Note: This page contains sample records for the topic lactate dehydrogenase creatine from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

High Creatine Kinase (CK)-MB and Lactate Dehydrogenase in the Absence of Myocardial Injury or Infarction: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life threatening condition that needs emergency diagnosis and early treatment in the emergency room. Rapid laboratory testing for creatine kinase (CK)-MB greatly revolutionized the diagnosis and management of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case with chest pain that referred to the emergency department (ED). Laboratory data showed high serum levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. With diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, he was hospitalized and angiography was performed which showed three vessels disease; the patient was referred to surgical ward for coronary artery bypass graft. Surgery was performed after one week; during the operation there was no sign of infarction over the heart. Our observation suggests that false positive laboratory result may be due to other condition which must be evaluated.

Maghamiour, Nasrollah; Safaie, Naser

2014-01-01

2

Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase responses after upper-body resistance exercise with different rest intervals.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to compare serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations at multiple time points after resistance exercise sessions that incorporated different rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twenty untrained men (18.65+/-0.49 years, 68.30+/-7.98 kg, and 174.4+/-4.80 cm) performed 2 resistance exercise sessions (i.e., 3 sets with 80% 1 repetition maximum for 5 upper-body exercises) with either 1-minute (SEQ1) or 3-minute (SEQ3) rest between sets and exercises. For each session, CK and LDH concentrations were measured before exercise (PRE) and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise (24P, 48P, and 72P). Subjects lifted a 24% greater (p<0.05) volume load during SEQ3 than during SEQ1. Within SEQ1, significant differences in CK concentrations were demonstrated between most time points, except between 24P and 72P. Similarly, within SEQ3, significant differences in CK concentrations were demonstrated between most time points, except between 24P and 72P and between 48P and 72P. The CK concentrations were highest at 48P for both sessions. When the CK concentrations were compared between SEQ1 and SEQ3, no significant differences were demonstrated at any time point. Within SEQ1, a significant difference in LDH concentration was demonstrated between 48P and 72P. Within SEQ3, significant differences in LDH concentrations were demonstrated between PRE and 24P and between PRE and 48P. The LDH concentrations were highest at 72P for SEQ1 and at 24P for SEQ3. When the LDH concentrations were compared between SEQ1 and SEQ3, no significant differences were demonstrated at any time point. These results suggest that muscle damage was similar between rest intervals; however, the volume load completed to induce the muscle damage was significantly greater when 3-minute rest intervals were employed. Therefore, when considered relative to the volume load completed, 1-minute rest intervals during resistance exercise may invoke greater muscle damage. PMID:20508471

Rodrigues, Bernardo M; Dantas, Estélio; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Miranda, Humberto; Koch, Alexander J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

2010-06-01

3

Impact of an acute bout of vibration on muscle contractile properties, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase response.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on muscle response and to determine whether this stimulus leads to muscle damage. Thirty healthy and physically active participants (mean ± SD; age: 21.8 ± 2.0 years; height: 176.7 ± 5.8 cm; body mass: 76 ± 6.8 kg and BMI: 23.1 ± 3.7 kg·m(-2)) participated in this study. Participants were randomly allocated in one of two groups, one of them performed a bout of 360 s WBV (frequency: 30 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement: 4 mm) (VIB) and the other one adopted a sham position (CON). Muscle contractile properties were analysed in the rectus femoris (RF) by using tensiomyography (TMG) 2 min before the warm-up and 2 min after intervention. Muscle damage was assessed by determining plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at three time points; 5 min before warm-up and 1 h and 48 h after the intervention. TMG results showed a significant decrease in maximal displacement (p<0.05) and delay time (p<0.05) in VIB and in delay time (p<0.05) and relaxation time (p<0.05) in CON. Muscle damage markers showed significant group differences (p<0.05) for CK 1 h after the intervention. In addition, differences for CK 1 h after the intervention from baseline (p<0.05) were also observed in VIB. In conclusion, a 6-min bout of WBV results in an increase of muscle stiffness in RF and increased CK levels 1 h after intervention (returning to baseline within 48 h). PMID:24251744

de Hoyo, Moisés; Carrasco, Luis; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sañudo, Borja; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Arriaza, Eva; Escobar, Maria Del Carmen

2013-01-01

4

The Effects of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation and Cardiomyopathy Syndrome on Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

PubMed Central

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising.

Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Powell, Mark D.

2012-01-01

5

The effects of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation and cardiomyopathy syndrome on creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising. PMID:22701371

Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Powell, Mark D

2012-01-01

6

Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

2008-02-01

7

Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

8

Enzyme activities in fish spermatozoa with focus on lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from herring Clupea harengus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of NAD- and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases and creatine kinase were compared in extracts of spermatozoa from herring (Clupea harengus), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The activity of malic enzyme in herring spermatozoa was approximately 5 and 36 times higher than in carp and catfish spermatozoa. In contrast, lactate dehydrogenase activity in herring spermatozoa was very low. Herring

Jadwiga Gronczewska; Marek S Zi?tara; Anna Biegniewska; Edward F Skorkowski

2003-01-01

9

Quantitative Electrophoretic Determination of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of human serum and tissue extracts were separated by agar gel electrophoresis on a microscope slide. The isoenzyme activity was identified by a procedure utilizing p-iodonitrotetrazolium and quantitated by densitometry. Fi...

N. M. Papadopoulos J. A. Kintzios

1966-01-01

10

Convergent Evolution of Trichomonas vaginalis Lactate Dehydrogenase from Malate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is present in the amitochondriate parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and some but not all other trichomonad species. The derived amino acid sequence of T. vaginalis LDH (TvLDH) was found to be more closely related to the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of the same species than to any other LDH. A key difference between the two T. vaginalis

Gang Wu; Andras Foser; Benno Ter Kuile; Andrej Sali; Miklos Muller

1999-01-01

11

Structural adaptations of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes.  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional structures of dogfish M4 (muscle) and pig H4 (heart) lactate dehydrogenase (L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) have been determined and correlated with the amino acid sequences of the dogfish M4, pig M4, pig H4, chicken M4, and chicken H4 lactate dehydrogenase isozymes. These results have been related to the known differences of physicochemical properties between the M and H lactate dehydrogenase isozymes. By far the largest structural alterations occur in the transition between the "apo" and "ternary complex" conformational states of the enzyme rather than between species or isozymes. The major catalytic difference can be explained by a replacement of alanine (in the M chain) with a glutamine (in the H chain) in the vicinity of the binding site of the coenzyme phosphates. The known immunological differentiation of the M and H isozymes is consistent with the differences in their amino acid sequences.

Eventoff, W; Rossmann, M G; Taylor, S S; Torff, H J; Meyer, H; Keil, W; Kiltz, H H

1977-01-01

12

Creatine  

MedlinePLUS

... muscle creatine levels more than creatine alone, creatine sports drinks have become popular. Creatine is allowed by ... Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and professional sports. However, the NCAA no longer allows colleges and ...

13

Catecholamine regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in rat brain cell culture  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of catecholamine induction of the soluble cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) was studied in the rat glial tumor cell line, C6. Lactate dehydrogenase was partially purified from extracts of (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled cells by affinity gel chromatography and quantitatively immunoprecipitated with anti-lactate dehydrogenase-5 IgG and with antilactate dehydrogenase-1 IgG. The immunoprecipitates were dissociated and electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Using this methodology, the increased enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase in norepinephrine-treated C6 cells was observed to be concomitant with the increased synthesis of enzyme molecules. Despite the continued presence of norepinephrine, the specific increase in the rate of synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase was transient. It was first detected at 4 h, was maximum at 9 h, and returned to basal levels by 24 h. The half-life of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was 36 h during the induction and 40 h during deinduction. The half-life for decay of /sup 3/H-labeled lactate dehydrogenase was 41 h. These observations suggest that the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in norepinephrine-treated cells does not involve any change in the rate of degradation. Norepinephrine increased the specific rate of synthesis of both lactate dehydrogenase-5 (a tetramer of four M subunits) and lactate dehydrogenase-1 (a tetramer of four H subunits), although to different extents. Since these subunits are coded for by two separate genes on separate chromosomes, it suggests that the regulatory mechanism involves at least two separate sites of action.

Kumar, S.; McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

1980-03-25

14

Plant lactate dehydrogenase: NADH kinetics and inhibition by ATP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), isolated from either turnip (Brassica rapa, Cruciferae) or from leek (Allium porrum, Liliaceae) shows normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics with NAD+ in the lactate dehydrogenase direction, but non-hyperbolic kinetics with NADH in the pyruvate reductase direction. These kinetics are not ‘sigmoidal’ and appear consistently as two intersecting straight lines in reciprocal plots, representing a sharp decline in the effectiveness

Padraig O'Carra; Patricia Mulcahy

1997-01-01

15

Structure, Regulation and Evolution of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steven Shoei-Lung Li (1998) Structure, regulation and evolution of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase genes. Zoological Studies 37(1): 1-6. In vertebrates, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes A (muscle) and B (heart) are best suited for pyruvate reduction and lactate oxidation, respectively. In mammals and columbid birds, a 3rd LDH-C isozyme is expressed in testis. In advanced teleost fish a 3rd LDH isozyme is

Steven Shoei-Lung Li

1998-01-01

16

D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(-)-lactate and D(+)-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the

Melania E Cristescu; David J Innes; Jonathon H Stillman; Teresa J Crease

2008-01-01

17

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

18

ISOZYME PROFILES OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE IN NEONATAL MOUSE HEARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Isozyme profiles of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined in cardiac tissue of mice during postnatal development. LDH isozymes 1 and 5 showed a definite developmental change, achieving the adult values by 20 days of age, while the other three...

19

Purification and substrate kinetics of plant lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from turnip (Brassica rapa; Cruciferae), purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using affinity chromatography, has a native Mr, of 157 × 1O3 and a subunit Mr, of 38 × 103. The LDH from turnip shows the same relative effectiveness (relative Vmax and Km values) as the mammalian H4 and M4 isoenzymes with pyruvate, lactate and glyoxylate (oxoacetate and dihydroxyacetate)

Patricia Mulcahy; Padraig O'Carra

1997-01-01

20

Creatine supplementation increases glucose oxidation and AMPK phosphorylation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.  

PubMed

Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nM), creatine (0.5 mM) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by approximately 9.3- and approximately 5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake ( approximately 1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation ( approximately 1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-(14)C]glucose into glycogen ( approximately 2.3-fold), lactate production ( approximately 1.5-fold) and (14)CO(2) production ( approximately 1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by approximately 42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by approximately 40% the basal rate of (14)CO(2) production. This is in agreement with the approximately 35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the approximately 2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both alpha-1 and alpha-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. PMID:14724211

Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary

2004-03-01

21

Creatine supplementation increases glucose oxidation and AMPK phosphorylation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nm), creatine (0.5 mm) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by ?9.3- and ?5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake (?1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation (?1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen (?2.3-fold), lactate production (?1.5-fold) and 14CO2 production (?1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by ?42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by ?40% the basal rate of 14CO2 production. This is in agreement with the ?35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the ?2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both ?-1 and ?-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.

Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary

2004-01-01

22

Properties of lactate dehydrogenase in a psychrophilic marine bacterium.  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Vibrio marinus MP-1 was purified 15-fold and ammonium activated. The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction was 7.4. Maximum lactate dehydrogenase activity occurred at 10 to 15 degrees C, and none occurred at 40 degrees C. The crude-extract enzyme was stable between 15 and 20 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 45 degrees C. The partially purified enzyme was stable between 8 and 15 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 30 degrees C. The thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase was increased by mercaptoethanol, with 50% remaining activity at 42 degrees C. Images

Mitchell, P; Yen, H C; Mathemeier, P F

1985-01-01

23

Genetic Analysis with Man-Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids: Linkage between Human Lactate Dehydrogenase B and Peptidase B Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of an active linkage between the human genes that control lactate dehydrogenase B and peptidase B is presented. It is also concluded that there is no link between the genes for lactate dehydrogenase A and lactate dehydrogenase B.

A. Silvana Santachiara; M. Nabholz; V. Miggiano; A. J. Darlington; W. Bodmer

1970-01-01

24

Ontogenic studies of intestinal lactate dehydrogenase isozymes in the hamster.  

PubMed

Our study of the developing small intestine presents a detailed report of the catalytic isozymic and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase. These results allow for a better understanding of the properties of this intestinal enzyme during devlopment as well as relating these properties to the changing metabolic roles of this tissue during development. PMID:7407273

Walden, R; Schiller, C M

1980-01-01

25

Lactate dehydrogenase from the Antarctic eelpout, Lycodichthys dearborni  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of our studies to examine the molecular basis of cold-adaptation, we have determined the kinetic properties, thermal stability and deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from an Antarctic zoarcid fish, Lycodichthys dearborni. Unlike Antarctic notothenioid fish which are endemic to the Southern Ocean, zoarcid fish are cosmopolitan and have a substantially longer evolutionary history

Miriam Sharpe; Christopher Love; Craig Marshall

2001-01-01

26

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-11-22

27

Phylogenetic Analysis of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Multigene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences\\u000a were found to be larger for a human–killifish pair than a human–lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence\\u000a may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions\\u000a separately for several species

Yi-Ju Li; Stephen C.-M. Tsoi

2002-01-01

28

Sequence Analysis of Teleost Retina-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase C: Evolutionary Implications for the Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two gene duplication events have led to the three lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B, and LDH-C) of chordates. The prevailing model for the evolution of the LDH loci involves duplication of a primordial LDH locus near the origin of vertebrates, giving rise to Ldh-A and Ldh-B. A third locus, designated Ldh-C, is expressed in the

J. M. Quattro; H. A. Woods; D. A. Powers

1993-01-01

29

Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis.  

PubMed

Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD(+)/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis. PMID:24898534

Acharya, Abhinav P; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C; Gardner, Austin B; Murthy, Niren

2014-01-01

30

Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis  

PubMed Central

Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD+/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis.

Acharya, Abhinav P.; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C.; Gardner, Austin B.; Murthy, Niren

2014-01-01

31

POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) ON CARDIAC LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND CREATINE KINASE (CK) ISOZYMES IN CD-1 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 50 mg HCB/kg body weight on days 6-17 of gestation and studied on day 1 or 21 postpartum (pp). Hearts of the dams and pups were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kina...

32

Lactate dehydrogenase C and energy metabolism in mouse sperm.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD(+) cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M

2011-09-01

33

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC.

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

34

Uncommon serum creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase increase during diosmin therapy: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Short-term administration of diosmin is usually considered safe, with only minor side effects (stomach and abdominal pain, diarrhea, dermatological disorders, and headache) occasionally observed. Within a 4-year period, a general practitioner noticed 17 cases of mild, diosmin-induced side effects, two of which showed particular interest. Cases presentation Case 1: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with chronic leg venous insufficiency. She was prescribed diosmin 450mg twice a day. After 5 days of therapy, she developed pain in the legs (myalgia), and diosmin therapy was suspended. She made a spontaneous attempt of drug rechallenge and her leg pain reappeared. Thus, she underwent blood analysis, which showed elevation of creatine phosphokinase levels. Creatine phosphokinase values normalized only after prolonged discontinuation of the therapy. Case 2: A 79-year-old Caucasian man, who was diagnosed with acute hemorrhoidal syndrome. After 21 days of continuous diosmin treatment, increased levels of serum lactic dehydrogenase were detected. In both cases a comprehensive analysis of all possible causes for enzyme elevation was made. Conclusions A feasible hypothesis to explain these rare effects could be that exaggerated adrenergic activity occurred on microcirculation, leading to an excessive peripheral vasoconstriction and subsequent ischemic damage. An individual predisposition is strongly suggested. A concurrence of events was probably responsible for the elevation of nonspecific tissue necrosis markers. Physicians and patients must be aware of these rare, but possible, adverse drug reactions.

2014-01-01

35

Transient-kinetic studies of pig muscle lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

1. The very fast pre-steady-state formation of NADH catalysed by pig M4 lactate dehydrogenase was equivalent to the enzyme-site concentration at pH values greater than 8.0 and to one-half the site concentration at pH6.8. 2. The rate of dissociation of NADH from the enzyme at pH8.0 (450s?1) in the absence of other substrates is faster than the steady-state oxidation of lactate (80s?1). The latter process is therefore controlled by a step before NADH dissociation but subsequent to the hydride transfer. 3. The oxidation of enzyme–NADH by excess of pyruvate was studied as a first-order process at pH9.0. There was no effect of NADD on this reaction and it was concluded that the ternary complex undergoes a rate-limiting change before the hydride-transfer step. 4. Some conclusions about the reactions catalysed by the M4 isoenzyme were drawn from a comparison of these results with those obtained with the H4 isoenzyme and liver alcohol dehydrogenase. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.

Stinson, R. A.; Gutfreund, H.

1971-01-01

36

Presence of bound substrate in lactate dehydrogenase from carp liver.  

PubMed

While attempting to purify UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from carp liver extract at pH 8.0, it was observed that the preparation even after dialysis could reduce NAD to NADH, interfering epimerase assay. The NAD reduction activity and the epimerase were co-eluted in a series of chromatographic steps. Mass spectrometric analysis of semi-purified fraction revealed that carp liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) contained bound lactate which was converted to pyruvate in the presence of NAD. The enzyme-bound lactate and the association with epimerase stabilized LDH from trypsin digestion and thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C by factors of 2.7 and 4.2 respectively, as compared to substrate-free LDH. LDH and epimerase do not belong to any one pathway, but are the rate-limiting enzymes of two different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. Typically, strongly associated enzymes work in combination, such as two enzymes of the same metabolic pathway. In that background, co-purification of LDH and epimerase as reloaded in this study was an unusual phenomenon. PMID:22803333

Banerjee, Nupur; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

2012-06-01

37

Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. PMID:24035452

Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin

2013-11-01

38

Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibitors: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is an important enzyme in fermentative glycolysis, generating most energy for cancer cells that rely on anaerobic respiration even under normal oxygen concentrations. This renders LDHA a promising molecular target for the treatment of various cancers. Several efforts have been made recently to develop LDHA inhibitors with nanomolar inhibition and cellular activity, some of which have been studied in complex with the enzyme by X-ray crystallography. In this work, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the binding interactions of selected ligands with human LDHA. Conventional MD simulations demonstrate different binding dynamics of inhibitors with similar binding affinities, whereas steered MD simulations yield discrimination of selected LDHA inhibitors with qualitative correlation between the in silico unbinding difficulty and the experimental binding strength. Further, our results have been used to clarify ambiguities in the binding modes of two well-known LDHA inhibitors.

Shi, Yun; Pinto, B. Mario

2014-01-01

39

Conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

A series of isotope edited IR measurements, both static as well as temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy, are performed on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to determine the ensemble of structures available to its Michaelis complex. There clearly has been a substantial reduction in the number of states available to the pyruvate substrate (as modeled by the substrate mimic, oxamate) and NADH when bound to protein compared to dissolved in solution, as determined by the bandwidths and positions of the critical C2=O band of bound substrate mimic and the C4-H stretch of NADH reduced nicotinamide group. Moreover, it is found that a strong ionic bond (characterized by a signature IR band discovered in this study) is formed between the carboxyl group of bound pyruvate with (presumably) Arg171, forming a strong ‘anchor’ within the protein matrix. However, conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex is found that has an impact on both catalytic efficiency and thermodynamics of the enzyme.

Deng, Hua; Vu, Dung V.; Clinch, Keith; Desamero, Ruel; Dyer, R. Brian; Callender, Robert

2011-01-01

40

Conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A series of isotope edited IR measurements, both static as well as temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy, are performed on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to determine the ensemble of structures available to its Michaelis complex. There clearly has been a substantial reduction in the number of states available to the pyruvate substrate (as modeled by the substrate mimic, oxamate) and NADH when bound to protein compared to dissolved in solution, as determined by the bandwidths and positions of the critical C(2)?O band of the bound substrate mimic and the C(4)-H stretch of the NADH reduced nicotinamide group. Moreover, it is found that a strong ionic bond (characterized by a signature IR band discovered in this study) is formed between the carboxyl group of bound pyruvate with (presumably) Arg171, forming a strong "anchor" within the protein matrix. However, conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex is found that has an impact on both catalytic efficiency and thermodynamics of the enzyme. PMID:21568287

Deng, Hua; Vu, Dung V; Clinch, Keith; Desamero, Ruel; Dyer, R Brian; Callender, Robert

2011-06-16

41

Fabrication of lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on cerium oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

An electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine lactate that plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, fermentation and food quality analysis. Abnormal concentration of lactate has been related to diseases such as hypoxia, acute heart disorders, lactic acidosis, muscle fatigue and meningitis. Also, lactate concentration in blood helps to evaluate the athletic performance in sports. The main aim of the work is to fabricate NADH/LDH/Nano-CeO2/GCE bio-electrode for sensing lactate in human blood samples. Toward this, CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) and NaOH as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) studies were carried out to determine the structural and morphological characteristics of CeO2 nanoparticles. XRD pattern indicated the formation of highly crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. The FE-SEM studies revealed the formation of nanospherical particles of size 29.73±2.59 nm. The working electrode was fabricated by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on GCE surface with CeO2 nanoparticles as an interface. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry using a three electrode system with NADH/LDH/NanoCeO2/GCE as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl saturated with 0.1M KCl as a reference electrode and Pt wire as a counter electrode. From the amperometric study, the linearity was found to be in the range of 0.2-2 mM with the response time of less than 4s. PMID:24034216

Nesakumar, Noel; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2013-11-15

42

NAD-Independent L-Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Required for L-Lactate Utilization in Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM  

PubMed Central

Background Various Pseudomonas strains can use l-lactate as their sole carbon source for growth. However, the l-lactate-utilizing enzymes in Pseudomonas have never been identified and further studied. Methodology/Principal Findings An NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) was purified from the membrane fraction of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of l-lactate to pyruvate by using FMN as cofactor. After cloning its encoding gene (lldD), l-iLDH was successfully expressed, purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, and characterized. An lldD mutant of P. stutzeri SDM was constructed by gene knockout technology. This mutant was unable to grow on l-lactate, but retained the ability to grow on pyruvate. Conclusions/Significance It is proposed that l-iLDH plays an indispensable function in Pseudomonas l-lactate utilization by catalyzing the conversion of l-lactate into pyruvate.

Dou, Peipei; Ma, Cuiqing; Li, Lixiang; Kong, Jian; Xu, Ping

2012-01-01

43

Critical role for lactate dehydrogenase A in aerobic glycolysis that sustains pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells possess both highly proliferative and angiogenic capacities, yet it is unclear how these cells sustain the metabolic requirements essential for such growth. Rapidly proliferating cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to sustain growth, which is characterized by glucose consumption, glucose fermentation to lactate, and lactic acidosis, all in the presence of sufficient oxygen concentrations. Lactate dehydrogenase A converts pyruvate to lactate necessary to sustain rapid flux through glycolysis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells express lactate dehydrogenase A necessary to utilize aerobic glycolysis and support their growth. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) growth curves were conducted over a 7-day period. PMVECs consumed glucose, converted glucose into lactate, and acidified the media. Restricting extracellular glucose abolished the lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth, as did replacing glucose with galactose. In contrast, slow-growing pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) minimally consumed glucose and did not develop a lactic acidosis throughout the growth curve. Oxygen consumption was twofold higher in PAECs than in PMVECs, yet total cellular ATP concentrations were twofold higher in PMVECs. Glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A were all upregulated in PMVECs compared with their macrovascular counterparts. Inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase A activity and expression prevented lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth. Thus PMVECs utilize aerobic glycolysis to sustain their rapid growth rates, which is dependent on lactate dehydrogenase A.

Parra-Bonilla, Glenda; Alvarez, Diego F.; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr; Alexeyev, Mikhail

2010-01-01

44

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes from Normal and Variant Rainbow Trout Livers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The homotetrameric lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes, B2 prime and B2 double prime, from normal and variant rainbow trout livers have been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a Sepharose-linked oxamate ligand. The two isozymes have...

Y. H. J. Kao

1977-01-01

45

Biochemical development of preimplantation mouse embryos: In vivo activities of fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of four enzymes were determined during the first four days of mouse embryogenesis. Two enzymes, fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase and malate dehydrogenase, increase about 30% in activity, and this increase is attributed to slow but continued enzyme synthesis. The other two enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (X-linked) and lactate dehydrogenase, remain constant for the first two days and then decline

Charles J. Epstein; Evelyn A. Wegienka; Charles W. Smith

1969-01-01

46

Relevance of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity to the Control of Oxidative Glycolysis in Pancreatic Islet B-Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of hexokinase isoenzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic NAD-linked glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial FAD-linked glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase were measured in homogenates of rat purified pancreatic B and non-B islet cells. In B cell homogenates, the maximal activity of hexokinase and glucokinase was one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of lactate dehydrogenase. The activity of the mitochondrial

Hassan Jijakli; Joanne Rasschaert; Abdellatif Bakkali Nadi; Viviane Leclercq-Meyer; Abdullah Sener; Willy J. Malaisse

1996-01-01

47

Cloning and Polymorphisms of Yak Lactate Dehydrogenase b Gene  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1) gene in yak (Bos grunniens). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit) in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S) of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak.

Wang, Guosheng; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhong, Juming; Cao, Meng; He, Qinghua; Liu, Zhengxin; Lin, Yaqiu; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai

2013-01-01

48

Structural Studies of Malate Dehydrogenases (MDHs): MDHs in Brevundimonas Species Are the First Reported MDHs in Proteobacteria Which Resemble Lactate Dehydrogenases in Primary Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N-terminal sequences of malate dehydrogenases from 10 bacterial strains, representing seven genera of Proteobacteria, were determined. Of these, the enzyme sequences of species classified in the genus Brevundi- monas clearly resembled those malate dehydrogenases with greatest similarity to lactate dehydrogenases. Additional evidence from subunit molecular weights, peptide mapping, and enzyme mobilities suggested that malate dehydrogenases from species of the

COLIN CHARNOCK

1997-01-01

49

Expression cloning of the nox, mdh and ldh genes from Thermus species encoding NADH oxidase, malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermus thermophilus HB8 mdh and ldh genes and the T. aquaticus EP00276 nox and mdh genes encoding the biotechnologically important enzymes NADH oxidase (EC 1.6.99.3), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) were cloned on the basis of known sequences from related species using the polymerase chain reaction. The nox and mdh genes were directly placed under

Ho-Jin Park; Roland Kreutzer

1994-01-01

50

D-Lactate Dehydrogenase Binding in Escherichia coli dld- Membrane Vesicles Reconstituted for Active Transport*  

PubMed Central

When membrane vesicles prepared from a D-lactate dehydrogenase mutant of E. coli ML 308-225 are treated with a homogeneous preparation of D-lactate dehydrogenase, the enzyme binds to the vesicles and they regain the capacity to catalyze D-lactate oxidation and D-lactate-dependent active transport. Although membranebound enzyme increases linearly with addition of increasing quantities of enzyme, reconstituted transport activity and D-lactate oxidation are saturable functions of the amount of enzyme bound. The maximal specific transport activity obtained in the reconstituted system is similar in magnitude to that of wild type vesicles. Titration studies with 2-(N-dansyl)-aminoethyl-?-D-thiogalactoside demonstrate that there is at least a 7- to 8-fold excess of lac carrier protein relative to D-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydroxybutynoate-inactivated enzyme does not bind to the vesicles, indicating that the coenzyme moiety is critically involved in binding. Conformational changes are also apparently involved since 0.6 M guanidine·HCl is required for optimal binding and reconstitution. The relative unreactivity of reconstituted vesicles towards vinylglycolic acid suggests that D-lactate dehydrogenase is bound to the outer surface of the reconstituted vesicles.

Short, Steven A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Kohn, Leonard D.

1974-01-01

51

Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase in patients with pectus excavatum  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity and the depression of the anterior chest wall, which compresses the internal organs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pectus excavatum on blood laboratory findings. Material and Methods From March 2011 to December 2011, 71 patients with pectus excavatum who visited Seoul Saint Mary Hospital for Nuss procedure were reviewed and analyzed. The blood samples were routinely taken at the day before surgery and pectus bar removal was usually performed in 2 to 3 years after Nuss procedure. To investigate the effects on blood laboratory findings, preoperative routine blood laboratory data and postoperative changes of abnormal laboratory data were analyzed. Results Only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), one of 26 separate routine laboratory tests, was abnormal and significantly elevated than normal value (age <10, p?=?0.008; age ?10, p?

2014-01-01

52

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 as a marker of testicular germ cell tumor.  

PubMed

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 activity was determined repeatedly in 21 men with testicular germ cell tumors in connection with orchiectomy and in 25 without neoplasia who underwent exploration of the testis. The highest level in the men without malignancy was 109 units per 1. and a higher pre-orchiectomy level was found in 15 of the tumor patients: 7 of 11 with seminoma and 8 of 10 with nonseminomatous tumors. In the patients with stage 3 disease serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 was increased more often and the activity was higher than in the stage 1 and 2 cancer patients. Within 1 month after orchiectomy the initially increased level decreased to less than 109 units per 1. in 8 of 10 patients with a stage 1 tumor and it remained higher in 5 with stage 2 or 3 disease. Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 seems to be a useful marker of testicular germ cell tumor. PMID:2845154

von Eyben, F E; Blaabjerg, O; Petersen, P H; Hørder, M; Nielsen, H V; Kruse-Andersen, S; Parlev, E

1988-11-01

53

Pressure inactivation of tetrameric lactate dehydrogenase homologues of confamilial deep-living fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility to inactivation by hydrostatic pressure of the tetrameric (Fig. 1) muscletype (M4) lactate dehydrogenase homologues (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27;l-lactate: NAD+ oxidoreductase) from six confamilial macrourid fishes was compared at 4 °C. These marine teleost fishes occur over depths of 260 to 4815 m. The pressures necessary to half-inactivate the LDH homologues are related to the pressures which the enzymes

John P. Hennessey; Joseph F. Siebenaller

1985-01-01

54

Genetic Variation and Relative Catalytic Efficiencies: Lactate Dehydrogenase B Allozymes of Fundulus Heteroclitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate whether functional differences exist between allelic variants of a B type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) in the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus), the kinetic properties of pyruvate reduction were examined. While the pH dependence and the temperature dependence for maximal catalysis were indistinguishable among the allozymes, reaction velocities at low pyruvate concentrations were

Dennis A. Powers

1979-01-01

55

Population screening of lactate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan and molecular characterization of three independent mutations in the lactate dehydrogenase-B(H) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) subunit deficiencies was performed on 2880 blood samples from healthy individuals in the Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan by means of electrophoresis. The frequencies of heterozygotes with either LDH-A or LDH-B deficiency were found to be 0.104% at each locus. These estimated frequencies of either LDH-A or LDH-B deficiencies were slightly lower than, but not significantly

Masato Maekawa; Kayoko Sudo; Kiyoko Nagura; Steven S.-L. Li; Takashi Kanno

1994-01-01

56

Double mutation of the PDC1 and ADH1 genes improves lactate production in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the bovine lactate dehydrogenase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of a heterologous l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-ldh) gene enables production of optically pure l-lactate by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the lactate yields with engineered yeasts are lower than those in the case of lactic acid bacteria because there\\u000a is a strong tendency for ethanol to be competitively produced from pyruvate. To decrease the ethanol production and increase\\u000a the lactate yield,

Kenro Tokuhiro; Nobuhiro Ishida; Eiji Nagamori; Satoshi Saitoh; Toru Onishi; Akihiko Kondo; Haruo Takahashi

2009-01-01

57

Evaluation of the intra- and inter-specific genetic variability of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria diagnosis is vital to efficient control programmes and the recent advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provides a reliable and simple diagnostic method. However a characterization of the efficiency of these tests and the proteins they detect is needed to maximize RDT sensitivity. METHODS: Plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) gene of wild isolates of the four human species

Arthur M Talman; Linda Duval; Eric Legrand; Véronique Hubert; Seiha Yen; David Bell; Jacques Le Bras; Frédéric Ariey; Sandrine Houze

2007-01-01

58

Impact of Endosulfan on Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Freshwater Catfish Clarias batrachus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a sublethal concentration of an organochlorine insecticide endosulfan on the activity, specific activity, electrophoretic patterns and kinetic properties of crude and purified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the liver and the skeletal muscle of the freshwater catfish,Clarias batrachus,was evaluated. The endosulfan significantly reduced the activity and the specific activity of liver and muscle LDH but had no effect

Rajnikant Mishra; S. P. Shukla

1997-01-01

59

Lactate dehydrogenase gene function in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani , and other characins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of the genes encoded for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in six genera of characins (teleost) were examined by electrophoretic and immunochemical analyses of the LDH isozymes. The characins possess the LDH A and B loci present in all vertebrates. The eyeless Mexican cave fish (Anoptichthys jordani) and other characins possessing normal eyes, e.g., Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus, which is

Gregory S. Whitt; Frances S. Maeda

1970-01-01

60

Regularities of Bonding of Chlorin e 6 to the Oligomeric Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using differential-spectrophotometry, spectral-luminescence, and polarization methods, we have investigated regularities of complexing of a promising photodynamic sensitizer — chlorin e6 — with a key glycolytic enzyme — lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The parameters of the dye–enzyme complex have been estimated by the difference between the spectral characteristics of the free dye and the dye bonded to the enzyme. It is shown

V. Yu. Plavskii; V. A. Mostovnikov; G. R. Mostovnikova; A. I. Tret'yakova; L. G. Plavskaya

2003-01-01

61

Formation of an Equilibrium Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase with Chlorin e 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using spectrophotometric, spectral-luminescent, and polarization methods, we have detected the formation of strong equilibrium complexes of a key glycolytic enzyme — lactate dehydrogenase — with a promising photodynamic sensitizer — chlorin e6. It has been established that enzymes serve as the most sensitive targets destroying tumor cells subjected to photodynamic therapy.

