) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT(-/y) and wild type (CrT(+/y)) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT(-/y) mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass), but markedly reduced (P < 0.05) TCr levels compared with CrT(+/y) mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass). AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr may be at least partly due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT(-/y) mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT(-/y) mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle. PMID:25206338

  5. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Aaron P.; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R.; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L.; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R.; Snow, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT-/y) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT-/y and wild type (CrT+/y) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT-/y mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg?1 dry mass), but markedly reduced (P < 0.05) TCr levels compared with CrT+/y mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg?1 dry mass). AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P < 0.05) in CrT?/y mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P < 0.05) in CrT?/y mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr may be at least partly due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT?/y mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT?/y mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle. PMID:25206338

  6. Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Van Pilsum, J F; Stephens, G C; Taylor, D

    1972-01-01

    1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine-glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish), buffalo fish (bony fish) or the snapping turtle. Transamidinase or guanidinoacetate methylpherase activity could not be found in the salamander or garter snake, respectively. 3. The results obtained with the lamprey are in direct contrast with those obtained with the hagfish (both subphylum Agnatha, class Cyclostomata). The lamprey had the ability to synthesize creatine and did not abstract creatine from lake water. The hagfish did not have any apparent ability to synthesize creatine and did abstract creatine from sea water. The present report thus supports the theory that the myxinoid (hagfish) and petromyzoid (lamprey) agnathans are only distantly related. 4. The lack of creatine-synthesizing enzyme activities in the cartilaginous fishes may have phylogenetic significance, but may also be explained by the availability of creatine in the diet of these animals. The lack of one or both enzyme activities in vertebrates other than the hagfish and the cartilaginous fish is suggested to be the result of creatine in the diet. PMID:5010856

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anxiety. Less frequently, affected individuals may have increased aggression, hallucinations, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and self-injurious ... semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency? Mutations in the ALDH5A1 gene cause succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. The ALDH5A1 gene provides ...

  8. MECHANISTIC ANALYSIS OF PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The PDK is a member of the ATPase/kinase superfamily. Member proteins of this family are characterized by four signature sequences in the catalytic domain (N-, D-, F-, and G...

  9. Glutamate Dehydrogenase from Pumpkin Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Kuo-Howere; Splittstoesser, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Pior. cultivar Dickinson Field) cotyledons was found in both soluble and particulate fractions with the bulk of the activity in the soluble fraction. Both enzymes used NAD(H) and NADP(H) but NAD(H) was favored. The enzymes were classified as glutamate-NAD oxidoreductase, deaminating (EC 1.4.1.3). Both enzymes were heat stable, had a pH optimum for reductive amination of 8.0, and were inhibited by high concentrations of NH4+ or ?-ketoglutarate. The soluble enzyme was more sensitive to NH4+ inhibition and was activated by metal ions after ammonium sulfate fractionation while the solubilized particulate enzyme was not. Inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate was restored by several divalent ions and inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was reversed by glutathione. Particulate glutamate dehydrogenase showed a greater activity with NADP. The molecular weights of the enzymes are 250,000. Separation of the enzymes by disc gel electrophoresis showed that during germination the soluble isoenzymes increased from 1 to 7 in number, while only one particulate isoenzyme was found at any time. This particulate isoenzyme was identical with one of the soluble isoenzymes. A number of methods indicated that the soluble isoenzymes were not simply removed from the particulate fraction and that true isoenzymes were found. PMID:16657999

  10. Application of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Lactate for the In Vivo Investigation of Cardiac Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Dirk; Yen, Yi-Fen; Josan, Sonal; Park, Jae Mo; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Hurd, Ralph E.; Spielman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to cancer imaging, 13C-MRS of hyperpolarized pyruvate also has demonstrated utility for the investigation of cardiac metabolism and ischemic heart disease. Although no adverse effects have yet been reported for doses commonly used in vivo, high substrate concentrations lead to supraphysiological pyruvate levels that can affect the underlying metabolism and have to be taken into account when interpreting the results. With lactate serving as an important energy source for the heart and with physiological lactate levels one to two orders of magnitude higher than for pyruvate, hyperpolarized lactate could potentially be used as an alternative to pyruvate for probing cardiac metabolism. In this study, hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate was used to acquire time-resolved spectra from the healthy rat heart in vivo and to measure dichloroacetate (DCA)-modulated changes in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Both the primary oxidation of lactate to pyruvate and the subsequent conversion of pyruvate to alanine and bicarbonate could reliably be detected. As DCA stimulates the activity of PDH through inhibition of PDH kinase, a more than 2.5-fold increase in bicarbonate-to-substrate ratio was found after administration of DCA similar to the effect when using [1-13C]pyruvate as the substrate. PMID:22278751

  11. Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alexander J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

  12. The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions 

    E-print Network

    MacAlpine, David Michael

    1995-01-01

    The ability of root cells to survive flooded (low 02) conditions may depend, in part, on energy produced anaerobically during fermentation to ethanol or lactic acid. The Davies-Roberts hypothesis predicts only a transient formation of lactic acid...

  13. sup 51 Cr loss and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in irradiated human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ts'ao, C.; Molteni, A.; Hinz, J. )

    1991-03-11

    Much of what is known about tumor cell radiosensitivity in vitro derives from the colony formation assay. Other endpoints of cytotoxicity in irradiated tumor cells are rarely examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether loss of {sup 51}Cr from prelabeled cells and release of LDH could be used to quantify radiation injury in two cultured human tumor cell lines: a prostate carcinoma and a melanoma. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) known to release {sup 51}Cr and LDH following irradiation, were cotested. Radioactivity and LDH activity in the culture medium were determined after 0-40 Gy of {sup 60}CO {gamma} rays. Proliferation of irradiated tumor cells was also studied. EC exhibited a time- and radiation dose-dependent increase in {sup 51}Cr and LDH release. Both tumor cell lines showed a time-dependent increase in {sup 51}Cr release, but this baseline release was not elevated after irradiation. LDH release from the prostate cancer cell line was observed within 8 hr after 40 Gy, and at 48 hr by 10 Gy. Irradiated melanoma cells, in contrast, never release excess LDH into the culture medium. Melanoma cells continued to proliferate after 10 Gy, while proliferation of prostate cancer cells was totally arrested by this dose of exposure. While {sup 51}Cr loss and LDH release appear to be sensitive indicators of radiation-induced damage in EC, they have limited value in the assessment of radiation-induced cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer and melanoma cells.

  14. Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus

    E-print Network

    Fussman, Gregor

    in these traits correlates with the environmental dissolved oxygen concentrations. A related objective. neumayeri vary according to the dissolved oxygen concentrations measured in the field. When compared cyprinid Barbus neumayeri from Rwembaita Swamp (low-oxygen) and Njuguta River (high-oxygen) in the Kibale

  15. Relationship between polymorphisms in lactate dehydrogenase B gene and milk characteristics in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s are a group of heme-containing monooxygenases necessary for the oxidative metabolism of foreign biological substances. Our goal was to determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 994 in the CYP3A28 sequence of three breed types of cattle. The distribution of geno...

  16. Lactate Dehydrogenase Undergoes a Substantial Structural Change to Bind its Substrate

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    in the rearrangement of low energy hydrogen bonds as would arise from changes in internal hydrogen bonding and at or very near diffusion-limited speeds, suggesting that the binding pocket is substantially exposed

  17. The effects of the recommended dose of creatine monohydrate on kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Taner, Basturk; Aysim, Ozagari; Abdulkadir, Unsal

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a heretofore healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting and stomach ache while taking creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding purposes. The patient had acute renal failure, and a renal biopsy was performed to determine the cause of increased creatinine and proteinuria. The biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. In the literature, creatine monohydrate supplementation and acute tubular necrosis coexistence had not been reported previously. Twenty-five days after stopping the creatine supplements, the patient recovered fully. Even recommended doses of creatine monohydrate supplementation may cause kidney damage; therefore, anybody using this supplement should be warned about this possible side effect, and their renal functions should be monitored regularly. PMID:25984094

  18. The effects of the recommended dose of creatine monohydrate on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Taner, Basturk; Aysim, Ozagari; Abdulkadir, Unsal

    2011-02-01

    We report a case of a heretofore healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting and stomach ache while taking creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding purposes. The patient had acute renal failure, and a renal biopsy was performed to determine the cause of increased creatinine and proteinuria. The biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. In the literature, creatine monohydrate supplementation and acute tubular necrosis coexistence had not been reported previously. Twenty-five days after stopping the creatine supplements, the patient recovered fully. Even recommended doses of creatine monohydrate supplementation may cause kidney damage; therefore, anybody using this supplement should be warned about this possible side effect, and their renal functions should be monitored regularly. PMID:25984094

  19. In situ Regeneration of NADH via Lipoamide Dehydrogenase-catalyzed Electron Transfer Reaction Evidenced by Spectroelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    NAD/NADH is a coenzyme found in all living cells, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. We report on characterizations of in situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase (LD)-catalyzed electron transfer reaction to regenerate NADH using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of NADH regeneration were measured as 0.80 {+-} 0.15 mM and 1.91 {+-} 0.09 {micro}M s-1 in a 1-mm thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell using gold gauze as the working electrode at the applied potential -0.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The electrocatalytic reduction of the NAD system was further coupled with the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase to examine the coenzymatic activity of the regenerated NADH. Although the reproducible electrocatalytic reduction of NAD into NADH is known to be difficult compared to the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH, our spectroelectrochemical results indicate that the in situ regeneration of NADH via LD-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is fast and sustainable and can be potentially applied to many NAD/NADH-dependent enzyme systems.

  20. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Achouri, Younes; Noël, Gaëtane; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H; Veiga-Da-Cunha, Maria; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2004-07-01

    Extracts of frozen rat liver were found to catalyse the formation of 3H2O from DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate. Three peaks of enzyme activities were observed on separation by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The first and second peaks corresponded to an enzyme acting on L-2-hydroxyglutarate and the third peak corresponded to an enzyme acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate, as indicated by competitive inhibition of the detritiation of the racemic radioactive compound by the unlabelled L- and D-isomers respectively. The enzyme acting on the D-form was further characterized. It was independent of NAD or NADP and it converted D-2-hydroxyglutarate into a-ketoglutarate, transferring electrons to artificial electron acceptors. It also oxidized D-lactate, D-malate and meso-tartrate and was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, but not by Mg2+ or Ca2+. Subcellular fractionation indicated that it was present in the mitochondrial fraction. The enzyme was further purified by chromatography on Blue Trisacryl and phenyl-Sepharose, up to a stage where only a few bands were still visible by SDS/PAGE. Among the four candidate polypeptides that were identified by MS, one corresponded to a predicted mitochondrial protein homologous with FAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase. The corresponding human protein was expressed in HEK-293 cells and it was shown to catalyse the detritiation of DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate with similar properties as the purified rat enzyme. PMID:15070399

  1. The genomic organization of a human creatine transporter (CRTR) gene located in Xq28

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, N.; Bauer, D.; Brenner, V.

    1996-07-15

    During the course of a large-scale sequencing project in Xq28, a human creatine transporter (CRTR) gene was discovered. The gene is located approximately 36 kb centromeric to ALD. The gene contains 13 exons and spans about 8.5 kb of genomic DNA. Since the creatine transporter has a prominent function in muscular physiology, it is a candidate gene for Barth syndrome and infantile cardiomyopathy mapped to Xq28. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n?=?14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p?=?0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change?=?- 0.7%; ES?=?- 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change?=?+ 2.4%; ES?=?+ 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p?=?0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

  3. Purification and characterization of creatine kinase isozymes from the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    PubMed

    Gray, K A; Grossman, S H; Summers, D D

    1986-01-01

    Creatine kinase from nurse shark brain and muscle has been purified to apparent homogeneity. In contrast to creatine kinases from most other vertebrate species, the muscle isozyme and the brain isozyme from nurse shark migrate closely in electrophoresis and, unusually, the muscle isozyme is anodal to the brain isozyme. The isoelectric points are 5.3 and 6.2 for the muscle and brain isozymes, respectively. The purified brain preparation also contains a second active protein with pI 6.0. The amino acid content of the muscle isozyme is compared with other isozymes of creatine kinase using the Metzger Difference Index as an estimation of compositional relatedness. All comparisons show a high degree of compositional similarity including arginine kinase from lobster muscle. The muscle isozyme is marginally more resistant to temperature inactivation than the brain isozyme; the muscle protein does not exhibit unusual stability towards high concentrations of urea. Kinetic analysis of the muscle isozyme reveals Michaelis constants of 1.6 mM MgATP, 12 mM creatine, 1.2 mM MgADP and 50 mM creatine phosphate. Dissociation constants for the same substrate from the binary and ternary enzyme-substrate complex do not differ significantly, indicating limited cooperatively in substrate binding. Enzyme activity is inhibited by small planar anions, most severely by nitrate. Shark muscle creatine kinase hybridizes in vitro with rabbit muscle or monkey brain creatine kinase; shark brain isozyme hybridizes with monkey brain or rabbit brain creatine kinase. Shark muscle and shark brain isozymes, under a wide range of conditions, failed to produce a detectable hybrid. PMID:3956172

  4. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  5. Effects of N-linked glycosylation on the creatine transporter.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Nadine; Wind, Alexandra; Leuenberger, Tina; Wallimann, Theo

    2006-01-15

    The CRT (creatine transporter) is a member of the Na+- and Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and is responsible for the import of creatine into cells, and thus is important for cellular energy metabolism. We established for CRT an expression system in HEK-293 cells that allowed biochemical, immunological and functional analysis of CRT wild-type and glycosylation-deficient mutants. Analysis of HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged CRT-NN (wild-type rat CRT with an HA-tag at the C-terminus) revealed several monomeric immunoreactive species with apparent molecular masses of 58, 48 and 43 kDa. The 58 kDa species was shown to be plasma-membrane-resident by EndoHf (endoglycosidase Hf) and PNGase F (peptide N-glycosidase F) treatments and represents fully glycosylated CRT, whereas the 48 kDa and 43 kDa species were glycosylation intermediates and non-glycosylated CRT respectively. Glycosylation-deficient mutants (Asn192Asp, Asn197Asp and Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed altered electrophoretic mobility, indicating that CRT is indeed N-glycosylated. In addition, a prominent CRT band in the range of 75-91 kDa was also detected. Pharmacological inhibition of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin in CRT-NN-expressing cells gave a similar reduction in molecular mass, corroborating the finding that Asn192 and Asn197 are major N-glycosylation sites in CRT. Although the apparent Km was not significantly affected in glycosylation-deficient mutants compared with CRT-NN, we measured reduced Vmax values for all mutants (21-28% residual activity), and 51% residual activity after enzymatic deglycosylation of surface proteins in intact CRT-NN cells by PNGase F. Moreover, immunocytochemical analysis of CRT-NN- and CRT-DD-expressing cells (where CRT-DD represents a non-glycosylated double mutant of CRT, i.e. Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed a lower abundance of CRT-DD in the plasma membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that plasma-membrane CRT is glycosylated and has an apparent monomer molecular mass of 58 kDa. Furthermore, N-linked glycosylation is neither exclusively important for the function of CRT nor for surface trafficking, but affects both processes. These findings may have relevance for closely related neurotransmitter transporter family members. PMID:16167890