V. Yu. Plavskii; V. A. Mostovnikov; G. R. Mostovnikova; A. I. Tret'yakova; A. V. Mikulich

2003-01-01

62

Characterization and comparison of epsilon-crystallin and lactate dehydrogenases in the lenses of vertebrates and invertebrates.  

PubMed

Screening of lens homogenates for the identification of lactate dehydrogenases was undertaken for the representative species from five major classes of vertebrates plus the cephalopod of invertebrates. The duck and caiman lenses appeared to contain the highest enzymatic activity of this glycolytic enzyme among all species examined. Biochemical isolation and characterization of epsilon-crystallins from the duck and caiman lenses revealed differences between these structural crystallins and the authentic lactate dehydrogenase of the avian heart regarding some of the kinetic properties. This is in contrast with the claim that duck epsilon-crystallin is identical to heart-type lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:2787637

Chiou, S H; Chang, W P; Chen, C C

1989-06-01

63

Catalytic reaction mechanism of L-lactate dehydrogenase: an ab initio study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the catalytic reaction mechanism of L-lactate dehydrogenase have been carried out by using quantum chemical ab\\u000a initio calculation at HF\\/6-31G* level. It is found that the interconversion reaction of pyruvate to L-lactate is dominated\\u000a by the hydride ion Hr transfer, and the transfers of the hydride ionH\\u000a r and protonH\\u000a r are a quasi-coupled process, in which the

Ruobing Hou; Zhida Chen; Xianghui Yi; Jiang Bian; Guangxian Xu

2000-01-01

64

Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

2005-01-01

65

Regulation of Cyclic GMP, Cyclic amp and Lactate Dehydrogenase by Putative Neutrotransmitters in the C6 Rat Glioma Cell Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In C6 cells norepinephrine and dopamine caused transient increases in cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP, as well as an induction of lactate dehydrogenase. All of these responses were blocked by 1-propranolol, suggesting mediation by a beta -receptor. Phentolamine...

J. E. Bottenstein J. de Vellis

1977-01-01

66

The preparation and kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase attached to water-insoluble particles and sheets  

PubMed Central

1. The preparation of lactate dehydrogenase covalently attached to anion-exchange cellulose particles and sheets by use of a dichloro-sym-triazinyl dyestuff, Procion brilliant orange MGS, is described. 2. The stability and kinetic properties of these preparations were investigated. 3. An equation is derived to describe the change in concentration of a substrate when passed through a uniform bed of a substrate-inhibited enzyme. A number of theoretical curves are shown to illustrate the system. 4. A titrimetric assay for lactate dehydrogenase is described, and shown to be stoicheiometric over the range pH5·0–9·2. 5. The results are discussed in relation to previous work, and the effects of charged groups on the support, and of the diffusion film surrounding any particle in suspension, are treated qualitatively.

Wilson, R. J. H.; Kay, G.; Lilly, M. D.

1968-01-01

67

Alkaline-induced unfolding and salt-induced folding of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase under high pH conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline-induced unfolding and the salt-induced folding of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase under high pH conditions have been followed by fluorescence emission spectra and circular dichroism spectra. The results for alkaline-induced denaturation of lactate dehydrogenase show that at low ionic strength, increasing the pH value increased the extent of unfolding of the enzyme to the maximum ultimate unfolded conformation at

Ji-Hong Bai; Hao-Jing Wang; Hai-Meng Zhou

1998-01-01

68

Electrophoretic patterns of esterases and lactate- and malate-dehydrogenases from Alcaligenes species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esterases and lactate-(LDH) and malate-(MDH) dehydrogenases of 34 strains ofAlcaligenes faecalis, 16 strains ofA. denitrificans subspxylosoxydans (A. xylosoxydans), 5 strains ofA. piechaudii, and 10 strains ofA. denitrificans subspdenitrificans (A. denitrificans) were analyzed by horizontal polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis. Four types of esterases were identified inA. faecalis, 3 inA. xylosoxydans, 3 inA. piechaudii, and 14 inA. denitrificans by their spectra of hydrolytic

Chantal Bizet; Bertrand Picard; Fredj Tekaia; Philippe Goullet

1993-01-01

69

Functional and Structural Properties of Lactate Dehydrogenase from Embryos of Different Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and structural properties of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) from embryos of various fish species (Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, autumn cisco, least [Siberian] cisco, Siberian sturgeon, sterlet, loach, carp, goldfish, and zebrafish) were analysed. The minimum Km for pyruvate from embryos is correlated with the optimal temperatures of development in nature. LDH from embryos of fish adapted to low

O. S Klyachko; N. D Ozernyuk

1998-01-01

70

Lactate Dehydrogenase-B cDNA from the Teleost Fundulus heteroclitus: Evolutionary Implications 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA that encodes the heart-type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B) from the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus was cloned and sequenced. The protein encoded by the cDNA was analyzed in relation to 13 LDH proteins from a variety of taxa. One of the deductions from this analysis is that LDH-B proteins have residues in the active site that are unique and that

Douglas L. Crawford; Henry R. Constantino; Dennis A. Powers

71

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these\\u000a three cell lines

Hua-Rong Guo; Shi-Cui Zhang; Hong-Yan Li; Shang-Liang Tong; Jian-Hai Xiang

2002-01-01

72

Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated whether the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri from Rwembaita Swamp (low-oxygen) and Njuguta River (high-oxygen) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda differed in traits related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential. Haematocrit was measured as an index of blood oxygen-carrying capacity, and tissue activities and isozyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as indices of tissue anaerobic

M. L. M ARTINEZ; L. J. C HAPMAN; J. M. G RADY; B. B. R EES

2004-01-01

73

Structural basis for discriminatory recognition of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase by a DNA aptamer  

PubMed Central

DNA aptamers have significant potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, but the paucity of DNA aptamer-target structures limits understanding of their molecular binding mechanisms. Here, we report a distorted hairpin structure of a DNA aptamer in complex with an important diagnostic target for malaria: Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). Aptamers selected from a DNA library were highly specific and discriminatory for Plasmodium as opposed to human lactate dehydrogenase because of a counterselection strategy used during selection. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed aptamer binding to PfLDH with a dissociation constant of 42 nM and 2:1 protein:aptamer molar stoichiometry. Dissociation constants derived from electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments were consistent. The aptamer:protein complex crystal structure was solved at 2.1-Å resolution, revealing two aptamers bind per PfLDH tetramer. The aptamers showed a unique distorted hairpin structure in complex with PfLDH, displaying a Watson–Crick base-paired stem together with two distinct loops each with one base flipped out by specific interactions with PfLDH. Aptamer binding specificity is dictated by extensive interactions of one of the aptamer loops with a PfLDH loop that is absent in human lactate dehydrogenase. We conjugated the aptamer to gold nanoparticles and demonstrated specificity of colorimetric detection of PfLDH over human lactate dehydrogenase. This unique distorted hairpin aptamer complex provides a perspective on aptamer-mediated molecular recognition and may guide rational design of better aptamers for malaria diagnostics.

Cheung, Yee-Wai; Kwok, Jane; Law, Alan W. L.; Watt, Rory M.; Kotaka, Masayo; Tanner, Julian A.

2013-01-01

74

Purification and partial characterization of a d (?)-lactate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 7757)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A membrane-boundd(–)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an important enzyme in carbon and energy metabolism in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genusDesulfovibrio, was solubilized from the membrane fraction ofDesulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 7757). The enzyme was purified 84-fold to a final specific activity of 525 nmol DCPIP-reduced\\/min\\/mg protein by ammonium sulfate precipitation, chloroform extraction, gel filtration with Sephadex G-150, and hydrophobic column chromatography withN-octylamine Sepharose

M. H. Czechowski; H. W. Rossmoore

1990-01-01

75

Differential expression of two tomato lactate dehydrogenase genes in response to oxygen deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different cDNAs encoding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were isolated from a library of hypoxically treated tomato roots and sequenced. The use of gene-specific probes on northern blots showed that Ldh2 mRNA was predominant in well-oxygenated roots and levels remained stable upon oxygen deficit; in contrast, Ldh1 mRNA accumulated to high levels within 2 h of hypoxia or anoxia. Immunoblot analyses

Véronique Germain; Philippe Raymond; Bérénice Ricard

1997-01-01

76

Collecting and assessing human lactate dehydrogenase-A conformations for structure-based virtual screening.  

PubMed

Human lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is emerging as a promising anticancer target. Up to now, structure-based investigations for identifying inhibitors of this enzyme have not explicitly accounted for active site flexibility. In the present study, by combining replica exchange molecular dynamics with network and cluster analyses, we identified reliable LDHA conformations for structure-based ligand design. The selected conformations were challenged and validated by retrospective virtual screening simulations. PMID:24138094

Buonfiglio, Rosa; Ferraro, Mariarosaria; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Masetti, Matteo; Recanatini, Maurizio

2013-11-25

77

Immobilization of glucose oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase onto magnetic nanoparticles for bioprocess monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles, viz. Fe3O4, via carbodiimide and glutaraldehyde. The immobilization efficiency was largely dependent upon the immobilization time and\\u000a concentration of glutaraldehyde. The magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 9.3 nm and were superparamagnetic. The\\u000a immobilization of GOD and LDH on the nanoparticles slightly decreased their saturation magnetization. However,

Ok-Jae Sohn; Chun-Kwang Kim; Jong Il Rhee

2008-01-01

78

Impact of High Pyruvate Concentration on Kinetics of Rabbit Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle as a regenerative catalyst of the biologically important cofactor nicotinamide\\u000a adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the kinetics over broad concentrations were studied to develop a suitable kinetic rate expression.\\u000a Despite robust literature describing the intricate complexations, the mammalian rabbit muscle LDH lacks a quantitative kinetic\\u000a rate expression accounting for

Matthew Warren Eggert; Mark E. Byrne; Robert P. Chambers

79

Induction of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes by Oxygen Deficit in Barley Root Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in attached roots of barley and other cereals increased up to 20-fold during several days of severe hypoxia, reaching a maximum of about 2 micromoles per minute per gram fresh weight. In barley, induction of LDH activity was significant at 2.6% O2 and greatest at 0.06%, the lowest O2 concentration tested. Upon return to aerobic conditions, induced LDH activity declined with an apparent half-life of 2 days. The isozyme profile of barley LDH comprised 5 bands, consistent with a tetrameric enzyme with subunits encoded by two different Ldh genes. Changes in staining intensity of the isozymes as a function of O2 level suggested that one Ldh gene was preferentially expressed in severe hypoxia. When tracer [U-14C]glucose was supplied to induced roots under hypoxic conditions, lactate acquired label, but much less than either ethanol or alanine. Most of the [14C] lactate was secreted into the medium, whereas most other labeled anionic products were retained in the root. Neither hypoxic induction of LDH, nor lactate secretion by induced roots, is predicted from the Davies-Roberts hypothesis, which holds that lactate glycolysis ceases soon after the onset of hypoxia due to acidosis brought about by lactate accumulation in the cytoplasm. These results imply a functional significance for LDH beyond that assigned it in this hypothesis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Hoffman, Neil E.; Bent, Andrew F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

1986-01-01

80

Physical and functional association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with skeletal muscle mitochondria.  

PubMed

The intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate generated in the cytosol is oxidized by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the same cell. To examine whether skeletal muscle mitochondria oxidize lactate, mitochondrial respiratory oxygen flux (JO2) was measured during the sequential addition of various substrates and cofactors onto permeabilized rat gastrocnemius muscle fibers, as well as isolated mitochondrial subpopulations. Addition of lactate did not alter JO2. However, subsequent addition of NAD(+) significantly increased JO2, and was abolished by the inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. In experiments with isolated subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial subpopulations, only subsarcolemmal exhibited NAD(+)-dependent lactate oxidation. To further investigate the details of the physical association of LDH with mitochondria in muscle, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and immunoblotting approaches were used. LDH clearly colocalized with mitochondria in intact, as well as permeabilized fibers. LDH is likely localized inside the outer mitochondrial membrane, but not in the mitochondrial matrix. Collectively, these results suggest that extra-matrix LDH is strategically positioned within skeletal muscle fibers to functionally interact with mitochondria. PMID:23873936

Elustondo, Pia A; White, Adrienne E; Hughes, Meghan E; Brebner, Karen; Pavlov, Evgeny; Kane, Daniel A

2013-08-30

81

Design and synthesis of new enzymes based on the lactate dehydrogenase framework.  

PubMed

Analysis of the mechanism and structure of lactate dehydrogenases is summarized in a map of the catalytic pathway. Chemical probes, single tryptophan residues inserted at specific sites and a crystal structure reveal slow movements of the protein framework that discriminate between closely related small substrates. Only small and correctly charged substrates allow the protein to engulf the substrate in an internal vacuole that is isolated from solvent protons, in which water is frozen and hydride transfer is rapid. The closed vacuole is very sensitive to the size and charge of the substrate and provides discrimination between small substrates that otherwise have too few functional groups to be distinguished at a solvated protein surface. This model was tested against its ability to successfully predict the design and synthesis of new enzymes such as L-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase and fully active malate dehydrogenase. Solvent friction limits the rate of forming the vacuole and thus the maximum rate of catalysis. PMID:1678537

Dunn, C R; Wilks, H M; Halsall, D J; Atkinson, T; Clarke, A R; Muirhead, H; Holbrook, J J

1991-05-29

82

Lactate and malate dehydrogenase in the fan-shell associated shrimp, Pontonia pinnophylax (Otto): Effects of temperature and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pontonia pinnophylax (Otto), a crustacean decapod inhabiting the mantle cavity of Pinna nobilis L. (Bivalvia: Pteriomorpha), the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, and their electrophoretic patterns, were compared in relation to heat and urea inactivation. Activity was higher in LDH than in MDH, and the electrophoretic patterns showed a predominance of LDH-A4 and the presence of

G. Laganà; S. Giacobbe; E. Bellocco; C. Mannucci; A. Galtieri; S. Ficarra; A. Kotyk; U. Leuzzi

2007-01-01

83

Binding ligands and cofactor to L-lactate dehydrogenase from human skeletal and heart muscles.  

PubMed

Binding affinities of cofactor and ligands to the active site of two different isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), heart and skeletal muscles (H4 and M4, respectively), can be used for medical and biological applications. Herein, a hybrid QM/MM computational approach based on free energy perturbation methods has been carried out to estimate binding affinities and binding isotope effects (BIEs) for NADH/NAD(+) and oxamate, pyruvate, L-lactate, and D-lactate ligands to the M4 and H4 isoforms of L-LDH. Here, we show that determining how cofactor and ligands interact with the active site of LDH isoforms advanced the still open discussion on the intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis. In our discussion we deny the key concept of this hypothesis showing, based on interaction energy values, that there is no evidence that the M4 type of LDH in the skeletal muscles cells served as a catalyst of the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Additionally, theoretical determination of BIEs for H4 and M4 types of LDH shows that there is a way of using the BIEs as a tool capable to distinguish these isoforms, and for this purpose D-lactate labeled with deuterium in positions 11 or 7, 8, 9 ([11-2H]-BIE and [7,8,9-2H3]-BIE) or L-lactate labeled only in position 11 ([11-2H]-BIE) could be used. We propose the BIEs as a useful tool which can be applied in order to experimentally determine the types of LDH. PMID:21526780

?widerek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

2011-05-19

84

Pig heart lactate dehydrogenase. Binding of pyruvate and the interconversion of pyruvate-containing ternary complexes.  

PubMed Central

1. Lactate oxidation catalysed by pig heart lactate dehydrogenase was studied in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of pyruvate. Experimental results show the presence of an intermediate which occurs immediately after the hydride transfer step, but before the dissociation of pyruvate and the H+ produced by the reaction. The rate constant for pyruvate dissociation and the dissociation constant for pyruvate from the ternary complex differ from those obtained in pyruvate reduction experiments. 2.In single-turnover pyruvate reduction by pig heart lactate dehydrogenase at pH8.0 pyruvate can bind to the enzyme before a H+ is taken up, and the subsequent uptake of a H+ is governed by a step that is also rate-limiting for single-turnover and steady-state NADH oxidation. 3. Observation of various intermediates in the single-turnover pyruvate reduction experiments has made it possible to determine separately the dissociation constant and Km value for pyruvate at pH8.0, and also the catalytic turnover rate and Km for pyruvate under first-order conditions at different pH values. 4. Further studies on single-turnover pyruvate reduction carried out in 2H2O, or in water at low temperature, show another step which, under these conditions, is slower than that controlling H+ uptake and rate-limiting for NADH oxidation. A scheme is presented which explains these results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. Fig. 12.

Boland, M J; Gutfreund, H

1975-01-01

85

Factors Affecting the Activity of the Lactate Dehydrogenase of Streptococcus cremoris  

PubMed Central

Studies with partially purified extracts of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked l(+)-lactate dehydrogenase of Streptococcus cremoris US3 showed that fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) was essential for the catalytic reduction of pyruvate in the pH range 5.0 to 7.0, outside of which the organism does not grow. In the absence of FDP, enzyme activity was observed only in the region of pH 8.0. The optimal pH for the oxidation of lactate was approximately 8.0 in the presence and absence of FDP. The FDP-activated enzyme was markedly inhibited by inorganic phosphate. The enzyme lost activity on standing at 5 C in alkaline triethanolamine, was quite stable at pH 6.0 to 6.5, and underwent irreversible denaturation below pH 5.0. Inorganic phosphate or FDP increased the stability of the enzyme in alkaline buffers. Some distinguishing properties of individual lactate dehydrogenases, activated by FDP, are discussed.

Jonas, H. A.; Anders, R. F.; Jago, G. R.

1972-01-01

86

Cloning, E. coli expression, and characterization of heart lactate dehydrogenase B from river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of glycolytic pathway which catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate. The present study describes cDNA cloning, E. coli expression and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH-B) from the heart ventricles of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Total RNA was isolated from the heart tissue, a 1005bp cDNA encoding complete polypeptide chain of 334 amino acids was generated by reverse transcriptase reaction and analyzed for nucleotide sequence. The consensus sequence obtained from both strands has shown 84% to 98% homology with that of different mammalian species. The attributed gene was cloned, expressed in BL21 (DE3) RIPL Codon Plus strain of E. coli using pET21a (+) plasmid. The purified recombinant enzyme displayed a KM value of 50 µM for pyruvate, an optimum activity at 35°C and pH 7.0. The enzyme was found as a homotetramer of 140 kDa on FPLC based gel-filtration column. Molecular weight of a subunit of enzyme as determined by mass spectrometric analysis was 36530.21 Da. The present study describes the first ever report about the cDNA sequence and characteristics of recombinant LDH-B from River buffalo. PMID:24299182

Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Moran, Jenny; Murtaza, Bibi Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi; Ahmad, Habib

2014-01-01

87

The specific interaction of Cibacron and related dyes with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

1. Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3G-A) is a competitive inhibitor of bovine heart cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (Ki 0.3?m). The Ki increases with increasing temperature, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not largely responsible for the binding of the dye. Another 25 sulphonated aromatic dyes are also competitive inhibitors of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (Ki values in the range of 0.06–13.6?m). 2. These dyes (covalently linked to Dextran 40) inhibit bovine heart cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Reactive Blue 2 (covalently linked to Dextran 40) is a competitive inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase (Ki 0.4?m). 3. Bovine heart cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is retained on a column of Reactive Blue 2-Sephacryl S-200 and can be eluted from the column by 3?:5?-cyclic AMP. 4. A variety of the dyes (either free or covalently linked to Dextran 40) are competitive inhibitors of rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase. 5. The effectiveness of a wide range of structurally dissimilar dyes as competitive inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase compromises proposals for the use of Reactive Blue 2 as a specific probe for the dinucleotide-binding structural domain present in many dehydrogenases and kinases. Detailed information of the various dyes used has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50089 (7 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5.

Ashton, Anthony R.; Polya, Gideon M.

1978-01-01

88

Simultaneous purification of L-malate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase from bovine heart by biomimetic-dye affinity chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercially important enzymes, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and L-malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were purified simultaneously from bovine heart, on an agarose affinity adsorbent. This adsorbent bears a dye-ligand composed of an anthraquinone chlorotriazine chromophore linked to a biomimetic terminal 4-aminophenyloxanylic acid moiety. The purification protocol exploited the biomimetic affinity adsorbent, in combination with a cross-linked agarose DEAE anion-exchanger. The procedure comprised

N. E. Labrou; Y. D. Clonis

1997-01-01

89

Glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in the green-lipped mussel ( Perna viridis): Possible biomarkers for hypoxia in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from a well-oxygenated site in Hong Kong and maintained in situ at this and three other sites with different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes. The transplanted mussels were retrieved after a 4-week field exposure. An estimation of the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the adductor muscles of the mussels showed

Rudolf S. S. Wu; Paul K. S. Lam

1997-01-01

90

An electrochemical biosensor with nanointerface for lactate detection based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on zinc oxide nanorods.  

PubMed

Hepatic immaturity is observed particularly in children whose age is under three, when the lactate concentration is greater than the normal level in blood. An electrochemical lactate biosensor was developed by immobilizing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on to ZnO nanorods at pH 7.4 via chitosan. Growth of polycrystalline ZnO nanorods towards (101) plane was confirmed using XRD. The FE-SEM study revealed the formation of ZnO nanorods with an aspect ratio of 3.24. Immobilization of LDH on ZnO nanorods was confirmed using FTIR spectra and surface coverage. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry using three electrode system with Au/NanoZnO/LDH as working electrode, Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M KCl as reference electrode and Pt wire as counter electrode. The sensitivity of the biosensor was found to be 1.832 ?A ?mol(-1) L exhibiting linearity 0.2-0.8 ?mol L(-1) with the detection and quantification limits of 4.73 and 15.75 nmol L(-1) respectively. The response time of Au/NanoZnO/LDH bioelectrode was found to be <1 s. Prediction band for net current was framed to enhance specificity. Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) and maximum rate (Imax) values for immobilized LDH were found to be 0.38 ?mol L(-1) and 2.798 ?A respectively. Repeatability and reproducibility of LDH biosensor were also reported. PMID:24231089

Nesakumar, Noel; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2014-01-15

91

Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027) is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate  

PubMed Central

Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

2010-01-01

92

Effectiveness of creatine monohydrate on seizures and oxidative damage induced by methylmalonate.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acidemias are metabolic disorders caused by a severe deficiency of methylmalonyl CoA mutase activity, which are characterized by neurological dysfunction, including convulsions. It has been reported that methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulation inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity and respiratory chain complexes in vitro, leading to decreased CO2 production, O2 consumption and increased lactate production. Acute intrastriatal administration of MMA also induces convulsions and reactive species production. Though creatine has been reported to decrease MMA-induced convulsions and lactate production, it is not known whether it also protects against MMA-induced oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the effects of creatine (1.2-12 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (3 nmol/striatum) on the convulsions, striatal content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and on protein carbonylation induced by MMA. Moreover, we investigated the effect of creatine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) on the MMA-induced striatal creatine and phosphocreatine depletion. Low doses of creatine (1.2 and 3.6 mg/kg) protected against MMA-induced oxidative damage, but did not protect against MMA-induced convulsions. A high dose of creatine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (3 nmol/striatum) protected against MMA-induced seizures (evidenced by electrographic recording), protein carbonylation and TBARS production ex vivo. Furthermore, acute creatine administration increased the striatal creatine and phosphocreatine content and protected against MMA-induced creatine and phosphocreatine depletion. Our results suggest that an increase of the striatal high-energy phosphates elicited by creatine protects not only against MMA-induced convulsions, but also against MMA-induced oxidative damage. Therefore, since NMDA antagonists are limited value in the clinics, the present results indicate that creatine may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for methylmalonic acidemic patients. PMID:16469366

Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Myskiw, Jociane de Carvalho; Fiorenza, Natália Gindri; Petry, João Carlos; Coelho, Rafael Correa; Mello, Carlos Fernando

2006-01-01

93

In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways. PMID:21416338

Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

2011-08-01

94

The influence of oxygen on radiation-induced structural and functional changes in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins are major targets for oxidative damage due to their abundance in cells and high reactivity with free radicals. In the present study we examined the influence of oxygen on radiation-induced inactivation and structural changes of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We chose these two enzymes because they occur at high concentrations and participate in the most important processes in organisms; furthermore, they show considerable similarity in their structure. Protein solutions were irradiated with X-rays in doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy, in air and N2O. The much higher radiation inactivation of GAPDH as compared to LDH is correlated with substantially greater structural changes in this protein, mainly involving the loss of free thiol groups (-SH). Of lesser importance in the differentiation of the radiosensitivity of the studied enzymes are tryptophan residues. Molecular oxygen, present during irradiation, increased to a significantly greater extent the inactivation and structural changes of GAPDH than that of LDH. The results suggest that the greater effect of oxygen on GAPDH is due to the higher efficiency of the superoxide radical, the higher amount of hydroperoxides generated, and the higher degree of unfolding of this protein.

Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Bubinski, Michal; Krokosz, Anita; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

2012-07-01

95

Human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) rescues mouse Ldhc-null sperm function.  

PubMed

By targeted disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene, we demonstrated that spermatozoa require Ldhc for capacitation, motility, and fertilizing capacity. Ldhc expression is restricted to the developing germ cells that, however, are apparently not compromised by the lack of the LDHC isozyme. Because LDHC is abundant in spermatozoa that utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy requirements, its main function was presumed to be the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate with the concomitant oxidation/reduction of NADH to NAD(+). We found that sperm without LDHC were still able to convert lactate to pyruvate as mediated by LDHA that is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. It was assumed that the level of glycolysis was insufficient to power motility and the subsequent fertilizing capacity of the mutated sperm. To investigate whether LDHC possesses certain unique characteristics essential for fertility, human LDHA was introduced as a transgene to Ldhc-null mice. We report here that the exogenous LDHA rescued the phenotype of the Ldhc-null males. Sperm from the LDHA transgenic males with the Ldhc deletion (LDHA(+)/Ldhc(-/-)) are motile, capable of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and able to fertilize, thus restoring these properties to LDHC-null sperm. However, the lactate and ATP levels in the rescued sperm did not differ significantly from sperm lacking LDHC. We suggest that it is the localization of the transgene to the sperm cytosol that is mainly responsible for restoration of sperm function and fertility. PMID:23467744

Tang, Huanghui; Duan, Chongwen; Bleher, Reiner; Goldberg, Erwin

2013-04-01

96

Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) Rescues Mouse Ldhc-Null Sperm Function1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT By targeted disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene, we demonstrated that spermatozoa require Ldhc for capacitation, motility, and fertilizing capacity. Ldhc expression is restricted to the developing germ cells that, however, are apparently not compromised by the lack of the LDHC isozyme. Because LDHC is abundant in spermatozoa that utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy requirements, its main function was presumed to be the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate with the concomitant oxidation/reduction of NADH to NAD+. We found that sperm without LDHC were still able to convert lactate to pyruvate as mediated by LDHA that is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. It was assumed that the level of glycolysis was insufficient to power motility and the subsequent fertilizing capacity of the mutated sperm. To investigate whether LDHC possesses certain unique characteristics essential for fertility, human LDHA was introduced as a transgene to Ldhc-null mice. We report here that the exogenous LDHA rescued the phenotype of the Ldhc-null males. Sperm from the LDHA transgenic males with the Ldhc deletion (LDHA+/Ldhc?/?) are motile, capable of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and able to fertilize, thus restoring these properties to LDHC-null sperm. However, the lactate and ATP levels in the rescued sperm did not differ significantly from sperm lacking LDHC. We suggest that it is the localization of the transgene to the sperm cytosol that is mainly responsible for restoration of sperm function and fertility.

Tang, Huanghui; Duan, Chongwen; Bleher, Reiner; Goldberg, Erwin

2013-01-01

97

Cardioprotective Activity of A Novel and Potent Competitive Inhibitor of Lactate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Alkaline incubation of NADH results in the formation of a very potent inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase. High resolution mass spectroscopy along with NMR characterization clearly showed that the inhibitor is derived from attachment of a glycolic acid moiety to the 4-position of the dihydronicotinamide ring of NADH. The very potent inhibitor is competitive with respect to NADH. The inhibitor added in submicromolar concentrations to cardiomyocytes protects them from damage caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation stress. In isolated mouse hearts, addition of the inhibitor results in a substantial reduction of myocardial infarct size caused by global ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Kotlyar, Alexander B.; Randazzo, Antonio; Honbo, Norman; Jin, Zhu-Qui; Karliner, Joel S.; Cecchini, Gary

2009-01-01

98

Mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase is involved in oxidative-energy metabolism in human astrocytoma cells (CCF-STTG1).  

PubMed

Lactate has long been regarded as an end product of anaerobic energy production and its fate in cerebral metabolism has not been precisely delineated. In this report, we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a human astrocytic cell line (CCF-STTG1) to consume lactate and to generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. (13)C-NMR and HPLC analyses aided in the identification of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cyle metabolites and ATP in the astrocytic mitochondria incubated with lactate. Oxamate, an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), abolished mitochondrial lactate consumption. Electrophoretic and fluorescence microscopic analyses helped localize LDH in the mitochondria. Taken together, this study implicates lactate as an important contributor to ATP metabolism in the brain, a finding that may significantly change our notion of how this important organ manipulates its energy budget. PMID:18253497

Lemire, Joseph; Mailloux, Ryan J; Appanna, Vasu D

2008-01-01

99

Conformation of NAD+ bound to allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase activated by chemical modification.  

PubMed

On modification of arginine residues with 2,3-butanedione, the Thermus caldophilus L-lactate dehydrogenase is converted to an activated form that is independent of an allosteric effector, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-P2). The conformation of NAD+ bound to the modified enzyme in the absence of Fru-1,6-P2 was investigated by means of proton NMR, analyzing the time dependence of the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) and TRNOE action spectra. The inter-proton distances determined on TRNOE analysis indicated that both the nicotinamide riboside moiety and the adenosine moiety of NAD+ were in the anti conformation, the ribose rings being in the C3'-endo form. This conformation was almost the same as that of NAD+ bound to the native enzyme-Fru-1,6-P2 complex, rather than that of NAD+ bound to the free native enzyme. These results suggest that the C3'-endo-anti form of the enzyme-bound NAD+ is essential for the activation of the T. caldophilus L-lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:2722793

Koide, S; Yokoyama, S; Matsuzawa, H; Miyazawa, T; Ohta, T

1989-05-25

100

Crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.  

PubMed

The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Ljd-LDH) is a key enzyme in the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of d-lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The crystal structures of Ljd-LDH and in complex with NAD(+) were determined at 2.13 and 2.60? resolutions, respectively. The Ljd-LDH monomer consists of the N-terminal substrate-binding domain and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain. The Ljd-LDH forms a homodimeric structure, and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain mostly enables the dimerization of the enzyme. The NAD cofactor is bound to the GxGxxG NAD-binding motif located between the two domains. Structural comparisons of Ljd-LDH with other d-LDHs reveal that Ljd-LDH has unique amino acid residues at the linker region, which indicates that the open-close dynamics of Ljd-LDH might be different from that of other d-LDHs. Moreover, thermostability experiments showed that the T50(10) value of Ljd-LDH (54.5°C) was much higher than the commercially available d-lactate dehydrogenase (42.7°C). In addition, Ljd-LDH has at least a 7°C higher denaturation temperature compared to commercially available d-LDHs. PMID:24794195

Kim, Sangwoo; Gu, Sol-A; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

2014-07-01

101

Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key points Eccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage. Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis. Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days). Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage. Ergogenic effect of creatine supplementation may contribute to reduced exercise induced muscle damage.

Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric

2009-01-01

102

Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in V max, K m and I 50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in K m values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I 50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

Abboud, Jean; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

103

Probing Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Tumors by Measuring Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Hyperpolarized l-[1-13C,U-2H]Lactate  

PubMed Central

13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging measurements of hyperpolarized 13C label exchange between exogenously administered [1-13C]pyruvate and endogenous lactate, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), has proved to be a powerful approach for probing tissue metabolism in vivo. This experiment has clinical potential, particularly in oncology, where it could be used to assess tumor grade and response to treatment. A limitation of the method is that pyruvate must be administered in vivo at supra-physiological concentrations. This problem can be avoided by using hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate, which can be used at physiological concentrations. However, sensitivity is limited in this case by the relatively small pyruvate pool size, which would result in only low levels of labeled pyruvate being observed even if there was complete label equilibration between the lactate and pyruvate pools. We demonstrate here a more sensitive method in which a doubly labeled lactate species can be used to measure LDH-catalyzed exchange in vivo. In this experiment exchange of the C2 deuterium label between injected hyperpolarized l-[1-13C,U-2H]lactate and endogenous unlabeled lactate is observed indirectly by monitoring phase modulation of the spin-coupled hyperpolarized 13C signal in a heteronuclear 1H/13C spin–echo experiment.

2012-01-01

104

Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes in the trunk and cardiac muscles of an antarctic teleost fish, Notothenia neglecta Nybelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes in the red and white trunk muscles, and cardiac muscle of an antarctic teleost fish (Notothenia neglecta Nybelin) have been studied. Pyruvate inhibition of LDH in all three muscle types is very low, being less than 50% even at a concentration of 60mM pyruvate. Activity versus pyruvate concentration profiles are not

Neil A. Fitch

1989-01-01

105

The effect of pressure on muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity of some deep-sea and shallow-water fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of crude muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of several species of bathypelagic and shallow-water fishes has been measured at pressures between 1 and 578 atm and at temperatures of 15° and 25°C. No relationship has been found between the effect of pressure on enzyme activity and the hydrostatic pressure of the organism's environment. Applied hydrostatic pressure reduced activity at

R. G. Gillen

1971-01-01

106

The ontogenic characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes in mammaliam pre-implantation ova.  

PubMed

The onotgenic characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes in mammalian pre-implantation ova have been reviewed. Evidence has been provided that the ova of mice and other mammalian species contain enzyme activity in a masked form, and display turnover processes which possess distinctive characteristics by comparison with those in adult tissues. Also, the extraordinary high levels of LDH in the extracellular secretion of the mammaliam oviduct have been commented on, along with the influence of reproductive hormones on the activity and type of this enzyme. In addition, attention has been drawn to the unique characteristics of the oval micro-evironment, and the influence which such factors may exert on the realization of enzyme phenotype during early mammalian development. PMID:353393

Masters, C J

1978-06-01

107

Evaluation of the intra- and inter-specific genetic variability of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria diagnosis is vital to efficient control programmes and the recent advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provides a reliable and simple diagnostic method. However a characterization of the efficiency of these tests and the proteins they detect is needed to maximize RDT sensitivity. Methods Plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) gene of wild isolates of the four human species of Plasmodium from a variety of malaria endemic settings were sequenced and analysed. Results No variation in nucleotide was found within Plasmodium falciparum, synonymous mutations were found for Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium. vivax; and three different types of amino acid sequence were found for Plasmodium ovale. Conserved and variable regions were identified within each species. Conclusion The results indicate that antigen variability is unlikely to explain variability in performance of RDTs detecting pLDH from cases of P. falciparum, P. vivax or P. malariae malaria, but may contribute to poor detection of P. ovale.

Talman, Arthur M; Duval, Linda; Legrand, Eric; Hubert, Veronique; Yen, Seiha; Bell, David; Le Bras, Jacques; Ariey, Frederic; Houze, Sandrine

2007-01-01

108

Synthesis, cytotoxicity for mimics of catalase: Inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase and hypoxia inducible factor.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a potentially important metabolic target for the inhibition of the highly activated glycolysis pathway in cancer cells. Two Mn(II) complexes with ligand containing di(pyridylmethyl) amine and pyrrol-ketone were used to attenuate the activity of LDH-A. The inhibition of the manganese(II) complexes on the proliferation of HepG-2 cells is related to their ability to disproportionate H2O2. Importantly, the synthesized mimic of catalase can decrease the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1?) in HepG-2 cells. So we envision that the multifunctional mimics of catalase could attenuate the activity of LDH-A signaling the cancer cells to death through HIF-1? involved path. PMID:24763359

Xue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Kong, Meng-Yun; Zhu, Chun-Yin; Gen, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Lin

2014-06-10

109

Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase-a Functional Gene: Comparison of the Exon-Intron Organization of Dehydrogenase Genes  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of 12,851 nucleotides of the mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) gene has been determined. It includes eight exons, seven introns, promoter and regulatory regions. The B1 repetitive elements present in intron III and VI are oriented in opposite orientation, and they share 72% sequence homology. The exon-intron organization of mouse LDH-A gene is compared with the organizations of other dehydrogenase genes, and the molecular evolution of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding domains is discussed.

Fukasawa, Kayoko M.; Li, Steven S.-L.

1987-01-01

110

Active and inactive state structures of unliganded Lactobacillus casei allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei L-lactate dehydrogenase (LCLDH) is activated through the homotropic and heterotropic activation effects of pyruvate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), respectively, and exhibits unusually high pH-dependence in the allosteric effects of these ligands. The active (R) and inactive (T) state structures of unliganded LCLDH were determined at 2.5 and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. In the catalytic site, the structural rearrangements are concerned mostly in switching of the orientation of Arg171 through the flexible intersubunit contact at the Q-axis subunit interface. The distorted orientation of Arg171 in the T state is stabilized by a unique intra-helix salt bridge between Arg171 and Glu178, which is in striking contrast to the multiple intersubunit salt bridges in Lactobacillus pentosus nonallosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase. In the backbone structure, major structural rearrangements of LCLDH are focused in two mobile regions of the catalytic domain. The two regions form an intersubunit linkage through contact at the P-axis subunit interface involving Arg185, replacement of which with Gln severely decreases the homotropic and hetertropic activation effects on the enzyme. These two regions form another intersubunit linkage in the Q-axis related dimer through the rigid NAD-binding domain, and thus constitute a pivotal frame of the intersubunit linkage for the allosteric motion, which is coupled with the concerted structural change of the four subunits in a tetramer, and of the binding sites for pyruvate and FBP. The unique intersubunit salt bridges, which are observed only in the R state structure, are likely involved in the pH-dependent allosteric equilibrium. PMID:19787773

Arai, Kazuhito; Ishimitsu, Toshihiro; Fushinobu, Shinya; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2010-02-15

111

Lactate Dehydrogenase A is a potential prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Over 90% of cancer-related deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are caused by tumor relapse and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need for new molecular markers that can potentiate the efficacy of the current clinical-based models of prognosis assessment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential significance of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), assessed by immunohistochemical staining, as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcome. Methods We assessed the expression of LDHA at the protein level, by immunohistochemistry, and correlated its expression with multiple clinicopathological features including tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, disease-free and overall survival in 385 patients with primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We also correlated the LDHA expression with overall survival, at mRNA level, in an independent data set of 170 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for the potential clinicopathological factors were used to test for associations between the LDHA expression and both disease-free survival and overall survival. Results There is statistically significant positive correlation between LDHA level of expression and tumor size, clinical stage and histological grade. Moreover, LDHA expression shows significantly inverse correlation with both disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our results are validated by examining LDHA expression, at the mRNA level, in the independent data set of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases which also shows that higher lactate dehydrogenase A expression is associated with significantly shorter overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicate that LDHA up-regulation can be a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Thus, it represents a potential prognostic biomarker that can boost the accuracy of other prognostic models in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

2014-01-01

112

The approach to the Michaelis complex in lactate dehydrogenase: the substrate binding pathway.  

PubMed

We examine here the dynamics of forming the Michaelis complex of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase by characterizing the binding kinetics and thermodynamics of oxamate (a substrate mimic) to the binary lactate dehydrogenase/NADH complex over multiple timescales, from nanoseconds to tens of milliseconds. To access such a wide time range, we employ standard stopped-flow kinetic approaches (slower than 1 ms) and laser-induced temperature-jump relaxation spectroscopy (10 ns-10 ms). The emission from the nicotinamide ring of NADH is used as a marker of structural transformations. The results are well explained by a kinetic model that has binding taking place via a sequence of steps: the formation of an encounter complex in a bimolecular step followed by two unimolecular transformations on the microsecond/millisecond timescales. All steps are well described by single exponential kinetics. It appears that the various key components of the catalytically competent architecture are brought together as separate events, with the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between active site His(195) and substrate early in binding and the closure of the catalytically necessary protein surface loop over the bound substrate as the final event of the binding process. This loop remains closed during the entire period that chemistry takes place for native substrates; however, motions of other key molecular groups bringing the complex in and out of catalytic competence appear to occur on faster timescales. The on-enzyme K(d) values (the ratios of the microscopic rate constants for each unimolecular step) are not far from one. Either substantial, approximately 10-15%, transient melting of the protein or rearrangements of hydrogen bonding and solvent interactions of a number of water molecules or both appear to take place to permit substrate access to the protein binding site. The nature of activating the various steps in the binding process seems to be one overall involving substantial entropic changes. PMID:15980172

McClendon, Sebastian; Zhadin, Nick; Callender, Robert

2005-09-01

113

Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to study the characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Hypoderma sinense larva. H. sinense larvae were collected from yak (Bos grunniens) and identified by a PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of LDH activity showed that the total LDH activity in H. sinense larva was negatively correlated with the length of larva. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extracts of H. sinense larvae revealed one band of LDH, which was then purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. This enzyme showed an approximately 36 kDa band on SDS-gel under both reducing and non-reducing conditions, in addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis showed that its molecular weight was smaller than bovine serum albumin (67 kDa), indicating that it contains only one subunit. Michaelis constants (Km) values assay revealed that LDH from H. sinense larva showed significantly lower Km for lactate than other animals. LDH of H. sinense larva was stable at 60 °C for 15 min, and also exhibited high catalytic efficiency in a wide range of pH. HgCl? at the concentration of 0.1mM significantly decreased the activity of LDH from H. sinense larva but not at the concentration of 0.01 mM. The results of the present study demonstrate that LDH from H. sinense larva is a thermal stable and pH insensitive enzyme suitable for catalyzing both forward and reverse reactions. PMID:23474203

Li, Pengfei; Jin, Suyu; Huang, Lin; Liu, Haohao; Huang, Zhihong; Lin, Yaqiu; Zheng, Yucai

2013-06-01

114

Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene 1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate into lactate and constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. Recently, LDH draws a great deal of attention for its potential to be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and malaria. Insect LDHs have been mainly identified from fruit fly and mosquitoes, but not from silkworm. In this study, a novel LDH homologue, designated as BmLDH1, was firstly identified and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The BmLDH1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 996 bp, and encodes a protein of 331 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. Sequence comparison showed BmLDH1 is a highly conserved protein. RT-PCR revealed BmLDH1 is transcripted in all tissues and in all developmental stages tested, indicating its essential roles for silkworm physiology and development. The BmLDH1 gene was subcloned and expressed in E. coli, and was further characterized by Western blot and Mass Spectrometry. The expressed protein contained the LDH activity, and could be inhibited by reduced glutathione in vitro. Immunofluoresence showed that the BmLDH1 was located in the cytoplasm. The cloned BmLDH1 sequence was deposited in the GenBank (accession number EU334850). PMID:20852941

Xia, Hengchuan; Wu, Chao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Jing; Feng, Fan; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lin

2011-03-01

115

Determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in milk by a fluorometric assay.  

PubMed

Indigenous L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in milk originates mainly from somatic cells, leucocytes and invading microorganisms. Its activity may be used for detection of mastitis. However, existing methods to measure LDH activity in milk both need pretreatment of the samples and still suffer from methodological problems. The present paper describes a fast, reliable method for determination of LDH activity, suitable for milk samples. The method is based on fluorometric determination of enzyme kinetics when L-lactate is converted to pyruvate. The assay uses raw milk without pretreatment and the method is easily adjustable to large-scale analyses on micro assay plates. Detection is based on (straight line) linear response within 4-7 min of initiation of the reaction. A substrate concentration of 35 mM in the reaction mixture was considered to be optimal for the assay. Intra plate assay precision was approx. 6% (CV) and the inter plate precision approx. 10%. Known inhibitors of LDH activity (oxidative direction), i.e., oxalic acid, oxamate, and pyruvate, were tested in different concentrations in order to verify the specificity of the response. The detailed kinetics of samples analysed indicated that the isoenzyme composition may have differed between milk samples, and that this composition may have been altered in high activity samples. PMID:15909687

Larsen, Torben

2005-05-01

116

Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas?  

PubMed Central

LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. In mammals the, Ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000–5000 m above sea levelon the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the expression pattern of six LDH isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to be the same as those in testis and sperm, suggesting that LDH-C4 was expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pika. Here we report the detection of LDHC in the somatic tissues of plateau pika using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that Ldh-c mRNA is transcribed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. In somatic tissues LDHC was translated in the cytoplasm, while in testis it was expressed in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. The third band from cathode to anode in LDH isoenzymes was identified as LDH-C4. The finding that Ldh-c is expressed in both somatic tissues and testis of plateau pika provides important implications for more in-depth research into the Ldh-c function in mammals.

Wang, Duowei; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Rao, Xinfeng; Qi, Xinzhang; Wang, Xiaojun; Ma, Benyuan

2013-01-01

117

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-05-01

118

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase A induces oxidative stress and inhibits tumor progression.  

PubMed

As the result of genetic alterations and tumor hypoxia, many cancer cells avidly take up glucose and generate lactate through lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which is encoded by a target gene of c-Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). Previous studies with reduction of LDHA expression indicate that LDHA is involved in tumor initiation, but its role in tumor maintenance and progression has not been established. Furthermore, how reduction of LDHA expression by interference or antisense RNA inhibits tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here, we report that reduction of LDHA by siRNA or its inhibition by a small-molecule inhibitor (FX11 [3-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-(phenylmethyl)-4-propylnaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid]) reduced ATP levels and induced significant oxidative stress and cell death that could be partially reversed by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Furthermore, we document that FX11 inhibited the progression of sizable human lymphoma and pancreatic cancer xenografts. When used in combination with the NAD(+) synthesis inhibitor FK866, FX11 induced lymphoma regression. Hence, inhibition of LDHA with FX11 is an achievable and tolerable treatment for LDHA-dependent tumors. Our studies document a therapeutical approach to the Warburg effect and demonstrate that oxidative stress and metabolic phenotyping of cancers are critical aspects of cancer biology to consider for the therapeutical targeting of cancer energy metabolism. PMID:20133848

Le, Anne; Cooper, Charles R; Gouw, Arvin M; Dinavahi, Ramani; Maitra, Anirban; Deck, Lorraine M; Royer, Robert E; Vander Jagt, David L; Semenza, Gregg L; Dang, Chi V

2010-02-01

119

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1?Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors.

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E.; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-01-01

120

A molecular design that stabilizes active state in bacterial allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

l-Lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) of Lactobacillus casei (LCLDH) is a typical bacterial allosteric l-LDH that requires fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) for its enzyme activity. A mutant LCLDH was designed to introduce an inter-subunit salt bridge network at the Q-axis subunit interface, mimicking Lactobacillus pentosus non-allosteric l-LDH (LPLDH). The mutant LCLDH exhibited high catalytic activity with hyperbolic pyruvate saturation curves independently of FBP, and virtually the equivalent K(m) and V(m) values at pH 5.0 to those of the fully activated wild-type enzyme with FBP, although the K(m) value was slightly improved with FBP or Mn(2+) at pH 7.0. The mutant enzyme exhibited a markedly higher apparent denaturating temperature (T(1/2)) than the wild-type enzyme in the presence of FBP, but showed an even lower T(1/2) without FBP, where it exhibited higher activation enthalpy of inactivation (?H(‡)). This result is consistent with the fact that the active state is more unstable than the inactive state in allosteric equilibrium of LCLDH. The LPLDH-like network appears to be conserved in many bacterial non-allosteric l-LDHs and dimeric l-malate dehydrogenases, and thus to be a key for the functional divergence of bacterial l-LDHs during evolution. PMID:21828088

Arai, Kazuhito; Ichikawa, Jun; Nonaka, Shinta; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Taguchi, Hayao

2011-11-01

121

Difference spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes.  

PubMed

Difference spectroscopy and enzyme kinetics were employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle with the azo-dye Procion Red HE-3B and two of its structural variants in order to follow the significance of the sulphonated terminal rings for the strength and specificity of binding. Procion Red HE-3B possesses a significantly higher affinity to LDH compared to the dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A, a well characterized pseudo-biospecific ligand of dehydrogenases. Moreover, Procion Red HE-3B showed competition towards the cofactor NAD+/NADH. The enzyme-dye complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, but other binding forces cannot be excluded. LDH possesses one dye-binding site per subunit. As a binding region the active center of LDH, preferentially the hydrophobic nicotinamide pocket is involved. Removal of the negatively charged sulphonic acid group from the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B decreases the affinity to LDH significantly but does not change the type of binding. Addition of an anilino group to the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B does not affect the affinity to the active site significantly but enables the binding on other sites with lower affinity in dependence on the dye concentration. PMID:1824535

Cadelis, F; Kirchberger, J; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Kopperschläger, G

1991-01-01

122

Analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of Calcutta.  

PubMed

The East Calcutta Wetland (ECW), a Ramsar site in India, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. The three best edible major carp species rohu (Labeo rohita,), catla (Catla catla,) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any. Crude tissue extracts were prepared from brain, eye, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue respectively from each type of fish. No differences were not found in MDH of catla from both sites for all tissues analyzed in this study. Rohu also showed similar mobility for all tissues except for heart tissue which was distinctly different in fishes from ECW site than that of its counterpart from non ECW site. On the other hand, MDH of two tissues of mrigala, eye and muscle respectively showed different migration patterns. LDH profiles for all tissues of three fish species from both the sites were consistently similar, only the expression levels of muscle LDH of mrigala and kidney LDH of rohu varied little. PMID:23360005

Manna, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Priyanka

2012-07-01

123

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfLDH) is a key enzyme for energy generation of malarial parasites and is a potential antimalarial chemotherapeutic target. It is known that the oxamate moiety, a pyruvate analog, alone shows higher inhibition against pfLDH than human LDHs, suggesting that it can be used for the development of selective inhibitors. Oxamic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized. Derivatives 5 and 7 demonstrated activities against pfLDH with IC50 values of 3.13 and 1.75 muM, respectively, and have 59- and 7-fold selectivity over mammalian LDH, respectively. They also have micromolar range activities against Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase (pfMDH), which may fill the role of pfLDH when the activity of pfLDH is reduced. Thus, certain members of these oxamic acid derivatives may have dual inhibitory activities against both pfLDH and pfMDH. It is presumed that dual LDH/MDH inhibitors would have enhanced potential as antimalarial drugs. PMID:17636950

Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Pradhan, Anupam; Hammond, Nicholas L; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Tekwani, Babu L; Avery, Mitchell A

2007-08-01

124

Energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: relationship to catalytic mechanism.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the "live" reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ? LDH·NAD(+)·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate's C2?O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2?O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2?O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2?O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure-activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Dyer, R Brian; Callender, Robert

2014-03-25

125

Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production. PMID:20677017

Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-03-01

126

Genetic and physiological analysis of the lethal effect of L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase deficiency in Streptococcus mutans: complementation by alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed Central

CH4ts is a previously isolated recombinant mutant of Streptococcus mutans NG8 which produces a thermolabile L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. It does not grow at 42 degrees C under a variety of cultivation conditions. In this study, we show that a batch culture of CH4ts shifted from 30 to 42 degrees C underwent rapid cessation of growth and accelerated cell death. The mutant grew at 42 degrees C in continuous culture under glucose-limiting conditions. Under these conditions, lactate production was replaced by production of ethanol and, to a smaller extent, acetoin. The cloned Zymomonas mobilis gene for alcohol dehydrogenase II, placed under the control of the S. mutans spaP regulatory signals, complemented LDH deficiency. The alcohol dehydrogenase-complemented mutant grew as well or better than NG8 on a variety of carbon sources at 42 degrees C and produced significant amounts of ethanol in place of lactic acid. These results are in accord with other approaches indicating that S. mutans has other enzymatic activities, including pyruvate formate-lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, for pyruvate metabolism. However, at high glucose concentrations, the levels of activity of these enzymes are apparently insufficient to compensate for the absence of LDH.

Hillman, J D; Chen, A; Snoep, J L

1996-01-01

127

Oxidation of D-lactate and L-lactate by Neisseria meningitidis: purification and cloning of meningococcal D-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis was found to contain at least two lactate-oxidizing enzymes. One of these was purified 460-fold from spheroplast membranes and found to be specific primarily for D-lactate, with low-affinity activity for L-lactate. The gene for this enzyme (dld) was cloned, and a dld mutant was constructed by insertional inactivation of the gene. The mutant was unable to grow on D-lactate but retained the ability to grow on L-lactate, providing evidence for a second lactate-oxidizing enzyme with specificity for L-lactate. High-affinity L-lactate-oxidizing activity was detected in intact bacteria of both the dld+ and dld mutant strains. This L-lactate-oxidizing activity was also seen in sonicated bacteria but was reduced substantially on detergent solubilization or on preparation of spheroplast membranes. Images

Erwin, A L; Gotschlich, E C

1993-01-01

128

Lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans: purification, characterization, and crossed antigenicity with lactate dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces viscosus, and Streptococcus sanguis.  

PubMed Central

A cytoplasmic fructose-1,6-diphosphate-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) from Streptococcus mutans OMZ175 was purified to homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The purification consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation of the cytoplasmic fraction, DEAE-Sephacel and Blue-Sepharose CL.6B chromatography, and Sephacryl S200 gel permeation. The catalytic activity of the purified enzyme required the presence of fructose-1,6-diphosphate with a broad optimum between pH 5 and 6.2. The concentration of fructose-1,6-diphosphate required for half-maximal velocity was around 0.02 mM and was affected by the pyruvate concentration. The enzyme seemed to have at least two binding sites for the activator which interact in a cooperative manner. Increasing concentrations of fructose-1,6-diphosphate up to 2 mM enhanced the relative affinity of the enzyme for pyruvate and modified the pyruvate saturation curve from sigmoidal to hyperbolic. The enzyme activity showed also a sigmoidal response to NADH, exhibiting two binding sites for the cofactor with a Hill coefficient of about 1.9. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 150,000 as determined by gel permeation on Sephacryl S200. Monomers (38,000 daltons) and dimers (85,000 daltons) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis; the latter form was dissociated after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and the enzyme could be considered a tetramer. Antibodies obtained against the purified S. mutans OMZ175 LDH cross-reacted with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-dissociated forms of LDHs from different S. mutans serotypes, Streptococcus sanguis OMZ9, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, and Actinomyces viscosus NY 1. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay allowed us to detect a very close relationship between the native states of L-LDHs from S. mutans serotypes and S. sanguis. Cross-reactions were also observed with the LDHs from A. viscosus and L. casei, the latter being the least related. A very weak immunological relationship was obtained between the L-LDH from S. mutans OMZ175 and the D-LDH from Lactobacillus leichmannii, whereas no cross-reaction could be detected with mammal LDHs. Images

Sommer, P; Klein, J P; Scholler, M; Frank, R M

1985-01-01

129

A review of the use of serum lactate dehydrogenase measurement in patients presenting to the paediatric emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe aim of our investigation was to review the use of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) testing in the Paediatric Emergency Department and to develop an appropriate algorithm for its use.MethodsWe obtained case records of patients that had serum LDH measured in the Department over a 3 year period and examined the justification and result of each test and any subsequent

A D Ross; E Abrahamson

2011-01-01

130

Inhibitor screening of lactate dehydrogenase C4 from black-lipped pika in the Western Sichuan Plateau.  

PubMed

Studies indicated that lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) was a good target protein for development of contraceptive drugs. Virtual screening and in vitro enzyme assay using pika LDH-C4 as target protein revealed NSC61610, NSC215718, and NSC345647 with Ki of 7.8, 27, and 41??M separately. This study might be helpful for development of pika contraceptive drugs. PMID:25036963

Zhang, Qinglian; He, Qinghua; Xue, Fulai; Ma, Jinhu

2014-04-01

131

Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic ad- aptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (21.86 to 1°C) and three South American (4 to 10°C) noto- thenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American

PETER A. FIELDS; GEORGE N. SOMERO

1998-01-01

132

Expression of LDH-C Isozyme among Lizard Taxa: Evolutionary Implications for the Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chien-Hsien Kuo, San Kao, Ching-Feng Weng and Sin-Che Lee (1999) Expression of LDH-C isozyme among lizard taxa: evolutionary implications for the vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase gene family. Zoological Studies 38(3): 344-349. In order to more completely understand the complete basis for the multiple LDH isozymes in lizards, seven species of Taiwanese lizards belonging to 4 families and 7 genera were sampled.

Chien-Hsien Kuo; San Kao; Ching-Feng Weng; Sin-Che Lee

1999-01-01

133

Analysis of a genetic mutation in an electrophoretic variant of the human lactate dehydrogenase-B(H) subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrophoretic variant of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-B(H) subunit was discovered in a patient with diabetes mellitus. His LDH activity in serum was slightly lower than normal and the LDH isozyme pattern showed an abnormal migration indicating an LDH-B subunit variant of the fast type. The LDH containing the variant subunit revealed a decreased heat stability. DNA analysis of the

Masato Maekawa; Kayoko Sudo; Masato Kitajima; Yukio Matsuura; Steven S.-L. Li; Takashi Kanno

1993-01-01

134

Observation and identification of lactate dehydrogenase anomaly in a postburn patient  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) anomaly is one of the macroenzymes. Macroenzymes are enzymes in serum that have formed high molecular mass complexes, either by self polymerisation or by association with other serum components. The aim of this study was to identify the properties of LDH anomaly and observe the changes from admission to discharge in a postburn patient with LDH anomaly in his serum. Methods: LDH isoenzymes of the serum were electrophoretically fractionated with terylene cellulose acetate supporting media; LDH anomaly was identified by counter immunoelectrophoresis. Results: An abnormal LDH-4 band and an extra band on the cathode of LDH-5 were observed in the serum of this patient and were found to be part of an LDH-IgG complex. As his symptoms improved, the patient's LDH anomaly gradually disappeared. The appearance and disappearance of the anomaly seemed to be related to the progression of the patient's burns. Conclusion: In clinical practice, it is important to keep in mind the possibility of an LDH anomaly in patients when the LDH level is abnormally high or does not seem to be related to the clinical state. Early discovery of an LDH anomaly in a patient's serum may be useful for diagnosis and treatment.

Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, X

2004-01-01

135

Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion. PMID:24906988

Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

2014-08-01

136

Glucose levels and succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in EMT6/Ro tumor spheroids.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effects of glucose on the development of cell heterogeneity and the occurrence of necrotic areas in the center of tumor spheroids, a procedure (combining microdissection of small tissue samples from frozen-dried cryosections and microchemical analysis) was developed to measure glucose in distinct, concentrically arranged, microregions of tumor spheroids: the outermost area of proliferating cells, the area of nonproliferating cells and 2 central "necrotic" areas, with either abundant or little intercellular space. Since glucose levels, for analytical reasons, had to be expressed on a dry weight basis, and because of the morphological heterogeneity of the microregions of tumor spheroids, it was necessary to measure and take into account the regional differences in cell density (water content), in order to obtain adequate estimates of the glucose levels in the various microregions. At glucose concentrations of 5.5 and 3.6 mM in the culture medium, the glucose levels varied between 3.5 and 1.4 mmoles/kg wet weight and were lowest in those central areas where the cell density was lowest. Histochemical demonstration of the distribution of lactate and succinate dehydrogenase activity indicates a considerably higher capacity of tumor cells for anaerobic than for aerobic energy production. PMID:7774614

Teutsch, H F; Goellner, A; Mueller-Klieser, W

1995-03-01

137

Molecular Nature of Spontaneous Mutations in Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase-a Processed Pseudogenes  

PubMed Central

The presence of at least ten mouse LDH-A pseudogenes was demonstrated in the genomic blot analysis, and four different processed pseudogenes have thus far been isolated and characterized. In this report, the nucleotide sequences of two different mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A processed pseudogenes, M11 and M14, were determined and compared with the protein-coding sequences of the mouse and rat LDH-A functional genes. In the pseudogene M11, the sequence of 64 nucleotides from codon no. 257 to 278 was tandemly duplicated. In the pseudogene M14, the sequence of 22 nucleotides from codon no. 68 to 75 was replaced by an inserted repetitive sequence of 242 nucleotides homologous to a mouse truncated R element. The pattern of nucleotide substitutions accumulated in mouse LDH-A pseudogenes M11 and M14, as well as that of pseudogene M10 identified previously, was analyzed, and the substitution frequencies of the C or G at the CG dinucleotide were found to be high.

Fukasawa, Kayoko M.; Tanimura, Masako; Sakai, Ikuya; Sharief, Farida S.; Chung, Fu-Zon; Li, Steven S.-L.

1987-01-01

138

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 in patients with seminoma stage I followed with surveillance.  

PubMed

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme I catalytic concentration (S-LD-1) was measured in patients with testicular seminoma clinical stage I followed with surveillance after orchiectomy. The serum samples were obtained before orchiectomy in 110 patients (group A) and soon after orchiectomy in 55 patients (group B). In group A, 60 patients (55%) had elevated S-LD-1 and 10 patients (9%) had elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (S-hCG). In group B, median S-LD-1 was lower than that of group A and decreased with increasing time after orchiectomv (p = 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, one-sided). After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 23 patients (21%) in group A had relapses. The patients with elevated S-LD-1 and those with normal S-LD-1 had a similar relapse-free survival (p = 0.79, log-rank test). Thus patients with seminoma stage I had elevated S-LD-1 more often than elevated S-hCG but an elevation in S-LD-1 did not predict a relapse during follow-up with surveillance. Further studies are required to elucidate the value of S-LD-1 in monitoring the surveillance of patients with seminoma stage I. PMID:11990523

von Eyben, Finn Edler; Madsen, Ebbe Lindegaard; Blaabjerg, Ole; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Jacobsen, Grete Krag; Specht, Lena; Pedersen, Bent Nørgaard; von der Maase, Hans

2002-01-01

139

Interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes using affinity partitioning and affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of dextran and dye-liganded polyethylene glycol was employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle (E.C. 1.1.1.27) with Procion Red HE-3B and four structurally related derivatives of this dye in order to follow the significance of the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B for the strength of interaction. The study revealed that the arrangement of the two 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid rings seems to be a prerequisite for the interaction of azonaphthol dyes with LDH. The negatively charged sulfonic acid group at the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B enhances the affinity of the ligand for LDH significantly. The removal of this sulphonic acid group or splitting off the complete terminal rings decreases the affinity to LDH and improves the competitive effect of NAD+. The results of affinity partitioning are compared with those of affinity chromatography and kinetic data. The usefulness and the choice of parameters of affinity partitioning as an analytical tool to predict the chromatographic behaviour of dye ligands are discussed. PMID:2625437

Kirchberger, J; Cadelis, F; Kopperschläger, G; Vijayalakshmi, M A

1989-12-01

140

Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Organisms inhabiting submarine canyons can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW Mediterranean canyon (i.e. Blanes canyon) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the canyon (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside canyon (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the canyon. PMID:24296242

Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat

2014-03-01

141

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Li, Hong-Yan; Tong, Shang-Liang; Xiang, Jian-Hai

2002-09-01

142

Identification of proteins interacting with lactate dehydrogenase in claw muscle of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes  

PubMed Central

Biochemical adaptation of enzymes involves conservation of activity, stability and affinity across a wide range of intracellular and environmental conditions. Enzyme adaptation by alteration of primary structure is well known, but the roles of protein-protein interactions in enzyme adaptation are less well understood. Interspecific differences in thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in porcelain crabs (genus Petrolisthes) are related to intrinsic differences among LDH molecules and by interactions with other stabilizing proteins. Here, we identified proteins that interact with LDH in porcelain crab claw muscle tissue using co-immunoprecipitation, and showed LDH exists in high molecular weight complexes using size exclusion chromatography and Western blot analyses. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins were separated using 2D SDS PAGE and analyzed by LC/ESI using peptide MS/MS. Peptide MS/MS ions were compared to an EST database for Petrolisthes cinctipes to identify proteins. Identified proteins included cytoskeletal elements, glycolytic enzymes, a phosphagen kinase, and the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Our results support the hypothesis that LDH interacts with glycolytic enzymes in a metabolon structured by cytoskeletal elements that may also include the enzyme for transfer of the adenylate charge in glycolytically produced ATP. Those interactions may play specific roles in biochemical adaptation of glycolytic enzymes.