  6. Effect of dietary starch, fat, and bicarbonate content on exercise responses and serum creatine kinase activity in equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica C; Valberg, Stephanie J; Godden, Sandra M; Pagan, Joe D; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Geor, Ray J; Carlson, Gary P

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of dietary starch, bicarbonate, and fat content on metabolic responses and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity in exercising Thoroughbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER), 5 RER horses were fed 3 isocaloric diets (28.8 Mcal/d [120.5 MJ/d]) for 3 weeks in a crossover design and exercised for 30 minutes on a treadmill 5 days/wk. On the last day of each diet, an incremental standardized exercise test (SET) was performed. The starch diet contained 40% digestible energy (DE) as starch and 5% as fat: the bicarbonate-starch diet was identical but was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (4.2% of the pellet): and the fat diet provided 7% DE as starch and 20% as fat. Serum CK activity before the SET was similar among the diets. Serum CK activity (log transformed) after submaximal exercise differed dramatically among the diets and was greatest on the bicarbonate-starch diet (6.51 +/- 1.5) and lowest on the fat diet (5.71 +/- 0.6). Appreciable differences were observed in the severity of RER among individual horses. Postexercise plasma pH, bicarbonate concentration, and lactate concentration did not differ among the diets. Resting heart rates before the SET were markedly lower on the fat diet than on the starch diet. Muscle lactate and glycogen concentrations before and after the SET did not differ markedly among the diets. A high-fat, low-starch diet results in dramatically lower postexercise CK activity in severely affected RER horses than does a low-fat, high-starch diet without measurably altering muscle lactate and glycogen concentrations. Dietary bicarbonate supplementation at the concentration administered in this study did not prevent increased serum CK activity on a high-starch diet. PMID:14529137

  7. NDRG3-mediated lactate signaling in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Chan; Lee, Dong Chul; Yeom, Young Il

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with many pathological conditions as well as the normal physiology of metazoans. We identified a lactate-dependent signaling pathway in hypoxia, mediated by the oxygen- and lactate-regulated protein NDRG family member 3 (NDRG3). Oxygen negatively regulates NDRG3 expression at the protein level via the PHD2/VHL system, whereas lactate, produced in excess under prolonged hypoxia, blocks its proteasomal degradation by binding to NDRG3. We also found that the stabilized NDRG3 protein promotes angiogenesis and cell growth under hypoxia by activating the Raf-ERK pathway. Inhibiting cellular lactate production abolishes NDRG3-mediated hypoxia responses. The NDRG3-Raf-ERK axis therefore provides the genetic basis for lactate-induced hypoxia signaling, which can be exploited for the development of therapies targeting hypoxia-induced diseases in addition to advancing our understanding of the normal physiology of hypoxia responses. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 301-302] PMID:25936780

  8. Interpretation of serum creatine kinase in suspected myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Scott, B B; Simmons, A V; Newton, K E; Payne, R B

    1974-12-21

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured in blood donors, patients admitted to hospital with suspected myocardial infarction, and healthy hospital personnel to investigate the normal range, the daily variation in healthy people, and the effect of intramuscular injections of pentazocine or diamorphine.There was considerable daily variation in the healthy controls, apparently related to exercise. In defining both the normal range and the significance of day-to-day increases in the serum CK account should be taken of this factor. An upper limit of normal of 210 IU/1. Should apply to previously ambulant patients and of 165 IU/1. to patients previously at rest. An increase greater than 85% in successive daily values is uncommon in health.Intramuscular injections of both pentazocine and diamorphine caused a significant rise in the serum CK in six out of 25 patients. The highest rise observed was from 64 IU/1. to 395 IU/1. Caution is therefore urged in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction from the serum CK values when these intramuscular injections have been given. PMID:4441862

  9. Administration of a creatine analogue induces isomyosin transitions in muscle.

    PubMed

    Moerland, T S; Wolf, N G; Kushmerick, M J

    1989-10-01

    A creatine analogue, beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA), was administered in the food (2% wt/wt) and the water (0.5% wt/vol) of male CD-1 mice. Uptake of the phosphorylated analogue and depletion of phosphocreatine in hindlimb muscle was monitored by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and was found to be complete within 7 wk. After this time, the isomyosin composition of soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and ventricle was analyzed by pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis. The analogue was found to induce significant alterations in the type of myosin expressed in soleus and EDL. Normal soleus contains both intermediate (IM) and slow (SM) myosins, and treatment reduced the relative content of IM by approximately 50%. In EDL, treatment decreased fast isomyosin FM3 by 60% compared with controls. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis also showed a decrease of parvalbumin in EDL by approximately 50%. Treatment had no significant effect on the isomyosin composition of heart ventricle. Levels of physical activity and concentrations of serum glucose and thyroxine of treated mice were not significantly different from controls. These results indicate a role for intracellular energetics in mediating adaptive changes in the phenotype of muscle in mature animals. PMID:2801930

  10. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogenase in chick liver

    PubMed Central

    Corte, E. Della; Stirpe, F.

    1967-01-01

    1. It has been confirmed that the xanthine-dehydrogenase activity of chick liver is enhanced by starvation and by administration of inosine; the effects of these treatments are not additive. 2. Inosine has no effect when given to chicks depleted of the enzyme by feeding a low-protein diet. 3. Actinomycin D prevents the effect of inosine, but itself enhances the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase. 4. The xanthine-dehydrogenase activity is unchanged after addition of orotic acid to the diet, and is stimulated by injection of inorganic iron. PMID:6029610

  11. Overexpression of the phosphofructokinase encoding gene is crucial for achieving high production of D-lactate in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Yamamoto, Shogo; Kato, Naoto; Suda, Masako; Vertès, Alain A; Yukawa, Hideaki; Inui, Masayuki

    2015-06-01

    We previously reported on the impacts of the overexpression of individual genes of the glycolytic pathway encoding glucokinase (GLK), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) on D-lactate productivity in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen-deprived conditions. Searching for synergies, in the current study, we simultaneously overexpressed the five glycolytic genes in a stepwise fashion to evaluate the effect of the cumulative overexpression of glycolytic genes on D-lactate production. Interestingly, the final D-lactate concentration markedly differed depending on whether or not the PFK encoding gene was overexpressed when combined with overexpressing other glycolytic genes. The simultaneous overexpression of the GLK, GAPDH, TPI, and FBA encoding genes led to the highest initial D-lactate concentration at 10 h. However, this particular recombinant strain dramatically slowed producing D-lactate when a concentration of 1300 mM was reached, typically after 32 h. In contrast, the strain overexpressing the PFK encoding gene together with the GLK, GAPDH, TPI, and FBA encoding genes showed 12.7 % lower initial D-lactate concentration at 10 h than that observed with the strain overexpressing the genes coding for GLK, GAPDH, TPI, and FBA. However, this recombinant strain continued to produce D-lactate after 32 h, reaching 2169 mM after a mineral salts medium bioprocess incubation period of 80 h. These results suggest that overexpression of the PFK encoding gene is essential for achieving high production of D-lactate. Our findings provide interesting options to explore for using C. glutamicum for cost-efficient production of D-lactate at the industrial scale. PMID:25820644

  12. Simultaneous measurements of lactate turnover rate and umbilical lactate uptake in the fetal lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J W; Hay, W W; Bonds, D; Meschia, G; Battaglia, F C

    1982-01-01

    Lactic acid represents a major exogenous nutrient for the developing fetal lamb in utero. Our study was undertaken (a) to quantitate the net consumption of lactate by the fetus, (b) to quantitate the net lactate production and metabolism by the placenta, and (c) to compare the net fetal lactate consumption with fetal lactate use, measured simultaneously with radioactive tracers. 14 pregnant sheep were prepared with catheters in the maternal femoral artery and uterine vein and in the fetal aorta and umbilical vein. By simultaneous application of the Fick principle to the uterine and umbilical circulations, placental glucose consumption and placental lactate production were rapid, averaging 39.8 +/- 5.1 and 11.8 +/- 0.7 mg.min-1. Net lactate umbilical uptake averaged 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg-1.kg.min-1. During infusion of L-[14C(U)]lactate, fetal lactate turnover was much more rapid, averaging 6.5 +/- 0.8 mg.kg-1.min-1, and lactate utilization within the anatomic fetus was 5.9 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1. During infusion of tracer glucose, endogenous fetal lactate production from glucose and nonglucose substrates averaged 3.0 and 1.5 mg.kg-1.min-1, respectively. The present studies have quantitated under well oxygenated, steady-state conditions, the rapid placental metabolism and production of lactate, the net fetal consumption of lactate, and the rapid endogenous fetal lactate production from glucose and nonglucose substrates. PMID:7085882

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... conversion is essential to begin the series of chemical reactions that produce energy for cells. The pyruvate dehydrogenase ... E3, each of which performs part of the chemical reaction that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. In addition, ...

  14. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  15. Oral supplementations of betaine, choline, creatine and vitamin B6 and their influence on the development of homocysteinaemia in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Côté-Robitaille, Marie-Édith; Girard, Christiane L; Guay, Frédéric; Matte, J Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediary sulphur amino acid recognised for pro-oxidative properties in several species which may weaken immune competence in piglets. In this species, there is an acute 10-fold increase of concentrations of plasma Hcy (pHcy) during the first 2 weeks of life. The present experiment aimed to determine if pHcy in piglets can be regulated by oral supplementations of betaine as a methyl group supplier, creatine for reducing the demand for methyl groups, choline with both previous functions and vitamin B6 as enzymic co-factor for Hcy catabolism. A total of seventeen sows (second parity) were fed gestation and lactation diets supplemented with folic acid (10 mg/kg) and vitamin B12 (150 µg/kg). Eight piglets in each litter received daily one of the eight following oral treatments (mg/kg body weight): (1) control (saline); (2) betaine (50); (3) choline (70); (4) creatine (300); (5) pyridoxine (0·2); (6) treatments 2 and 5; (7) treatments 3 and 4; and (8) treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5. According to age, pHcy increased sharply from 2·48 µm at birth to 17·96 µm at 21 d of age (P < 0·01). Concentrations of pHcy tended to be lower (P = 0·09) in treated than in control piglets but the highest and sole pairwise significant decrease (23 %) was observed between treatments 1 and 8 (P = 0·03). Growth from birth to 21 d of age was not influenced by treatments (P > 0·70). Therefore, it appears possible to reduce pHcy concentrations in suckling piglets but a combination of all chosen nutrients is required. PMID:26495122

  16. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non?athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non?athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non?athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non?parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083?U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513?U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non?athletes in the literature or calculated in the non?athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523?U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport?specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

  17. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Waitkus, Matthew S; Diplas, Bill H; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate ?-ketoglutarate (?KG), but recurrent mutations at Arg(132) of IDH1 and Arg(172) of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of ?KG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits ?KG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  18. [Effect of low-frequency vibration on the activity of dehydrogenase in neurones of anterior vestibular nucleus in rats].

    PubMed

    Nasibullin, B A; Rozanov, V A; Ianovsky?, M B

    1993-01-01

    To obtain the characteristics of the main changes in oxidative metabolism in the neurons of the nucleus vestibularis anterior (NVA) under the influence of low frequency vibration in rat brain the activities of some dehydrogenases (NADN-DH, NADPH-DH, succinate-DH, malate-DH, beta-oxybutyrate-DH, alpha-glycerolphosphate-DH, lactate-DH, glutamate-DH and 6-phosphogluconate-DH) were measured using histochemical methods. The sizes of subpopulations of neurons differing in enzyme activities were estimated. PMID:8335122

  19. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  20. Lactate shuttling and lactate use as fuel after traumatic brain injury: metabolic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    Lactate is proposed to be generated by astrocytes during glutamatergic neurotransmission and shuttled to neurons as ‘preferred' oxidative fuel. However, a large body of evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes during activation of living brain disprove essential components of the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle model. For example, some glutamate is oxidized to generate ATP after its uptake into astrocytes and neuronal glucose phosphorylation rises during activation and provides pyruvate for oxidation. Extension of the notion that lactate is a preferential fuel into the traumatic brain injury (TBI) field has important clinical implications, and the concept must, therefore, be carefully evaluated before implementation into patient care. Microdialysis studies in TBI patients demonstrate that lactate and pyruvate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios, along with other data, have important diagnostic value to distinguish between ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results show that lactate release from human brain to blood predominates over its uptake after TBI, and strong evidence for lactate metabolism is lacking; mitochondrial dysfunction may inhibit lactate oxidation. Claims that exogenous lactate infusion is energetically beneficial for TBI patients are not based on metabolic assays and data are incorrectly interpreted. PMID:25204393

  1. LactMed: Drugs and Lactation Database

    MedlinePLUS

    TOXNET Home > LactMed LactMed A TOXNET DATABASE Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) SEARCH LACTMED BROWSE LACTMED ADVANCED SEARCH Search Search Term Records with Include Synonyms and CAS Numbers in Search ...

  2. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  3. Increased titer and reduced lactate accumulation in recombinant retrovirus production through the down-regulation of HIF1 and PDK.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Guerreiro, M R; Formas-Oliveira, A S; Fernandes, P; Blechert, A-K; Genzel, Y; Alves, P M; Hu, W S; Coroadinha, A S

    2016-01-01

    Many mammalian cell lines used in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals exhibit high glycolytic flux predominantly channeled to the production of lactate. The accumulation of lactate in culture reduces cell viability and may also decrease product quality. In this work, we engineered a HEK 293 derived cell line producing a recombinant gene therapy retroviral vector, by down-regulating hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Specific productivity of infectious viral titers could be increased more than 20-fold for single gene knock-down (HIF1 or PDK) and more than 30-fold under combined down-regulation. Lactate production was reduced up to 4-fold. However, the reduction in lactate production, alone, was not sufficient to enhance the titer: high-titer clones also showed significant enrolment of metabolic routes not related to lactate production. Transcriptome analysis indicated activation of biological amines metabolism, detoxification routes, including glutathione metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen biosynthesis and amino acid catabolism. The latter were validated by enzyme activity assays and metabolite profiling, respectively. High-titer clones also presented substantially increased transcript levels of the viral genes expression cassettes. The results herein presented demonstrate the impact of HIF1 and PDK down-regulation on the production performance of a mammalian cell line, reporting one of the highest fold-increase in specific productivity of infectious virus titers achieved by metabolic engineering. They additionally highlight the contribution of secondary pathways, beyond those related to lactate production, that can be also explored to pursue improved metabolic status favoring a high-producing phenotype. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 150-162. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26134455

  4. Enhancing the light-driven production of D-lactate by engineering cyanobacterium using a combinational strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yu; Yao, Feng; Xu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    It is increasingly attractive to engineer cyanobacteria for bulk production of chemicals from CO2. However, cofactor bias of cyanobacteria is different from bacteria that prefer NADH, which hampers cyanobacterial strain engineering. In this study, the key enzyme D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhD) from Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 was engineered to reverse its favored cofactor from NADH to NADPH. Then, the engineered enzyme was introduced into Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 to construct an efficient light-driven system that produces D-lactic acid from CO2. Mutation of LdhD drove a fundamental shift in cofactor preference towards NADPH, and increased D-lactate productivity by over 3.6-fold. We further demonstrated that introduction of a lactic acid transporter and bubbling CO2-enriched air also enhanced D-lactate productivity. Using this combinational strategy, increased D-lactate concentration and productivity were achieved. The present strategy may also be used to engineer cyanobacteria for producing other useful chemicals.