Cayenne, Andrea P.; Gabert, Beverly; Stillman, Jonathon H.

2011-01-01

143

Acrosome reaction in bovine spermatozoa: role of reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase C4.  

PubMed

After capacitation, mammalian spermatozoa accomplish the acrosome reaction (AR), a well-controlled exocytosis process crucial to fertilize mature oocytes that involves several protein kinases such as protein kinase A (PKA), C (PKC), and tyrosine kinase (PTK). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in both bovine sperm capacitation and AR. Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) was associated with bovine and mouse sperm capacitation. Our aims were to study the participation of LDH-C4 to contribute with the status redox required for AR and the role of ROS in the regulation of PKA, PKC, and PTK involved in the exocytotic event. Sodium oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH-C4, prevented the AR induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) or NADH. Hydrogen peroxide promoted and superoxide dismutase (scavenger of superoxide), catalase (scavenger of hydrogen peroxide), diphenyleneiodinum, diphenyliodonium, cibacron blue, and lapachol (inhibitors of NADPH oxidase) prevented the AR, suggesting that ROS and a sperm oxidase are involved in the AR induced by these compounds. Inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and PTK also prevented the AR induced by LPC or NADH, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in the process. These results suggest that LDH-C4 may participate in the regulation of the redox status required to achieve the AR in bovine spermatozoa and that ROS are key elements in the regulation of protein kinases associated with the AR process. PMID:16112812

O'Flaherty, C; Breininger, E; Beorlegui, N; Beconi, M T

2005-10-30

144

Role of lactate dehydrogenase in metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of different bovine muscles.  

PubMed

The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and color stability of different bovine muscles was studied in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, three different bovine muscles -M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), and M. psoas major (PM) - were obtained (n=7, respectively), cut into steaks, PVC packaged, and then displayed for 7days at 1°C. The LL was the most red over display time and had more (P<0.05) LDH-B activity (catalyzing toward NADH generation), LDH1 isoform expression, NADH, and higher (P<0.05) MRA than the other two muscles studied. The PM had the least color stability and lowest MRA. In experiment 2, LL steaks (n=8) were cut in half, one side syringe-injected with oxamate, and the other injected with distilled water. Inclusion of oxamate decreased (P<0.05) LDH-B activity, NADH, and a* values after 10days display at 1°C. These results suggest that variation in color stability of physiologically different muscles is regulated by different replenishment rates of NADH via different LDH isozymes. PMID:20416707

Kim, Y H; Keeton, J T; Smith, S B; Berghman, L R; Savell, J W

2009-11-01

145

Generation of oxamic acid libraries: antimalarials and inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway of Plasmodium falciparum (pf) and has several unique amino acids, related to other LDHs, at the active site, making it an attractive target for antimalarial agents. Oxamate, a competitive inhibitor, shows high substrate affinity for pfLDH. This class of compounds has been viewed as potential antimalarial agents. Thus, we have developed an effective automated synthetic strategy for the rapid synthesis of oxamic acid and ester libraries to screen for potential lead inhibitors. One hundred sixty-seven oxamic acids were synthesized using a "catch and release" method with overall yields of 20-70%. Most of the compounds synthesized had some inhibitory effects, but compounds 5 and 6 were the most active against both chloroquine- and mefloquine-resistant strains with IC50 values of 15.4 and 9.41 microM and 20.4 and 8.40 microM, respectively. Some oxamic acids showed activities against pfLDH and mammalian LDH (mLDH) at the micromolar range. These oxamic acids selectively inhibited pfLDH 2-5 fold over mLDH. Oxamic acid 21 was the most active against pfLDH at IC50 = 14 and mLDH at IC50 = 25 microM, suggesting that oxamic acid derivatives are potential inhibitors of pfLDH and that further study is required to develop selective inhibitors of pfLDH over mLDH. PMID:17316052

Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Beeler, Aaron B; Pradhan, Anupam; Watkins, E Blake; Rimoldi, John M; Tekwani, Babu; Avery, Mitchell A

2007-01-01

146

The promoting vibration in human heart lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred vibrational channel  

PubMed Central

We examine if the rate promoting vibration of lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred axis of thermal energy transfer. While it seems plausible that such a mechanistically important motion is also a favored direction of energy transfer, none of the previous studies of rate promoting vibrations in enzymatic catalysis have addressed this question. It is equally likely that the promoting vibration, though catalytically important, has no different properties than any other axis in the protein. Resolution of this issue is important for two reasons: First, if energy is transferred along this axis in a preferred fashion, it shows that the protein is engineered in a way that transfers thermal energy into a motion that is coupled to the chemical step. Second, the discovery of a preferred direction of thermal transfer provides a potential route to experimental verification of the promoting vibration concept. Our computational experiments are specifically designed to mimic potential laser experiment with the deposition of thermal energy in an active site chromophore with subsequent measurement of temperature at various points in the protein. Our results indicate that the promoting vibration is indeed a preferred channel of energy transfer. In addition, we study the vibrational structure of the protein via the dynamical structure factor to show preferred vibrational motion along the promoting vibration axis is an inherent property of the protein structure via thermal fluctuations.

Davarifar, Ardy; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

2011-01-01

147

Changes in creatine transporter function during cardiac maturation in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established that the immature myocardium preferentially utilises non-oxidative energy-generating pathways. It exhibits low energy-transfer capacity via the creatine kinase (CK) shuttle, reflected in phosphocreatine (PCr), total creatine and CK levels that are much lower than those of adult myocardium. The mechanisms leading to gradually increasing energy transfer capacity during maturation are poorly understood. Creatine is not synthesised in the heart, but taken up exclusively by the action of the creatine transporter protein (CrT). To determine whether this transporter is ontogenically regulated, the present study serially examined CrT gene expression pattern, together with creatine uptake kinetics and resulting myocardial creatine levels, in rats over the first 80 days of age. Results Rats were studied during the late prenatal period (-2 days before birth) and 7, 13, 21, 33, 50 and 80 days after birth. Activity of cardiac citrate synthase, creatine kinase and its isoenzymes as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes demonstrated the well-described shift from anaerobic towards aerobic metabolism. mRNA levels of CrT in the foetal rat hearts, as determined by real-time PCR, were about 30% of the mRNA levels in the adult rat heart and gradually increased during development. Creatine uptake in isolated perfused rat hearts increased significantly from 3.0 nmol/min/gww at 13 days old to 4.9 nmol/min/gww in 80 day old rats. Accordingly, total creatine content in hearts, measured by HPLC, increased steadily during maturation (30 nmol/mg protein (-2 days) vs 87 nmol/mg protein (80 days)), and correlated closely with CrT gene expression. Conclusions The maturation-dependant alterations of CK and LDH isoenzyme activities and of mitochondrial oxidative capacity were paralleled by a progressive increase of CrT expression, creatine uptake kinetics and creatine content in the heart.

2010-01-01

148

Enzymatic production of D-3-phenyllactic acid by Pediococcus pentosaceus D-lactate dehydrogenase with NADH regeneration by Ogataea parapolymorpha formate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Enzymatic production of PLA can be carried out from phenylpyruvic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); however, the enzymatic reaction is accompanied by NADH oxidation that inhibits PLA biotransformation. Here, NADH regeneration was achieved using the formate dehydrogenase from Ogataea parapolymorpha and introduced into the D-PLA production process using the D-LDH from Pediococcus pentosaceus. Optimum PLA production by dual enzyme treatment was at pH 6.0 and 50 °C with both enzymes at 0.4 ?M. Using 0.2 mM NADH, D-PLA production by NADH regeneration system reached 5.5 mM, which was significantly higher than that by a single-enzyme reaction. PMID:24249102

Yu, Shuhuai; Zhu, Lanjun; Zhou, Chen; An, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

2014-03-01

149

Analytical quality specifications for serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 based on clinical goals.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to deduce analytical quality specifications for the determination of catalytic concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (S-LD-1) according to clinical goals (the clinical utility model). We defined clinical goals for false positive and false negative S-LD-1 measurements in the monitoring of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), clinical stage I, on a surveillance only program. The absolute S-LD-1 catalytic concentrations were routinely corrected for contamination from preanalytical hemolysis. A reference group of 37 men had a near In-Gaussian distribution for the absolute S-LD-1 catalytic concentration. The geometric mean was 76 U/l and an S-LD-1 >128 U/l (99.72 percentile, the decision limit) indicated a high risk of a relapse of TGCT. We have previously shown that an S-LD-1 >160 U/l (treatment limit) was associated with a suboptimal outcome from the treatment of metastatic TGCT. The maximum allowable analytical positive bias was 5 U/l, and the maximum allowable analytical negative bias was -32 U/l. The maximum allowable analytical coefficient of variation, CV(A), was 11% (approximately 14 U/l) at a bias = -5 U/l. For S-LD-1 measurements not corrected for hemolysis, the decision limit was 145 U/l, the maximum allowable negative bias -19 U/l, and CV(A) 8%(approximately 12 U/l). A routine correction for hemolysis had a large impact on the analytical quality specifications. PMID:10418747

von Eyben, F E; Petersen, P H; Blaabjerg, O; Madsen, E L

1999-05-01

150

Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S) for Glutamic acid (F) at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive.

2011-01-01

151

Changes in antibody specificities and cytokine release after infection with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) is an apparently innocuous and persistent virus that can modify mouse immune reactions. We have shown that LDV-infected mice immunized with human growth hormone (hGH) showed a deep modification of the specificity of the anti-hGH antibodies (Ab) in CBA/Ht mice but not BALB/c animals. The aim of this work was to extend the previous observations to another mouse strain, C57BL/6, as well as to an antigen unrelated to hGH, ovalbumin (OVA), and to explore at the same time the production of various cytokines at serum and cellular levels. The amount of Ab directed to hGH or OVA native antigenic determinants versus the concentration of Ab to cryptic epitopes was evaluated by ELISA competition experiments. Results indicated that LDV infection affected Ab specificity solely in CBA/Ht mice. In CBA/Ht the virus infection was associated with a reduction of the Ab titers to hGH native epitopes and with a decrease of IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels, but Ab to native OVA epitopes were increased with a simultaneous increase of IL-17. Accordingly, only lymph node cells from infected CBA/Ht mice immunized with OVA were found to produce INF-?, IL-13 and IL-17. Thus, a correlation of cytokine production with a change in Ab specificity after a viral infection was found, although this phenomenon was restricted to a given antigen and to the genetic background of immunized animals. These observations suggest that an apparent harmless virus can affect some immunological mechanisms, which could lead, for example, to inflammatory or autoimmune disorders. PMID:23391715

Aparicio, José L; Saxena, Anubha; Coutelier, Jean-Paul; Van Snick, Jacques; Retegui, Lilia A

2013-03-01

152

Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies  

PubMed Central

The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use.

Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; Franca, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

2011-01-01

153

Lactate dehydrogenase undergoes a substantial structural change to bind its substrate.  

PubMed

Employing temperature-jump relaxation spectroscopy, we investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the formation of a very early ternary binding intermediate formed when lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) binds a substrate mimic on its way to forming the productive LDH/NADH.substrate Michaelis complex. Temperature-jump scans show two distinct submillisecond processes are involved in the formation of this ternary binding intermediate, called the encounter complex here. The on-rate of the formation of the encounter complex from LDH/NADH with oxamate (a substrate mimic) is determined as a function of temperature and in the presence of small concentrations of a protein destabilizer (urea) and protein stabilizer (TMAO). It shows a strong temperature dependence with inverse Arrhenius behavior and a temperature-dependent enthalpy (heat capacity of 610 +/- 84 cal/Mol K), is slowed in the presence of TMAO and speeded up in the presence of urea. These results suggest that LDH/NADH occupies a range of conformations, some competent to bind substrate (open structure; a minority population) and others noncompetent (closed), in fast equilibrium with each other in accord with a select fit model of binding. From the thermodynamic results, the two species differ in the rearrangement of low energy hydrogen bonds as would arise from changes in internal hydrogen bonding and/or increases in the solvation of the protein structure. The binding-competent species can bind ligand at or very near diffusion-limited speeds, suggesting that the binding pocket is substantially exposed to solvent in these species. This would be in contrast to the putative closed structure where the binding pocket resides deep within the protein interior. PMID:17483169

Qiu, Linlin; Gulotta, Miriam; Callender, Robert

2007-09-01

154

On the pathway of forming enzymatically productive ligand-protein complexes in lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

We have carried out a series of studies on the binding of a substrate mimic to the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) using advanced kinetic approaches, which begin to provide a molecular picture of the dynamics of ligand binding for this protein. Binding proceeds via a binding-competent subpopulation of the nonligated form of the protein (the LDH/NADH binary complex) to form a protein-ligand encounter complex. The work here describes the collapse of the encounter complex to form the catalytically competent Michaelis complex. Isotope-edited static Fourier transform infrared studies on the bound oxamate protein complex reveal two kinds of oxamate environments: 1), a major populated structure wherein all significant hydrogen-bonding patterns are formed at the active site between protein and bound ligand necessary for the catalytically productive Michaelis complex and 2), a minor structure in a configuration of the active site that is unfavorable to carry out catalyzed chemistry. This latter structure likely simulates a dead-end complex in the reaction mixture. Temperature jump isotope-edited transient infrared studies on the binding of oxamate with LDH/NADH suggest that the evolution of the encounter complex between LDH/NADH and oxamate collapses via a branched reaction pathway to form the major and minor bound species. The production of the catalytically competent protein-substrate complex has strong similarities to kinetic pathways found in two-state protein folding processes. Once the encounter complex is formed between LDH/NADH and substrate, the ternary protein-ligand complex appears to "fold" to form a compact productive complex in an all or nothing like fashion with all the important molecular interactions coming together at the same time. PMID:18390601

Deng, Hua; Brewer, Scott; Vu, Dung M; Clinch, Keith; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R Brian

2008-07-01

155

Regulation of liver lactate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in response to anoxia in a freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis and key to hypoxia/anoxia survival by most animals. In this study, the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 7°C in nitrogen-bubbled water) were assessed on LDH from liver of an anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Liver LDH from aerobic and anoxic turtles was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The kinetic properties and thermal stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing significant differences between the two enzyme forms in V(max), K(m) pyruvate, and I(50) pyruvate as well as melting temperature determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms of LDH was visualized by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining, the results indicating that the anoxic form had a higher phosphorylation state. Incubation studies that promoted protein kinase versus protein phosphatase actions showed that changes in the phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms mimicked the anoxia-responsive changes in K(m) pyruvate and I(50) pyruvate. The high phosphate form of liver LDH that occurs in anoxic turtles appears to be a less active form. Turtle liver LDH was also subject to another form of posttranslational modification, protein acetylation, with a 70% higher content of acetylated lysine residues on anoxic versus aerobic LDH. This is the first study to show that LDH function in an anoxia-tolerant animal can be differentially modified between aerobic and anoxic states via the mechanism of posttranslational modification. PMID:22735190

Xiong, Zi Jian; Storey, Kenneth B

2012-10-01

156

Polymorphism of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase gene from Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA. Conclusions The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis.

2013-01-01

157

The use of ternary complexes to study ionizations and isomerizations during catalysis by lactate dehydrogenase*  

PubMed Central

1. The binding of oxamate to pig heart and pig muscle isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase in the presence of NADH was studied by fluorescence titration. The dissociation constant of oxamate from the heart enzyme complex is 3?m and from the muscle isoenzyme 25?m at pH5. These values quantitatively increase with pH as predicted if oxamate can bind only to the enzyme–NADH complex if a group with pK6.9 is protonated. There are four non-interacting oxamate-binding sites per tetramer. 2. o-Nitrophenylpyruvate is a poor substrate for both isoenzymes but has a reasonable affinity to the heart isoenzyme. Initially, it forms an enzyme–NADH–substrate complex, which can be detected either by protein-fluorescence quenching or by NADH-fluorescence quenching. The pH-dependence of the dissociation constant of nitrophenylpyruvate also shows that this ternary complex can only form if a group with pK6.8 is protonated. Taken with the results of chemical-modification experiments, these results allow the pK of 6.8 to be assigned to a system probably involving the imidazole side chain of histidine-195. Formation of a ternary complex from a binary one at pH8 is predicted to result in a proton being taken up from solution. 3. Isotope-effect studies with NADH and its deuterium analogue show that the rapidly formed ternary complex with o-nitrophenylpyruvate slowly isomerizes to give an active ternary complex, which then rapidly decomposes to NAD+. The isomerization is pH-independent, and it is suggested that histidine-195 is still protonated in the activated ternary complex, which is present before hydride transfer. 4. All four subunits of the enzyme are kinetically equivalent with respect to the oxidation of bound NADH by o-nitrophenylpyruvate. 5. A partial mechanism for the enzyme is described which emphasizes the isomerizations and ionizations involved in forming the reduced ternary complex at pH6 and 8.

Holbrook, J. John; Stinson, Robert A.

1973-01-01

158

Circulating cell-free methylated DNA and lactate dehydrogenase release in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hypermethylation of DNA is an epigenetic alteration commonly found in colorectal cancer (CRC) and can also be detected in blood samples of cancer patients. Methylation of the genes helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and hyperplastic polyposis 1 (HPP1) have been proposed as prognostic, and neurogenin 1 (NEUROG1) as diagnostic biomarker. However the underlying mechanisms leading to the release of these genes are unclear. This study aimed at examining the possible correlation of the presence of methylated genes NEUROG1, HLTF and HPP1 in serum with tissue breakdown as a possible mechanism using serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a surrogate marker. Additionally the prognostic impact of these markers was examined. Methods Pretherapeutic serum samples from 259 patients from all cancer stages were analyzed. Presence of hypermethylation of the genes HLTF, HPP1, and NEUROG1 was examined using methylation-specific quantitative PCR (MethyLight). LDH was determined using an UV kinetic test. Results Hypermethylation of HLTF and HPP1 was detected significantly more often in patients with elevated LDH levels (32% vs. 12% [p = 0.0005], and 68% vs. 11% [p < 0.0001], respectively). Also, higher LDH values correlated with a higher percentage of a fully methylated reference in a linear fashion (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.18 for HLTF [p = 0.004]; 0.49 [p < .0001] for HPP1). No correlation between methylation of NEUROG1 and LDH was found in this study. Concerning the clinical characteristics, high levels of LDH as well as methylation of HLTF and HPP1 were significantly associated with larger and more advanced stages of CRC. Accordingly, these three markers were correlated with significantly shorter survival in the overall population. Moreover, all three identified patients with a worse prognosis in the subgroup of stage IV patients. Conclusions We were able to provide evidence that methylation of HLTF and especially HPP1 detected in serum is strongly correlated with cell death in CRC using LDH as surrogate marker. Additionally, we found that prognostic information is given by both HLTF and HPP1 as well as LDH. In sum, determining the methylation of HLTF and HPP1 in serum might be useful in order to identify patients with more aggressive tumors.

2014-01-01

159

Polymorphism of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase gene from Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria. METHODS: Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis. PMID:23688062

Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Lee, Won-Ja; Sohn, Youngjoo; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kang, Yoon-Joong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

2013-05-21

160

Comparative performance of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase rapid diagnostic tests in Plasmodium vivax detection  

PubMed Central

Background Misdiagnosis of malaria by commercial rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is a major cause of concern in the diagnosis of malaria. This retrospective study was aimed at assessing the relative performance of four RDTs with emphasis on the detection of two Plasmodium vivax antigens: aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Methods Three commercially available Plasmodium LDH or aldolase antigen detection kits (One Step Malaria P.f/P.v, ParaHit Total ver. 1.0, SD Bioline Malaria) and an anti-P. vivax aldolase-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) pair 1C3-12 F10 were evaluated with P. vivax positive as well as non-P. vivax samples and healthy samples using blood smear examination as standard. Each test was read according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results MAb 1C3-12 F10 pair targeting P. vivax-specific aldolase exhibited very good specificity and sensitivity of 100 and 97.4%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100 and 99.5%, respectively, were also observed. The anti-P. vivax LDH in the One-Step Malaria P.f/P.v test showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 93.5, 98.0, 88.9 and 98.8%, respectively. ParaHit Total ver. 1.0 targeting the pan-aldolase antigen showed sensitivity, specificity of 97.4 and 99.6%, respectively. PPV and NPV were both 99.5%. SD Bioline had sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 93.5, 100, 100 and 98.8%, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of all four RDTs were acceptable, especially for the aldolase detection tests. Five (6.5%) of the P. vivax-positive samples (n?=?77) that were confirmed by microscopic examination as well as the two aldolase detection RDTs (mAb 1C3-12 F10 and ParaHit Total ver.1.0) were undetected by the two LDH detection RDTs (One Step Malaria P.f/P.v and SD Bioline). Similarly, two positive samples (2.6%) that were positively confirmed by the LDH detection RDTs were also undetected by the aldolase detection test kits. Conclusion Aldolase and LDH antigens perform differently in different P. vivax samples; hence there is a high risk of misdiagnosis when monoclonal antibodies are used against only one particular antigen in the test. A combination of both aldolase and LDH in RDTs for the rapid diagnosis of P. vivax will enhance the sensitivity of the assay and reduce misdiagnosis.

2014-01-01

161

Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Important for NADH/NAD+ Redox Homeostasis in Cancer Cells ?  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes an increase in aerobic glycolysis and enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) regulates the last step of glycolysis that generates lactate and permits the regeneration of NAD+. LDH-A gene expression is believed to be upregulated by both HIF and Myc in cancer cells to achieve increased lactate production. However, how oncogenic signals activate LDH-A to regulate cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 directly phosphorylates LDH-A. Phosphorylation at Y10 and Y83 enhances LDH-A activity by enhancing the formation of active, tetrameric LDH-A and the binding of LDH-A substrate NADH, respectively. Moreover, Y10 phosphorylation of LDH-A is common in diverse human cancer cells, which correlates with activation of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, cancer cells with stable knockdown of endogenous LDH-A and rescue expression of a catalytic hypomorph LDH-A mutant, Y10F, demonstrate increased respiration through mitochondrial complex I to sustain glycolysis by providing NAD+. However, such a compensatory increase in mitochondrial respiration in Y10F cells is insufficient to fully sustain glycolysis. Y10 rescue cells show decreased cell proliferation and ATP levels under hypoxia and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances LDH-A enzyme activity to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth by regulating the NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis, representing an acute molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced lactate production in cancer cells.

Fan, Jun; Hitosugi, Taro; Chung, Tae-Wook; Xie, Jianxin; Ge, Qingyuan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Boggon, Titus J.; Lonial, Sagar; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

2011-01-01

162

Localization of D-lactate dehydrogenase in membrane vesicles prepared by using a french press or ethylenediaminetetraacetate-lysozyme from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The localization of D-lactate dehydrogenase in membrane vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli was studied using antibody against the purified enzyme. The activity of D-lactate dehydrogenase and D-lactate-dependent oxygen uptake of membrane vesicles prepared by using a French press were completely inhibited by this antibody, suggesting that the enzyme is localized on the outside of these vesicles. This and previous results (Futai, 1974) strongly indicate the inversion of these vesicles. The D-lactate dehydrogenase and D-lactate-dependent oxygen uptake of membrane vesicles prepared by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetate-lysozyme were inhibited about 15% by the antibody, whereas proline transport of the vesicles was insensitive to antibody. These results suggest that most of the membrane vesicles have D-lactate dehydrogenase on the inside of the membrane and that such vesicles transport amino acids. This essentially confirms the results of Short, Kaback, and Kohn (1975). However, unlike them we observed that a small but significant portion of activity was sensitive to the antibody as shown above. This portion may represent the completely inverted vesicles in the preparation. Ferricyanide reductase activity cannot be detected in spheroplasts, but about 30 to 50% of the total was detected in membrane vesicles prepared by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetate. This confirms our previous findings with membrane prepared by a slightly different procedure. It is concluded that in these vesicles about half the reactive sites for ferricyanide are moved from inside to outside the membrane, whereas 85% of the D-lactate dehydrogenase remains inside the membrane. Images

Futai, M; Tanaka, Y

1975-01-01

163

Lactate-Dehydrogenase 5 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and correlates with the expression of the transketolase-like protein 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: As one of the five Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, LDH5 has the highest efficiency to catalyze pyruvate transformation to lactate. LDH5 overexpression in cancer cells induces an upregulated glycolytic metabolism and reduced dependence on the presence of oxygen. Here we analyzed LDH5 protein expression in a well characterized large cohort of primary lung cancers in correlation to clinico-pathological data

Gian Kayser; Ahmad Kassem; Wulf Sienel; Luzie Schulte-Uentrop; Dominik Mattern; Konrad Aumann; Elmar Stickeler; Martin Werner; Bernward Passlick; Axel Hausen

2010-01-01

164

Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) catalyses the reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate, having a principal position in the anaerobic cellular metabolism. Induction of LDH-5 occurs during hypoxia and LDH-5 transcription is directly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Serum LDH levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various neoplastic diseases. The expression, however,

M I Koukourakis; A Giatromanolaki; E Sivridis; G Bougioukas; V Didilis; K C Gatter; A L Harris

2003-01-01

165

Pressure-adaptive differences in the binding and catalytic properties of muscle-type (M 4 ) lactate dehydrogenases of shallow- and deep-living marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure sensitivities of substrate (pyruvate) and cofactor (NADH) binding and catalytic rate of purified muscle-type (M4) lactate dehydrogenases (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27; NAD+: lactate oxidoreductase) from shallow- and deep-living teleost fishes were compared. The LDH's of the shallow species are significantly more pressure-sensitive than the LDH's of the deep-living fishes. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km)1 of pyruvate of the deep-living

Joseph F. Siebenaller; George N. Somero

1979-01-01

166

An apparent progressive and recurrent evolutionary restriction in tissue expression of a gene, the lactate dehydrogenase-C gene, within a family of bony fish (Salmoniformes: Umbridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Unexpectedly large differences in the tissue patterns of lactate dehydrogenase-C (Ldh-C) gene regulation were observed among species of fish within the family Umbridae (Salmoniformes). Normally, all the species within a family or order of advanced fishes exhibit the same, tissue-restricted pattern ofl-latate dehydrogenase C4 isozyme synthesis—either eye- or liver-restricted expression, but not both. However, within the Umbridae the more

M. K. Kettler; G. S. Whitt

1986-01-01

167

Purification and characterization of a urea sensitive lactate dehydrogenase from the liver of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is able to withstand extremely arid conditions by estivating, in conjunction with dehydration tolerance and urea accumulation. Estivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate and recruit anaerobic glycolysis, driven by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) enzymes that reversibly convert pyruvate and NADH to lactate and NAD(+), to meet newly established ATP demands. The present study investigated purified LDH from the liver of dehydrated and control X. laevis. LDH from dehydrated liver showed a significantly higher K m for L-lactate (1.74 fold), NAD(+) (2.41 fold), and pyruvate (1.78 fold) in comparison to LDH from the liver of control frogs. In the presence of physiological levels of urea found in dehydrated animals, the K m values obtained for dehydrated LDH all returned to control LDH K m values. Dot blot analysis showed post-translational modifications may be responsible for the kinetic modification as the dehydrated form of LDH showed more phosphorylated serine residues (1.54 fold), less methylated lysine residues (0.43 fold), and a higher level of ubiquitination (1.90 fold) in comparison to control LDH. The physiological consequence of dehydration-induced LDH modification appears to adjust LDH function in conjunction with urea levels in dehydrated frogs. When urea levels are high during dehydration, LDH retains its normal function. Yet, as urea levels drop during rehydration, LDH function is reduced, possibly shunting pyruvate to the TCA cycle. PMID:24651940

Katzenback, Barbara A; Dawson, Neal J; Storey, Kenneth B

2014-07-01

168

Ability of Cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase and Lactate Dehydrogenase to Increase the Ratio of NADPH to NADH Oxidation by Cytosolic Glycerol3-phosphate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the normal pH of the cytosol (7.0 to 7.1) and in the presence of physiological (1.0 mM) levels of free Mg2+, theVmaxof the NADPH oxidation is only slightly lower than theVmaxof NADH oxidation in the cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.8) reaction. Under these conditions physiological (30 ?M) levels of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) inhibited oxidation of 20 ?M

Leonard A. Fahien; José I. Laboy; Zafeer Z. Din; Prakash Prabhakar; Tatyana Budker; Michael Chobanian

1999-01-01

169

COMPARISON OF A PARASITE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE-BASED IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC ANTIGEN DETECTION ASSAY (OPTIMAL t) WITH MICROSCOPY FOR THE DETECTION OF MALARIA PARASITES IN HUMAN BLOOD SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, but is labor- intensive and requires skilled operators. Rapid dipstick technology provides a potential alternative. A study was conducted in The Gambia to compare the performance of OptiMALt, an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of malaria using parasite lactate dehydrogenase, against standard microscopy in patients with

ANGELA HUNT COOKE; PETER L. CHIODINI; TOM DOHERTY; ANTHONY H. MOODY; JUNITA RIES; MARGARET PINDER

170

Detection and characterization of new genetic mutations in individuals heterozygous for lactate dehydrogenase-B(H) deficiency using DNA conformation polymorphism analysis and silver staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) — B(H) mutant genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA conformation polymorphism. We used polyacrylamide gradient gel and silver staining procedures for DCP analysis, and observed abnormal migration patterns in individuals heterozygous for the LDH-B deficiency. Subsequent sequence determination of the mutant alleles consistently resulted in detection of three single base substitutions (transversions),

Masato Maekawa; Kayoko Sudo; Masato Kitajima; Yukio Matsuura; Steven S.-L. Li; Takashi Kanno

1993-01-01

171

[The function of lymphocyte populations based on aberrations in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme spectra in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

The data were obtained on the presence of considerable aberrations of the isoenzymic spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase in different lymphocyte populations and subpopulations. The isoenzymic shifts reflect the changes occurring in the metabolic status of the cells and are sensitive tests detecting functional deficiency of lymphocytes. PMID:2144061

Matve?kov, G P; Kaliia, E S; Levin, V I; San'ko, N M

1990-01-01

172

Lactation  

PubMed Central

Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic.

1989-01-01

173

Effect of sublethal concentration of Solanum nigrum on transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase of Biomphalria arabica, in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Schistosomes have a complex lifecycle with freshwater intermediate host snails. The snail host represents the weakest point in the lifecycle of parasite. Biomphalaria arabica is intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. In this work, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the tissue homogenate and haemolymph of B. arabica. Besides, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against B. arabica. The studied enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. AST and ALT were slightly affected but LDH was the most significantly altered enzyme. The role of the biochemical manipulation in affecting host-parasite relationship was discussed. PMID:17580567

El-Ansary, Afaf K; Al Daihan, Soad K

2007-04-01

174

Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva.

Gbotosho, Grace O.; Happi, Christian T.; Folarin, Onikepe; Keyamo, Ochuko; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.

2010-01-01

175

Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum.

Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

2014-01-01

176

The use of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme for the identification of semen in dried stains.  

PubMed

The sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme (Blanco and Zinkham, 1963; Goldberg, 1963) separated from other LDH isoenzymes of semen by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been found to be suitable for specific differentiation of human semen from other human body fluids and semen of commonly encountered animals. Seminal isoenzymes were found to be stable even 4 weeks after storage in tropical conditions. The method gave substantially more positive results than microscopic identification of spermatozoa when applied to a large number of relatively old stains on actual crime articles. It is therefore valuable in a large number of cases involving normal males and also in interpreting results of immunological and enzymological individualisation of semen stains. PMID:1033891

Mokashi, R H; Madiwale, M S

1976-01-01

177

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1. An early indicator of relapse in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (S-LD-1) as an indicator of relapse for patients with testicular germ cell tumors. Twenty-seven patients were investigated with repeated determinations of S-LD-1 from diagnosis to relapse; 9 had seminoma and 18 nonseminomatous tumors. Eleven of 21 had raised S-LD-1 at relapse (4 with seminoma). Seven of the 27 patients had a raised S-LD-1 for median 2 months (1.4-4.5 months) before relapse was detected. Thus, S-LD-1 is of use, complementary to clinical examinations, determinations of serum alpha fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin, and CT scans, in monitoring patients with testicular germ cell tumors for relapse. PMID:7492382

Edler von Eyben, F; Lindegaard Madsen, E; Blaabjerg, O; Hyltoft Petersen, P

1995-01-01

178

Different pressure resistance of lactate dehydrogenases from hagfish is dependent on habitat depth and caused by tetrameric structure dissociation.  

PubMed

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities from two species of hagfish were examined. LDH from Eptatretus okinoseanus, a deep-sea species, retained 67% of the original activity even at 100 MPa. LDH activity from Eptatretus burgeri, a shallow-sea species, was completely lost at 50 MPa but recovered to the original value at 0.1 MPa. The tetrameric structure of LDH-A(4) from E. okinoseanus did not change at 50 MPa. In contrast, almost all LDH tetramers from E. burgeri dissociated to dimers and monomers at 50 MPa but reverted to tetramers at 0.1 MPa. These results show that the dissociation of tetramers caused the inactivation of E. burgeri LDH. The difference depends on the number 6 and 10 amino acids. The mechanism of the slight, gradual inactivation of E. okinoseanus LDH at high pressure differs and is probably due to the metamorphosis of its inner structures. PMID:20514503

Nishiguchi, Yoshikazu; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Okada, Mitsumasa

2011-04-01

179

Cationic surfactant-based colorimetric detection of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, a biomarker for malaria, using the specific DNA aptamer.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

2014-01-01

180

Urinary enzyme excretion and renal lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern in acute HgCl2 nephropathy of rat.  

PubMed

The activity of several enzymes with different intracellular sites was determined in urine at various times following nonfatal acute tubular necrosis induced by mercuric chloride administration. The excretion rate of all tested enzymes rose on the 1st and 2nd day; in the next observations (days 7-15) enzymatic values approached the basal values. The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of the renal cortical zone showed an early shift towards cathodic fractions and later (7 days) an increase of middle ones; the normal anodic zymogram recovered after a suitable time interval (30 days). The isoenzymatic changes are related both to the renal hypoxia and to the appearance of less differentiated cells. The behaviour of functional parameters (urine flow, osmolality, urea clearance, creatinine clearance) were well in agreement with the observed enzyme and renal isoenzyme changes. PMID:6121704

Emanuelli, G; Cestonaro, G; Anfossi, G; Calcamuggi, G; Gatti, G; Marcarino, C

1982-01-01

181

Effect of neem limonoids on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Neem is derived from the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), and its primary insecticidal component is the tetranortriterpenoid azadirachtin and other limonoids. The effect of neem limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the rice leaffolder (RLF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae was investigated. There was a decrease in enzyme activity relative to the control at all concentrations tested. When fed a diet of rice leaves treated with neem limonoids in bioassays, gut tissue enzyme, LDH levels in rice leaffolder larvae are affected. These results indicate neem limonoids affect LDH activity. These effects are most pronounced in early instar larvae. Azadirachtin was the most potent in of all the limonoids in all experiments indicating strong enzyme inhibition. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to LDH activity. PMID:16154614

Senthil Nathan, Sengottayan; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Chung, Paul Gene; Murugan, Kadarkarai

2006-03-01

182

Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid.

2013-01-01

183

Production of L-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. RESULTS: Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

Ilmén, Marja; Koivuranta, Kari; Ruohonen, Laura; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

2013-05-25

184

Covalent binding of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to lactate dehydrogenase decreases NADH formation and metmyoglobin reducing activity.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity can regenerate NADH, which is a critical component in metmyoglobin reduction. However, limited research has determined the effects of lipid oxidation products on LDH activity. The overall objective of this study was to determine the effects of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) on LDH activity. LDH was reacted with HNE at pH 5.6 and 7.4, and LDH activity was measured as NADH formation following the addition of lactate and NAD. The effects of HNE on NADH-dependent metmyoglobin reduction also were analyzed. Mass spectrometric examination revealed that HNE adducts to LDH at both pH 5.6 and 7.4. More specifically, HNE binds with cysteine and histidine residues of LDH at pH 5.6 and 7.4. Covalent binding of HNE decreased NADH formation and metmyoglobin reduction (P < 0.05). These results indicate that secondary lipid oxidation products can inactivate enzymes involved in metmyoglobin reduction and have the potential to increase beef discoloration. PMID:24552270

Ramanathan, Ranjith; Mancini, Richard A; Suman, Surendranath P; Beach, Carol M

2014-03-01

185

Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids.

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

186

[Hypoxia-hypercapnic effects on lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat heart tissue].  

PubMed

Activity of lastate dehydrogenase (LDH) was studied in blood and tissues of left and right rat heart ventricles after the simultaneous effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia. The animals were kept in the closed space, where content of gases to the end of the experiment (about 1.5 hr) was equal to: O2--10%, CO2--3%. Activity of LDH was decreased within the first 3 days and the maximal enzymatic activity was observed within 15 days; after 30 days of hypoxic-hypercapnic exposure activity of LDH was significantly decreased in myocardium but it reached the control value in the serum of blood obtained from the heart. PMID:7281555

Mikhalkina, N I; Sverchkova, V S

1981-01-01

187

Kinetic and immunological differences between the retinal specific C 4- and B 4-lactate dehydrogenase of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye-specific C4-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the widely distributed B4-LDH isozymes from the fish Oreochromis mossambicus were purified to homogeneity using DEAE Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography and oxamate-linked sepharose affinity-chromatography. Kinetic analysis was performed on pure B4- and C4-LDH. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) for B4-LDH and pyruvate was 32.3?M, for B4-LDH and lactate 717 ?M for C4-LDH and pyruvate 14.1 ?M

Jón M. Einarsson; Patrick Joyce; Yvette W. Kunz

1995-01-01

188

The lactate dehydrogenase catalyzed pyruvate adduct reaction: simultaneous general acid-base catalysis involving an enzyme and an external catalyst.  

PubMed

The pH dependence of the reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, where pyruvate adds covalently to NAD to yield a NAD-Pyr adduct, together with published data on the pH dependence of parameters in the normal redox reaction suggests similar binding modes for enolpyruvate and lactate in their complexes with E X NAD (where E is one-fourth of the tetramer), for ketopyruvate in its complexes with the protonated species, E X H X NAD and E X H X NADH, and for the NAD--Pyr adduct and NADH plus pyruvate in their complexes with E X H. These similarities, together with previous data, suggest a reaction scheme for the formation of the enzyme-adduct complex that includes the relevant proton-transfer steps. Seven different amine chloride buffers were used in a study of the reverse adduct reaction, i.e., the decomposition of E X H X NAD--Pyr. These act with varying efficiencies as external general acid catalysts; the enzyme apparently acts as a (internal) general base. The involvement of the amine chloride buffers as external general catalysts is supported by the concentration dependence of the buffer effect, by a Brönsted plot, and by solvent deuterium isotope effects. The involvement of the enzyme as an internal general catalyst is inferred from the pH dependence of the reaction and the identities of the nearby groups in the E X H X NAD--Pyr complex (from crystallographic studies). The dependence of the adduct reaction on chloride concentration indicates the presence of dead-end inhibitor complexes of E X H X Cl and E X H X NAD X Cl. Chloride also accelerates the decomposition of the adduct in the complex E X H X NAD--Pyr by binding to this complex. PMID:6477888

Burgner, J W; Ray, W J

1984-07-31

189

[Lactate dehydrogenase from the tetraploid weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis during temperature adaptation: determination of structural differences in two forms of the enzyme by molecular modeling methods].  

PubMed

A structural analysis of two lactate dehydrogenase M4 protein forms has been performed. These structures are the protein products of two lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH-A) copies in the weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis genome after thermal adaptation (acclimation) to 5 degrees C and 18 degrees C. The localization of three earlier identified amino acid substitutions (Gly214Val, Leu304Ile, Asp312Glu) has been determined, and the molecular dynamics simulation and computer modeling of two forms of the enzyme from skeletal muscles LDH-M4 have been carried out. After molecular dynamics trajectory calculations carried out at 5, 18, and 25 degrees C, the intersubunit distances for all structures used in calculations have been determined. It has been found that the Gly214Val substitution localized in the intersubunit region leads to a new intersubunit interaction, which plays a role in the stabilization of tetrameric enzyme structure after the adaptation to 18 degrees C. PMID:21950062

Puliakhina, I V; Ozerniuk, N D

2011-01-01

190

Changes in the cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase) and plasma membrane (acetylcholinesterase) marker enzymes in the synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria derived from rats with moderate hyperammonemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the cytoplasmic and plasma membrane marker enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a (AChE), respectively, were measured in the cerebral homogenates, in the synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions,\\u000a and in the postmitochondrial supernatants derived from rats in which a 3-d, moderately hyperammonemic condition (no more than\\u000a 120% increases in blood ammonia) was produced by repeated administration of ammonium

Lidia Faff-Michalak; Jan Albrecht

1993-01-01

191

Additive effects of antitumor drugs and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxic activity in tumor cell killing determined by lactate-dehydrogenase-release assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of pretreatment with antitumor drugs on lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxic activity, determined by lactate-dehydrogenase(LDH)-release assay, was investigated. LAK cells were induced by incubating peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors in medium containing interleukin-2 (IL-2) and monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody for 6–7 days. A human lung squamous carcinoma cell line, SQ-5, was used as an adherent target. After

Koji Kawail; Tetsuji Sasakil; Kaoru Saijo-Kurita; Hideyuki Akaza; Kenkichi Koiso; Tadao Ohnol

1992-01-01

192

Measurement of cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction activity and lactate dehydrogenase release using MTT  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay have been widely used for evaluating cell viability in culture. MTT reduction assay measures the redox activity of living cells, while LDH assay measures the activity of LDH released into the medium from dead cells. In this paper, we introduce a quick and simple method of measuring cellular MTT

Kazuho Abe; Norio Matsuki

2000-01-01

193

Purification and Properties of the Threespine Stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH-B 4 and LDH-C 4 Isoenzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) is encoded by three loci, Ldh-A, Ldh-B, and Ldh-C. LDH-B4 isoenzyme restricted its function to eye and brain, while LDH-C4 isoenzyme functions in the eye. In the Dead Vistula stickleback population, none of LDH loci is polymorphic. The LDH-B4 and LDH-C4 isoenzymes from the eye were purified to homogeneity

Marek S. Zitara; Jadwiga Gronczewska; Edward F. Skorkowski

1997-01-01

194

The interaction of solutes and temperature on A4-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of temperature and stabilizing solutes on A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) from warm- and cold-adapted fishes, to determine how extrinsic stabilizers affect orthologs with different intrinsic stabilities. Conformational changes during substrate binding are rate- limiting for A4-LDH, thus stabilization due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors leads to decreased activity. A4-LDH from a warm-temperate goby (Gillichthys mirabilis ), which

Peter A. Fields; Benjamin D. Wahlstrand; George N. Somero

195

Thermostability of lactate dehydrogenase LDH-A 4 isoenzyme: Effect of heat shock protein DnaK on the enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells exposed to temperature a few degrees higher than their growth temperature synthesize heat shock proteins (hsp) which may then compose even 20% of total protein content. This paper examined the in vitro protective effect of heat shock protein DnaK (70 kDa) from Escherichia coli against the heat inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-A4. The LDH-A4 isoenzyme was purified from

Marek S. Zi; Edward F. Skorkowski

1995-01-01

196

Decreases in Activation Energy and Substrate Affinity in Cold-Adapted A4Lactate Dehydrogenase: Evidence from the Antarctic Notothenioid Fish Chaenocephalus aceratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme function is strongly affected by temperature, and orthologs from species adapted to different thermal environments often show temperature compensation in kinetic properties. Antarctic notothenioid fishes live in a habitat of constant, extreme cold (-1.86 6 28C), and orthologs of the enzyme A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) in these species have adapted to this environment through higher catalytic rates, lower Arrhenius activation

Peter A. Fields; Daniel E. Houseman

2004-01-01

197

Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) con- generic perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which exhibits tempera- ture-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the

Richard C. Edmunds; Lynne van Herwerden; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

198

Molecular Evolution of Mammalian Lactate Dehydrogenase-A Genes and Pseudogenes: Association of a Mouse Processed Pseudogene with a Bl Repetitive Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mouse genomic clone containing a lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) processed pseudogene and a Bl repetitive element was isolated, and a nucleotide sequence of -3 kb was determined. The pseudogene and Bl element are flanked by perfect 13-bp repeats, and the B 1 sequence starts at 14 nucleotides 3' to the presumptive polyadenylation signal of the pseudogene. The nucleotide sequences of

Kayoko M. Fukasawa; Wen-Hsiung Li; Kiyohito Yagi; Chi-Cheng Luo; Steven S.-L. Li

199

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 and relapse in patients with nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors clinical stage I.  

PubMed

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 catalytic concentration (S-LD-1) was measured at the time of orchiectomy in 104 patients with nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSTGCT) clinical stage I who participated in a randomized study comparing surveillance after orchiectomy (group I) and radiotherapy (group II). For 68 patients, S-LD-1 was measured in a serum sample before or on the day of the orchiectomy. Twenty-seven patients (40%) had elevated S-LD-1; median 102 U/L (range 41-335). For the remaining 36 patients. S-LD-1 was measured in a serum sample after orchiectomy: 8 of these patients (22%) had elevated S-LD-1. S-LD-1 was normalized shortly after surgery in most patients with a preorchiectomy elevated S-LD-1. Fifteen of the 68 patients relapsed: 9 out of 27 with an elevated S-LD-1 and 6 out of 41 patients with normal S-LD-1 (p = 0.13, Fisher's exact test). In group 1, those with a preoperatively elevated S-LD-1 had a lower 8-years' relapse-free survival than those with a normal S-LD-1 (40% vs. 80%, p = 0.003, log-rank test). The role of S-LD-1 in the staging, prognostication and monitoring of patients with NSGCT clinical stage I should be further explored in a large, prospective study. PMID:11504315

von Eyben, F E; Madsen, E L; Blaabjerg, O; Petersen, P H; von der Maase, H; Jacobsen, G K; Rørth, M

2001-01-01

200

Serum Level of Lactate Dehydrogenase is a Useful Clinical Marker to Monitor Progressive Multiple Myeloma Diseases: A Case Report.  

PubMed

To follow the progression of multiple myeloma (MM) disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are as useful markers as beta-2 microglobulin and monoclonal immunoglobulin. With this study, we have presented a case of a patient with a multiple myeloma which was fulminant course, whose LDH levels were normal at the onset of diagnosis increasing as 27 times more than normal as the disease progressed and who showed the development of extramedullary plasmacytomas. The patient, an 80-year-old female, was diagnosed with stage IIIA IgA type multiple myeloma and melphalan-prednisolon (MP) treatment was started. Although the LDH levels were low during the diagnosis and chemotherapy, the LDH levels increased up to 7557 U/L following the progression and occurrence of extramedullary plasmacytomas and the patient died. During the observation of the patient with MM, if the LDH levels are abnormally high, the progression of the disease should be considered after eliminating the other causes. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy should be examined and the progression or relapse should be shown. On the other hand, the patients with LDH levels are high should be considered to have added plasmacytomas, the whole body should be examined at an early stage before the development of clinical symptoms and early treatment should be started. PMID:24764735

Teke, Hava Üsküdar; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Teke, Deniz; Kanbay, Mehmet

2014-03-01

201

Serum Level of Lactate Dehydrogenase is a Useful Clinical Marker to Monitor Progressive Multiple Myeloma Diseases: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

To follow the progression of multiple myeloma (MM) disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are as useful markers as beta-2 microglobulin and monoclonal immunoglobulin. With this study, we have presented a case of a patient with a multiple myeloma which was fulminant course, whose LDH levels were normal at the onset of diagnosis increasing as 27 times more than normal as the disease progressed and who showed the development of extramedullary plasmacytomas. The patient, an 80-year-old female, was diagnosed with stage IIIA IgA type multiple myeloma and melphalan-prednisolon (MP) treatment was started. Although the LDH levels were low during the diagnosis and chemotherapy, the LDH levels increased up to 7557 U/L following the progression and occurrence of extramedullary plasmacytomas and the patient died. During the observation of the patient with MM, if the LDH levels are abnormally high, the progression of the disease should be considered after eliminating the other causes. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy should be examined and the progression or relapse should be shown. On the other hand, the patients with LDH levels are high should be considered to have added plasmacytomas, the whole body should be examined at an early stage before the development of clinical symptoms and early treatment should be started.

Teke, Hava Uskudar; Basak, Mustafa; Teke, Deniz; Kanbay, Mehmet

2014-01-01

202

Large scale dynamics of the Michaelis complex in Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase revealed by a single-tryptophan mutant study.  

PubMed

Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH·NADH·oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the millisecond to microsecond time scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called "loop motion" is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on the catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed. PMID:23428201

Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

2013-03-19

203

Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients. PMID:24789077

Hua, Guojun; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Xiangyong; Xu, Peirong; Luo, Yuchun

2014-06-01

204

Large Scale Dynamics of the Michaelis Complex in B. stearothermophilus Lactate Dehydrogenase Revealed by Single Tryptophan Mutants Study  

PubMed Central

Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophylic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH•NADH•oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy having a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions at different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the ms - ?s time-scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called `loop motion' is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed.

Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

2013-01-01

205

Molecular basis of evolutionary adaptation at the lactate dehydrogenase-B locus in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus.  

PubMed

At the extremes of its natural distribution, populations of the common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus experience a difference of more than 15 degrees C in mean annual temperature. These populations are virtually fixed for two different codominant alleles at the heart-type lactate dehydrogenase locus (Ldh-B) which code for allozymes with different and adaptive kinetic responses to temperature. Two populations near the extremes of the species range (i.e., Maine and Georgia) were further studied for thermal adaptation at this locus. In the absence of any kinetic differences one would predict that to maintain a constant reaction velocity, 2 to 3 times as much enzyme would be required for each 10 degrees C decrease in environmental temperature. Consistent with this adaptive strategy and in addition to the adaptive kinetic characteristics, the LDH-B4 enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) concentration and its mRNA concentration were approximately twice as great in the northern population as in the southern population. Acclimation experiments allow us to conclude that these differences are due to a combination of fixed genetic traits (evolutionary adaptation) and plastic responses to temperature (physiological acclimation). Furthermore, our calculations show that the LDH-B4 reaction velocities are essentially equivalent for these two populations, even though they live in significantly different thermal environments. PMID:2594773

Crawford, D L; Powers, D A

1989-12-01

206

Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD+. The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) Km for L-lactate and a higher Vmax value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the Km of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the Km of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions.

Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

207

Antigen capture immuno-chromatographic strip format in detecting parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase to diagnose malaria in nonimmune patients.  

PubMed

Several rapid diagnostic test devices (RDT) based on detection of malaria antigen in the whole blood were developed. OptiMal test the presence of parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using three monoclonal antibodies was used. Two monoclonal antibodies were pan-specific and recognized all malaria species. The third one was specific only for Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite antigens were detected using an antigen-capture immunochromatographic strip format. One hundred-nine malaria positive and 730 malaria negative cases diagnosed by microscopy were included. 75/109 were P. falciparum 26 as P. vivax, 3 P. malariae and 5 mixed infection of P. falciparum & P. vivax. The RDT showed a low sensitivity (85%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 79-92%) with a much lower sensitivity in detecting species other than P. falciparum as well as in mixed infections. The sensitivity was 50% for less than 200 parasites/micro. The sensitivity of OptiMal for P. falciparum was 87% (95% CI, 79-94), 81% (95% CI, 66-96) for P. vivax, and failed with P. malariae. Mixed infections were misdiagnosed as Pfalciparum. The sensitivity of OptiMal was quite good in detecting both P. falciparum & P. vivax (98%; 95% CI, 97-99 & 100%; 95% CI, 100-100 respectively) and 99% (95% CI, 98-99) for all species. The positive and negative ratio for all malaria species was: (+LR = 62.3, -LR = 0.01); for P. falciparum (+LR = 38.9, -LR = 0.01) and for P. vivax (+LR = 0.8077/0, -LR = 0.2). The test value to assess drug resistance in post treatment days was discussed. PMID:18383801

El-Moamly, Amal M Abdul-Rasheed

2007-12-01

208

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

209

[Diagnostic value of definition of lactate dehydrogenase in mixed saliva in children with periodontitis at diabetes mellitus, type I].  

PubMed

The problem of treatment of periodontitis remains one of the hot topics in practical stomatology. It has been established that modern adaptogenic infection is rather aggressive to whole organism of a human being. All these demands accurate approach while choosing of a conservative method of treatment for such forms as acute and chronic periodontitis. There were 27 children under observation with diabetes mellitus of type 1 (I group). Mean age was 10.5+/-0.75 years. 15 were girls and 13 boys. All patients from the I group were examined for the pathologies of oral cavity. In 100% dryness in a mouth and in 67% bleeding from the gum had been revealed. The mild form of chronic catarrhal gingivitis was revealed in 12 patients, moderate in 5, chronic hypertrophic gingivitis in 8 respectively. Studying of pH of saliva and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in children with periodontitis developed on the background of recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus has shown, that pH of saliva was equal to 5.3+/-0.18. In control group (healthy children) pH of saliva was 6.8+/-0.06. In the conclusion it should be emphasized, that we have tried to explain some aspects of multiple character of development of periodontitis at recently discovered insulin-depended diabetes mellitus. Character of changes of some properties of saliva pH and of enzyme activity of LDG promotes to carrying out medical and preventive actions, influencing the main blocks of pathogenesis of this pathological process. Besides, we consider possibility of inclusion the studied parameters of mixed saliva in the algorithm of investigation of periodontitis in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16510913

Chidzhavadze, E M; Akhvlediani, M V; Vadachkoriia, Z O; Gordeladze, M R

2006-01-01

210

Simultaneous production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid and 1,3-propanediol from glycerol using resting cells of the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae overexpressing an aldehyde dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

In the present study, the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (ldhA(-)) recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae overexpressing an ALDH (KGSADH) was developed and the co-production of 3-HP and PDO from glycerol by this recombinant under resting cell conditions was examined. The new recombinant did not produce any appreciable lactate, which seriously inhibits the production of 3-HP and PDO. The final titers of 3-HP and PDO by the ldhA(-) recombinant strain at 60 h were 252.2 mM and 308.7 mM, respectively, which were improved by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to those by the counterpart recombinant strain, which was the wild type for ldhA. In addition, after deleting ldhA, the cumulative yield on glycerol and specific production rate of these two metabolites (3-HP and PDO) were enhanced by 41.4% and 52%, respectively. PMID:23228456

Kumar, Vinod; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Durgapal, Meetu; Zhou, Shengfang; Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Sarkar, Ritam; Park, Sunghoon

2013-05-01

211

Exposing local adaptation: synergistic stressors elicit population-specific lactate dehydrogenase-B ( ldh - b ) expression profiles in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular response of fish to independently and\\/or concurrently applied ecological stressors (e.g. thermal and\\/or aerobic\\u000a stress) can be quantified at the level of transcript abundance (i.e. gene expression). In temperate fish, the expression of\\u000a the metabolic candidate gene lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b) responds to both aerobic swimming challenge and extended acclimation to various ecologically relevant temperatures. We examined\\u000a hepatic ldh-b

Richard C. Edmunds; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Lynne van Herwerden; Christopher J. Fulton; Dean R. Jerry

212

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 and prediction of death in patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group study of patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors showed that catalytic concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase (S-LD), serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration (S-AFP), and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration (S-hCG) predicted death from tumor. The recent international TNM classification (T primary tumor, N lymph node metastasis, M distant metastasis) is based on these results. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether catalytic concentration of S-LD isoenzyme 1 (S-LD-1) was a better predictor than the criteria used for the international classification. In an evaluation series of 44 patients from Odense University Hospital, Denmark, a raised S-LD-1 (>1.0 x upper limit of reference values) had a predictive value for death from tumor in 5-years observation of 46%. The predictive value was 46% for S-LD, 25% for S-AFP, and 40% for S-hCG. A normal SLD-1 had a predictive value for survival over 5-years observation of 100%. It was 81% for S-LD, 75% for SAFP, and 77% for S-hCG. The fraction of the patients who died of tumor and had a raised tumor marker value was 100% for S-LD-1, 46% for S-LD, 9% for S-AFP, and 18% for S-hCG. The fraction of patients with a normal serum tumor marker value among those who survived was 61% for S-LD-1, 81% for S-LD, 94% for SAFP, and 94% for S-hCG. A validation series of 37 patients treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center showed similar findings. Combining the patients in the two series, a raised value of SLD-1 classified more patients into a subgroup with an impaired survival (53%) than S-LD (35%), S-AFP (6%), or S-hCG (11%), and the high risk subgroups based on the international classification (40%). The findings have implications for the staging and treatment of patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:11256799

von Eyben, F E; Blaabjerg, O; Hyltoft-Petersen, P; Madsen, E L; Amato, R; Liu, F; Fritsche, H

2001-01-01

213

Differences and similarities in binding of pyruvate and L-lactate in the active site of M4 and H4 isoforms of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

We present QM/MM calculations that show differences in geometries of active sites of M(4) and H(4) isoforms of human LDH ligated with oxamate, pyruvate or L-lactate. As the consequence of these differences, binding isotope effects of the methyl hydrogen atoms of pyruvate and l-lactate may be used to experimentally distinguish these isoforms. Based on the FEP calculations we argue that L-lactate is a better candidate for the experimental studies. Our calculations of energies of interactions of ligands with the active site residues provide explanation for the observed experimentally sensitivity to inhibition of the M(4) isoenzyme isoform and pinpoint the differences to interactions of the ligand with the histidine residue. We conclude that pyruvate interacts much stronger in the active site of H(4) than M(4) isoform and that the latter interactions are weaker than with water molecules in the aqueous solution. PMID:20951115

Swiderek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

2011-01-01

214

13C-NMR and transient kinetic studies on lactate dehydrogenase [Cys(13CN)165]. Direct measurement of a rate-limiting rearrangement in protein structure.  

PubMed

Chemical modification of cysteine-165 in pig heart lactate dehydrogenase to produce lactate dehydrogenase [Cys(13CN)165] introduces an covalently bound, enriched 13C probe at a position adjacent to the active cen. The signal from the thiocyanate probe is clearly visible at 47 ppm relative to dioxane. On formation of binary complexes with NAD+ and NADH, no signal change is detected. Formation of the ternary complexes E-NADH-oxamate and E-NAD+-oxalate results in an upfield shift of the signal of 1.2 ppm. These results interpreted as demonstrating that binding of the substrate analogue induces a conformational change a position adjacent to the active centre. Exchange experiments in which the enzyme is poised in dynamic equilibrium between binary and ternary complexes show that the rate at which the probe senses a change environment is the same as the kinetically observed unimolecular event which limits the enzyme-catalyst reduction of pyruvate. The two processes show the same dependence on temperature, solvent composition and pH. These results indicate that the rate-limiting isomerisation corresponds to a rearrangement of the protein in the region of cysteine-165. PMID:3947644

Waldman, A D; Birdsall, B; Roberts, G C; Holbrook, J J

1986-03-01

215

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

216

Comparison of a parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (OptiMAL) with microscopy for the detection of malaria parasites in human blood samples.  

PubMed

Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, but is labor-intensive and requires skilled operators. Rapid dipstick technology provides a potential alternative. A study was conducted in The Gambia to compare the performance of OptiMAL, an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of malaria using parasite lactate dehydrogenase, against standard microscopy in patients with suspected malaria. For initial diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum, irrespective of stage, this assay had a sensitivity of 91.3%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 87.2%, and a negative predictive value of 94.7%. The sensitivity of the test decreased markedly at parasitemias < 0.01%. This assay can be used for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where microscopy is not available and for urgent malaria diagnosis at night and at weekends, when routine laboratories are closed and when relatively inexperienced microscopists may be on duty. PMID:10072131

Cooke, A H; Chiodini, P L; Doherty, T; Moody, A H; Ries, J; Pinder, M

1999-02-01

217

Analytical bias by contamination from hemolysis in determination of serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 in patients with testis germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of correction for contamination from hemolysis on serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (S-LD-1) determinations. A study of hemolysates from 7 control patients showed a mean correction factor for the contamination of 0.1 U/L S-LD-1 for each 1 mg/L serum hemoglobin (S-Hb). S-LD-1 in a series of blood samples from 44 patients (EJC 1992;28:410-5) would decrease median 24 U/L (range 8-70 U/L) if the measurements were corrected with this factor. So we advice to correct S-LD-1 determinations for the contamination with a common correction based on the S-Hb concentrations in the samples. PMID:7974858

von Eyben, F E; Petersen, P H; Blaabjerg, O; Madsen, E L; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Arends, J

1993-01-01

218

[Leucine arylamidase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity of the urine of normal subjects of infant age].  

PubMed

Urinary activity of Leucine arylamidase, lactate dahydrogenase and Alkaline phosphatase in 14 healt subjects, ranging from 2 to 10 years are described. Some correlations between enzymatic activities, ratios enzymatic activities/creatininuria and enzymatic activities/dayly proteic clearance are investigated. PMID:7375016

Camerini, G; Castaldi, G; Menegatti, E

1980-04-01

219

Protective effect of creatine against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: Involvement of intracellular signaling pathways.  

PubMed

The guanidine-like compound creatine exerts bioenergetic, antiexcitotoxic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties; however, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for these effects are still not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of creatine against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and the possible intracellular signaling pathways involved in such effect. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to 100-300?M of 6-OHDA for 24h caused a significant concentration-dependent cell death measured as a diminution of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and as an increase in the extracellular release of lactate dehydrogenase. SH-SY5Y cells incubated for 24 or 48h with creatine (10-5000?M) was not cytotoxic. However, pre and co-treatment with creatine (0.3-1000?M) for 24h reduced 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by inhibitors of different protein kinases, i.e. phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) (LY294002), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (KN-93), protein kinase A (H-89), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) (PD98059) and protein kinase C (PKC) (chelerythrine). Furthermore, creatine prevented the 6-OHDA-induced dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) at the serine 9 residue. In conclusion, the results of this study show that creatine can protect against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity and its protective mechanism is related to a signaling pathway that involves PI3K, PKC, PKA, CaMKII, MEK1/2 and GSK-3?. PMID:23485810

Cunha, M P; Martín-de-Saavedra, M D; Romero, A; Parada, E; Egea, J; Del Barrio, L; Rodrigues, A L S; López, M G

2013-05-15

220

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis  

SciTech Connect

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli (MSU)

2012-08-31

221

Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-a inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer and impacts tumor-initiating cells.  

PubMed

The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers, and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use an inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by reactivation of mitochondrial function in vitro, but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer-initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC, including cancer stem cell-dependent drug-resistant tumors. PMID:24726384

Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N; Higashi, Richard M; Fan, Teresa W M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Seth, Pankaj

2014-05-01

222

Discovery of N-hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase isoform A (LDH-A) as starvation agents against cancer cells.  

PubMed

Highly invasive tumor cells are characterized by a metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, from "normal" oxidative phosphorylation to increased glycolysis even under sufficiently oxygenated conditions. This dependence on glycolysis also confers a growth advantage to cells present in hypoxic regions of the tumor. One of the key enzymes involved in glycolysis, the muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A), is overexpressed by metastatic cancer cells and is linked to the vitality of tumors in hypoxia. This enzyme may be considered as a potential target for new anticancer agents, since its inhibition cuts cancer energetic and anabolic supply, thus reducing the metastatic and invasive potential of cancer cells. We have discovered new and efficient N-hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of LDH-A, which are isoform-selective (over LDH-B) and competitive with both the substrate (pyruvate) and the cofactor (NADH). The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was confirmed on a series of cancer cell lines, and they proved to be particularly effective under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, NMR experiments showed that these compounds are able to reduce the glucose-to-lactate conversion inside the cell. PMID:21332213

Granchi, Carlotta; Roy, Sarabindu; Giacomelli, Chiara; Macchia, Marco; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Martinelli, Adriano; Lanza, Mario; Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Lucacchini, Antonio; Funel, Nicola; León, Leticia G; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Calvaresi, Emilia C; Hergenrother, Paul J; Minutolo, Filippo

2011-03-24

223

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of l--lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD+ and the crystal diffracted to 2.38?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27?Å. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD+, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49?Å resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34?Å and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09?Å, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

224

Galloflavin suppresses lactate dehydrogenase activity and causes MYC downregulation in Burkitt lymphoma cells through NAD/NADH-dependent inhibition of sirtuin-1.  