  5. Enhancing the light-driven production of d-lactate by engineering cyanobacterium using a combinational strategy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yu; Yao, Feng; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly attractive to engineer cyanobacteria for bulk production of chemicals from CO2. However, cofactor bias of cyanobacteria is different from bacteria that prefer NADH, which hampers cyanobacterial strain engineering. In this study, the key enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhD) from Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 was engineered to reverse its favored cofactor from NADH to NADPH. Then, the engineered enzyme was introduced into Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 to construct an efficient light-driven system that produces d-lactic acid from CO2. Mutation of LdhD drove a fundamental shift in cofactor preference towards NADPH, and increased d-lactate productivity by over 3.6-fold. We further demonstrated that introduction of a lactic acid transporter and bubbling CO2-enriched air also enhanced d-lactate productivity. Using this combinational strategy, increased d-lactate concentration and productivity were achieved. The present strategy may also be used to engineer cyanobacteria for producing other useful chemicals. PMID:25940225

  6. Lactation: historical patterns and potential for manipulation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, D G

    1993-10-01

    The advent of biotechnology has made data on undomesticated mammals relevant to dairy science. Such data indicate the potential of lactation for modification, reveal genetic material available for use through bioengineering, help distinguish adaptive features from historical artifacts, and clarify limits on lactational diversity that date from early evolution. Evolutionary analysis indicates that a complex degree of lactation preceded divergence of the extant mammalian lineages during the Mesozoic Era. Although aspects of monotreme lactation appear to be ancestral for extant mammals, the marsupials and eutherians exhibit divergent specializations. Evidence is consistent with the idea that protolacteal glands evolved by combining features of skin gland populations into a new functional complex. Secretions of these ancestral glands may have had antimicrobial properties that protected the eggs or hatchlings and organic components that supplemented offspring nutrition. Following development of highly nutritious milks, evolution produced diversity in milk composition and function, milk output, length of lactation, mammary gland anatomy, and contributions of lactation to offspring nutrition. Certain marsupials are specialized in terms of functional independence and temporal plasticity of mammary tissues. Mammalian diversity indicates that artificial selection and physiological manipulation of domestic artiodactyls has only modestly exploited the potential of mammary glands as a nutritional source for humans. PMID:8227641

  7. NcoI and TaqI RFLPs for human M creatine kinase (CKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, M.B.; Hejtmancik, J.F.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Armstrong, R.; Lin, Sunchiang; Roberts, R.; Epstein, H.F. )

    1988-09-12

    Probe pHMCKUT contains a 135 bp cDNA fragment inserted into pGEM 3. The probe corresponds to nucleotides 1,201 to 1,336 located in the 3{prime} untranslated region of human M creatine kinase. The probe is specific for human M creatine kinase and does not hybridize to human B cretine kinase sequences. NcoI identifies a two allele polymorphism of a band at either 2.5 kb or 3.6 kb. TaqI identifies a two allele polymorphism at either 3.8 kb or 4.5 kb. Human M creatine has been localized to chromosome 19q. Autosomal co-dominant inheritance was shown in six informative Caucasian families.

  8. Continuous and simultaneous electrochemical measurements of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain following brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuqing; Yu, Ping; Hao, Jie; Wang, Yuexiang; Ohsaka, Takeo; Mao, Lanqun

    2014-04-15

    Developing new tools and technologies to enable recording the dynamic changes of multiple neurochemicals is the essence of better understanding of the molecular basis of brain functions. This study demonstrates a microfluidic chip-based online electrochemical system (OECS) for in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain. To fabricate the microfluidic chip-based detecting system, a microfluidic chip with patterned channel is developed into an electrochemical flow cell by incorporating the chip with three surface-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as working electrodes, a Ag/AgCl wire as reference electrode, and a stainless steel tube as counter electrode. Selective detection of ascorbate is achieved by the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to largely facilitate the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbate, while a dehydrogenase-based biosensing mechanism with methylene green (MG) adsorbed onto SWNTs as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dihydronicotiamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is employed for biosensing of glucose and lactate. To avoid the crosstalk among three sensors, the sensor alignment is carefully designed with the SWNT-modified electrode in the upstream channel and paralleled glucose and lactate biosensors in the downstream channels. With the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell as the detector, an OECS is successfully established by directly integrating the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell with in vivo microdialysis. The OECS exhibits a good linear response toward glucose, lactate, and ascorbate with less crosstalk. This property, along with the high stability and selectivity, enables the OECS for continuously monitoring three species in rat brain following brain ischemia. PMID:24621127

  9. The Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene, adhE, Is Necessary for Ethanol Production in Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jonathan; Zheng, Tianyong; Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum are anaerobic thermophilic bacteria being investigated for their ability to produce biofuels from plant biomass. The bifunctional alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, adhE, is present in these bacteria and has been known to be important for ethanol formation in other anaerobic alcohol producers. This study explores the inactivation of the adhE gene in C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Deletion of adhE reduced ethanol production by >95% in both T. saccharolyticum and C. thermocellum, confirming that adhE is necessary for ethanol formation in both organisms. In both adhE deletion strains, fermentation products shifted from ethanol to lactate production and resulted in lower cell density and longer time to reach maximal cell density. In T. saccharolyticum, the adhE deletion strain lost >85% of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity did not appear to be affected, although ALDH activity was low in cell extracts. Adding ubiquinone-0 to the ALDH assay increased activity in the T. saccharolyticum parent strain but did not increase activity in the adhE deletion strain, suggesting that ALDH activity was inhibited. In C. thermocellum, the adhE deletion strain lost >90% of ALDH and ADH activity in cell extracts. The C. thermocellum adhE deletion strain contained a point mutation in the lactate dehydrogenase gene, which appears to deregulate its activation by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, leading to constitutive activation of lactate dehydrogenase. IMPORTANCE Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum are bacteria that have been investigated for their ability to produce biofuels from plant biomass. They have been engineered to produce higher yields of ethanol, yet questions remain about the enzymes responsible for ethanol formation in these bacteria. The genomes of these bacteria encode multiple predicted aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases which could be responsible for alcohol formation. This study explores the inactivation of adhE, a gene encoding a bifunctional alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Deletion of adhE reduced ethanol production by >95% in both T. saccharolyticum and C. thermocellum, confirming that adhE is necessary for ethanol formation in both organisms. In strains without adhE, we note changes in biochemical activity, product formation, and growth. PMID:25666131

  10. Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Phang, James M

    2012-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase, PRODH/POX), the first enzyme in the proline degradative pathway, plays a special role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Proline metabolism catalyzed by PRODH/POX is closely linked with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and urea cycle. The proline cycle formed by the interconversion of proline and ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) between mitochondria and cytosol interlocks with pentose phosphate pathway. Importantly, by catalyzing proline to P5C, PRODH/POX donates electrons into the electron transport chain to generate ROS or ATP. In earlier studies, we found that PRODH/POX functions as a tumor suppressor to initiate apoptosis, inhibit tumor growth, and block the cell cycle, all by ROS signaling. It also suppresses hypoxia inducible factor signaling by increasing ?-ketoglutarate. During tumor progression, PRODH/POX is under the control of various tumor-associated factors, such as tumor suppressor p53, inflammatory factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), onco-miRNA miR-23b*, and oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. Recent studies revealed the two-sided features of PRODH/POX-mediated regulation. Under metabolic stress such as oxygen and glucose deprivation, PRODH/POX can be induced to serve as a tumor survival factor through ATP production or ROS-induced autophagy. The paradoxical roles of PRODH/POX can be understood considering the temporal and spatial context of the tumor. Further studies will provide additional insights into this protein and on its metabolic effects in tumors, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22886911

  11. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine ? creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine ? creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ?240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  12. Radiation inactivation method provides evidence that membrane-bound mitochondrial creatine kinase is an oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Quemeneur, E.; Eichenberger, D.; Goldschmidt, D.; Vial, C.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-06-30

    Lyophilized suspensions of rabbit heart mitochondria have been irradiated with varying doses of gamma rays. Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity was inactivated exponentially with a radiation inactivation size of 352 or 377 kDa depending upon the initial medium. These values are in good agreement with the molecular mass previously deduced from by permeation experiments: 357 kDa. This is the first direct evidence showing that the native form of mitochondrial creatine kinase is associated to the inner membrane as an oligomer, very likely an octamer.

  13. Umbrella sampling of proton transfer in a creatine-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, Olga; Bachert, Peter; Imhof, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Proton transfer reactions are among the most common processes in chemistry and biology. Proton transfer between creatine and surrounding solvent water is underlying the chemical exchange saturation transfer used as a contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The free energy barrier, determined by first-principles umbrella sampling simulations (EaDFT 3 kcal/mol) is in the same order of magnitude as the experimentally obtained activation energy. The underlying mechanism is a first proton transfer from the guanidinium group to the water pool, followed by a second transition where a proton is "transferred back" from the nearest water molecule to the deprotonated nitrogen atom of creatine.

  14. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  15. PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS AND LONGER LACTATIONS WITH DIMINISHING CREDITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures of productive life (PL) were compared and life expectancy factors were updated to replace estimates from 1993. Alternatives were proposed with extra credits for lactations longer than 10 mo and beyond 84 mo of age, and for each calf produced so that an extremely long lactation w...

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers. PMID:25075432

  17. Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles: Evolutionary and Systematic Aspects of Gene Author(s): Donald G. Buth, Robert W. Murphy, Michael M. Miyamoto, Carl S. Lieb

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Bob

    Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles: Evolutionary and Systematic Aspects of Gene Expression. http://www.jstor.org #12;Copeia,1985(2),pp. 279-284 Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles AND CARL S. LIEB The creatine kinases of amphibians and reptiles are evaluated in terms of their genetic

  18. ATP synthesis kinetic properties of mitochondria isolated from the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle depleted of creatine with beta-guanidinopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Freyssenet, D; Berthon, P; Geyssant, A; Denis, C

    1994-07-29

    A creatine analogue, beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA), was administered in the food (1% w/w) of 8 male rats while 8 control rats received a standard diet. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity and kinetic parameters of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, apparent maximal ATP synthesis rate (Vmax) and apparent Michaelis constant for free ADP (Km), were investigated in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate was measured by a bioluminescent method over a large range of ADP concentration (2-30 microM). As a result of the diet, Vmax was significantly increased (P < 0.05) while Km remained unchanged at around 20 microM. Citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased (both P < 0.05). Vmax was tightly correlated with CS activity (P < 0.001; r = 0.84). It was concluded that the increase in maximal mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate after beta-GPA feeding in EDL muscle was essentially due to a general increase in mitochondrial enzyme concentrations. PMID:8043594

  19. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Grant, Gregory

    Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase EXTREME of D-3-phosphoglyc- erate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been determined at 2.3 Å bacteria such as Mycobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium, plants such as Arabidopsis, and higher

  20. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  1. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  2. State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport.

    PubMed

    Kalinski, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    The former Soviet Union began participating in international sport after World War II and soon achieved a dominant position in the Olympic Games and other competitions. The success of Soviet athletic programs led to charges of unfair practices but, because of secrecy surrounding Soviet research in exercise biochemistry, it has been difficult to substantiate these charges. This article presents previously restricted information regarding the development and use of creatine supplements and blood doping in the USSR. Early work by Olexander Palladin established the role of creatine in muscle function. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists showed that oral creatine supplements improved athletic performance in short, intense activities such as sprints. Subsequent studies in the West substantiated these investigations and have led to the widespread acceptance and use of creatine supplements to enhance muscle function and athletic performance. In addition, however, the Soviet government supported the development of blood doping, which is banned by the International Olympic Committee. Blood doping was pervasive in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s, and was used by many Soviet athletes in the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games. Open publication and discussion may help to prevent the abuses that can come from secret scientific research. PMID:12878813

  3. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women

    E-print Network

    Smith, Abbie E.; Herda, Ashley A.; Herda, Trent J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Moon, Jordan R.; Cramer, Joel T.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    , 69(3):268-276. 27. Tarnopolsky MA, MacLennan DP: Creatine monohydrate supple- mentation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 2000, 10(4):452-463. 28...

  4. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  5. Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brandilyn A.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Sanchez, Tiffany R.; van Geen, Alexander; Mey, Jacob L.; Siddique, Abu B.; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Balac, Olgica; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization estimates that > 140 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic (As)–contaminated drinking water. As undergoes biologic methylation, which facilitates renal As elimination. In folate-deficient individuals, this process is augmented by folic acid (FA) supplementation, thereby lowering blood As (bAs). Creatinine concentrations in urine are a robust predictor of As methylation patterns. Although the reasons for this are unclear, creatine synthesis is a major consumer of methyl donors, and this synthesis is down-regulated by dietary/supplemental creatine. Objectives Our aim was to determine whether 400 or 800 ?g FA and/or creatine supplementation lowers bAs in an As-exposed Bangladeshi population. Methods We conducted a clinical trial in which 622 participants were randomized to receive 400 ?g FA, 800 ?g FA, 3 g creatine, 3 g creatine+400 ?g FA, or placebo daily. All participants received an As-removal filter on enrollment, and were followed for 24 weeks. After the 12th week, half of the two FA groups were switched to placebo to evaluate post-treatment bAs patterns. Results Linear models with repeated measures indicated that the decline in ln(bAs) from baseline in the 800-?g FA group exceeded that of the placebo group (weeks 1–12: ?= –0.09, 95% CI: –0.18, –0.01; weeks 13–24: FA continued: ?= –0.12, 95% CI: –0.24, –0.00; FA switched to placebo: ?= –0.14, 95% CI: –0.26, –0.02). There was no rebound in bAs related to cessation of FA supplementation. Declines in bAs observed in the remaining treatment arms were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Conclusions In this mixed folate-deficient/replete study population, 12- and 24-week treatment with 800 ?g (but not 400 ?g) FA lowered bAs to a greater extent than placebo; this was sustained 12 weeks after FA cessation. In future studies, we will evaluate whether FA and/or creatine altered As methylation profiles. Citation Peters BA, Hall MN, Liu X, Parvez F, Sanchez TR, van Geen A, Mey JL, Siddique AB, Shahriar H, Uddin MN, Islam T, Balac O, Ilievski V, Factor-Litvak P, Graziano JH, Gamble MV. 2015. Folic acid and creatine as therapeutic approaches to lower blood arsenic: a randomized controlled trial. Environ Health Perspect 123:1294–1301;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409396 PMID:25978852

  6. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength. Methods Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders (mean ± SD; age: 23.1?±?2.9; height: 166.0?±?23.2 cm; weight: 80.18?±?10.43 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP workout supplementation of creatine (5 grams). The PRE-SUPP group consumed 5 grams of creatine immediately before exercise. On the other hand, the POST-SUPP group consumed 5 grams immediately after exercise. Subjects trained on average five days per week for four weeks. Subjects consumed the supplement on the two non-training days at their convenience. Subjects performed a periodized, split-routine, bodybuilding workout five days per week (Chest-shoulders-triceps; Back-biceps, Legs, etc.). Body composition (Bod Pod®) and 1-RM bench press (BP) were determined. Diet logs were collected and analyzed (one random day per week; four total days analyzed). Results 2x2 ANOVA results - There was a significant time effect for fat-free mass (FFM) (F?=?19.9; p?=?0.001) and BP (F?=?18.9; p?creatine post workout is possibly more beneficial in comparison to pre workout supplementation with regards to FFM, FM and 1-RM BP. The mean change in the PRE-SUPP and POST-SUPP groups for body weight (BW kg), FFM (kg), FM (kg) and 1-RM bench press (kg) were as follows, respectively: Mean ± SD; BW: 0.4?±?2.2 vs. 0.8?±?0.9; FFM: 0.9?±?1.8 vs. 2.0?±?1.2; FM: -0.1?±?2.0 vs. ?1.2?±?1.6; Bench Press 1-RM: 6.6?±?8.2 vs. 7.6?±?6.1. Qualitative inference represents the likelihood that the true value will have the observed magnitude. Furthermore, there were no differences in caloric or macronutrient intake between the groups. Conclusions Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength. Based on the magnitude inferences it appears that consuming creatine immediately post-workout is superior to pre-workout vis a vis body composition and strength. PMID:23919405

  7. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Paj?cka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and ?-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from ?-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. GLIA 2015;63:2313-2326. PMID:26221781

  8. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    This image shows the inner and outer shells of the large protein pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is important for a cell’s metabolism. This protein turns pyruvate, which comes from sugars like glucose, into a molecule called acetyl-coA. This transformation helps energize the cell.

  9. Pharmacologic inhibition of lactate production prevents myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kottmann, Robert Matthew; Trawick, Emma; Judge, Jennifer L; Wahl, Lindsay A; Epa, Amali P; Owens, Kristina M; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2015-12-01

    Myofibroblasts are one of the primary cell types responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix in fibrosing diseases, and targeting myofibroblast differentiation is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been shown to be an important inducer of myofibroblast differentiation. We previously demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase and its metabolic product lactic acid are important mediators of myofibroblast differentiation, via acid-induced activation of latent TGF-?. Here we explore whether pharmacologic inhibition of LDH activity can prevent TGF-?-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Primary human lung fibroblasts from healthy patients and those with pulmonary fibrosis were treated with TGF-? and or gossypol, an LDH inhibitor. Protein and RNA were analyzed for markers of myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix generation. Gossypol inhibited TGF-?-induced expression of the myofibroblast marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in a dose-dependent manner in both healthy and fibrotic human lung fibroblasts. Gossypol also inhibited expression of collagen 1, collagen 3, and fibronectin. Gossypol inhibited LDH activity, the generation of extracellular lactic acid, and the rate of extracellular acidification in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, gossypol inhibited TGF-? bioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrent treatment with an LDH siRNA increased the ability of gossypol to inhibit TGF-?-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Gossypol inhibits TGF-?-induced myofibroblast differentiation through inhibition of LDH, inhibition of extracellular accumulation of lactic acid, and inhibition of TGF-? bioactivity. These data support the hypothesis that pharmacologic inhibition of LDH may play an important role in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26408551

  10. Lactate production in McArdle's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, A. K.; Buxton, P. H.; Cochrane, P.; Hughes, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    A case of McArdle's disease in a man is described in detail and a less complete study of his family is reported. This patient showed the classical features of McArdle's disease and the diagnosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy. Unlike other reported cases of this disorder, this case showed a normal rise in blood lactate levels on ischaemic exercise. This apparently paradoxical finding is discussed. It is suggested that a normal rise in the level of blood lactate on ischaemic exercise should not exclude myophosphorylase deficiency. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:266169

  11. Breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Hyonil; Liu, Hyun Ju; Han, Sei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Breast is a typical female sexual physiologic organ that is influenced by steroid hormone from menarche until menopause. Therefore various diseases can be developed by continuous action of estrogen and progesterone. Breast diseases are mainly categorized as benign and malignant. It is very important to distinguish the malignancy from breast diseases. However, it is very difficult to diagnose malignancy in pregnant and lactating women even though the same breast diseases took place. Therefore, we will review breast diseases such as breast carcinoma during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24327995

  12. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol. PMID:26398295

  13. Novel Membrane Based Process for Producing Lactate Esters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    Lactate Esters from Renewable Carbohydrate Feedstocks can Replace Petroleum-Derived Solvents. Lactate esters are versatile solvents that are biodegradable, nontoxic, and applicable to a wide range of industrial and consumer uses.

  14. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past ... milk, infant levels in blood, potential effects in breast-feeding infants and on lactation itself. The American Academy ...

  15. Evaluation on the responses of succinate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to acid shock generated acid tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Vivek; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Chauhan, Ankur; Sinha, Sarika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli have an optimum pH range of 6-7 for growth and survival that's why, called neutrophiles. The ?pH across the cytoplasmic membrane is linked to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism of the body which is the major supplier of the proton motive force, so homeostasis of cellular pH is essential. When challenged by low pH, protons enter the cytoplasm; as a result, mechanisms are required to alleviate the effects of lowered cytoplasmic pH. Materials and Methods: The activities of Succinate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in acid shocked cells of E. coli DH5 ? and E. coli W3110 subjected to pH 3, 4, and 5 by two types of acidification, like external (using 0.1 N HCl), external along with the monensin (1 ?M) and cytoplasmic acidification using the sodium benzoate as an acid permeant (20 mM) which is coupled to the electron transport chain by the reducing power, as yet another system possessed by E. coli as an armor against harsh acidic environments. Result: Results showed that an exposure to acidic environment (pH 3, 4 and 5) for a short period of time increased the activities of these dehydrogenases in all types of acidification except cytoplasmic acidification, which shows that higher recycling of reducing power results in pumping out of protons from the cytoplasm through the electron transport chain complexes, thereby restoring the cytoplasmic pH of the bacteria in the range of 7.4-7.8. Conclusion: Study indicates that acid shocked E. coli for a period of 2 h can survive for a sustained period. PMID:24223390

  16. Targeting Tumor Metabolism for Cancer Treatment: Is Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases (PDKs) a Viable Anticancer Target?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Hu, Xiaohui; Tam, Kin Yip

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains a lethal threat to global lives. Development of novel anticancer therapeutics is still a challenge to scientists in the field of biomedicine. In cancer cells, the metabolic features are significantly different from those of normal ones, which are hallmarks of several malignancies. Recent studies brought atypical cellular metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, into the scientific limelight. Targeting these altered metabolic pathways in cancer cells presents a promising therapeutic strategy. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), key enzymes in the pathway of glucose metabolism, could inactivate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by phosphorylating it and preserving the substrates pyruvate, lactate and alanine for gluconeogenesis. Overexpression of PDKs could block the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to satisfy high oxygen demand in cancer cells, while inhibition of PDKs could upregulate the activity of PDC and rectify the balance between the demand and supply of oxygen, which could lead to cancer cell death. Thus, inhibitors targeting PDKs represent a promising strategy for cancer treatment by acting on glycolytic tumors while showing minimal side effects on the oxidative healthy organs. This review considers the role of PDKs as regulator of PDC that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondrion. It is concluded that PDKs are solid therapeutic targets. Inhibition of PDKs could be an attractive therapeutic approach for the development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26681918

  17. NMR studies on /sup 15/N-labeled creatine (CR), creatinine (CRN), phosphocreatine (PCR), and phosphocreatinine (PCRN), and on barriers to rotation in creatine kinase-bound creatine in the enzymatic reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, G.L.; Reddick, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors have synthesized /sup 15/N-2-Cr, /sup 15/N-3-Crn, /sup 15/N-2-Crn, /sup 15/N-3-PCrn, /sup 15/N-3-PCr, and /sup 15/N-2-PCr. /sup 1/H, /sup 15/N, /sup 31/P NMR data show that Crn protonates exclusively at the non-methylated ring nitrogen, confirm that PCrn is phosphorylated at the exocyclic nitrogen, and demonstrate that the /sup 31/P-/sup 15/N one-bond coupling constant in /sup 15/N-3-PCr is 18 Hz, not 3 Hz as previously reported by Brindle, K.M., Porteous, R. and Radda, G.K.. The authors have found that creatine kinase is capable of catalyzing the /sup 14/N//sup 15/N positional isotope exchange of 3-/sup 15/N-PCr in the presence of MgADP, but not in its absence. Further, the exchange does not take place when labeled PCr is resynthesized exclusively from the ternary complex E X Cr X MgATP as opposed to either E X Cr or free Cr. This suggests that the enzyme both imparts an additional rotational barrier to creatine in the complex and catalyzes the transfer of phosphoryl group with essentially complete regiospecificity.

  18. LACTATION PERSISTENCY: INSIGHTS FROM MAMMARY CELL PROLIFERATION STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A persistent lactation is dependent upon maintaining number and activity of milk secreting cells with advancing lactation. When dairy cows are milked twice daily, the increase in milk yield from parturition to peak lactation is due to increased secretory activity per cell, rather than to accretion ...

  19. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced response of inflammatory indicators and blood lactate in male runners

    PubMed Central

    Armanfar, Mostafa; Jafari, Afshar; Dehghan, Gholam Reza; Abdizadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heavy exercise cause muscle damage associated with production of inflammatory agents. The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of acute and 14-day Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory, blood lactate and muscle damage in male middle-distance runners. Methods: Eighteen male middle-distance runners in a randomized and quasi experimental study were allocated into two equal groups: supplement group (n=9, Coenzyme Q10: 5mg/kg/day) and placebo group (n= 9, Dextrose: 5mg/kg/day). After acute (1day) and 14-day supplementation, all subjects were participated in a training like running (competitive 3000 meters). Blood samples were obtained in the four phases: one hour before and 18-24 hours after two running protocols. Lactate, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were analyzed. Repeated ANOVA and Bonferuni as a post hoc tests were used to determine the changes in four stages. Differences between groups were determined by t-test. Results: The results showed that acute and short-term Coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not significant effect on basal parameters. The acute coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated only the exercise-induced increase in response of the plasma CRP. The short-term (14-day) coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated the exercise-induced increase in response of the lactate, serum interleukin- 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and CRP in male middle-distance runners. However, the acute and short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not any significant effect on the exerciseinduced increase response of total serum creatine kinase. Conclusion: Based on the present results, it can be concluded that the 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation (5mg.kg-1.day-1) is more effective than the acute supplementation to overcome the exercise-induced adverse responses in some oxidative, inflammatory and biochemical parameters. Therefore, short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation is recommended to reduce exercise-induced adverse consequences. PMID:26157720

  20. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  1. HEXONEOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN BREAST DURING LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose is the major osmotic agent in milk. Therefore, lactose synthesis indirectly regulates milk volume. The aim of this study was to determine the source of glucose and galactose in lactose. Six healthy lactating women were studied twice, during a 24 h fast and during ingestion of a mixed macr...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  3. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  4. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  5. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  6. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  7. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  8. Fermentative biohydrogen production from lactate and acetate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Whang, Liang-Ming; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Chan, Kan-Chi

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate. PMID:22318084

  9. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  11. Effect of nutrition on pregnancy and lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    1962-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation constitute states of considerable physiological stress which impose increased nutritional demands. If these demands are not adequately met, it may be expected that not only the nutritional status of the subject will be affected, but also the course of pregnancy and lactation. While a great deal of work with experimental animals has been carried out to elucidate the role of nutrition in pregnancy and lactation, the question arises how far these experimental results are applicable to human subjects. The unfortunate nutritional situation prevalent in certain under-developed countries affords opportunities for the study of the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the course of pregnancy and lactation in the human subject. In this paper, the available literature on the effect of maternal nutrition on the course of pregnancy and the condition of the infant at birth is reviewed, as is the effect of the state of maternal nutrition on the output and chemical composition of milk in nursing mothers. The review reveals many important gaps in our knowledge and highlights the need for further work on this important problem. PMID:13900365

  12. Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Magnus

    Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation in Adulthoodjsm_2065 140..147 Magnus Enquist, PhD,* Hanna Aronsson, B.Sc.,* Stefano that pregnancy or lactation may become sexually attractive in adulthood following an exposure to pregnant

  13. Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets hormone Cortisol Lactation Maternal care Parental care Stress In several mammalian species, hypothalamic preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have

  14. An Evaluation of the Possible Association of Malignant Hyperpyrexia with the Noonan Syndrome Using Serum Creatine Phosphokinase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Alasdair; Pinsky, Leonard

    1975-01-01

    Examined for malignant hyperpyrexia (extremely high fever) were serum creatine phosphokinase (enzyme) levels of 27 children from 1-to 17-years-old with Noonan syndrome which is characterized by webbed neck, short stature and low set ears. (CL)

  15. Inhibition kinetics of catabolic dehydrogenases by elevated moieties of ATP and ADP--implication for a new regulation mechanism in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rong; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W J

    2010-04-01

    ATP and ADP inhibit, in varying degrees, several dehydrogenases of the central carbon metabolism of Lactococcus lactis ATCC 19435 in vitro, i.e. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Here we demonstrate mixed inhibition for GAPDH and competitive inhibition for LDH and ADH by adenine nucleotides in single inhibition studies. The nonlinear negative co-operativity was best modelled with Hill-type kinetics, showing greater flexibility than the usual parabolic inhibition equation. Because these natural inhibitors are present simultaneously in the cytoplasm, multiple inhibition kinetics was determined for each dehydrogenase. For ADH and LDH, the inhibitor combinations ATP plus NAD and ADP plus NAD are indifferent to each other. Model discrimination suggested that the weak allosteric inhibition of GAPDH had no relevance when multiple inhibitors are present. Interestingly, with ADH and GAPDH the combination of ATP and ADP exhibits lower dissociation constants than with either inhibitor alone. Moreover, the concerted inhibition of ADH and GAPDH, but not of LDH, shows synergy between the two nucleotides. Similar kinetics, but without synergies, were found for horse liver and yeast ADHs, indicating that dehydrogenases can be modulated by these nucleotides in a nonlinear manner in many organisms. The action of an elevated pool of ATP and ADP may effectively inactivate lactococcal ADH, but not GAPDH and LDH, providing leverage for the observed metabolic shift to homolactic acid formation in lactococcal resting cells on maltose. Therefore, we interpret these results as a regulation mechanism contributing to readjusting the flux of ATP production in L. lactis. PMID:20193044