PubMed

Activation of the myc oncogene in cancer cells upregulates lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) expression, leading to a sustained glycolytic flux that is needed to produce ATP under hypoxic conditions. We studied the effects of galloflavin (GF), a recently identified LDH inhibitor, on myc overexpressing Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells. Epstein-Barr virus-infected lymphoblasts were used as a non-neoplastic control. Our results showed that myc overactivation induced a two- to seven-fold increase in LDH-A expression in BL cells compared with non-neoplastic lymphoblasts; this result is consistent with previously reported data. Moreover, GF treatment suppressed LDH activity and inhibited BL cell replication but did not affect lymphoblast viability. Surprisingly, we found that increased levels of the MYC and LDH-A proteins did not lead to a metabolic shift in BL cells toward glycolytic ATP generation. BL cells were treated with GF at doses that achieved 50% inhibition of cell growth and lactate production, and ATP levels were scarcely affected after GF treatment. The same results were also obtained by suppressing LDH activity with oxamate, an LDH specific inhibitor. Our data suggest that LDH activity is important for maintaining a correct NAD/NADH balance in BL cells. LDH inhibition led to decreased NAD cellular levels, which resulted in sirtuin-1 inhibition. Confirming previous studies, sirtuin-1 inhibition caused a reduction in MYC protein levels, depriving BL cells of their most important survival signal. This study further describes the biological functions of the LDH enzyme and suggests that LDH inhibition could be useful for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23797802

Vettraino, Marina; Manerba, Marcella; Govoni, Marzia; Di Stefano, Giuseppina

2013-09-01

225

Homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose by redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Optically pure d-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose was achieved by using the Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase gene was substituted with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 27 h of fermentation, 38.6 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of arabinose. PMID:19502433

Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

2009-08-01

226

Creatine kinase in serum: 1. Determination of optimum reaction conditions.  

PubMed

To establish optimum conditions for creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) activity measurement with the creatine phosphate in equilibrium creatine reaction, we re-examined all kinetics factors relevant to an optimal and standardized enzyme assay at 30 and 25 degrees C. We determined the pH optimum in vaious buffers, considering the effect of the type and concentration of the buffer, as well as the influence of various buffer anions on the activity. The relation between activity and substrate concentration was shown and the apparent Michaelis constants of creatine kinase for creatine phosphate and ADP were evaluated. We tested the effect on creatine kinase measurement of the concentration of substrates (glucose and NADP+) in the auxillary and indicator reactions, especially the influence of the added auxiliary (hexokinase) and indicator (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzymes on the lag phase, at different temperatures. The NADP+ concentration proved to be the factor limiting the duration of constant reaction rate. We studied the inhibition of creatine kinase and adenylate kinase by AMP and established a convenient AMP concentration. For reactivation of creatine kinase, N-acetyl cysteine as sulfhydryl compound was introduced. Finally, we examined the relationship between activity and temperature. PMID:4240

Szasz, G; Gruber, W; Bernt, E

1976-05-01

227

A population pharmacodynamic model for lactate dehydrogenase and neuron specific enolase to predict tumor progression in small cell lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

The development of individualized therapies poses a major challenge in oncology. Significant hurdles to overcome include better disease monitoring and early prediction of clinical outcome. Current clinical practice consists of using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) to categorize response to treatment. However, the utility of RECIST is restricted due to limitations on the frequency of measurement and its categorical rather than continuous nature. We propose a population modeling framework that relates circulating biomarkers in plasma, easily obtained from patients, to tumor progression levels assessed by imaging scans (i.e., RECIST categories). We successfully applied this framework to data regarding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). LDH and NSE have been proposed as independent prognostic factors for SCLC. However, their prognostic and predictive value has not been demonstrated in the context of standard clinical practice. Our model incorporates an underlying latent variable ("disease level") representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment; these assumptions are in agreement with the known physiology of SCLC and these biomarkers. Our model predictions of unobserved disease level are strongly correlated with disease progression measured by RECIST criteria. In conclusion, the proposed framework enables prediction of treatment outcome based on circulating biomarkers and therefore can be a powerful tool to help clinicians monitor disease in SCLC. PMID:24740245

Buil-Bruna, Núria; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

2014-05-01

228

Dynamics of a Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism in the Wood Louse PORCELLIO SCABER Latr.: Evidence for Partial Assortative Mating and Heterosis in Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic separation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Porcellio scaber from 14 natural populations in California, and one each in Oregon, Delaware and Massachusetts, indicates a biallelic polymorphism. Phenotypes are recovered from laboratory matings of virgin females in frequencies agreeing with simple Mendelian inheritance, and the frequency distributions of phenotypes in natural populations are typically in agreement with the appropriate Hardy-Weinberg distributions for these same populations. The same allele predominates in all natural populations examined. Temporal stability within populations suggests that the polymorphism is at, or near, equilibrium. The spatial distribution of allele frequencies, however, is apparently mosaic. Abrupt discontinuities in gene frequency over short distances (50 m to 1 km) suggest that interpopulation migration is insufficient to swamp local differences in gene frequency. Analysis of the transmission dynamics of the polymorphism in natural populations using mother-offspring genotype comparisons suggests that the allelic frequencies of transmitted male gametes are not independent of female genotype. Specifically, the observed mating scheme in natural populations appears to be partially assortative. Comparisons of progeny genotype distributions with yearling (or adult) genotype distributions from the same populations indicate a superior post-partum viability of heterozygous individuals relative to homozygotes. The distortion of progeny genotypic distributions created by assortment is thus apparently counteracted by subsequent heterosis.

Sassaman, Clay

1978-01-01

229

Function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.  

PubMed

The Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees C). To determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (A(4)-LDH) in A. cristatus and a confamilial species, Iguana iguana, from 14 to 46 degrees C. We also deduced amino acid sequences from cDNA of each enzyme. In CS, despite two amino acid substitutions, we found no difference in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) of oxaloacetate at any temperature, indicating that the substrate affinity of CS in A. cristatus has not adapted to changes in thermal environment. In A(4)-LDH, we used site-directed mutagenesis to show that the substitutions T9A and I283V (A. cristatus --> I. iguana) individually have no effect on kinetics, but together significantly decrease the K(m) of pyruvate and catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of the A. cristatus ortholog. Thus, our data show that A. cristatus A(4)-LDH has not become cold adapted in response to this species' aquatic foraging behavior, and instead may be consistent with moderate warm adaptation with respect to the I. iguana ortholog. PMID:18313960

Fields, Peter A; Strothers, Chad M; Mitchell, Mark A

2008-05-01

230

Prognostic value of pretreatment serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: single-site analysis of 601 patients in a highly endemic area  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have generated promising but incomplete evidence for the prognostic value of pretreatment serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (S-LDH) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods Pretreatment serum levels of S-LDH in 601 patients with NPC were measured before treatment, and their associations with overall survival and tumor-free survival were studied. Univariate and multivariate analysis of subgroups was used to evaluate the prognostic value of S-LDH in early-stage and late-stage NPC separately. Results Pretreatment S-LDH levels were significantly lower in T1+2 patients than in T3+4 patients, lower in N0+1 patients than in N2+3 ones, and lower in stage I + II patients than in III + IV ones. Multivariate analysis showed that among patients with late-stage NPC, high pretreatment S-LDH levels >225 U/L were an independent predictor of poor overall survival and tumor-free survival. Among patients with early-stage NPC, pretreatment S-LDH levels >171 U/L, which overlap with the normal range, were an independent predictor of shorter overall survival and tumor-free survival. Conclusion Pretreatment S-LDH levels may be a reliable biomarker for predicting the long-term prognosis of patients with early-stage or late-stage NPC.

Wei, Zhengbo; Zeng, Xianjie; Xu, Jian; Duan, Xuwei; Xie, Ying

2014-01-01

231

Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

A triterpenoid containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed (BMS) extract was found to reduce cultured 3T3-L1 cell viability. The 50% lethal concentration values were determined to be 0.78?±?0.01?mg/mL at 24 hours, 0.69?±?0.01?mg/mL at 48 hours, and 0.56?±?0.02?mg/mL at 72 hours. 3T3-L1 cells were utilized as models of pre-adipocyte to adipocyte differentiation. BMS extract also caused a G(2)/M arrest in the cell cycle reducing cells by 23.9%, 37.7%, and 34.7% compared with the control after 72 hours of treatment at concentrations of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6?mg/mL respectively. BMS extract did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase from 3T3-L1 cells, which was unexpected. Furthermore, BMS extract reduced lipid accumulation during differentiation from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte corresponding to reduction in overall triglyceride of 32.4% after 72 hours compared with untreated control cells. BMS is an underutilized agricultural commodity that may have potential for nutraceutical and functional food development. PMID:21332398

Popovich, David G; Lee, Yiyu; Li, Lu; Zhang, Wei

2011-03-01

232

An assessment of combined tumour markers in patients with seminoma: placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta HCG).  

PubMed Central

We have assessed the tumour markers placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta HCG) using 2,000 serum samples from 286 patients with seminoma. The ROC curves show that no one marker performs adequately for the detection of disease either at initial staging or during follow-up. We used a Markov model heuristically to devise strategies, in which marker results were assessed in combination, which might be useful in clinical practice. We found that the best strategy was to consider a test result abnormal only if either the beta HCG was greater than 6 Ul-1 or the LD was greater than 400 U l-1 and the PLAP level was greater than 60 U l-1. This will detect about 50% of patients with disease and the false-positive rate is 2%. In practical terms this means that PLAP need only be estimated in patients whose beta HCG is less than 6 IU l-1 and whose LD is greater than 400 U l-1.

Munro, A. J.; Nielsen, O. S.; Duncan, W.; Sturgeon, J.; Gospodarowicz, M. K.; Malkin, A.; Thomas, G. M.; Jewett, M. A.

1991-01-01

233

Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

2012-01-01

234

Electrochemical behavior of lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on "silica sol-gel/nanometre-sized tridecameric aluminum polycation" modified gold electrode and its application.  

PubMed

This paper reports the electrochemical behavior of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilized in the silica sol-gel film on gold electrode after adding nanometre-sized tridecameric aluminium polycation (nano-Al13, also called nanopolynuclear Al13) as a promoter. A pair of surface controlled quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetry peaks with the formal potential (E0') of 154 mV (vs. SCE) was found in the presence of nano-Al13. A potential application of the nano-Al13-LDH electrode for the determination of resorcinol and p-xylene was also investigated. The experimental results showed that both resorcinol and p-xylene inhibited LDH activity, and the calibration ranges were 5.0 x 10(-6)-3.0 x 10(-4) mol L(-1) for resorcinol and 1.0 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) for p-xylene, respectively. The nano-Al13-LDH electrode can be anticipated to be applied to environmental toxic assessments. PMID:19562207

Cheng, Jiongjia; Huang, Deqian; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Na; Sun, Yongbo; Wang, Keyu; Mo, Xiangyin; Bi, Shuping

2009-07-01

235

Pseudotype virions formed between mouse hepatitis virus and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) mediate LDV replication in cells resistant to infection by LDV virions.  

PubMed Central

Infection of cultures of peritoneal macrophages with both lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) resulted in the formation of pseudotype virions containing LDV RNA which productively infected cells that are resistant to infection by intact LDV virions but not to infection by MHV. These cells were mouse L-2 and 3T3-17Cl-1 cells as well as residual peritoneal macrophages from persistently LDV-infected mice. Productive LDV infection of these cells via pseudotype virions was inhibited by antibodies to the MHV spike protein or to the MHV receptor, indicating that LDV RNA entered the cells via particles containing the MHV envelope. Simultaneous exposure of L-2 cells to both LDV and MHV resulted in infection by MHV but not by LDV. The results indicate that an internal block to LDV replication is not the cause of the LDV nonpermissiveness of many cell types, including the majority of the macrophages in an adult mouse. Instead, LDV permissiveness is restricted to a subpopulation of mouse macrophages because only these cells possess a surface component that acts as an LDV receptor.

Even, C; Plagemann, P G

1995-01-01

236

Macromolecular Crowding Effect upon in Vitro Enzyme Kinetics: Mixed Activation-Diffusion Control of the Oxidation of NADH by Pyruvate Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Enzyme kinetics studies have been usually designed as dilute solution experiments, which differ substantially from in vivo conditions. However, cell cytosol is crowded with a high concentration of molecules having different shapes and sizes. The consequences of such crowding in enzymatic reactions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to understand the effect of macromolecular crowding produced by dextran of different sizes and at diverse concentrations in the well-known reaction of oxidation of NADH by pyruvate catalyzed by l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Our results indicate that the reaction rate is determined by both the occupied volume and the relative size of dextran obstacles with respect to the enzyme present in the reaction. Moreover, we analyzed the influence of macromolecular crowding on the Michaelis-Menten constants, vmax and Km. The obtained results show that only high concentrations and large sizes of dextran reduce both constants suggesting a mixed activation-diffusion control of this enzymatic reaction due to the dextran crowding action. From our knowledge, this is the first experimental study that depicts mixed activation-diffusion control in an enzymatic reaction due to the effect of crowding. PMID:24660904

Balcells, Cristina; Pastor, Isabel; Vilaseca, Eudald; Madurga, Sergio; Cascante, Marta; Mas, Francesc

2014-04-17

237

Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels as a Predictive Marker of Oxaliplatin-Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions in Japanese Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: Clinical laboratory test data obtained prior to treatments were previously analyzed from the standpoint of susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with the platimun anticancer agent, oxaliplatin (L-OHP). In the present study, the time course from the first to last cycle of the treatment was additionally analyzed to determine a better predictor of these reactions. Methods: A total of 20 laboratory test data were obtained from 108 Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer who were treated with the L-OHP-containing regimens, FOLFOX4 and/or mFOLFOX6. The averages and variation coefficients (CV%) of the data until the last cycle of the treatment were compared between patients with hypersensitivity reactions and those without. Results: The average serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was lower in patients with grade 1/2 reactions (P=0.016), whereas its CV% value was higher in patients with grade 3/4 reactions (P=0.005) than in those without reactions. An increase in serum LDH levels was observed in some patients with grade 3/4 reactions as the cycle number increased, and thereafter hypersensitivity reactions occurred. This phenomenon was not always observed, but was never detected in patients with grade 1/2 reactions. Conclusions: Serum LDH levels may be a predictive marker of hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with L-OHP. Further extensive examinations with a larger number of patients are needed to establish a patient management strategy.

Seki, Kyoko; Tsuduki, Yasuo; Ioroi, Takeshi; Yamane, Michiko; Yamauchi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yukinari; Ogawa, Tadaaki; Nakata, Izumi; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Matsubayashi, Teruhisa; Takakubo, Yoshihide; Yamamori, Motohiro; Kuwahara, Akiko; Okamura, Noboru; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

2014-01-01

238

A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family. PMID:3629217

Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

1987-03-01

239

Creatine deficiency syndromes.  

PubMed

The lack of creatine in the central nervous system causes a severe but treatable neurological disease. Three inherited defects, AGAT, GAMT, and CrT deficiency, compromising synthesis and transport of creatine have been discovered recently. Together these so-called creatine deficiency syndromes (CDS) might represent the most frequent metabolic disorders with a primarily neurological phenotype. Patients with CDS present with global developmental delays, mental retardation, speech impairment especially affecting active language, seizures, extrapyramidal movement disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The two defects in the creatine synthesis, AGAT and GAMT, are autosomal recessive disorders. They can be diagnosed by analysis of the creatine, guanidinoacetate, and creatinine in body fluids. Treatment is available and, especially when introduced in infancy, has a good outcome. The defect of creatine transport, CrT, is an X-linked condition and perhaps the most frequent reasons for X-linked mental retardation. Diagnosis is made by an increased ratio of creatine to creatinine in urine, but successful treatment still needs to be explored. CDS are under-diagnosed because easy to miss in standard diagnostic workup. Because CDS represent a frequent cause of cognitive and neurological impairment that is treatable they warrant consideration in the workup for genetic mental retardation syndromes, for intractable seizure disorders, and for neurological diseases with a predominant lack of active speech. PMID:23622406

Schulze, Andreas

2013-01-01

240

Creatine Use Among Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Creatine is a nutritional sup- plement that is purported to be a safe ergogenic aid in adults. Although as many as 28% of collegiate athletes admit taking creatine, there is little information about creatine use or potential health risk in children and ad- olescents. Although the use of creatine is not recom- mended in people less than 18 years

Jordan D. Metzl; Eric Small; Steven R. Levine; Jeffrey C. Gershel

241

Dacarbazine with or without oblimersen (a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide) in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal serum lactate dehydrogenase: 'The AGENDA trial'.  

PubMed

In a previous large randomized, open-label study, retrospective subset analysis revealed that the addition of the Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide oblimersen to dacarbazine (Dac) significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and the response rate in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and normal baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. To confirm and expand on this observation, we conducted a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether oblimersen augmented the efficacy of Dac in advanced melanoma patients with low-normal baseline LDH levels. A total of 314 chemotherapy-naive patients were randomly assigned to receive Dac (1000 mg/m) preceded by a 5-day continuous intravenous infusion of either oblimersen sodium (7 mg/kg/day) or placebo every 21 days for less than eight cycles. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Response and progression of the disease were assessed by independent blinded review of computed tomography scan images. No difference in overall nor progression-free survival was observed between the Dac-oblimersen and Dac-placebo groups. Although the overall (17.2 vs. 12.1%) and durable (10.8 vs. 7.6%) response rates numerically favored Dac-oblimersen over Dac-placebo, they did not differ significantly (P=0.19 and 0.32, respectively). The incidence of hematologic adverse events, particularly thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, was higher in the Dac-oblimersen group than in the Dac-placebo group. Withdrawals from the study because of treatment-related adverse events were low (i.e. <2.5%) in both groups. The addition of oblimersen to Dac did not significantly improve overall survival nor progression-free survival in patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal levels of LDH at baseline. PMID:24667300

Bedikian, Agop Y; Garbe, Claus; Conry, Robert; Lebbe, Celeste; Grob, Jean J

2014-06-01

242

Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the lactate dehydrogenase A inhibition effects of Spatholobus suberectus on breast cancer.  

PubMed

Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1? and subsequent accelerated HIF-1? proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1?/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

2013-01-01

243

Upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A by ErbB2 through heat shock factor 1 promotes breast cancer cell glycolysis and growth.  

PubMed

ErbB2 has been shown to activate signaling molecules that may regulate glucose metabolism. However, there is no evidence reported to directly link ErbB2 to glycolysis, and the mechanism underlying ErbB2-enhanced glycolysis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of ErbB2 in regulating glycolysis. We found that ErbB2-overexpressing cells possessed a significantly higher level of glycolysis when compared to the ErbB2-low-expressing cells, and the downregulation of ErbB2 markedly decreased glycolysis. Overexpression of ErbB2 increased the expression of glycolysis-regulating molecules lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). ErbB2 activated HSF1, indicated by the increased HSF1 trimer formation, and promoted HSF1 protein synthesis. HSF1 bound to LDH-A promoter and the downregulation of HSF1 reduced the expression of LDH-A and subsequently decreased cancer cell glycolysis and growth. Moreover, the glycolysis inhibitors, 2-deoxyglucose and oxamate, selectively inhibited the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cells. Taken together, this study shows that in human breast cancer cells, ErbB2 promotes glycolysis at least partially through the HSF1-mediated upregulation of LDH-A. This pathway may have a major role in regulating glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. These novel findings have important implications for the design of new approaches to target ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers. PMID:19668225

Zhao, Y H; Zhou, M; Liu, H; Ding, Y; Khong, H T; Yu, D; Fodstad, O; Tan, M

2009-10-22

244

Preventive effect of glycosaminoglycans from Amussium pleuronectus (Linne) on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase-isoenzyme and electrocardiographic patterns in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the cardioprotective role of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans (LMW-GAG) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Effect of LMW-GAG on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-isoenzyme, and electrocardiographic (ECG)-patterns was studied as evidence of cardioprotection. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (140 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups; untreated control (group I), LMW-GAG treated (300 ?g/day s. c. for 2 weeks—group II), ISO (85 mg s.c. injected on 13th and 14th days—group III), and LMW-GAG plus ISO (300 ?g/day s. c. for 12 days followed by 85 mg/kg ISO on the end of 13th and 14th days—group IV). At the end of the experimental period, all animals were terminated. Results: Rats treated with LMW-GAG (300 ?g/kg) for 12 days showed significant increasing levels of triglyceride (TG) (both serum and heart tissue), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose. However, it significantly decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) (serum), plasma total protein, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio. ISO also adversely affected the LDH-isoenzymes and caused marked elevation in ST segment. Pretreatment with LMW-GAG (300 ?g/kg) daily for a period of 2 weeks prevented the ISO-treated changes. Conclusions: The results indicate that LMW-GAG exhibits a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats, by maintaining the biomolecules and LDH-isoenzymes.

Saravanan, Ramachandran; Shanmugam, Annaian; Rajkumar, Devaraj

2012-01-01

245

Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ?70 and LDH ?240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ?70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ?240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

Partl, Richard, E-mail: richard.partl@medunigraz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Richtig, Erika [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Kapp, Karin S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

2013-03-01

246

Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase; and supplemented-trained (TCr) rats were given a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine and subjected to intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase. At the end of the experimental period, concentrations of creatine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx) and catalase (CAT). Liver tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were also determined. Results Hepatic creatine levels were highest in the CCr and TCr groups with increased concentration of H2O2 observed in the T and TCr animal groups. SOD activity was decreased in the TCr group. GSH-GPx activity was increased in the T and TCr groups while CAT was elevated in the CCr and TCr groups. GSH, GGS and the GSH/GSSG ratio did not differ between all animal subsets. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that creatine supplementation acts in an additive manner to physical training to raise antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. However, because markers of liver oxidative stress were unchanged, this finding may also indicate that training-induced oxidative stress cannot be ameliorated by creatine supplementation.

2013-01-01

247

[Familial scapuloperoneal-type myopathy associated with a marked elevation of serum creatine kinase and hepatomegaly].  

PubMed

The proband, a 17-year-old boy, was admitted to our department because of the difficulty in standing on heel. Physical examination revealed a marked weakness and atrophy of bilateral lower legs, especially anterior tibial muscles. Patellar and Achilles tendon reflexes were abolished. Marked hepatomegaly and moderate splenomegaly were noted on abdominal echogram and CT scanning. Serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, GOT and GPT were markedly increased. There were no abnormal findings in thyroid function, serum lipid analysis and serum lactate level after ischemic forearm exercise test. EMG of anterior tibial and calf muscles showed a mixture of myogenic and neurogenic patterns and biopsy specimen of calf muscle was compatible with a dystrophic change. Liver biopsy specimen revealed no noticeable change except a slight ballooning of hepatocytes in light microscopy. However, electron microscopic examination showed a marked increase of intracellular vesicles and enlarged smooth ER in which low-density, cotton-like materials were contained. In family study, both his father and paternal uncle were also affected with advanced scapuloperoneal-type myopathy associated with a marked elevation of serum creatine kinase and hepatomegaly. The disorder differs from Miyoshi's distal muscular dystrophy, which shows an early involvement of flexor muscles in lower extremities and is inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. Although the etiology of hepatomegaly in this case remains to be elucidated, the special findings on electron microscopic study imply the possibility of some unknown metabolic disorder involving both muscle and liver. This disease seems to be a new type of scapuloperoneal-type myopathy, probably having an autosomal-dominant inheritance. PMID:2752661

Maruoka, A; Ideguchi, H; Nawata, H; Goto, I; Ibayashi, H

1989-03-01

248

Chronic supplementation of creatine and vitamins C and E increases survival and improves biochemical parameters after Doxorubicin treatment in rats.  

PubMed

1. Doxorubicin is an anti-cancer drug with well-described effects against a wide range of tumours. However, doxorubicin also exhibits dose-dependent cytotoxicity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic supplementation of creatine or a mix of vitamins C and E could increase survival and improve plasma parameters 48 h after doxorubicin treatment. 2. Rats were divided into four groups: (i) saline (control); (ii) doxorubicin treated; (iii) a creatine (0.2 g/kg per day)-supplemented group; and (iv) a vitamin C (250 mg/kg per day) and E (400 IU/kg per day)-supplemented group. After 30 days supplementation of rats with either creatine or the vitamins, one dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. 3. There was no difference in weight loss among the groups until the 3rd day after doxorubicin treatment, but the creatine- and vitamin-supplemented groups lived longer compared with the doxorubicin only treated group (6, 7 and 3 days, respectively). The doxorubicin-treated group lost 13.4% bodyweight over 3 days, whereas the creatine- and vitamin-supplemented groups lost approximately 35% 3 days after the administration of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment resulted in an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P < 0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; P < 0.05), urea (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05) compared with levels observed in the control group. Conversely, creatine supplementation promoted a partial return to control values for LDH (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05), whereas the vitamin mix reversed the changes in ALT (P < 0.05), LDH (P < 0.05), urea (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the two supplementation protocols decreased the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and that a protective effect was more noticeable in animals supplemented with the mixture of vitamins C and E. PMID:17973871

Santos, Ronaldo V T; Batista, Miguel L; Caperuto, Erico C; Costa Rosa, Luis Fbp

2007-12-01

249

(1-3)-Beta-D-glucan in association with lactate dehydrogenase as biomarkers of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major HIV-related illness caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Definitive diagnosis of PcP requires microscopic detection of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of two serum markers in the diagnosis of PcP. Serum levels of (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (BG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated in 100 HIV-positive adult patients and 50 healthy blood donors. PcP cases were confirmed using indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal anti-Pneumocystis antibodies and nested-PCR to amplify the large subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. BG and LDH levels in serum were measured using quantitative microplate-based assays. BG and LDH positive sera were statistically associated with PcP cases (P???0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV), and positive/negative likelihood ratios (PLR/NLR) were 91.3 %, 61.3 %, 85.1 %, 79.2 %, 2.359, and 0.142, respectively, for the BG kit assay, and 91.3 %, 35.5 %, 75.9 %, 64.7 %, 1.415 and 0.245, respectively, for the LDH test. Serologic markers levels combined with the clinical diagnostic criteria for PcP were evaluated for their usefulness in diagnosis of PcP. The most promising cutoff levels for diagnosis of PcP were determined to be 400 pg/ml of BG and 350 U/l of LDH, which combined with clinical data presented 92.8 % sensitivity, 83.9 % specificity, 92.8 % PPV, 83.9 % NPV, 5.764 PLR and 0.086 NLR (P?

Esteves, F; Lee, C-H; de Sousa, B; Badura, R; Seringa, M; Fernandes, C; Gaspar, J F; Antunes, F; Matos, O

2014-07-01

250

Central lactate metabolism regulates food intake.  

PubMed

The central nervous system regulates food intake (FI) and body weight (BW), but the associated mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report that central injections of lactate reduced FI and BW in rodents. Inhibition of central lactate metabolism to pyruvate with the lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate abolished the central effects of lactate on FI and BW. Conversely, central injections of pyruvate recapitulated the effects of lactate. Finally, inhibition of central lactate metabolism prevented the ability of circulating lactate to lower FI and BW. Together, the data indicate that activation of central lactate metabolism lowers FI and BW. PMID:18577696

Lam, Carol K L; Chari, Madhu; Wang, Penny Y T; Lam, Tony K T

2008-08-01

251

Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A sup 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance study  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The {sup 19}F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes.

Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Rule, G.S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1990-04-03

252

Amino acid sequence differences cannot fully explain interspecific variation in thermal sensitivities of gobiid fish A4-lactate dehydrogenases (A4-LDHs)  

PubMed

We compared the deduced amino acid sequences, heat stabilities and thermal sensitivities of a kinetic property, the apparent Michaelis­Menten constant (Km) of pyruvate, of A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) in four species of goby fishes (Family Gobiidae), adapted to different temperatures, to examine how changes in primary structure influence the adaptation of enzymes. The effect of temperature on Km of pyruvate reflected each species' environmental temperature. For the most eurythermal species, Gillichthys seta, which is endemic to shallow intertidal regions of the upper Gulf of California and encounters temperatures between approximately 9 and 40 °C, Km of pyruvate was minimally affected by temperature, compared with the A4-LDH orthologues from a less eurythermal congener, G. mirabilis (9­30 °C), a cold temperate goby, Coryphopterus nicholsi (10­18 °C) and a tropical species, C. personatus (25­32 °C). Heat denaturation profiles failed to correlate with habitat temperature; G. mirabilis A4-LDH was most thermally stable, followed by the orthologues of C. nicholsi and G. seta. Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding LDH-As of G. seta, Gulf of California and Pacific coast populations of G. mirabilis and C. nicholsi were isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences deduced. The nucleotide sequences of LDH-A of the two populations of G. mirabilis were identical. Five nucleotide differences in the coding region and one amino acid substitution (at position 78) distinguished LDH-As of G. mirabilis and C. nicholsi. The substitution of a glycyl residue (C. nicholsi) for an alanyl residue (G. mirabilis) may account for the difference in thermal stability between these two orthologues. Comparisons of the LDH-A cDNAs of G. mirabilis and G. seta revealed four differences in nucleotide sequence in the coding region, but all nucleotide substitutions were synonymous. The identical deduced primary structures of the two enzymes suggested the possibility of different protein conformational variants ('conformers') in the two species. This hypothesis is supported by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which indicates that the masses of the A4-LDH orthologues of the two species are the same within the resolution of the technique. To explore the possibility that the two enzymes were different conformers of the same primary structure, we treated purified G. seta and G. mirabilis A4-LDHs with 3.0 mol l-1 urea or 6 mol l-1 guanidine­HCl and, after removing the denaturant, compared their kinetic properties and heat stabilities. Neither treatment had an effect on the A4-LDH of G. mirabilis, but both converted the Km versus temperature profile of the G. seta enzyme to that of the G. mirabilis A4-LDH. The thermal stability of neither enzyme was affected. We propose, as has been suggested in several previous studies of A4-LDH, that this enzyme can fold into a number of conformers with different stabilities and functional properties. The A4-LDH of G. seta furnishes evidence that such conformers may provide an important mechanism for adaptation of proteins to temperature. PMID:9319749

Fields; Somero

1997-01-01

253

Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr) ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i) Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7); or ii) carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7). Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher) and isometric (21% higher) knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84%) after 48 hrs (P < 0.01), 72 hrs (P < 0.001), 96 hrs (P < 0.0001), and 7 days (P < 0.001) recovery in the Cr-supplemented group. Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

Cooke, Matthew B; Rybalka, Emma; Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Hayes, Alan

2009-01-01

254

Genetic polymorphism of blood proteins in the troops of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata : II. Erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase polymorphism in Macaca fuscata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating the genetic marker for population genetics of Japanese macaques by electrophoresis, the author found the erythrocyte lacate dehydrogenase (LDH) polymorphism existing in some troops. There were four kinds of variations which seemed to be controlled by two loci, controlling A and B subunits of this enzyme. The variant phenotypes were named LDH-Amac2-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac3-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac 1-1 LDH-Bmac2-1,

Takayoshi Shotake

1974-01-01

255

Disorders of creatine transport and metabolism.  

PubMed

Creatine is a nitrogen containing compound that serves as an energy shuttle between the mitochondrial sites of ATP production and the cytosol where ATP is utilized. There are two known disorders of creatine synthesis (both transmitted as autosomal recessive traits: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; OMIM 602360; and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency (OMIM 601240)) and one disorder of creatine transport (X-linked recessive SLC6A8 creatine transporter deficiency (OMIM 300036)). All these disorders are characterized by brain creatine deficiency, detectable by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Affected patients can have mental retardation, hypotonia, autism or behavioral problems and seizures. The diagnosis of these conditions relies on the measurement of plasma and urine creatine and guanidinoacetate. Creatine levels in plasma are reduced in both creatine synthesis defects and guanidinoacetate is increased in GAMT deficiency. The urine creatine/creatinine ratio is elevated in creatine transporter deficiency with normal plasma levels of creatine and guanidinoacetate. The diagnosis is confirmed in all cases by DNA testing or functional studies. Defects of creatine biosynthesis are treated with creatine supplements and, in GAMT deficiency, with ornithine and dietary restriction of arginine through limitation of protein intake. No causal therapy is yet available for creatine transporter deficiency and supplementation with the guanidinoacetate precursors arginine and glycine is being explored. The excellent response to therapy of early identified patients with GAMT or AGAT deficiency candidates these condition for inclusion in newborn screening programs. PMID:21308988

Longo, Nicola; Ardon, Orly; Vanzo, Rena; Schwartz, Elizabeth; Pasquali, Marzia

2011-02-15

256

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 activity in patients with testicular germ cell tumors correlates with the total number of copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 in the tumor.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (S-LDH-1) activity in patients with testicular germ cell tumors and the number of copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p) present in tumor. Twenty-seven adult patients with measurable tumor lesions were studied. Twenty-five had three or more copies of chromosome 12 per cell in the tumors. Nineteen had one or more copies of a specific chromosomal abnormality, an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12, i(12p). Fourteen had increased S-LDH-1 levels. S-LDH-1 activity correlated significantly with the product of total tumor volume and the total number of copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 present per cell (total tumor 12p). We conclude that the total number of copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 in the tumors is most probably a factor contributing to the LDH-1 activity released from the tumors. PMID:1435725

von Eyben, F E; de Graaff, W E; Marrink, J; Blaabjerg, O; Sleijfer, D T; Koops, H S; Oosterhuis, J W; Petersen, P H; van Echten-Arends, J; de Jong, B

1992-10-01

257

Analysis of Conformationally Restricted ?-Ketoglutarate Analogues as Substrates of Dehydrogenases and Aminotransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five synthetic, conformationally restricted ?-ketoglutarate analogues were tested as substrates of a variety of dehydrogenases and aminotransferases. The compounds were found not to be detectable substrates of glutamate dehydrogenase, l-leucine dehydrogenase, l-phenylalanine dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine transaminase K, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. However, two thermostable aminotransferases were identified that catalyze transamination between several l-amino

Travis T. Denton; Charles M. Thompson; Arthur J. L. Cooper

2001-01-01

258

Optimization of insulin-mediated creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether creatine ingested in combination with relatively small quantities of essential amino acids, simple sugars, and protein would stimulate insulin release and augment whole-body creatine retention to the same extent as a large bolus of simple sugars. Seven young, healthy males underwent three randomized, 3-day experimental trials. Each day, 24-h urine collections were made, and on the second day participants received 5 g creatine + water (creatine trial), 5 g creatine + approximately 95 g dextrose (creatine + carbohydrate) or 5 g creatine + 14 g protein hydrolysate, 7 g leucine, 7 g phenylalanine, and 57 g dextrose (creatine + protein, amino acids, and carbohydrate) via naso-gastric tube at three equally spaced intervals. Blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals after the first and third naso-gastric bolus. After administration of the first and third bolus, serum insulin concentration was increased by 15 min (P < 0.05) in the creatine + carbohydrate and creatine + protein, amino acids, and carbohydrate trials compared with creatine alone, and plasma creatine increased more following creatine alone (15 min, P < 0.05) than in the creatine + carbohydrate and creatine + protein, amino acids, and carbohydrate trials. Urinary creatine excretion was greater with creatine alone (P < 0.05) than with creatine + carbohydrate and creatine + protein, amino acids, and carbohydrate. Administration of creatine + protein, amino acids, and carbohydrate can stimulate insulin release and augment whole-body creatine retention to the same extent as when larger quantities of simple sugars are ingested. PMID:20035494

Pittas, G; Hazell, M D; Simpson, E J; Greenhaff, P L

2010-01-01

259

Ontogenetic changes and developmental adjustments in lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of an obligate air-breathing fish Channa punctatus during deprivation of air access.  

PubMed

In air-breathing snakehead Channa punctatus, Ldh-B is expressed at all ontogenetic and developmental stages, while Ldh-A is expressed temporally in pre-hatchlings 12-13 days ahead of bimodal respiration marked by air-breathing. Remarkable differences are observed in the LDH isozyme expression among various ontogenetic and developmental stages upon denying air access. When denied air access, water-breathing larvae show two distinct characteristics: (i) they survive longer than transitory air-breathers due to independence from air-breathing and (ii) there is more transient induction of Ldh-B than Ldh-A. Transition to bimodal breathing, which occurred post-hatching in 15-day old larvae, is coincidental with inducibility of Ldh-A and concomitant down-regulation of Ldh-B. Heart tissue from air-breathing adults denied air access shows a preferential expression of LDH-A subunit and slight down-regulation of LDH-B. Heterotetramers of A and B subunits participate in adjusting LDH levels among those stages which either precede air-breathing switchover, or are subsequent to this transition. The contribution of heterotetramers depends on the stage-specific levels of LDH homotetramers A(4) or B(4). Scaling of muscle mass during growth, tolerance to extended deprivation of air access and induction of Ldh-A are correlated. Response to restoring air contact indicated that advanced air-breathing stages of C. punctatus possess an inherent capacity to sense surface air. In kinetic properties, LDH isozymes of C. punctatus are teleost-like but species specificity is displayed in oxidative potential by cardiac muscle and in L-lactate reduction by skeletal muscle. PMID:15649774

Ahmad, Riaz; Hasnain, Absar-Ul

2005-02-01

260

Molecular Model of Creatine Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules for this month come from the paper Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment by Andri Smith and Paula Tan on the synthesis of creatine in introductory organic chemistry. This synthesis is sufficiently straightforward to be used in non-majors and general chemistry courses. The structures illustrate some of the limitations associated with the computation of molecular structure. The two adenosine phosphates ADP and ATP exhibit a large number of conformations due to rotation of the adenine system around the bond to the ribose ring, multiple rotational conformations in the phosphate groups, the ionic state of the compound, and the interaction with the solvent or another species such as creatine. The structures that are given for ADP and ATP are derived from PM3MM calculations and are very similar to those derived using the UFF force field. Sarcosine, creatine, and creatine phosphate were treated using the model chemistry B3LYP/6-31+G(d). Perhaps the most interesting structural feature is found in the small molecule cyanamide. Observant students might notice in the Web-based structure that the NCN grouping in cyanamide is non-linear, with an angle of about 177°. This is found for essentially all levels of theory we examined up through the G2 combined model. For students who do notice this deviation from linearity it is useful to ask them whether they are surprised, ask them to defend their answer, send them to the literature to see whether such behavior is seen for cyanamide in other phases (it is), and finally to speculate on possible explanations for the observed non-linearity.

261

On the rate of proton exchange with solvent of the catalytic histidine in flavocytochrome b2 (yeast L-lactate dehydrogenase).  

PubMed Central

The family of FMN-dependent, alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes catalyzes substrate dehydrogenation by a mechanism the first step of which is abstraction of the substrate alpha-proton (so-called carbanion mechanism). For flavocytochrome b2 and lactate oxidase, it was shown that once on the enzyme this proton is lost only slowly to the solvent (Lederer F, 1984, In: Bray RC, Engel PC, Mayhew SG, eds, Flavins & flavoproteins, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp 513-526; Urban P, Lederer F, 1985, J Biol Chem 260:11115-11122). This suggested the occurrence of a pKa increase of the catalytic histidine upon enzyme reduction by substrate. For flavocytochrome b2, the crystal structure indicated 2 possible origins for the stabilization of the imidazolium form of His 373: either a network of hydrogen bonds involving His 373, Tyr 254, flavin N5 and O4, a heme propionate, and solvent molecules, and/or electrostatic interactions with Asp 282 and with the reduced cofactor N1 anion. In this work, we probe the effect of the hydrogen bond network at the active site by studying proton exchange with solvent for 2 mutants: Y254F and the recombinant flavodehydrogenase domain, in which this network should be disrupted. The rate of proton exchange, as determined by intermolecular hydrogen transfer experiments, appears identical in the flavodehydrogenase domain and the wild-type enzyme, whereas it is about 3-fold faster in the Y254F mutant. It thus appears that specific hydrogen bonds to the solvent do not play a major role in stabilizing the acid form of His 373 in reduced flavocytochrome b2. Removal of the Y254 phenol group induces a pKa drop of about half a pH unit for His 373 in the reduced enzyme. Even then, the rate of exchange of the imidazolium proton with solvent is still lower by several orders of magnitude than that of a normally ionizing histidine. Other factors must then also contribute to the pKa increase, such as the electrostatic interactions with D282 and the anionic reduced cofactor, as suggested by the crystal structure.

Balme, A.; Lederer, F.

1994-01-01

262

Creatine synthesis: hepatic metabolism of guanidinoacetate and creatine in the rat in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Since creatinine excretion reflects a continuous loss of creatine and creatine phosphate, there is a need for creatine replacement, from the diet and/or by de novo synthesis. Creatine synthesis requires three amino acids, methionine, glycine, and arginine, and two enzymes, l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), which produces guanidinoacetate acid (GAA), and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), which methylates GAA to produce creatine. In the rat, high activities of AGAT are found in the kidney, whereas high activities of GAMT occur in the liver. Rat hepatocytes readily convert GAA to creatine; this synthesis is stimulated by the addition of methionine, which increases cellular S-adenosylmethionine concentrations. These same hepatocytes are unable to produce creatine from methionine, arginine, and glycine. (15)N from (15)NH(4)Cl is readily incorporated into urea but not into creatine. Hepatic uptake of GAA is evident in vivo by livers of rats fed a creatine-free diet but not when rats were fed a creatine-supplemented diet. Rats fed the creatine-supplemented diet had greatly decreased renal AGAT activity and greatly decreased plasma [GAA] but no decrease in hepatic GAMT or in the capacity of hepatocytes to produce creatine from GAA. These studies indicate that hepatocytes are incapable of the entire synthesis of creatine but are capable of producing it from GAA. They also illustrate the interplay between the dietary provision of creatine and its de novo synthesis and point to the crucial role of renal AGAT expression in regulating creatine synthesis in the rat. PMID:19017728

da Silva, Robin P; Nissim, Itzhak; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

2009-02-01

263

Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics.  

PubMed

Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179

Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

2009-11-01

264

The metabolic burden of creatine synthesis.  

PubMed

Creatine synthesis is required in adult animals to replace creatine that is spontaneously converted to creatinine and excreted in the urine. Additionally, in growing animals it is necessary to provide creatine to the expanding tissue mass. Creatine synthesis requires three amino acids: glycine, methionine and arginine, and three enzymes: L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT). The entire glycine molecule is consumed in creatine synthesis but only the methyl and amidino groups, respectively, from methionine and arginine. Creatinine loss averages approximately 2 g (14.6 mmol) for 70 kg males in the 20- to 39-year age group. Creatinine loss is lower in females and in older age groups because of lower muscle mass. Approximately half of this creatine lost to creatinine can be replaced, in omnivorous individuals, by dietary creatine. However, since dietary creatine is only provided in animal products, principally in meat and fish, virtually all of the creatine loss in vegetarians must be replaced via endogenous synthesis. Creatine synthesis does not appear to place a major burden on glycine metabolism in adults since this amino acid is readily synthesized. However, creatine synthesis does account for approximately 40% of all of the labile methyl groups provided by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and, as such, places an appreciable burden on the provision of such methyl groups, either from the diet or via de novo methylneogenesis. Creatine synthesis consumes some 20-30% of arginine's amidino groups, whether provided in the diet or synthesized within the body. Creatine synthesis is, therefore, a quantitatively major pathway in amino acid metabolism and imposes an appreciable burden on the metabolism of methionine and of arginine. PMID:21387089

Brosnan, John T; da Silva, Robin P; Brosnan, Margaret E

2011-05-01

265

Lactation Consultant  

MedlinePLUS

... consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

266

Diagnosis of creatine metabolism disorders by determining creatine and guanidinoacetate in plasma and urine.  

PubMed

Creatine metabolism disorders include a creatine transporter deficiency, as well as, deficiencies of two enzymes involved in creatine synthesis, arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT). Laboratory diagnosis of these disorders relies on the determination of creatine and guanidinoacetate in both plasma and urine. Here we describe a rapid HPLC/MS/MS method for these measurements using a normal phase HILIC column after analyte derivatization. PMID:20077070

Sun, Qin; O'Brien, William E

2010-01-01

267

Creatine Kinase and Creatine Transporter in Normal, Wounded, and Diseased Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin comprises many cell types that are characterized by high biosynthetic activity and increased energy turnover. The creatine kinase system, consisting of creatine kinase isoenzymes and creatine transporter, is known to be important to support the high energy demands in such cells. We analyzed the presence and the localization of these proteins in murine and human skin under healthy and

Uwe Schlattner; Natalie Möckli; Oliver Speer; Sabine Werner; Theo Wallimann

2002-01-01

268

L-lactate metabolism in potato tuber mitochondria.  

PubMed

We investigated the metabolism of L-lactate in mitochondria isolated from potato tubers grown and saved after harvest in the absence of any chemical agents. Immunologic analysis by western blot using goat polyclonal anti-lactate dehydrogenase showed the existence of a mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase, the activity of which could be measured photometrically only in mitochondria solubilized with Triton X-100. The addition of L-lactate to potato tuber mitochondria caused: (a) a minor reduction of intramitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, whose measured rate of change increased in the presence of the inhibitor of the alternative oxidase salicyl hydroxamic acid; (b) oxygen consumption not stimulated by ADP, but inhibited by salicyl hydroxamic acid; and (c) activation of the alternative oxidase as polarographically monitored in a manner prevented by oxamate, an L-lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Potato tuber mitochondria were shown to swell in isosmotic solutions of ammonium L-lactate in a stereospecific manner, thus showing that L-lactate enters mitochondria by a proton-compensated process. Externally added L-lactate caused the appearance of pyruvate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to the oxidation of extramitochondrial NADH. The rate of pyruvate efflux showed a sigmoidal dependence on L-lactate concentration and was inhibited by phenylsuccinate. Hence, potato tuber mitochondria possess a non-energy-competent L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle. We maintain, therefore, that mitochondrial metabolism of L-lactate plays a previously unsuspected role in the response of potato to hypoxic stress. PMID:17489101

Paventi, Gianluca; Pizzuto, Roberto; Chieppa, Gabriella; Passarella, Salvatore

2007-03-01

269

Six hours of resting platelet concentrates stored at 22-24 ?C for 48 hours in permeable bags preserved pH, swirling and lactate dehydrogenase better and caused less platelet activation  

PubMed Central

Background During transportation, platelet concentrates (PC) usually undergo a long period without agitation. Whether this interruption improves quality and viability or, contrariwise, has deleterious effects on PC stored for 48 hours (h) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metabolic resting (6 h of interruption of agitation) vs continue agitation of PC stored for 48 h in the blood bank of Tehran. Materials and methods PC were prepared from platelet-rich plasma and stored in permeable bags in a shaker/incubator for 42 h at room temperature (20–24 ºC). Then, simply by stopping the agitator, the PC remained stationary (“resting”) without agitation for 6 h (WCA6h), prior to transfusion. In vitro measurements of platelet quality were carried out just after completion of the resting period and the results were compared with those of PC continuously agitated in the same day (designated as the control group, CA6h). The in vitro variables measured were swirling, ristocetin-induced aggregation (GPIb-related function), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release and P-selectin expression (activation markers). Results The mean platelet counts of the control group (CA6h) and rested (WCA6h) PC were not statistically different (P =0.548). Likewise, the mean pH values were not significantly different: WCA6h (7.16±0.08) and CA6h (7.22±0.16) (P =0.300). Although ristocetin-induced aggregation did not differ significantly between CA6h (79.2±4.4) and WCA6h (66.65±28.55) (P =0.186), WCA6h showed significantly less PFA release (P =0.015) and lower P-selectin expression (P =0.006). Conclusions We observed that PC stored under agitation for 42 h at 22–24 ºC in permeable bags and then rested for 6 h had better preserved pH, swirling and LDH and less platelet activation then PC kept under continuous agitation for the whole 48 h storage period.

Naghadeh, Hossin T.; Badlou, Bahram A.; Ferizhandy, Ali S.; Mohammadreza, Tabatabai S.; Shahram, Vaeli

2013-01-01

270

Combining Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase-Based and Histidine-Rich Protein 2-Based Rapid Tests To Improve Specificity for Diagnosis of Malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and Other Plasmodium Species in Sabah, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with "species-specific" parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P. falciparum because of P. knowlesi cross-reactivity and cautions against their use alone in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. Sensitive P. knowlesi-specific RDTs and/or alternative molecular diagnostic tools are needed in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. PMID:24696029

Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

2014-06-01

271

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked creatine deficiency On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed June 2011 What is X-linked creatine deficiency? X-linked creatine deficiency is ...

272

Effect of HX108-CS supplementation on exercise capacity and lactate accumulation after high-intensity exercise  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we determined the effects of HX108-CS (mixed extract of Schisandra chinensis and Chaenomeles sinensis) supplementation on lactate accumulation and endurance capacity. Furthermore, we examined CK (creatine kinase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) activity to determine whether the HX108-CS affected markers of skeletal muscle injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods Exercise capacity was measured by an exhaustive swimming test using ICR mice divided into four groups; one group received distilled water (DW) (Control group, n?=?10), and the other groups received three different dosages of HX108-CS (10, 50 and 100?mg/kg, n?=?10 per group) solution in water orally. Then, for the time-dependent measurements of blood lactate, CK, and LDH, Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups; one received DW (Control group, n?=?10), and the other group received HX108-CS (100?mg/kg, n?=?10) solution in the same way as mice. Before the exercise test, the animals were given either DW or HX108-CS for 2?weeks. High-intensity treadmill exercise was performed for 30?minutes. Blood samples were collected and analyzed during and after exercise. For the in vitro experiment, C2C12 cells were treated with HX108-CS to examine its effect on lactate production, CK, and LDH activity. Results Blood lactate concentration was significantly lowered immediately after treadmill exercise in HX108-CS group; however, there were no significant differences in activities of CK and LDH between HX108-CS and control during treadmill exercise and recovery phase. Furthermore, treatment with 100?mg/kg of HX108-CS led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in swimming test, and concurrently blood lactate concentration was significantly decreased in 50 and 100?mg/kg treated group. Moreover, our results of in vitro experiment showed that HX108-CS suppressed lactate production, CK, and LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions These results suggest that supplementation with HX108-CS may enhance exercise capacity by lowering lactate accumulation. This may in part be related to an amelioration of skeletal muscle injury.

2013-01-01

273

Efficacy of Dichloroacetate as a Lactate-Lowering Drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichloroacetate (DCA) decreases blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and intracellular lactate concentrations by activating the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex. The authors reviewed the efficacy of this investigational drug in the treatment of acquired or congenital forms of lactic acidosis from data in 40 English-language publications. The hypolactatemic effect of DCA occurs over a broad range of pretreatment lactate concentrations and

Peter W. Stacpoole; Nelamangala V. Nagaraja; Alan D. Hutson

2003-01-01

274

Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain.  

PubMed

Creatine deficiency syndromes, due to deficiencies in AGAT, GAMT (creatine synthesis pathway) or SLC6A8 (creatine transporter), lead to complete absence or very strong decrease of creatine in CNS as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain is the main organ affected in creatine-deficient patients, who show severe neurodevelopmental delay and present neurological symptoms in early infancy. AGAT- and GAMT-deficient patients can be treated by oral creatine supplementation which improves their neurological status, while this treatment is inefficient on SLC6A8-deficient patients. While it has long been thought that most, if not all, of brain creatine was of peripheral origin, the past years have brought evidence that creatine can cross blood-brain barrier, however, only with poor efficiency, and that CNS must ensure parts of its creatine needs by its own endogenous synthesis. Moreover, we showed very recently that in many brain structures, including cortex and basal ganglia, AGAT and GAMT, while found in every brain cell types, are not co-expressed but are rather expressed in a dissociated way. This suggests that to allow creatine synthesis in these structures, guanidinoacetate must be transported from AGAT- to GAMT-expressing cells, most probably through SLC6A8. This new understanding of creatine metabolism and transport in CNS will not only allow a better comprehension of brain consequences of creatine deficiency syndromes, but will also contribute to better decipher creatine roles in CNS, not only in energy as ATP regeneration and buffering, but also in its recently suggested functions as neurotransmitter or osmolyte. PMID:21390529

Braissant, Olivier; Henry, Hugues; Béard, Elidie; Uldry, Joséphine

2011-05-01

275

Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth  

PubMed Central

L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L-LDH can be effectively used as a factor to regulate a metabolic pathway and its metabolic flux for efficient L-lactate production. Highlights The enzymatic thermodynamics was used as a tool for metabolic regulation. ? minimizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase in growth phase improved biomass accumulation. ? maximizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase improved lactate productivity in production phase.

2014-01-01

276

Ammonia toxicity to the brain: effects on creatine metabolism and transport and protective roles of creatine.  

PubMed

Hyperammonemia can provoke irreversible damage to the developing brain, with the formation of cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement, demyelination or gray and white matter hypodensities. Among the various pathogenic mechanisms involved, alterations in cerebral energy have been demonstrated. In particular, we could show that ammonia exposure generates a secondary deficiency in creatine in brain cells, by altering the brain expression and activity of the genes allowing creatine synthesis (AGAT and GAMT) and transport (SLC6A8). On the other hand, it is known that creatine administration can exert protective effects in various neurodegenerative processes. We could also show that creatine co-treatment under ammonia exposure can protect developing brain cells from some of the deleterious effects of ammonia, in particular axonal growth impairment. This article focuses on the effects of ammonia exposure on creatine metabolism and transport in developing brain cells, and on the potential neuroprotective properties of creatine in the brain exposed to ammonium. PMID:20227315

Braissant, Olivier

2010-01-01

277

Lactate transport during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells: evidence for a specific carrier in L6 myotubes.  

PubMed

Cellular uptake of lactate involves a carrier in numerous types of mammalian cells. In cultured rat L6 myoblasts, lactate diffuses freely. We show that during myogenesis a carrier appears at the myotube stage. The degree of cellular differentiation was determined by microscopic observation and by measurement of a marker of biochemical differentiation: the increase in specific activity of creatine kinases. PMID:1605048

el Abida, K; Duvallet, A; Thieulart, L; Rieu, M; Beaudry, M

1992-04-01

278

Dinosaur lactation?  

PubMed

Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs. PMID:23325856

Else, Paul L

2013-02-01

279

Creatine Supplementation in Strength-Power Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous ingestion of creatine (Cr) is typically used as a performance enhancing (ergogenic) supplement because it is\\u000a known to improve performance in muscular strength and power activities, enhance short bursts of muscular endurance, and allow\\u000a for greater muscular overload in order to improve training effectiveness. Creatine has become one of the most popular ingested\\u000a nutritional supplements due to its

Darryn S. Willoughby

280

Expression of the mitochondrial creatine kinase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine, and exists in mammals as two isoenzymes encoded by separate genes. In rats and humans, sarcomere-specific MtCK (sMtCK) is expressed only in skeletal and heart muscle, and has 87% nucleotide identity across the 1257 bp coding region. The ubiquitous isoenzyme

R. Mark Payne; Arnold W. Strauss

1994-01-01

281

[Creatine kinase isoenzymes: idiopathic occurrence of creatine kinase BB activities in patient serum (author's transl)].  

PubMed

By differentiation of creatine kinase isoenzyme activities in sera using immunological methods the published data about occurrence of creatine kinase BB activities in patients with different diseases or after surgical treatment, respectively, cannot be verified in general. With a frequency in the order of magnitude of 1 : 1000 in the serum of old patients (age 57 to 85 years with one exception), however, creatine kinase BB activities can be measured. The range of activities is 15 to 234 U/1, or 19 to 94% of total creatine kinase activities, respectively. At the present time there is no possibility to correlate this phenomenon to any specific disease. These cases are detected by abnormally high results of CK-MB activity measurements with the immunoinhibition test (range 60 to 202% of total creatine kinase activities) which lead to a repeated analysis using immunoprecipitation. The results of all CK-BB patients investigated till now are presented and discussed. PMID:672135

Lang, H; Würzburg, U; Neumeier, D; Knedel, M; Prellwitz, W; Kattermann, R; Schlebusch, H; Schürmann, J

1978-07-01

282

Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  

PubMed Central

Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies.

Allen, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

283

Inborn errors of creatine metabolism and epilepsy.  

PubMed

Creatine metabolism disorders include guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency, and the creatine transporter (CT1-encoded by SLC6A8 gene) deficiency. Epilepsy is one of the main symptoms in GAMT and CT1 deficiency, whereas the occurrence of febrile convulsions in infancy is a relatively common presenting symptom in all the three above-mentioned diseases. GAMT deficiency results in a severe early onset epileptic encephalopathy with development arrest, neurologic deterioration, drug-resistant seizures, movement disorders, mental disability, and autistic-like behavior. In this disorder, epilepsy and associated abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are more responsive to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate than to conventional antiepileptic drugs. AGAT deficiency is mainly characterized by mental retardation and severe language disorder without epilepsy. In CT1 deficiency epilepsy is generally less severe than in GAMT deficiency. All creatine disorders can be investigated through measurement of creatine metabolites in body fluids, brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), and molecular genetic techniques. Blood guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) assessment and brain H-MRS examination should be part of diagnostic workup for all patients presenting with epileptic encephalopathy of unknown origin. In girls with learning and/or intellectual disabilities with or without epilepsy, SLC6A8 gene assessment should be part of the diagnostic procedures. The aims of this review are the following: (1) to describe the electroclinical features of epilepsy occurring in inborn errors of creatine metabolism; and (2) to delineate the metabolic alterations associated with GAMT, AGAT, and CT1 deficiency and the role of a substitutive therapeutic approach on their clinical and electroencephalographic epileptic patterns. PMID:23157605

Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mastrangelo, Mario; Battini, Roberta; Cioni, Giovanni

2013-02-01

284

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

...is a device intended to measure creatine (a substance synthesized in the liver and pancreas and found in biological fluids) in plasma, serum, and urine. Measurements of creatine are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine...

2014-04-01

285

Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the lct locus at min 80 on the chromosome map is associated with ability to grow on L-lactate and to synthesize a substrate-inducible flavin-linked dehydrogenase. Similar to that of the glpD-encoded aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of induced enzyme activity is elevated by aerobiosis. Both of these controls are mediated by the two-component signal transduction system ArcB/ArcA, although sensitivity to the control is much more striking for L-lactate dehydrogenase. This study disclosed that the lct locus contained three overlapping genes in the clockwise order of lctD (encoding a flavin mononucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase), lctR (encoding a putative regulator), and lctP (encoding a permease) on the chromosomal map. These genes, however, are transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. No homology in amino acid sequence was found between aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. A phi (lctD-lac) mutant was inducible by L-lactate but not D-lactate. Although the mutant lost the ability to grow on L-lactate, growth on D-lactate, known to depend on a different enzyme, remained normal. Images

Dong, J M; Taylor, J S; Latour, D J; Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

1993-01-01

286

Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of general agreement: Total creatine kinase (CK) levels depend on age, gender, race, muscle mass, physical activity and climatic condition. High levels of serum CK in apparently healthy subjects may be correlated with physical training status, as they depend on sarcomeric damage: strenuous exercise that damages skeletal muscle cells results in increased total serum CK. The highest post- exercise

Paola Brancaccio; Nicola Maffulli; Francesco Mario Limongelli

2007-01-01

287

Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

2012-01-01

288

Serum creatine kinase levels in normal females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum creatine kinase levels were determined in 75 girls (age range, one month to 15 years) and 200 normal adult women (age range, 18 to 50 years). The values ranged from 12.5 to 80 IU\\/1 in girls and 19 to 155 IU\\/1 in adult females. The SCK level appeared to increase with age from 1 to 15 years, after which

R K Satapathy; R Skinner

1979-01-01

289

Hypothalamic sensing of circulating lactate regulates glucose production.  

PubMed

Emerging studies indicate that hypothalamic hormonal signalling pathways and nutrient metabolism regulate glucose homeostasis in rodents. Although hypothalamic lactate-sensing mechanisms have been described to lower glucose production (GP), it is currently unknown whether the hypothalamus senses lactate in the blood circulation to regulate GP and maintain glucose homeostasis in vivo. To examine whether hypothalamic sensing of circulating lactate is required to regulate GP, we infused intravenous (i.v.) lactate in the absence or presence of inhibition of central/hypothalamic lactate-sensing mechanisms in normal rodents. Inhibition of central/hypothalamic lactate-sensing mechanisms was achieved by three independent approaches. Tracer-dilution methodology in combination with the pancreatic clamp technique was used to assess the effect of i.v. and central/hypothalamic administrations on glucose metabolism in vivo. In the presence of physiologically relevant increases in the levels of plasma lactate, inhibition of central lactate-sensing mechanisms by lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate (OXA) or ATP-sensitive potassium channels blocker glibenclamide increased GP. Furthermore, direct administration of OXA into the mediobasal hypothalamus increased GP in the presence of similar elevation of circulating lactate. Together, these data indicate that hypothalamic sensing of circulating lactate regulates GP and is required to maintain glucose homeostasis. PMID:19040414

Kokorovic, Andrea; Cheung, Grace W C; Rossetti, Luciano; Lam, Tony K T

2009-01-01

290

Blood chemistry in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation reveals no effect of handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum clinical chemistry parameters were examined in lactating southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina mothers and their pups from the declining Macquarie Island population. There were significant changes in serum values from 2 to 21 days postpartum in both nursing mothers (increase: inorganic phosphate; decrease: creatinine, potassium, chloride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase) and suckling pups (increase:

Georg H Engelhard; Ailsa J Hall; Sophie M. J. M Brasseur; Peter J. H Reijnders

2002-01-01

291

Effects of creatine and ?-guanidinopropionic acid and alterations in creatine transporter and creatine kinases expression in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to confirm the roles of creatine (Cr) in epilepsy, we investigated the anti-convulsive effects of Cr, creatine transporter (CRT) and creatine kinases (CKs) against chemical-induced acute seizure activity and chronic epileptic seizure activity. RESULTS: Two hr after pilocarpine (PILO)-seizure induction, ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) immunoreactivity was unaltered as compared to control level. However, brain-type cytoplasm CK (BCK)

Dae Won Kim; Seong-Il Yeo; Hea Jin Ryu; Ji-Eun Kim; Hong-Ki Song; Oh-Shin Kwon; Soo Young Choi; Tae-Cheon Kang

2010-01-01

292

Maternal dietary creatine supplementation does not alter the capacity for creatine synthesis in the newborn spiny mouse.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that maternal creatine supplementation protects the neonate from hypoxic injury. Here, we investigated whether maternal creatine supplementation altered expression of the creatine synthesis enzymes (arginine:glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoaceteate methyltransferase [GAMT]) and the creatine transporter (solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, creatine] member 8: SLC6A8) in the term offspring. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a 5% creatine monohydrate diet from midgestation (day 20) to term (39 days). Placentas and neonatal kidney, liver, heart, and brain collected at 24 hours of age underwent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Maternal creatine had no effect on the expression of AGAT and GAMT in neonatal kidney and liver, but mRNA expression of AGAT in brain tissues was significantly decreased in both male and female neonates born to mothers who were fed the creatine diet. SLC6A8 expression was not affected by maternal dietary creatine loading in any tissues. Maternal dietary creatine supplementation from midgestation in the spiny mouse did not alter the capacity for creatine synthesis or transport. PMID:23427185

Dickinson, Hayley; Ireland, Zoe J; Larosa, Domenic A; O'Connell, Bree A; Ellery, Stacey; Snow, Rod; Walker, David W

2013-09-01

293

Effect of antidiuresis on renal creatine metabolism.  

PubMed

The current work investigates whether creatine metabolism is involved in renal adaptation to dehydration. Wistar rats were either deprived of water or induced to drink water abundantly during 60 h. Cortical and medullar mRNA levels of Na(+)/Cl(-)/creatine transporter (CRT), l-arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and of the tonicity sensitive genes coding for aquaporin 2, Na(+)/Cl(-)/betaine transporter and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase were measured by real-time PCR assays. The activity of the CRT and that of Na(+)/alpha-methyl-glucose transporter were evaluated in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. In water loaded animals, the mRNA levels of AGAT and CRT, and the activity of the CRT were greater in the cortex than in the medulla. GAMT mRNA levels were of similar magnitude and lower than those of AGAT mRNA. Dehydration decreased cortical and medullar AGAT and CRT mRNA levels and CRT activity and it did no affect GAMT mRNA abundance. These decreases were creatine specific because dehydration increased Na(+)/alpha-methyl-glucose transporter activity and the mRNA abundance of aquaporin 2, Na(+)/Cl(-)/betaine transporter and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that: i) the kidneys express significant amounts of GAMT mRNA, ii) dehydration down-regulates the expression of AGAT gene and iii) dehydration down-regulates CRT gene expression and activity. PMID:20228419

Garcia-Miranda, P; Peral, M J; Ilundain, A A

2010-02-01

294

Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes: clinical aspects, treatment and pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDSs) are a group of inborn errors of creatine metabolism comprising two autosomal recessive disorders that affect the biosynthesis of creatine--i.e. arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency (AGAT; MIM 602360) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT; MIM 601240)--and an X-linked defect that affects the creatine transporter, SLC6A8 deficiency (SLC6A8; MIM 300036). The biochemical hallmarks of these disorders include cerebral creatine deficiency as detected in vivo by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain, and specific disturbances in metabolites of creatine metabolism in body fluids. In urine and plasma, abnormal guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) levels are found in AGAT deficiency (reduced GAA) and in GAMT deficiency (increased GAA). In urine of males with SLC6A8 deficiency, an increased creatine/creatinine ratio is detected. The common clinical presentation in CCDS includes mental retardation, expressive speech and language delay, autistic like behaviour and epilepsy. Treatment of the creatine biosynthesis defects has yielded clinical improvement, while for creatine transporter deficiency, successful treatment strategies still need to be discovered. CCDSs may be responsible for a considerable fraction of children and adults affected with mental retardation of unknown etiology. Thus, screening for this group of disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of this population. In this review, also the importance of CCDSs for the unravelling of the (patho)physiology of cerebral creatine metabolism is discussed. PMID:18652076

Stockler, Sylvia; Schutz, Peter W; Salomons, Gajja S

2007-01-01

295

Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake  

PubMed Central

Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in muscle energy homeostasis by its participation in the ATP–phosphocreatine phosphoryl exchange reaction mediated by creatine kinase. Given that the consequences of Cr depletion are incompletely understood, we assessed the morphological, metabolic and functional consequences of systemic depletion on skeletal muscle in a mouse model with deficiency of l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT?/?), which catalyses the first step of Cr biosynthesis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a near-complete absence of Cr and phosphocreatine in resting hindlimb muscle of AGAT?/? mice. Compared with wild-type, the inorganic phosphate/?-ATP ratio was increased fourfold, while ATP levels were reduced by nearly half. Activities of proton-pumping respiratory chain enzymes were reduced, whereas F1F0-ATPase activity and overall mitochondrial content were increased. The Cr-deficient AGAT?/? mice had a reduced grip strength and suffered from severe muscle atrophy. Electron microscopy revealed increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid droplets and crystal formation within mitochondria of AGAT?/? muscle fibres. Ischaemia resulted in exacerbation of the decrease of pH and increased glycolytic ATP synthesis. Oral Cr administration led to rapid accumulation in skeletal muscle (faster than in brain) and reversed all the muscle abnormalities, revealing that the condition of the AGAT?/? mice can be switched between Cr deficient and normal simply by dietary manipulation. Systemic creatine depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular energy deficiency, as well as structural and physiological abnormalities. The consequences of AGAT deficiency are more pronounced than those of muscle-specific creatine kinase deficiency, which suggests a multifaceted involvement of creatine in muscle energy homeostasis in addition to its role in the phosphocreatine–creatine kinase system.