  16. Decreased creatine kinase is linked to diastolic dysfunction in rats with right heart failure induced by pulmonary artery hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Ewan D.; Benoist, David; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Stones, Rachel; Helmes, Michiel; Wüst, Rob C.I.; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Steele, Derek S.; White, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the role of creatine kinase in the contractile dysfunction of right ventricular failure caused by pulmonary artery hypertension. Pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular failure were induced in rats by monocrotaline and compared to saline-injected control animals. In vivo right ventricular diastolic pressure–volume relationships were measured in anesthetized animals; diastolic force–length relationships in single enzymatically dissociated myocytes and myocardial creatine kinase levels by Western blot. We observed diastolic dysfunction in right ventricular failure indicated by significantly steeper diastolic pressure–volume relationships in vivo and diastolic force–length relationships in single myocytes. There was a significant reduction in creatine kinase protein expression in failing right ventricle. Dysfunction also manifested as a shorter diastolic sarcomere length in failing myocytes. This was associated with a Ca2 +-independent mechanism that was sensitive to cross-bridge cycling inhibition. In saponin-skinned failing myocytes, addition of exogenous creatine kinase significantly lengthened sarcomeres, while in intact healthy myocytes, inhibition of creatine kinase significantly shortened sarcomeres. Creatine kinase inhibition also changed the relatively flat contraction amplitude–stimulation frequency relationship of healthy myocytes into a steeply negative, failing phenotype. Decreased creatine kinase expression leads to diastolic dysfunction. We propose that this is via local reduction in ATP:ADP ratio and thus to Ca2 +-independent force production and diastolic sarcomere shortening. Creatine kinase inhibition also mimics a definitive characteristic of heart failure, the inability to respond to increased demand. Novel therapies for pulmonary artery hypertension are needed. Our data suggest that cardiac energetics would be a potential ventricular therapeutic target. PMID:26116865

  17. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-10-22

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  18. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Kinetic characterization of branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Boyer, B; Odessey, R

    1991-02-15

    Initial velocity and product inhibition experiments were performed to characterize the kinetic mechanism of branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (the branched chain complex) activity. The results were directly compared to predicted patterns for a three-site ping-pong mechanism. Product inhibition experiments confirmed that NADH is competitive versus NAD+ and isovaleryl CoA is competitive versus CoA. Furthermore, both NADH and isovaleryl CoA were uncompetitive versus ketoisovaleric acid. These results are consistent with a ping-pong mechanism and are similar to pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. However, inhibition patterns for isovaleryl CoA versus NAD+ and NADH versus CoA are not consistent with a ping-pong mechanism. These patterns may result from a steric interaction between the flavoprotein and transacetylase subunits of the complex. To determine the kinetic mechanism of the substrates and feedback inhibitors (NADH and isovaleryl CoA) of the branched chain complex, it was necessary to define the interaction of the inhibitors at nonsaturating fixed substrate (CoA and NAD+) concentrations. While the competitive inhibition patterns were maintained, slope replots for NADH versus NAD+ at nonsaturating CoA concentrations were parabolic. This unexpected finding resembles a linear mixed type of inhibition where the inhibition is a combination of pure competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. PMID:1990967

  20. The Effect of the Creatine Analogue Beta-guanidinopropionic Acid on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oudman, Inge; Clark, Joseph F.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Creatine kinase plays a key role in cellular energy transport. The enzyme transfers high-energy phosphoryl groups from mitochondria to subcellular sites of ATP hydrolysis, where it buffers ADP concentration by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the high-energy phosphate moiety (P) between creatine and ADP. Cellular creatine uptake is competitively inhibited by beta-guanidinopropionic acid. This substance is marked as safe for human use, but the effects are unclear. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of beta-guanidinopropionic acid on energy metabolism and function of tissues with high energy demands. Methods We performed a systematic review and searched the electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and LILACS from their inception through March 2011. Furthermore, we searched the internet and explored references from textbooks and reviews. Results After applying the inclusion criteria, we retrieved 131 publications, mainly considering the effect of chronic oral administration of beta-guanidinopropionic acid (0.5 to 3.5%) on skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system, and brain tissue in animals. Beta-guanidinopropionic acid decreased intracellular creatine and phosphocreatine in all tissues studied. In skeletal muscle, this effect induced a shift from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism, increased cellular glucose uptake and increased fatigue tolerance. In heart tissue this shift to mitochondrial metabolism was less pronounced. Myocardial contractility was modestly reduced, including a decreased ventricular developed pressure, albeit with unchanged cardiac output. In brain tissue adaptations in energy metabolism resulted in enhanced ATP stability and survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Chronic beta-guanidinopropionic acid increases fatigue tolerance of skeletal muscle and survival during ischaemia in animal studies, with modestly reduced myocardial contractility. Because it is marked as safe for human use, there is a need for human data. PMID:23326362

  1. Does Creatine Supplementation Hinder Exercise Heat Tolerance or Hydration Status? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. Data Sources: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional heat illnesses, and renal function. Our goal was to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on hydration status and thermoregulation. Citations from related articles also were identified and retrieved. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. One author initially screened all articles. Fifteen of 95 articles examined the effects of creatine on thermoregulation or hydration status (or both). Two independent reviewers then reviewed these articles. Ten studies were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro scores for the 10 studies ranged from 7 to 10 points (maximum possible score ?=? 10 points). Conclusions: No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages. PMID:19295968

  2. Metabolic MR imaging of regional triglyceride and creatine content in the human heart.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kilian; Martini, Nicola; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    An optimized echo-planar spectroscopic imaging sequence is proposed to facilitate spatial mapping of triglyceride and total creatine content in the human heart. The sequence integrates local-look field of view reduction, cardiac and respiratory gating, and dedicated reconstruction steps to account for gradient channel delays, field inhomogeneity, and phase incoherence due to residual motion. The technique is demonstrated in 12 volunteers in comparison to single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy in the septal wall at 1.5 T. Triglyceride-to-water and total creatine-to-water ratios derived from echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (0.48 ± 0.18% and 0.06 ± 0.03%) and point-resolved spectroscopy (0.52 ± 0.17% and 0.07 ± 0.02%) were found to agree well. In the septal region, intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 to 0.72 were estimated. A relatively weak agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.34 and 0.52) was found for sectors in the lateral wall due to field gradients induced by the posterior vein and limited sensitivity of the receive coil array in this area. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that fast spectroscopic imaging of both cardiac triglyceride and total creatine content is feasible. Shimming and sensitivity challenges in the lateral region remain, however, to be addressed. PMID:22294511

  3. Effect of water activity and temperature on the stability of creatine during storage.

    PubMed

    Uzzan, Michael; Nechrebeki, Jacob; Zhou, Peng; Labuza, Theodore P

    2009-08-01

    Creatine degradation to creatinine, which has no biological activity, in combinations of glycerol and pH 4.0 buffer solutions followed first-order kinetics up to a point where degradation started to level off, generally beyond the first half-life. Practical data are reported for a wide range of water activity (a(w)) values (0.31-0.983) at 4 degrees C, 23 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. Creatine degradation did not exhibit a dilution effect, that is a decrease in rate about an a(w) of 0.7, as is found for both microbiological growth and chemical reactions in semisolid food matrix systems. The temperature dependence obeyed the Arrhenius relationship with an energy of activation of about 20 kcal/mol at a(w) >or= 0.68 increasing to 23 kcal/mole below that a(w). In addition, a semilog plot of half-life as a function of a(w) at each temperature follows a predicted straight line. The pH and assumed liquid viscosity increase through increased glycerol concentration were not able to completely explain the decrease in rate of degradation as a function of a(w). Furthermore, we confirmed that creatine stability in the crystal form is very high as long as it does not reach the deliquescence state. PMID:19635041

  4. Is Long Term Creatine and Glutamine Supplementation Effective in Enhancing Physical Performance of Military Police Officers?

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers. PMID:25713653

  5. Malate dehydrogenase-2 inhibitor LW6 promotes metabolic adaptations and reduces proliferation and apoptosis in activated human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    ELEFTHERIADIS, THEODOROS; PISSAS, GEORGIOS; ANTONIADI, GEORGIA; LIAKOPOULOS, VASSILIOS; STEFANIDIS, IOANNIS

    2015-01-01

    Activated T cells rely on aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis in order to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. Therefore, intervention in these metabolic pathways inhibits proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Krebs' cycle inhibition at the level of malate dehydrogenase-2 (MDH2) in human activated T cells using the MDH2 inhibitor LW6. Activated T cells from healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence or absence of LW6 and cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, c-Myc, p53, cleaved caspase-3 and certain enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and glutaminolysis were evaluated. The results revealed that LW6 was not toxic and decreased apoptosis and the levels of the pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor p53. In addition, LW6 inhibited T-cell proliferation and decreased the levels of c-Myc, HIF-1?, glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-II, lactate dehydrogenase-A and phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase. By contrast, LW6 increased the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase. These alterations may lead to decreased production of pyruvate, which preferentially enters into the Krebs' cycle. Furthermore, LW6 decreased the levels of glutaminase-2, while increasing those of glutaminase-1, which may preserve glutaminolysis, and possibly pyruvate-malate cycling, potentially protecting the cells from energy collapse. In summary, the inhibition of MDH2 in activated T cells abrogates proliferation without adversely affecting cell survival. Adaptations of cellular glucose and glutamine metabolism may prevent energy collapse. PMID:26640580

  6. On line continuous monitoring of blood lactate in men by a wearable device based upon an enzymatic amperometric lactate sensor.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, C; Bischof, F; Mennel, F J; Sternberg, F; Bican, J; Pfeiffer, E F

    1993-01-01

    A wearable device for the continuous measurement of lactate in the blood was constructed by the combination of continuous blood sampling employing a double lumen catheter with an amperometric lactate sensor. In vitro, the lactate sensor turned out to have a linear concentration range between 0 and 15 mmol/l. The response time of the sensor itself amounted to 100 sec, whereas the lag time for blood sampling amounted to 2.2 min. In vivo, the lactate sensor was successfully used for the detection of changes of the blood lactate concentration following strenuous exercise in 7 healthy volunteers, in two cases up to 22 h. In conclusion, the technique of continuous blood sampling by the use of a double lumen catheter in combination with the amperometric lactate sensor is feasible and simplifies frequent blood lactate estimations. PMID:8311937

  7. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Methyl Lactate.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, Sidsel D; Wallberg, Jens H; Kroll, Jay A; Maroun, Zeina; Vaida, Veronica; Kjaergaard, Henrik G

    2015-09-17

    The intramolecular hydrogen bonding in methyl lactate was studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, intracavity laser photoacoustic spectroscopy, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Vapor phase spectra were recorded in the ?vOH = 1-4 OH-stretching regions, and the observed OH-stretching transitions were compared with theoretical results. Transition frequencies and oscillator strengths were obtained using a one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator local mode model with potential energy and dipole moment surfaces calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level. The three most abundant conformers of methyl lactate all appear to possess an intramolecular hydrogen bond, with the hydroxyl group forming a hydrogen bond with either the carbonyl or ester oxygen. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds were investigated theoretically by analyses based on electron density topology, natural bond orbital analysis, and visualization of the electrostatic potential energy. PMID:26296230

  8. Extended lactation in dairy cows: effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D Donald; Knight, Christopher H

    2008-02-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course of lactation but was not affected by supplementation; none of the cows became excessively fat. All cows remained healthy throughout the extended lactations and the majority (33/36) re-bred successfully. By demonstrating that lactation persistency is plastic and can be improved by simple management interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed. PMID:18226299

  9. Dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway in rat liver peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, V D

    1989-07-15

    Subcellular distribution of pentose-phosphate cycle enzymes in rat liver was investigated, using differential and isopycnic centrifugation. The activities of the NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose-phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were detected in the purified peroxisomal fraction as well as in the cytosol. Both dehydrogenases were localized in the peroxisomal matrix. Chronic administration of the hypolipidemic drug clofibrate (ethyl-alpha-p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate) caused a 1.5-2.5-fold increase in the amount of glucose-6-phosphate and phosphogluconate dehydrogenases in the purified peroxisomes. Clofibrate decreased the phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, but did not alter glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the cytosolic fraction. The results obtained indicate that the enzymes of the non-oxidative segment of the pentose cycle (transketolase, transaldolase, triosephosphate isomerase and glucose-phosphate isomerase) are present only in a soluble form in the cytosol, but not in the peroxisomes or other particles, and that ionogenic interaction of the enzymes with the mitochondrial and other membranes takes place during homogenization of the tissue in 0.25 M sucrose. Similar to catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are present in the intact peroxisomes in a latent form. The enzymes have Km values for their substrates in the millimolar range (0.2 mM for glucose-6-phosphate and 0.10-0.12 mM for 6-phosphogluconate). NADP+, but not NAD+, serves as a coenzyme for both enzymes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and to a lesser extent by NADPH. Peroxisomal glucose-6-phosphate and phosphogluconate dehydrogenases have molecular mass of 280 kDa and 96 kDa, respectively. The putative functional role of pentose-phosphate cycle dehydrogenases in rat liver peroxisomes is discussed. PMID:2753047

  10. Use of a Novel Escherichia coli-Leuconostoc Shuttle Vector for Metabolic Engineering of Leuconostoc citreum To Overproduce d-Lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Han Seung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Park, Si Jae

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of a cryptic plasmid, pMBLT00, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides KCTC13302 revealed that it contains 20,721 bp, a G+C content of 38.7%, and 18 open reading frames. Comparative sequence and mung been nuclease analyses of pMBLT00 showed that pMBLT00 replicates via the theta replication mechanism. A new, stable Escherichia coli-Leuconostoc shuttle vector, pMBLT02, which was constructed from a theta-replicating pMBLT00 replicon and an erythromycin resistance gene of pE194, was successfully introduced into Leuconostoc, Lactococcus lactis, and Pediococcus. This shuttle vector was used to engineer Leuconostoc citreum 95 to overproduce d-lactate. The L. citreum 95 strain engineered using plasmid pMBLT02, which overexpresses d-lactate dehydrogenase, exhibited enhanced production of optically pure d-lactate (61 g/liter, which is 6 times greater than the amount produced by the control strain) when cultured in a reactor supplemented with 140 g/liter glucose. Therefore, the shuttle vector pMBLT02 can serve as a useful and stable plasmid vector for further development of a d-lactate overproduction system in other Leuconostoc strains and Lactococcus lactis. PMID:23241984

  11. Mitochondrial Respiratory Defect Causes Dysfunctional Lactate Turnover via AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Im, Ilkyun; Jang, Mi-Jin; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Sang-Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook; Kim, Seyun; Han, Yong-Mahn

    2015-12-01

    A defective mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (DMRC) causes various metabolic disorders in humans. However, the pathophysiology of DMRC in the liver remains unclear. To understand DMRC pathophysiology in vitro, DMRC-induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from dermal fibroblasts of a DMRC patient who had a homoplasmic mutation (m.3398T?C) in the mitochondrion-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (MTND1) gene and that differentiated into hepatocytes (DMRC hepatocytes) in vitro. DMRC hepatocytes showed abnormalities in mitochondrial characteristics, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, the glycogen storage level, the lactate turnover rate, and AMPK activity. Intriguingly, low glycogen storage and transcription of lactate turnover-related genes in DMRC hepatocytes were recovered by inhibition of AMPK activity. Thus, AMPK activation led to metabolic changes in terms of glycogen storage and lactate turnover in DMRC hepatocytes. These data demonstrate for the first time that energy depletion may lead to lactic acidosis in the DMRC patient by reduction of lactate uptake via AMPK in liver. PMID:26491018

  12. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 ?m were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key points There is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats. Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats. The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased in creatine supplementation groups. PMID:24149591

  13. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andrus, Liam P.; Unruh, Rachel; Wisniewski, Natalie A.; McShane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors. PMID:26198251

  14. Heat-related illness in Jinshan District of Shanghai: A retrospective analysis of 70 patients

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Wei-chun; Gao, Xia; Liu, Guo-ping; Wang, Wei; Shen, Jun-mei; Xu, Ming-jia; Shen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with heat-related illness, and guide the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heat-related illness. METHODS: From June 2013 to August 2013, seventy patients with heat-related illness were treated at Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, and their epidemiological characteristics, laboratory results, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In the 70 patients, 18 patients suffered from heat stroke and 52 patients from non-heat stroke. When the environmnent temperature was above 35 °C, the body temperature of the patients began to increase markedly. The patients with heat stroke were significantly older than those with non-heat stroke (P<0.05). The body temperature, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase in the patients with heat stroke were higher than those in the patients with non-heat stroke (P<0.05). Blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase were positively correlated with body temperature (r=0.801). CONCLUSION: When the environmental temperature goes above 35 °C, heat-related illness should be prevented, especially in the elderly. The body temperature, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase in patients with heat stroke are higher than those in patients with non-heat stroke. Blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase are positively correlated with body temperature, but their relationship with heat-related illness awaits further study. PMID:25548603

  15. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  16. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an ‘opportunistic', glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain. PMID:22186669

  17. Role and regulation of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in lung inflammation 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that have potent anti-inflammatory actions. Endogenous glucocorticoid action is modulated by 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) which catalyses the interconversion of ...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1380 Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  3. Presence of (phospho)creatine in developing and adult skeletal muscle of mice without mitochondrial and cytosolic muscle creatine kinase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    in't Zandt, H J A; de Groof, A J C; Renema, W K J; Oerlemans, F T J J; Klomp, D W J; Wieringa, B; Heerschap, A

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) content and creatine kinase (CK) activity in skeletal muscle of mice. The PCr and total Cr (tCr) concentrations, as well as CK activity, in hindlimb muscles of mice, with or without the cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of muscle creatine kinase (wild-type or CK?/? mice), were determined by in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and by biochemical means during postnatal growth and adulthood. In wild-type muscle the [tCr], PCr/ATP ratio and CK activity increased rapidly in the first 4–7 weeks. Remarkably, CK?/? mice showed a similar increase in the PCr/ATP ratio during the first month in the presence of only minor brain-type BB-CK activity. Uptake of Cr in muscle was seemingly unrelated to CK activity as tCr increased in the same way in the muscles of both mouse types. At older ages the PCr/ATP ratio decreased in CK?/? muscles, in contrast to wild-type where it still slowly increased, whereas [tCr] was similar for muscle of both mouse types. Using a new in vivo MR approach with application of [4-13C]Cr, a lower PCr/tCr ratio was also observed in CK?/? muscle. From these data it follows that in vivo global ATP levels at rest are similar in the presence or absence of CK. Although Cr could still be converted to PCr in mature CK?/? muscle, the immediate availability of PCr decreased, and PCr became partly inconvertible at older ages. Apparently, catalysis of the CK reaction by BB-CK, although significant in muscles of newborn mice, gradually declines to very low levels in adulthood. Part or all of this BB-CK may arise from satellite cells fusing with myotubes, a process that is most active during the first months of life. Finally, our observation that the MR and chemical assessment of muscle [tCr] and PCr/tCr ratio were similar for all mice does not support the existence of a significant MR-invisible or immobile pool of Cr, with a role for CK in this phenomenon. PMID:12640020

  4. Blood-derived proteins in milk at start of lactation: Indicators of active or passive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wall, Samantha K; Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Villez, Kris; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-11-01

    Colostrum has a different composition compared with milk in established lactation. This difference is in part due to the partially open blood-milk barrier, which, when closed, is designed to prevent the interdiffusion of blood and milk components. In the first days of lactation, ?-lactalbumin (?-LA), a milk protein, is typically present in blood and several blood-derived proteins are also present in milk, such as IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin (SA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). With the exception of IgG1, which is known to be transferred by active transcellular transport, the other proteins are thought to pass paracellularly through the temporarily open barrier. Along with an exchange of blood and milk components, somatic cell count (SCC) is typically high in colostrum. The decline of these proteins and SCC can be used as indicators to determine transcellular or paracellular transport. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis was that the decline curve for a protein or SCC would be the same as IgG1, indicating transcellular transport, or the decline curve would be different than IgG1, indicating paracellular transport. The second hypothesis was that the decline curves of SCC and all proteins that are thought to have paracellular transport would be the same. Ten Holstein cows were milked at 4 h after parturition, the next 5 consecutive milkings, and the afternoon milking on d 5, 8, 10, and 14 of lactation for a total of 10 milking time points, and sequential jugular blood samples were also taken. Blood and milk samples were analyzed for the concentrations of LDH, SA, IgG1, IgG2, and ?-LA and milk samples were measured for SCC. Protein concentration and SCC curves were generated from all 10 time points and were evaluated using the tau time constant model to determine the rate of decline of the slope of each protein. When examining the first hypothesis, the concentration of IgG1 declined significantly faster in the milk than the proteins IgG2 and LDH, but declined at the same rate as SA. Immunoglobulin G1 also declined significantly faster than SCC and ?-LA in plasma. The second hypothesis showed that IgG2, LDH, and SA in milk were declining at the same rate, but were declining significantly faster than SCC and ?-LA in plasma. These results indicate that only active transcellular transport of IgG1 occurred, with a sharp decline at parturition, compared with IgG2, SA, LDH, ?-LA, and SCC, which are likely following paracellular transport. PMID:26298756

  5. [Characterization of the pathology of lactating cows based on the level of lactation. Principal factors in the variation and typing of pathologic profiles of lactation].

    PubMed

    Landais, E; Coulon, J B; Garel, J P; Hoden, A

    1989-01-01

    The health disturbances investigated were observed during a long-term trial (six years) conducted at an experimental station located at 1,100 m elevation. The study dealt with 487 lactations involving 190 cows of the Montbéliarde and French Friesian breeds, which produced on average 4,200 kg milk per lactation. The disturbances concerned 59% of monitored lactations, with a mean incidence of 2.1 disturbances per lactation. Lameness and mastitis accounted respectively for 52 and 24% of the clinical affections. Pathology was significantly influenced by breed, basic diet (hay or grass silage), concentrate quantities, lactation rank and year. The authors describe a method permitting an independent analysis of the effects of lactation stage and of season on mastitis and lameness frequency, by limiting the biases due to grouping of calvings and to culling. The study of lactations affected by several pathological disturbances shows that the different types of affections recorded are mutually independent but that successive occurrences of the same affection are not. On the basis of these results, the authors have proposed to globally characterize the "pathological profiles" of lactations. PMID:2817732

  6. Comparative quantification of dietary supplemented neural creatine concentrations with (1)H-MRS peak fitting and basis spectrum methods.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Russell, Bruce R; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical procedure that can be used to non-invasively measure the concentration of a range of neural metabolites. Creatine is an important neurometabolite with dietary supplementation offering therapeutic potential for neurological disorders with dysfunctional energetic processes. Neural creatine concentrations can be probed using proton MRS and quantified using a range of software packages based on different analytical methods. This experiment examines the differences in quantification performance of two commonly used analysis packages following a creatine supplementation strategy with potential therapeutic application. Human participants followed a seven day dietary supplementation regime in a placebo-controlled, cross-over design interspersed with a five week wash-out period. Spectroscopy data were acquired the day immediately following supplementation and analyzed with two commonly-used software packages which employ vastly different quantification methods. Results demonstrate that neural creatine concentration was augmented following creatine supplementation when analyzed using the peak fitting method of quantification (105.9%±10.1). In contrast, no change in neural creatine levels were detected with supplementation when analysis was conducted using the basis spectrum method of quantification (102.6%±8.6). Results suggest that software packages that employ the peak fitting procedure for spectral quantification are possibly more sensitive to subtle changes in neural creatine concentrations. The relative simplicity of the spectroscopy sequence and the data analysis procedure suggest that peak fitting procedures may be the most effective means of metabolite quantification when detection of subtle alterations in neural metabolites is necessary. The straightforward technique can be used on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. PMID:26117698

  7. Hydride Transfer in Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Quantum Dynamics, Kinetic Isotope Effects, and Role of Enzyme Motion

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Hydride Transfer in Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Quantum Dynamics, Kinetic Isotope Effects dynamics of the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) are studied and the coenzyme. I. Introduction Liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohols

  8. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  11. Rate equation for creatine kinase predicts the in vivo reaction velocity: /sup 31/P NMR surface coil studies in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of the living rat

    SciTech Connect

    Bittl, J.A.; DeLayre, J.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1987-09-22

    Brain, heart, and skeletal muscle contain four different creatine kinase isozymes and various concentrations of substrates for the creatine kinase reaction. To identify if the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction under cellular conditions is regulated by enzyme activity and substrate concentrations as predicted by the rate equation, the authors used /sup 31/P NMR and spectrophotometric techniques to measure reaction velocity, enzyme content, isozyme distribution, and concentrations of substrates in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of living rat under basal or resting conditions. The total tissue activity of creatine kinase in the direction of MgATP synthesis provided an estimate for V/sub max/ and exceeded the NMR-determined in vivo reaction velocities by an order of magnitude. The isozyme composition varied among the three tissues: >99% BB for brain; 14% MB, 61% MM, and 25% mitochondrial for heart; and 98% MM and 2% mitochondrial for skeletal muscle. The NMR-determined reaction velocities agreed with predicted values from the creatine kinase rate equation. The concentrations of free creatine and cytosolic MgADP, being less than or equal to the dissociation constants for each isozyme, were dominant terms in the creatine kinase rate equation for predicting the in vivo reaction velocity. Thus, they observed that the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction is regulated by total tissue enzyme activity and by the concentrations of creatine and MgADP in a manner that is independent of isozyme distribution.

  12. Incubating Isolated Mouse EDL Muscles with Creatine Improves Force Production and Twitch Kinetics in Fatigue Due to Reduction in Ionic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Head, Stewart I.; Greenaway, Bronwen; Chan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. Methods and Results The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12–14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i) before fatigue; (ii) immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii) after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. Conclusion Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation. PMID:21850234

  13. Creatine supplementation during pregnancy: summary of experimental studies suggesting a treatment to improve fetal and neonatal morbidity and reduce mortality in high-risk human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the use of creatine in human pregnancy is yet to be fully evaluated, its long-term use in healthy adults appears to be safe, and its well documented neuroprotective properties have recently been extended by demonstrations that creatine improves cognitive function in normal and elderly people, and motor skills in sleep-deprived subjects. Creatine has many actions likely to benefit the fetus and newborn, because pregnancy is a state of heightened metabolic activity, and the placenta is a key source of free radicals of oxygen and nitrogen. The multiple benefits of supplementary creatine arise from the fact that the creatine-phosphocreatine [PCr] system has physiologically important roles that include maintenance of intracellular ATP and acid–base balance, post-ischaemic recovery of protein synthesis, cerebral vasodilation, antioxidant actions, and stabilisation of lipid membranes. In the brain, creatine not only reduces lipid peroxidation and improves cerebral perfusion, its interaction with the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor is likely to counteract the effects of glutamate excitotoxicity – actions that may protect the preterm and term fetal brain from the effects of birth hypoxia. In this review we discuss the development of creatine synthesis during fetal life, the transfer of creatine from mother to fetus, and propose that creatine supplementation during pregnancy may have benefits for the fetus and neonate whenever oxidative stress or feto-placental hypoxia arise, as in cases of fetal growth restriction, premature birth, or when parturition is delayed or complicated by oxygen deprivation of the newborn. PMID:24766646

  14. Hepatic metabolic response of Holstein cows in early and mid lactation is altered by nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic response of the liver during periods of inflammation is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on hepatic intermediate metabolism of early- and mid-lactation cows by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with stable isotope tracer. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in early (n = 6; 12 ± 4.2 d in milk) and mid (n = 6; 115 ± 13.5 d in milk) lactation were used for this study. Liver biopsies were performed on all cows. Liver slices (40-60 mg) were incubated in a 37°C water bath for 2 h with either control (phosphate buffered saline), pyruvate (PYR; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate and 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate), pyruvate + propionate (PYR+PRO; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM sodium propionate), or pyruvate + AA (PYR+AA; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM AA solution), and LPS (0.0 or 0.2 ?g/mL) was added to flasks per treatment. Enrichment of isotopomers in metabolic equilibrium with Krebs cycle intermediates was assessed. Pyruvate fluxes and the enzymatic activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) versus pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were calculated. Media were analyzed for concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), glucose, and haptoglobin. Data were analyzed as randomized block (stage of lactation) design in a factorial arrangement of nutrient treatments by LPS dose. Challenge with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of TNF-?, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A 2, and the concentration of TNF-? in media. Challenge with LPS increased mRNA abundance of PC but reduced the enrichment of (13)C1[M1] and (13)C2[M2]alanine and tended to reduce the enzymatic activity of PEPCK. Incubation with PYR+PRO and PYR+AA increased the flux of pyruvate to acetyl CoA. However, only PYR+PRO increased the enzymatic activity of PEPCK and PDH versus PC and decreased the mRNA abundance of PC. Cows in early lactation tended to receive a greater contribution of pyruvate to the oxaloacetate flux via the lower PDH versus PC activity and a higher mRNA abundance of PC than cows in mid lactation. Our results suggest that regardless of stage of lactation and nutrient supplement, hepatic gluconeogenesis was impaired during inflammation. Further research examining how various nutrients support liver function and improve the immunometabolic response of liver during inflammation is warranted. PMID:26233455

  15. Substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstad, R I; Köll, P; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    The substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase has been studied by steady-state kinetics over the range pH 7-10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase stereo-selectively catalyses the reversible NAD-linked oxidation of various polyols and other secondary alcohols into their corresponding ketones. The kinetic constants are given for various novel polyol substrates, including L-glucitol, L-mannitol, L-altritol, D-altritol, D-iditol and eight heptitols, as well as for many aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. The maximum velocities (kcat) and the substrate specificity-constants (kcat/Km) are positively correlated with increasing pH. The enzyme-catalysed reactions occur by a compulsory ordered kinetic mechanism with the coenzyme as the first, or leading, substrate. With many substrates, the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction is the enzyme-NADH product dissociation. However, with several substrates there is a transition to a mechanism with partial rate-limitation at the ternary complex level, especially at low pH. The kinetic data enable the elucidation of new empirical rules for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The specificity-constants for polyol oxidation vary as a function of substrate configuration with D-xylo> D-ribo > L-xylo > D-lyxo approximately L-arabino > D-arabino > L-lyxo. Catalytic activity with a polyol or an aromatic substrate and various 1-deoxy derivatives thereof varies with -CH2OH > -CH2NH2 > -CH2OCH3 approximately -CH3. The presence of a hydroxyl group at each of the remaining chiral centres of a polyol, apart from the reactive C2, is also nonessential for productive ternary complex formation and catalysis. A predominantly nonpolar enzymic epitope appears to constitute an important structural determinant for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The existence of two distinct substrate binding regions in the enzyme active site, along with that of the catalytic zinc, is suggested to account for the lack of stereospecificity at C2 in some polyols. PMID:9461546

  16. Enhanced Responsiveness to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Nicholas J.; McCormick, Betsy A.; Horseman, Nelson D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Gregerson, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence has cast doubt on the effectiveness of SSRIs, these results support their therapeutic use in the treatment of PPD. PMID:25689282

  17. Clinical correlates of arterial lactate levels in STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2011-01-01

    Increases in blood lactate reflect decreases in systemic blood flows associated with low blood flow states characteristic of circulatory shock. Accordingly, the report by Vermeulen and colleagues documents the use of the blood lactate measurement as a prognostic indicator in settings of ST elevation myocardial infarction. That lactate value therefore identified high-risk patients as a complication, often with clinical signs of cardiogenic shock of corresponding severities. PMID:21345276

  18. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jury, Nicholas J; McCormick, Betsy A; Horseman, Nelson D; Benoit, Stephen C; Gregerson, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence has cast doubt on the effectiveness of SSRIs, these results support their therapeutic use in the treatment of PPD. PMID:25689282

  19. Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-1 Tissue Distribution in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P.; Romero, Damian G.; de Rodriguez, Angela F.; Warden, Mary P.; Krozowski, Zygmunt; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone are modulated by the enzymes 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) 1 and 2. 11?-HSD1 is a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent microsomal reductase that converts the inactive glucocorticoids cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone to their active forms, cortisol and corticosterone. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is an enzyme that generates NADPH from oxidized NADP (NADP+) within the endoplasmic reticulum. In the absence of NADPH or H6PDH to regenerate NADPH, 11?-HSD1 acts as a dehydrogenase and inactivates glucocorticoids, as does 11?-HSD2. A monoclonal antibody against H6PDH was produced to study the possibility that 11?-HSD1 in the absence of H6PDH may be responsible for hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in tissues that do not express significant amounts of 11?-HSD2. H6PDH and 11?-HSD1 expression was surveyed in a variety of rat tissues by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. H6PDH was found in a wide variety of tissues, with the greatest concentrations in the liver, kidney, and Leydig cells. Although the brain as a whole did not express significant amounts of H6PDH, some neurons were clearly immunoreactive by immunohistochemistry. H6PDH was amply expressed in most tissues examined in which 11?-HSD1 was also expressed, with the notable exception of the renal interstitial cells, in which dehydrogenase activity by 11?-HSD1 probably moderates activation of the glucocorticoid receptor because rat renal interstitial cells do not have significant amounts of mineralocorticoid receptors. This antibody against the H6PDH should prove useful for further studies of enzyme activity requiring NADPH generation within the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:18039793

  20. Lactate's effect on human neuroblastoma cell bioenergetic fluxes.

    PubMed

    E, Lezi; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a metabolic dead-end, has been recently proposed to support neuron bioenergetics. To better understand how lactate specifically influences cell energy metabolism, we studied the effects of lactate supplementation on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell bioenergetic fluxes. Lactate supplementation increased cell respiration, there was no change in respiratory coupling efficiency, and lactate itself appeared to directly support the respiratory flux increase. Conversely, lactate supplementation reduced the glycolysis flux. This apparent pro-aerobic shift in the respiration:glycolysis ratio was accompanied by post-translational modifications and compartmental redistributions of proteins that respond to and modify bioenergetic fluxes, including cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 ? (PGC-1?), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1). mRNA levels for PGC-1?, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) increased. Some effects depended on the direct presence of lactate, while others were durable and evident several hours after lactate was removed. We conclude lactate can be used to manipulate cell bioenergetics. PMID:26592660

  1. Lactate transport and receptor actions in cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Shelton T.; Kolko, Miriam; Gjedde, Albert; Bergersen, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a prevalent neurological disorder in the tropics. Most of the patients are children, typically with intractable seizures and high mortality. Current treatment is unsatisfactory. Understanding the pathogenesis of CM is required in order to identify therapeutic targets. Here, we argue that cerebral energy metabolic defects are probable etiological factors in CM pathogenesis, because malaria parasites consume large amounts of glucose metabolized mostly to lactate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate facilitated transfer, which serves to equalize lactate concentrations across cell membranes in the direction of the concentration gradient. The equalizing action of MCTs is the basis for lactate’s role as a volume transmitter of metabolic signals in the brain. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81, recently discovered on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, causing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. High levels of lactate delivered by the parasite at the vascular endothelium may damage the blood–brain barrier, disrupt lactate homeostasis in the brain, and imply MCTs and the lactate receptor as novel therapeutic targets in CM. PMID:24904266

  2. Is lactate the new panacea for endothelial dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Nalos, Marek; Tang, Benjamin M; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation in the critically ill is a hot topic. The current strategy of rapid and adequate resuscitation in shock followed by conservative fluid administration is often difficult to achieve with standard crystalloid solutions. Research into alternative intravenous fluids tailored to individual patient needs is required. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Somasetia and colleagues compare the effects of hypertonic sodium lactate with the World Health Organization-recommended strategy of Ringer's lactate resuscitation in children with severe Dengue, a viral infection for which causal treatment and vaccination are not available. The results not only suggest unimpaired lactate metabolism during shock in children but document improvement in endothelial barrier function, limited coagulopathy, and avoidance of fluid overload with hypertonic sodium lactate. Their study invites several important questions to be answered. Is hypertonicity or lactate per se important for the beneficial effects? Are the metabolic or anti-inflammatory effects responsible? Is the raised lactate in shock an adaptive response? Should reduction in lactate levels be the goal of resuscitation? These questions may trigger further research into the role of lactate and lactate-based intravenous fluids in resuscitation of the critically ill. PMID:25672811

  3. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670 Section 862.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section 862.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system....

  5. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. 866.5560 Section 866.5560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. 866.5560 Section 866.5560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section 862.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system....

  8. BACTERIAL EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a very large multi-component structure that catalyzes decarboxylation of pyruvate, yielding CO2, NADH, and acetyl-CoA as products. The decarboxylation reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1). The PDC occupies a key position in intermediary met...

  9. Immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase onto metal-chelated cryogels.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Deniz Akta?; Akduman, Begüm; Uygun, Murat; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2015-01-01

    In this presented work, poly(HEMA-GMA) cryogel was synthesized and used for the immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase. For this, synthesized cryogels were functionalized with iminodiacetic acid and chelated with Zn(2+). This metal-chelated cryogels were used for the alcohol dehydrogenase immobilization and their kinetic parameters were compared with free enzyme. Optimum pH was found to be 7.0 for both immobilized and free enzyme preparations, while temperature optima for free and immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase was 25 °C. Kinetic constants such as K(m), V(max), and k(cat) for free and immobilized form of alcohol dehydrogenase were also investigated. k(cat) value of free enzyme was found to be 3743.9 min(-1), while k(cat) for immobilized enzyme was 3165.7 min(-1). Thermal stability of the free and immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase was studied and stability of the immobilized enzyme was found to be higher than free form. Also, operational stability and reusability profile of the immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase were investigated. Finally, storage stability of the free and immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase was studied, and at the end of the 60 days storage, it was demonstrated that, immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase was exhibited high stability than that of free enzyme. PMID:25715869

  10. Induction of Glycerol Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Expression During Seizure

    E-print Network

    Kuhl, Dietmar

    Induction of Glycerol Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Expression During Seizure and Analgesia Wolfgang display, we found that the gene for NAD -dependent glycerol phosphate dehy- drogenase (GPDH; EC 1 as it is mimicked by exogenously applied analgesic drugs. Key Words: Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

  11. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ? 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  12. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  13. Workplace lactation program: a nursing friendly initiative.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Michelle A

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing a nursing shortage that is threatening its quality of healthcare. One contributing factor that has been identified is the level of dissatisfaction that nurses have with their working conditions. Health Services Organizations can use female and family friendly initiatives, such as workplace lactation programs to demonstrate that they are willing to support a female employee's task of balancing familial and profession roles. By meeting the needs of breastfeeding mothers, organizations can have a positive impact on employees' levels of satisfaction, which can positively impact recruitment efforts, productivity and retention. PMID:18998524

  14. Monocarboxylate transporters and mitochondrial creatine kinase protein content in McArdle disease.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Yu; Ogborn, Daniel I; Mocellin, Nicholas J; Schlattner, Uwe; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    McArdle disease (MD) is a metabolic myopathy due to myophosphorylase deficiency. We examined monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and creatine kinase (CK) protein content in skeletal muscle from MD patients and age-matched controls to evaluate potential cellular adaptations that compensate for the loss of glycogenolysis. Our findings of higher MCT1 and mitochondrial CK suggest that proteins related to extra-muscular fuel uptake and intra-muscular energy transduction are up-regulated without change in mitochondrial mass in MD patients. PMID:23434346

  15. Kinetic Analysis of the Amino Terminal End of Active Site Loop of Lactate Deyhdrogenase from Plasmodium Vivax

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Özal; Bal?k, Dilek Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, kinetic analysis was performed to understand the functional importance of the amino terminal of the active site of previously mutated Plasmodium vivax Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme by mimicking Toxoplasma gondii I, II, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella LDH’s. Material and Methods: Mutant LDH genes were amplified by PCR and 6xHistag was added to the C-terminal of the enzymes. Then LDH enzymes are overproduced as recombinant in E. coli cells, purified by Ni-NTA agarose matrix and kinetic properties were analysed. Results: Observing increase of Km values of mutant enzymes showed that mutations in this place caused decreasing affinity of enzyme for its substrate. However kcat values were about the same throughout all mutant proteins. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the studied region emphasizes the significance of this site for drug design studies for both Plasmodium and some other Apicomplexans. PMID:25207035

  16. Native and Modified Lactate Dehydrogenase Expression in a Fumaric Acid Producing isolate Rhizopus oryzae 99-880

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus that is of broad importance to the industrial, agricultural, and medical community. R. oryzae can be subdivided into two groups based on genetic and phenotypic differences. Type-I isolates accumulate primarily lactic acid when grown in the presence of a ferm...

  17. Identification of a potent inhibitor targeting human lactate dehydrogenase A and its metabolic modulation for cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ye; Feng, Yan; Chen, Jing-Yu; Deng, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Targeting LDHA represents a promising strategy for the development of new anti-cancer agents. We report herein the identification of a potent compound as a direct LDHA inhibitor. The in vitro enzymatic assay revealed that the VS-2 had good inhibitory potency (IC50=0.25?M) to LDHA. Cytotoxic assay suggested that the VS-2 could inhibit MCF-7 cancer cell growth, with the IC50 value low to 1.54?M. The seahorse XF24 experiment validated that the VS-2 served as a modulator to reprogram MCF-7 cancer cell metabolism from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. PMID:26597536

  18. Characterization of the developmentally regulated Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, K A; Uratani, B; Chaudhry, G R; Ramaley, R F; Rudikoff, S

    1986-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the structural gene for glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) of Bacillus subtilis was determined and comprises 780 base pairs. The subunit molecular weight of glucose dehydrogenase as deduced from the nucleotide sequence is 28,196, which agrees well with the subunit molecular weight of 31,500 as determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the 49 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of glucose dehydrogenase purified from sporulating B. subtilis cells matched the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence. Glucose dehydrogenase was purified from an Escherichia coli strain harboring pEF1, a plasmid that contains the B. subtilis gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase. This enzyme has the identical amino acid sequence at the NH2 terminus as the B. subtilis enzyme. A putative ribosome-binding site, 5'-AGGAGG-3', which is complementary to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of B. subtilis, was found 6 base pairs preceding the translational start codon of the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. No known promoterlike DNA sequences that are recognized by B. subtilis RNA polymerases were present immediately preceding the translational start site of the glucose dehydrogenase structural gene. The glucose dehydrogenase gene was found to be under sporulation control at the trancriptional level. A transcript of 1.6 kilobases hybridized to a DNA fragment within the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. This transcript was synthesized 3 h after the cessation of vegetative growth concomitant to the appearance of glucose dehydrogenase. Images PMID:3082854

  19. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  20. Lactate response to different volume patterns of power clean.

    PubMed

    Date, Anand S; Simonson, Shawn R; Ransdell, Lynda B; Gao, Yong

    2013-03-01

    The ability to metabolize or tolerate lactate and produce power simultaneously can be an important determinant of performance. Current training practices for improving lactate use include high-intensity aerobic activities or a combination of aerobic and resistance training. Excessive aerobic training may have undesired physiological adaptations (e.g., muscle loss, change in fiber types). The role of explosive power training in lactate production and use needs further clarification. We hypothesized that high-volume explosive power movements such as Olympic lifts can increase lactate production and overload lactate clearance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess lactate accumulation after the completion of 3 different volume patterns of power cleans. Ten male recreational athletes (age 24.22 ± 1.39 years) volunteered. Volume patterns consisted of 3 sets × 3 repetition maximum (3RM) (low volume [LV]), 3 sets × 6 reps at 80-85% of 3RM (midvolume [MV]), and 3 sets × 9 reps at 70-75% of 3RM (high volume [HV]). Rest period was identical at 2 minutes. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after each volume pattern. The HV resulted in the greatest lactate accumulation (7.43 ± 2.94 mmol·L) vs. (5.27 ± 2.48 and 4.03 ± 1.78 mmol·L in MV and LV, respectively). Mean relative increase in lactate was the highest in HV (356.34%). The findings indicate that lactate production in power cleans is largely associated with volume, determined by number of repetitions, load, and rest interval. High-volume explosive training may impose greater metabolic demands than low-volume explosive training and may improve ability to produce power in the presence of lactate. The role of explosive power training in overloading the lactate clearance mechanism should be examined further, especially for athletes of intermittent sport. PMID:22648139

  1. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Valente, Serafina; Chiostri, Marco; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients (that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia (i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions (i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome. PMID:26322188

  2. The Influence of Reproductive Experience on Milk Energy Output and Lactation Performance in the Grey Seal

    E-print Network

    Bowen, W. Don

    The Influence of Reproductive Experience on Milk Energy Output and Lactation Performance of lactation performance, whether reproductive experience may have a significant influence on milk energy influence on lactation performance. Although there was no difference between primiparous females in milk

  3. Functional response of the isolated, perfused normoxic heart to pyruvate dehydrogenase activation by dichloroacetate and pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes, Rafael; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Brooks, Daina M.; Swift, Luther M.; Posnack, Nikki G.; Kay, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) and pyruvate activate pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a key enzyme that modulates glucose oxidation and mitochondrial NADH production. Both compounds improve recovery after ischemia in isolated hearts. However, the action of DCA and pyruvate in normoxic myocardium is incompletely understood. We measured the effect of DCA and pyruvate on contraction, mitochondrial redox state, and intracellular calcium cycling in isolated rat hearts during normoxic perfusion. Normalized epicardial NADH fluorescence (nNADH) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were measured before and after administering DCA (5 mM) or pyruvate (5 mM). Optical mapping of Rhod-2AM was used to measure cytosolic calcium kinetics. DCA maximally activated PDH, increasing the ratio of active to total PDH from 0.48±0.03 to 1.03 ±0.03. Pyruvate sub-maximally activated PDH to a ratio of 0.75±0.02. DCA and pyruvate increased LVDP. When glucose was the only exogenous fuel, pyruvate increased nNADH by 21.4±2.9 % while DCA reduced nNADH by 21.4±6.1 % and elevated the incidence of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). When lactate, pyruvate, and glucose were provided together as exogenous fuels, nNADH increased with DCA, indicating that PDH activation with glucose as the only exogenous fuel depletes PDH substrate. Calcium transient time-to-peak was shortened by DCA and pyruvate and SR calcium re-uptake was 30 % longer. DCA and pyruvate increased SR calcium load in myocyte monolayers. Overall, during normoxia when glucose is the only exogenous fuel, DCA elevates SR calcium, increases LVDP and contractility, and diminishes mitochondrial NADH. Administering DCA with plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate mitigates the drop in mitochondrial NADH and prevents PVCs. PMID:26142699

  4. [The biological bases of human lactation].

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; De Santiago, S

    1993-12-01

    The mammary gland integrated by secretory acini has two main physiological goals: the lactogenesis and the milk ejection. The first is controlled by estrogens, prolactin and cortisol; the former by oxytocin. Milk is synthesized through five mechanisms namely: I. Cellular synthesis and exocytosis; 2. Cellular synthesis and exocytosis packed in cell membrane fragment; 3. Passive transport through both cell membranes; 4. Active transport via receptors through both cell membranes, and 5. Paracellular transport. The human milk has a high concentration of lactose and relatively low concentrations of fat and protein in comparison to other species. Its composition varies little in relationship to maternal diet, nevertheless, it holds a close correlation, with body composition of the mother. Exclusively breast-fed infants grow in a similar manner to those formula-fed up to 4-6 months; afterwards growth decelerates, to spurt up the need for complementary food. It has been amply demonstrated that human milk protects against acute infections, both bacterial and viral. The current hospital practices of perinatal care should be changed in our country in order to favour the initiation of breast-feeding. Concerned physicians should have more and precise knowledge about the physiology of lactation in order to help mothers to pursue a successful lactation. PMID:8110409

  5. Creatine Usage and Education of Track and Field Throwers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Universities.

    PubMed

    Judge, Lawrence W; Petersen, Jeffrey C; Craig, Bruce W; Hoover, Donald L; Holtzclaw, Kara A; Leitzelar, Brianna N; Tyner, Rebecca M R; Blake, Amy S; Hindawi, Omar S; Bellar, David M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of creatine use along with the perceived benefits and barriers of creatine use among collegiate athletes who participate in throwing events within the sport of track and field. A total of 258 throwers from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions completed an online survey regarding creatine. The results provided baseline levels of creatine use and allowed for the analysis of factors related to athletic conference affiliation. Results indicate that creatine use remains to be a common (32.7%) practice among throwers with significantly higher levels of use among Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conference athletes (44.6%) than Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) conference athletes (28.8%), ?² = 5.505, p = 0.019. The most common reasons for using creatine included a desire to improve/increase: strength (83.3%), recovery time (69.0%), and performance (60.7%). The most common perceived obstacles included contamination/quality control (39.5%), cost (33.3%), inconvenience (16.7%), and cramping (14.3%). A desire for additional education and training was noted through an expression of interest (55.6%) with significantly higher levels of interest from FBS athletes (65.6%) than FCS athletes (52.2%), ?² = 6.425, p = 0.039. However, the athletic departments provide nutritional supplement counseling at only 26.6% of the schools. Although the access to full-time nutritionist counsel was available at 57.3% of the schools, there was a significant difference (?² = 9.096, p = 0.003) between FBS schools (73.7%) and FCS schools (51.7%). PMID:25559910

  6. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  7. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  8. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

  9. Glycogen synthesis from lactate in a chronically active muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, R.J.; Scheide, J.I.; Silverman, H.

    1989-05-01

    In response to neural overactivity (pseudomyotonia), gastrocnemius muscle fibers from C57Bl/6Jdy2J/dy2J mice have different metabolic profiles compared with normal mice. A population of fibers in the fast-twitch superficial region of the dy2J gastrocnemius stores unusually high amounts of glycogen, leading to an increased glycogen storage in the whole muscle. The dy2J muscle also contains twice as much lactate as normal muscle. A (/sup 14/C)lactate intraperitoneal injection leads to preferential /sup 14/C incorporation into glycogen in the dy2J muscle compared with normal muscle. To determine whether skeletal muscles were incorporating lactate into glycogen without body organ (liver, kidney) input, gastrocnemius muscles were bathed in 10 mM (/sup 14/C)lactate with intact neural and arterial supply but with impeded venous return. The contralateral gastrocnemius serves as a control for body organ input. By using this in situ procedure, we demonstrate that under conditions of high lactate both normal and dy2J muscle can directly synthesize glycogen from lactate. In this case, normal whole muscle incorporates (14C) lactate into glycogen at a higher rate than dy2J whole muscle. Autoradiography, however, suggests that the high-glycogen-containing muscle fibers in the dy2J muscle incorporate lactate into glycogen at nearly four times the rate of normal or surrounding muscle fibers.

  10. METABOLIC ADAPTATION TO FEEDING AND FASTING DURING LACTATION IN HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of these studies was to determine the metabolic adaptation to fasting and feeding during lactation. Normal lactating (L) and nonlactating (NL) women (n = 6 each) were studied using infusions of [U-13C]glucose and [2-13C]glycerol during: 1) a 24-h fast, and 2) ingestion of Sustacal (protocol ...

  11. VISCERAL TISSUE GROWTH AND PROLIFERATION DURING THE BOVINE LACTATION CYCLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty one multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating dairy cows were used to assess the impact of stage of lactation on visceral tissue mass and small intestinal cell proliferation. Cows were housed in tie stalls with 12 h of light/dark and were milked twice daily at 0700 and 1800 h. Cows had ad libitum...

  12. GENETIC EVALUATION AND BEST PREDICTION OF LACTATION PERSISTENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows with high persistency tend to milk less than expected at the beginning of lactation and more than expected at the end. Best prediction of persistency was calculated as a function of a trait-specific standard lactation curve and the linear regression of a cow’s test day deviations on days in mil...

  13. In silico investigation of molecular effects caused by missense mutations in creatine transporter protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Schwatz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2011-03-01

    Creatine transporter (CT) protein, which is encoded by SLC6A8 gene, is essential for taking up the creatine in the cell, which in turn plays a key role in the spatial and temporal maintenance of energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. It was shown that some missense mutations in CT cause mental retardation, while others are harmless non-synonymous single nucleoside polymorphism (nsSNP). Currently fifteen missense mutations in CT are known, among which twelve are disease-causing. Sequence analysis reveals that there is no clear trend distinguishing disease-causing from harmless missense mutations. Because of that, we built 3D model of the CT using highly homologous template and use the model to investigate the effects of mutations of CT stability and hydrogen bond network. It is demonstrated that disease-causing mutations affect the folding free energy and ionization states of titratable group in much greater extend as compared with harmless mutations. Supported by grants from NLM, NIH, grant numbers 1R03LM009748 and 1R03LM009748-S1.

  14. Creatine kinase radioimmunoassay and isoenzyme electrophoresis compared in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Homburger, H.A.; Jacob, G.L.

    1980-07-01

    We compared, in 116 patients, the relative usefulness of results of tests for creatine kinase B-isoenzymes, as measured by radioimmunoassay, and the MB isoenzyme, as measured by electrophoresis, in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The radioimmunoassay was specific for isoenzymes of creatine kinase containing the B subunit. All patients with acute transmural infarcts had positive test results by both techniques, but concentrations of B-isoenzymes were more frequently above normal than were MB bands in the case of patients with acute subendocardial infarcts and in the case of all patients with acute myocardial infarcts from whom sera were collected more than 24 h after onset of chest pain. Concentrations of B-isoenzymes also were increased, even when MB bands were not electrophoretically detectable in specimens from several patients without documented acute myocardial infarcts. These abnormal results presumably were caused by increased concentrations of the BB isoenzyme in serum. Accordingly, an increased concentration of B-isoenzymes had less diagnostic specificity and predictive value for acute myocardial infarction than did a detectable MB band. Results of isoenzyme electrophoresis were more reliable for establishing this diagnosis, but the results of radioimmunoassay were more reliable for excluding it in patients with chest pain as the primary symptom.

  15. Effect of Exercise on the Creatine Resonances in 1H MR Spectra of Human Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, R.; Jung, B.; Slotboom, J.; Felblinger, J.; Boesch, C.

    1999-04-01

    1H MR spectra of human muscles were recorded before, during, and after fatiguing exercise. In contrast to expectations, it was found that the spectral contributions of creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr) were subject to change as a function of exercise. In particular, the dipolar-coupled methylene protons of Cr/PCr were found to be reduced in intensity in proportion to the co-registered PCr levels. Recovery after exercise and behavior under ischemic conditions provide further evidence to suggest that the contributions of the CH2protons of Cr/PCr to1H MR spectra of human musclein vivoreflect PCr rather than Cr levels. Variation of experimental parameters showed that this effect is not due to a trivial change in relaxation times. At present it can only be speculated about why the Cr resonances have reduced NMR visibility. If temporary binding to macromolecules should be involved, the free Cr concentration-important for equilibrium calculations of the creatine kinase reaction-might be different from what was previously assumed.

  16. Creatine synthesis and transport during rat embryogenesis: Spatiotemporal expression of AGAT, GAMT and CT1

    PubMed Central

    Braissant, Olivier; Henry, Hugues; Villard, Anne-Marie; Speer, Oliver; Wallimann, Theo; Bachmann, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Background Creatine (Cr) is synthesized by a two-step mechanism involving arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), and is taken up by cells through a specific Cr transporter, CT1. Recently, genetic defects of this pathway have been described, that lead to Cr deficiency, neurological symptoms in early infancy and severe neurodevelopmental delay. To investigate the involvement of Cr synthesis and uptake pathways during embryonic development, we determined the spatiotemporal expression of AGAT, GAMT and CT1 during the rat embryogenesis, at the mRNA and protein level. Results We show that AGAT and GAMT are expressed in hepatic primordium as soon as 12.5 days, then progressively acquire their adult pattern of expression, with high levels of AGAT in kidney and pancreas, and high levels of GAMT in liver and pancreas. AGAT and CT1 are prominent in CNS, skeletal muscles and intestine, where they appear earlier than GAMT. High levels of CT1 are found in epithelia. Conclusion Our results suggest that de novo synthesis of Cr by AGAT and GAMT, as well as cellular Cr uptake by CT1, are essential during embryonic development. This work provides new clues on how creatine can be provided to developing tissues, and suggests that Cr deficiencies might induce irreversible damages already in utero, particularly on the nervous system. PMID:15918910

  17. Purification and stability of octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase isoform from herring (Clupea harengus) organ of vision.

    PubMed

    Nied?wiecka, Natalia; Grzyb, Katarzyna; Nona-Mo?dawa, Agnieszka; Gronczewska, Jadwiga; Skorkowski, Edward F

    2015-07-01

    Creatine kinases (CKs) constitute a large family of isoenzymes that are involved in intracellular energy homeostasis. In cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements ATP level is maintained via phosphocreatine hydrolysis catalyzed by creatine kinase. In contrast to invertebrates and higher vertebrates, in poikilothermic vertebrates the adaptations for the regulation of energy metabolism by changes in the oligomeric state of CK isoforms are not well known. The present study aimed at identification of herring eye CK isoforms and focuses on factors affecting the CK-octamer stability. In addition to the CK octamer, three different dimeric isoforms of CK were detected by cellulose acetate native electrophoresis. Destabilization of octamer was studied in the presence of TSAC substrates and about 50% of octamers dissociated into dimers within 24h. Moreover, we found that the increase of temperature from 4 °C to 30 °C caused rapid inactivation of dimers in TSAC-treated samples but did not affect octameric structures. In a thermostability assay we demonstrated that octamers retain their activity even at 50 °C. Our results indicate that destabilization of the octameric structure can lead to loss of enzyme activity at higher temperatures (above 30 °C). Furthermore, our results based on N-terminal sequence analysis suggest that probably the mitochondrial s-type CK, rather than u-type, is predominantly expressed in herring eye. In conclusion the existence of four various CK isoforms in one organ may reflect complex regulation of energy metabolism in the phototransduction process in teleost fishes. PMID:25770046

  18. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Bruno; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre) and after four (Post 4), eight (Post 8) and twelve (Post 12) weeks. We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01), TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone. PMID:18831767

  19. Liquid-chromatographic separation and on-line bioluminescence detection of creatine kinase isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase were separated by anion-exchange chromatography, with use of an elution gradient containing lithium acetate (0.1 to 0.6 mol/L). A stream splitter was used to divert a 5% side stream of column effluent, which was subsequently mixed with the reagents necessary for bioluminescence assay of the separated isoenzymes. The use of the stream splitter greatly decreased the rate of consumption of reagent and, when combined with a peristaltic pumping system, permitted independent control of the side-stream flow rate. Thus both the residence interval in a delay coil in which the ATP reaction product is formed and the bioluminescence emission was monitored in a flow-through fluorometer without use of an external light source or filters. Separation and detection of the isoenzymes of creatine kinase were rapid, sensitive, and highly selective. The incremental decrease of bioluminescence response owing to inhibition by the ions in the eluent was less than 31% across the entire gradient.

  20. Progesterone causes metabolic changes involving aminotransferases and creatine kinase in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) is capable of inducing acrosome reaction in many species. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of enzymes involved in metabolism that contribute to the redox state and supply energy for acrosome reaction in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa. To accomplish this aim, acrosome reaction was induced by P4 in capacitated and non-capacitated samples. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT, AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were measured spectrophotometrically at 340nm after acrosome reaction with P4. Oxygen consumption was measured polarographically. ALT and AST activities increased by the addition of P4 capacitated and non-capacitated samples. P4 addition provoked an increase in CK activity in non-capacitated spermatozoa compared to heparin capacitated spermatozoa with or without P4 addition. P4 increased oxygen consumption, the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa as well as the absence of acrosome integrity in both capacitated and non-capacitated bovine spermatozoa, but oxygen consumption in P4 samples was significantly lower than in heparin capacitated spermatozoa (P<0.05). Acrosome reaction induction by P4 required different creatine kinase activity with the same oxygen consumption and transaminases level to maintain oxidative metabolism and redox state through reducing equivalents transfer between cytosolic and mitochondrial compartment. In conclusion, P4 induces a lower oxidative metabolism during acrosome reaction in bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa, compared to heparin induced capacitation process. PMID:26640247