Nabuurs, C I; Choe, C U; Veltien, A; Kan, H E; van Loon, L J C; Rodenburg, R J T; Matschke, J; Wieringa, B; Kemp, G J; Isbrandt, D; Heerschap, A

2013-01-01

296

Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake.  

PubMed

Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in muscle energy homeostasis by its participation in the ATP-phosphocreatine phosphoryl exchange reaction mediated by creatine kinase. Given that the consequences of Cr depletion are incompletely understood, we assessed the morphological, metabolic and functional consequences of systemic depletion on skeletal muscle in a mouse model with deficiency of l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT(-/-)), which catalyses the first step of Cr biosynthesis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a near-complete absence of Cr and phosphocreatine in resting hindlimb muscle of AGAT(-/-) mice. Compared with wild-type, the inorganic phosphate/?-ATP ratio was increased fourfold, while ATP levels were reduced by nearly half. Activities of proton-pumping respiratory chain enzymes were reduced, whereas F(1)F(0)-ATPase activity and overall mitochondrial content were increased. The Cr-deficient AGAT(-/-) mice had a reduced grip strength and suffered from severe muscle atrophy. Electron microscopy revealed increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid droplets and crystal formation within mitochondria of AGAT(-/-) muscle fibres. Ischaemia resulted in exacerbation of the decrease of pH and increased glycolytic ATP synthesis. Oral Cr administration led to rapid accumulation in skeletal muscle (faster than in brain) and reversed all the muscle abnormalities, revealing that the condition of the AGAT(-/-) mice can be switched between Cr deficient and normal simply by dietary manipulation. Systemic creatine depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular energy deficiency, as well as structural and physiological abnormalities. The consequences of AGAT deficiency are more pronounced than those of muscle-specific creatine kinase deficiency, which suggests a multifaceted involvement of creatine in muscle energy homeostasis in addition to its role in the phosphocreatine-creatine kinase system. PMID:23129796

Nabuurs, C I; Choe, C U; Veltien, A; Kan, H E; van Loon, L J C; Rodenburg, R J T; Matschke, J; Wieringa, B; Kemp, G J; Isbrandt, D; Heerschap, A

2013-01-15

297

Non-enzymatic cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to creatinine.  

PubMed

Creatine ethyl ester was incubated at 37 degrees C in both water and phosphate-buffered saline and the diagnostic methylene resonances in the (1)H NMR spectrum were used to identify the resultant products. It was found that mild aqueous conditions result in the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to provide inactive creatinine as the exclusive product, and this transformation becomes nearly instantaneous as the pH approaches 7.4. This study demonstrates that mild non-enzymatic conditions are sufficient for the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester into creatinine, and together with previous results obtained under enzymatic conditions suggests that there are no physiological conditions that would result in the production of creatine. It is concluded that creatine ethyl ester is a pronutrient for creatinine rather than creatine under all physiological conditions encountered during transit through the various tissues, thus no ergogenic effect is to be expected from supplementation. PMID:19660433

Giese, Matthew W; Lecher, Carl S

2009-10-16

298

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a)...

2009-04-01

299

[High-efficiency L-lactate production from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

High-efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate is beneficial for the development of both oil hydrolysis industry and biodegradable materials manufacturing industry. In order to construct an L-lactate producer, we first cloned a coding region of gene BcoaLDH encoding an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans CICIM B1821 and the promoter sequence (P(ldhA)) of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhA) from Escherichia coli CICIM B0013. Then we assembled these two DNA fragments in vitro and yielded an expression cassette, P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH. Then, the cassette was chromosomally integrated into an ldhA mutant strain, Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-080C, by replacing lldD encoding an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. An L-lactate higher-producer strain, designated as E. coli B0013-090B, possessing genotype of lldD::P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH, deltaack-pta deltapps deltapflB deltadld deltapoxB deltaadhE deltafrdA and deltaldhA, was generated. Under the optimal condition, 132.4 g/L L-lactate was accumulated by B0013-090B with the lactate productivity of 4.90 g/Lh and the yield of 93.7% in 27 h from glycerol. The optical purity of L-lactate in broth is above 99.95%. PMID:24409690

Tian, Kangming; Shi, Guiyang; Lu, Fuping; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-09-01

300

NADH electrochemical sensor coupled with dehydrogenase enzymes  

SciTech Connect

A graphite electrode assembled in a flow cell has shown to be a good detector for NADH. Current is linearly dependent on concentration in the range 10{sup {minus}7}-10{sup {minus}3} M without any mediator at the potential applied of 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases were immobilized near to the electrode surface or in a reactor to obtain an NADH-based biosensor for lactate or ethanol. With lactate the authors succeeded to obtain a response only if the reactor was used and for alcohol a current proportional to the concentration was obtained either if the enzyme was immobilized in a membrane and placed near the electrode surface or when the enzyme was immobilized in a reactor form. By FIA procedures fast responses and recoveries were obtained, but with a short linear range.

Yamanaka, Hideko; Mascini, Marco (Epidemiologia e Chimica Analitica Ambientale, Firenze (Italy))

1992-06-01

301

The creatine kinase/creatine connection to Alzheimer's disease: CK-inactivation, APP-CK complexes and focal creatine deposits.  

PubMed

Cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase (BB-CK), which is coexpressed with ubiquitous mitochondrial uMtCK, is significantly inactivated by oxidation, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Since CK has been shown to play a fundamental role in cellular energetics of the brain, any disturbance of this enzyme may exasperate the AD disease process. Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with early onset AD and result in abnormal processing of APP, and accumulation of A beta peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques in AD brain. Recent data on a direct interaction between APP and the precursor of uMtCK support an emerging relationship between AD, cellular energy levels and mitochondrial function. In addition, recently discovered creatine (Cr) deposits in the brain of transgenic AD mice, as well as in the hippocampus from AD patients, indicate a direct link between perturbed energy state, Cr metabolism and AD. Here, we review the roles of Cr and Cr-related enzymes and consider the potential value of supplementation with Cr, a potent neuroprotective substance. As a hypothesis, we consider whether Cr, if given at an early time point of the disease, may prevent or delay the course of AD-related neurodegeneration. PMID:17047305

Bürklen, Tanja S; Schlattner, Uwe; Homayouni, Ramin; Gough, Kathleen; Rak, Margaret; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Wallimann, Theo

2006-01-01

302

The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer's Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits  

PubMed Central

Cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase (BB-CK), which is coexpressed with ubiquitous mitochondrial uMtCK, is significantly inactivated by oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Since CK has been shown to play a fundamental role in cellular energetics of the brain, any disturbance of this enzyme may exasperate the AD disease process. Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with early onset AD and result in abnormal processing of APP, and accumulation of A? peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques in AD brain. Recent data on a direct interaction between APP and the precursor of uMtCK support an emerging relationship between AD, cellular energy levels, and mitochondrial function. In addition, recently discovered creatine (Cr) deposits in the brain of transgenic AD mice, as well as in the hippocampus from AD patients, indicate a direct link between perturbed energy state, Cr metabolism, and AD. Here, we review the roles of Cr and Cr-related enzymes and consider the potential value of supplementation with Cr, a potent neuroprotective substance. As a hypothesis, we consider whether Cr, if given at an early time point of the disease, may prevent or delay the course of AD-related neurodegeneration.

Burklen, Tanja S.; Schlattner, Uwe; Homayouni, Ramin; Gough, Kathleen; Rak, Margaret; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Wallimann, Theo

2006-01-01

303

Serum creatine kinase levels in normal females.  

PubMed Central

Serum creatine kinase levels were determined in 75 girls (age range, one month to 15 years) and 200 normal adult women (age range, 18 to 50 years). The values ranged from 12.5 to 80 IU/1 in girls and 19 to 155 IU/1 in adult females. The SCK level appeared to increase with age from 1 to 15 years, after which the level remained fairly constant. These data should be helpful in the detection of carriers of X-linked forms of muscular dystrophy.

Satapathy, R K; Skinner, R

1979-01-01

304

Regeneration of NAD(H) covalently bound to formate dehydrogenase with several second enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

N6-[N-(6-Aminohexyl)carbamoylmethyl]-NAD was covalently bound to formate dehydrogenase. The formate dehydrogenase-NAD complex, which contained 0.2 mol of reactive NAD moiety per subunit, functioned as an NAD(H)-regeneration system for a second coupled reaction involving one of the following enzymes; lactate, malate, alanine and leucine dehydrogenases, whose reductive reactions proceeded stoichiometrically in the absence of exogenous NAD.

Nobuo Kato; Tomohide Yamagami; Masayuki Shimao; Chikahiro Sakazawa

1987-01-01

305

Creatine and tempol attenuate noise-induced hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define the role of free radical formation and potential energy depletion in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), we measured the effectiveness of tempol (free radical scavenger) and creatine (enhances cellular energy storage) alone and in combination to attenuate NIHL. Guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups: controls, 3% creatine diet (2 weeks prior to noise exposure), tempol (3 mM in

Shujiro B. Minami; Daisuke Yamashita; Kaoru Ogawa; Jochen Schacht; Josef M. Miller

2007-01-01

306

Does reduced creatine synthesis protect against statin myopathy?  

PubMed

Statins, widely used to lower cholesterol levels, cause myopathy in some patients. Mangravite et al. (2013) show that a single nucleotide polymorphism decreasing expression of glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), the enzyme regulating creatine biosynthesis, is associated with reduced statin myopathy. Whether reduced creatine production protects against statin myopathy remains to be determined. PMID:24315367

Ballard, Kevin D; Thompson, Paul D

2013-12-01

307

Creatine Supplementation and Swim Performance: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key Points Creatine supplementation does not improve single sprint swimming performance. Creatine supplementation does improve repeated interval swim set performance. Creatine supplementation does improve power development in swimmers when measured on a swim bench ergometer. As a result of the high energy demands of the butterfly and breaststroke competitive swimming styles, potentially, the benefits associated with creatine supplementation and swimming performance could be greater when swimming butterfly or breaststroke, compared to the commonly examined freestyle swimming stroke.

Hopwood, Melissa J.; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B.

2006-01-01

308

Homofermentative Lactate Production Cannot Sustain Anaerobic Growth of Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Possible Consequence of Energy-Dependent Lactate Export  

PubMed Central

Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export.

van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Winkler, Aaron A.; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

2004-01-01

309

X-Linked Creatine-Transporter Gene (SLC6A8) Defect: A New Creatine-Deficiency Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report the first X-linked creatine-deficiency syndrome caused by a defective creatine transporter. The male index patient presented with developmental delay and hypotonia. Proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of his brain revealed absence of the creatine signal. However, creatine in urine and plasma was increased, and guanidinoacetate levels were normal. In three female relatives of the index patient, mild biochemical abnormalities and learning disabilities were present, to various extents. Fibroblasts from the index patient contained a hemizygous nonsense mutation in the gene SLC6A8 and were defective in creatine uptake. The three female relatives were heterozygous for this mutation in SLC6A8, which has been mapped to Xq28.

Salomons, Gajja S.; van Dooren, Silvy J. M.; Verhoeven, Nanda M.; Cecil, Kim M.; Ball, William S.; Degrauw, Ton J.; Jakobs, Cornelis

2001-01-01

310

Expression of the mitochondrial creatine kinase genes.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine, and exists in mammals as two isoenzymes encoded by separate genes. In rats and humans, sarcomere-specific MtCK (sMtCK) is expressed only in skeletal and heart muscle, and has 87% nucleotide identity across the 1257 bp coding region. The ubiquitous isoenzyme of MtCK (uMtCK) is expressed in many tissues with highest levels in brain, gut, and kidney, and has 92% nucleotide identity between the 1254 bp coding regions of rat and human. Both genes are highly regulated developmentally in a tissue-specific manner. There is virtually no expression of sMtCK mRNA prior to birth. Unlike cytosolic muscle CK (MCK) and brain CK (BCK), there is no developmental isoenzyme switch between the MtCKs. Cell culture models representing the tissue-specific expression of either sMtCK or uMtCK are available, but there are no adequate developmental models to examine their regulation. Several animal models are available to examine the coordinate regulation of the CK gene family and include 1) Cardiac Stress by coarctation (sMtCK, BCK, and MCK), 2) Uterus and placenta during pregnancy (uMtCK and BCK), and 3) Diabetes and mitochondrial myopathy (sMtCK, BCK, and MCK). We report the details of these findings, and discuss the coordinate regulation of the genes necessary for high-energy transduction. PMID:7808456

Payne, R M; Strauss, A W

1994-01-01

311

Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

l-lactate formation occurs via the reduction of pyruvate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase. l-lactate removal takes place via its oxidation into pyruvate, which may be oxidized or converted into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation involves the cooperative effort of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. In addition, pyruvate may undergo reversible transamination to alanine by alanine aminotransferase. Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism are crucial to diabetes pathophysiology and therapy. Elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase concentration has been associated with insulin resistance. Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene have been associated with fasting glucose concentration and insulin secretion. In diabetes patients, pyruvate dehydrogenase is down-regulated and the activity of pyruvate carboxylase is diminished in the pancreatic islets. Inhibitors of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase are being investigated as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In addition, enzymes implicated in l-lactate metabolism have revealed to be important in cancer cell homeostasis. Many human tumors have higher LDH5 levels than normal tissues. The LDHC gene is expressed in a broad range of tumors. The activation of PDH is a potential mediator in the body response that protects against cancer and PDH activation has been observed to reduce glioblastoma growth. The expression of PDK1 may serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. Genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase have tumor suppressor functions and consequently mutations in these genes may cause a variety of tumors. PMID:24029012

Adeva, M; González-Lucán, M; Seco, M; Donapetry, C

2013-11-01

312

Investigating the effectiveness of DNA microarray analysis for identifying the genes involved in l -lactate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether transcriptome data obtained by DNA microarray analysis could be used to identify the genes involved\\u000a in target metabolite production, we tried to identify the genes involved in l-lactate production by l-lactate-producing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We obtained DNA microarray data for these strains. Plasmids carrying lactic acid bacteria, bovine, and human l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes

Takashi Hirasawa; Aki Ookubo; Katsunori Yoshikawa; Keisuke Nagahisa; Chikara Furusawa; Hideki Sawai; Hiroshi Shimizu

2009-01-01

313

Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n = 15) were given 5 g four times a day of placebo for 1 week, followed by the same dosage of creatine for the second week. Group 2 (n = 17) were given placebo both weeks. Participants were retested at the end of each week. Results showed a significant effect of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition in the elderly. PMID:17828627

McMorris, Terry; Mielcarz, Gregorsz; Harris, Roger C; Swain, Jonathan P; Howard, Alan

2007-09-01

314

Involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in product formation in pyruvate-limited anaerobic chemostat cultures of Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with pyruvate as the energy source. At low culture pH values, high in vivo and in vitro activities were found for both pyruvate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. At high culture pH values the carbon flux was shifted towards pyruvate formate lyase. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this metabolic switch are

Jacky L. Snoep; M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos; Pieter W. Postma; Oense M. Neijssel

1990-01-01

315

Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAZZUCCHI, I., F. FELICI, and M. SACCHETTI. Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1934-1941, 2009. Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether short-term creatine (Cr) supplementation would affect 1) muscle contractile properties assessed by evoked and voluntary contractions, 2) force-velocity relationship, and 3) mean muscle

ILENIA BAZZUCCHI; FRANCESCO FELICI; MASSIMO SACCHETTI

2009-01-01

316

Partial reconstruction of in vitro gluconeogenesis arising from mitochondrial l-lactate uptake/metabolism and oxaloacetate export via novel L-lactate translocators.  

PubMed Central

In the light of the occurrence of L-lactate dehydrogenase inside the mitochondrial matrix, we looked at whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize L-lactate, and provide oxaloacetate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to a partial reconstruction of gluconeogenesis in vitro. We found that: (1) L-lactate (10 mM), added to mitochondria in the presence of a cocktail of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis enzymes and cofactors, can lead to synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate at a rate of about 7 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein. (2) Three novel translocators exist to mediate L-lactate traffic across the inner mitochondrial membrane. An L-lactate/H+ symporter was identified by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous pyridine nucleotide reduction. Consistently, L-lactate oxidation was found to occur with P/O ratio=3 (where P/O ratio is the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation) and with generation of membrane potential. Proton uptake, which occurred as a result of addition of L-lactate to RLM together with electron flow inhibitors, and mitochondrial swelling in ammonium L-lactate solutions were also monitored. L-Lactate/oxaloacetate and L-lactate/pyruvate anti-porters were identified by monitoring photometrically the appearance of L-lactate counter-anions outside mitochondria. These L-lactate translocators, which are distinct from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in V(max) values and in inhibition and pH profiles, and proved to regulate mitochondrial L-lactate metabolism in vitro. The role of lactate/mitochondria interactions in gluconeogenesis is discussed.

De Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore

2004-01-01

317

Partial reconstruction of in vitro gluconeogenesis arising from mitochondrial l-lactate uptake/metabolism and oxaloacetate export via novel L-lactate translocators.  

PubMed

In the light of the occurrence of L-lactate dehydrogenase inside the mitochondrial matrix, we looked at whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize L-lactate, and provide oxaloacetate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to a partial reconstruction of gluconeogenesis in vitro. We found that: (1) L-lactate (10 mM), added to mitochondria in the presence of a cocktail of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis enzymes and cofactors, can lead to synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate at a rate of about 7 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein. (2) Three novel translocators exist to mediate L-lactate traffic across the inner mitochondrial membrane. An L-lactate/H+ symporter was identified by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous pyridine nucleotide reduction. Consistently, L-lactate oxidation was found to occur with P/O ratio=3 (where P/O ratio is the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation) and with generation of membrane potential. Proton uptake, which occurred as a result of addition of L-lactate to RLM together with electron flow inhibitors, and mitochondrial swelling in ammonium L-lactate solutions were also monitored. L-Lactate/oxaloacetate and L-lactate/pyruvate anti-porters were identified by monitoring photometrically the appearance of L-lactate counter-anions outside mitochondria. These L-lactate translocators, which are distinct from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in V(max) values and in inhibition and pH profiles, and proved to regulate mitochondrial L-lactate metabolism in vitro. The role of lactate/mitochondria interactions in gluconeogenesis is discussed. PMID:14960150

De Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore

2004-05-15

318

Aerobically derived lactate stimulates revascularization and tissue repair via redox mechanisms.  

PubMed

Hypoxia serves as a physiologic cue to drive an angiogenic response via HIF-dependent mechanisms. Interestingly, minor elevation of lactate levels in the tissue produces the same effect under aerobic conditions. Aerobic glycolysis contributes to lactate accumulation in the presence of oxygen, especially under inflammatory conditions. We previously postulated that aerobic lactate accumulation, already known to stimulate collagen deposition, will also stimulate angiogenesis. If substantiated, this concept would advance understanding of wound healing and aerobic angiogenesis because lactate accumulation has many aerobic sources. In this study, Matrigel plugs containing a powdered, hydrolyzable lactate polymer were implanted into the subcutaneous space of mice. Lactate monomer concentrations in the implant were consistent with wound levels for more than 11 days. They induced little inflammation but considerable VEGF production and were highly angiogenic, as opposed to controls. Arterial hypoxia abrogated angiogenesis. Furthermore, inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase by using oxamate also prevented the angiogenic effects of lactate. Lactate monomer, at concentrations found in cutaneous wounds, stabilized HIF-1alpha and increased VEGF levels in aerobically cultured human endothelial cells. Accumulated lactate, therefore, appears to convey the impression of "metabolic need" for vascularization, even in well-oxygenated and pH-neutral conditions. Lactate and oxygen together stimulate angiogenesis and matrix deposition. PMID:17567242

Hunt, Thomas K; Aslam, Rummana S; Beckert, Stefan; Wagner, Silvia; Ghani, Q Perveen; Hussain, M Zamirul; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

2007-08-01

319

Aerobically-Derived Lactate Stimulates Revascularization and Tissue Repair via Redox Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia serves as a physiological cue to drive angiogenic response via HIF-dependent mechanisms. Interestingly, minor elevation of lactate levels in the tissue produces the same effect under aerobic conditions. Aerobic glycolysis contributes to lactate accumulation in the presence of oxygen especially under inflammatory conditions. We have previously postulated that aerobic lactate accumulation, already known to stimulate collagen deposition, will also stimulate angiogenesis. If substantiated, this concept would advance understanding of wound healing and aerobic angiogenesis because lactate accumulation has many aerobic sources. In this study, Matrigel® plugs containing a powdered, hydrolysable lactate polymer were implanted into the subcutaneous space of mice. Lactate monomer concentrations in the implant were consistent with wound levels for over 11 days. They induced little inflammation but considerable VEGF production and were highly angiogenic as opposed to controls. Arterial hypoxia abrogated angiogenesis. Furthermore, inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase using oxamate also prevented the angiogenic effects of lactate. Lactate monomer, at concentrations found in cutaneous wounds, stabilized HIF-1? and increased VEGF levels in aerobically cultured human endothelial cells. Accumulated lactate, therefore, appears to convey the impression of “metabolic need” for vascularization even in well-oxygenated and pH-neutral conditions. Lactate and oxygen both stimulate angiogenesis and matrix deposition.

HUNT, THOMAS K; ASLAM, RUMMANA S.; BECKERT, STEFAN; WAGNER, SILVIA; GHANI, Q. PERVEEN; HUSSAIN, M. ZAMIRUL; ROY, SASHWATI; SEN, CHANDAN K.

2008-01-01

320

Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

Meany, J. E.

2007-01-01

321

Stability of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozyme Patterns in Penguins  

Microsoft Academic Search

PENGUINS were chosen for this investigation because of their highly specialized adaptation to an aquatic life and because of the extreme physiological conditions they are subjected to during the breeding season. One of the most abundant species is the Adelie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, which has a circumpolar distribution south of the Antarctic pack-ice. Unlike other birds this species endures a

Clement L. Markert; William J. L. Sladen

1966-01-01

322

Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of sockeye salmon from the Naknek River system, Alaska, exhibited marked heterogeneity in LDH phenotype. Similar, though less marked, heterogeneity is apparent in sockeye salmon samples from other Bristol Bay area rivers. The B allele was almost e...

H. O. Hodgins F. M. Utter

1971-01-01

323

Inefficient lactate dehydrogenases of deep-sea fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory rates of deep-sea animals are extremely low. Deep-sea fishes may consume oxygen at rates only 5-10% those characteristic of shallow-water species1-4. These low metabolic rates are probably an adaptation to the presumed scarcity of food in deeper water4. The biochemical basis of this metabolic adaptation is a low level of enzyme activity in the skeletal muscle (but not

George N. Somero; Joseph F. Siebenaller

1979-01-01

324

The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

Wolf, Edward C.

1988-01-01

325

Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

Ma, L.

2000-09-12

326

Systems bioenergetics of creatine kinase networks: physiological roles of creatine and phosphocreatine in regulation of cardiac cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological role of creatine (Cr) became first evident in the experiments of Belitzer and Tsybakova in 1939, who showed\\u000a that oxygen consumption in a well-washed skeletal muscle homogenate increases strongly in the presence of creatine and with\\u000a this results in phosphocreatine (PCr) production with PCr\\/O2 ratio of about 5–6. This was the beginning of quantitative analysis in bioenergetics. It was

R. Guzun; N. Timohhina; K. Tepp; M. Gonzalez-Granillo; I. Shevchuk; V. Chekulayev; A. V. Kuznetsov; T. Kaambre; V. A. Saks

2011-01-01

327

Creatine and guanidinoacetate reference values in a French population.  

PubMed

Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference normal values are given within the age range. Despite the long known role of creatine for muscle physiology, muscle signs are not necessarily the major complaint expressed by PCDD patients. These disorders drastically affect brain function inducing, in patients, intellectual disability, autistic behavior and other neurological signs (delays in speech and language, epilepsy, ataxia, dystonia and choreoathetosis), being a common feature the drop in brain creatine content. For this reason, screening of PCDD patients has been repeatedly carried out in populations with neurological signs. This report is aimed at providing reference laboratory values and related age ranges found for a large scale population of patients with neurological signs (more than 6 thousand patients) previously serving as a background population for screening French patients with PCDD. These reference laboratory values and age ranges compare rather favorably with literature values for healthy populations. Some differences are also observed, and female participants are discriminated from male participants as regards to urine but not blood values including creatine on creatinine ratio and guanidinoacetate on creatinine ratio values. Such gender differences were previously observed in healthy populations; they might be explained by literature differential effects of testosterone and estrogen in adolescents and adults, and by estrogen effects in prepubertal age on SLC6A8 function. Finally, though they were acquired on a population with neurological signs, the present data might reasonably serve as reference laboratory values in any future medical study exploring abnormalities of creatine metabolism and transport. PMID:24090707

Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Cheillan, David; Briand, Gilbert; Salomons, Gajja S; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Lion-François, Laurence; Des Portes, Vincent; Chabli, Allel; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Benoist, Jean-François; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Simard, Gilles; Douay, Olivier; Deiva, Kumaran; Tardieu, Marc; Afenjar, Alexandra; Héron, Delphine; Rivier, François; Chabrol, Brigitte; Prieur, Fabienne; Cartault, François; Pitelet, Gaëlle; Goldenberg, Alice; Bekri, Soumeya; Gerard, Marion; Delorme, Richard; Porchet, Nicole; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vamecq, Joseph

2013-11-01

328

Laboratory diagnosis of defects of creatine biosynthesis and transport.  

PubMed

In recent years, three inherited defects in the biosynthesis and transport of creatine have been described. The biosynthetic defects include deficiencies of L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. The third defect is a functional defect in the creatine transporter (SLC6A8). Clinical symptoms of the three defects vary in severity, are aspecific and include mental retardation with severe speech delay, autistiform behaviour, and epilepsy. Some patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit a more complex clinical phenotype with extrapyramidal movement disorder. All three defects can be diagnosed by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain, which shows a severe reduction or absence of creatine. Laboratory investigations for the diagnosis start with the analysis of guanidinoacetate, creatine and creatinine in body fluids (plasma and urine). Based on these findings, enzyme assays for AGAT or GAMT, or a creatine uptake assay for the transporter defect can be performed. DNA mutation analysis of the genes involved can prove the defects at the molecular level. To diagnose female patients with SLC6A8 deficiency, mutation analysis may be the only choice. PMID:16169544

Verhoeven, Nanda M; Salomons, Gajja S; Jakobs, Cornelis

2005-11-01

329

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency  

PubMed Central

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency.

Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

330

The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise  

PubMed Central

Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr) and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit) supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest) and after (posttest) 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16), Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16) or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17) intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p < 0.001) and Cr-Cit (p < 0.01) significantly increased mean power over all intervals. Cr-Cit increased force during the first and second interval (p < 0.01) compared to placebo. The effect of Cr-Cit on force decreased over time and the improvement was not significant at the sixth and ninth interval, whereas Cr-Pyr significantly increased force during all intervals (p < 0.001). Cr-Pyr (p < 0.001) and Cr-Cit (p < 0.01) resulted in an increase in contraction velocity, whereas only Cr-Pyr intake significantly (p < 0.01) increased relaxation velocity. Oxygen consumption measured during rest periods significantly increased with Cr-Pyr (p < 0.05), whereas Cr-Cit and placebo intake did not result in significant improvements. Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

Jager, Ralf; Metzger, Jan; Lautmann, Karin; Shushakov, Vladimir; Purpura, Martin; Geiss, Kurt-Reiner; Maassen, Norbert

2008-01-01

331

Primary Structure and Phylogenetic Relationships of a Malate Dehydrogenase Gene from Giardia lamblia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The lactate and malate dehydrogenases comprise a complex protein superfamily with multiple enzyme homologues found in eubacteria,\\u000a archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. In this study we describe the sequence and phylogenetic relationships of a malate dehydrogenase\\u000a (MDH) gene from the amitochondriate diplomonad protist, Giardia lamblia. Parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses of the MDH protein family solidly position G. lamblia MDH within

Andrew J. Roger; Hilary G. Morrison; Mitchell L. Sogin

1999-01-01

332

Effect Of Compartmentalization of the Sensing Layer on the Sensitivity of a Multienzyme-Based Bioluminescent Sensor For L-Lactate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for the analysis of L-lactate is described. It is based on a reaction sequence catalyzed by three different enzymes: luciferase from V. harveyi, NAD(P) H: FMN oxidoreductase from V. fischeri and lactate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle covalently immobilized on polyamide membranes. Two kinds of sensing layer were studied, one consisting of only one membrane on

Philippe E. Michel; Sabine M. Gautier; Loïc J. Blum

1996-01-01

333

Role of creatine kinase and its substrates in the central nervous system in norm and in various pathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is presented review of recent publications providing current understanding of role of creatine kinase-creatine phosphate\\u000a system and creatine, substrate of creatine kinase, in metabolism of cell and specifically of cells of the central nervous\\u000a system. Particularly noted are the protector role of creatine at mitochondrial and bioenergetic cell dysfunction and potential\\u000a significance of creatine bioadditions at treatment of neurodegenerative

L. S. Nersesova

2011-01-01

334

Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.  

PubMed Central

Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research.

Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

1988-01-01

335

Lactate, not pyruvate, is neuronal aerobic glycolysis end product: an in vitro electrophysiological study.  

PubMed

For over 60 years, a distinction has been made between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis based on their respective end products: pyruvate of the former, lactate of the latter. Recently we hypothesized that, in the brain, both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis terminate with the formation of lactate from pyruvate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). If this hypothesis is correct, lactate must be the mitochondrial substrate for oxidative energy metabolism via its oxidation to pyruvate, plausibly by a mitochondrial LDH. Here we employed electrophysiology of the rat hippocampal slice preparation to test and monitor the effects of malonate and oxamate, two different LDH inhibitors, and glutamate, a neuronal activator, in experiments, the results of which support the hypothesis that lactate, at least in this in vitro setting, is indeed the principal end product of neuronal aerobic glycolysis. PMID:17560727

Schurr, A; Payne, R S

2007-07-13

336

Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase bb in the serum of schizophrenic patients  

SciTech Connect

Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure in two schizophrenic populations. The data would indicate that in the schizophrenic populations examined there is insufficient tissue disruption to cause abnormal build-up of brain creatine kinase levels. However the possibility of a rapid removal of creatine kinase BB from the circulation exists. The elevated creatine kinase reported in acute schizophrenics is most likely not of brain origin.

Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

1980-03-03

337

Wheat Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isozymes  

PubMed Central

Evidence in support of the hypothesis of gene expression and subunit association suggested earlier for Triticum alcohol dehydrogenase has been obtained through purification and partial characterization of the enzyme from tetraploid wheat. Three isozymes of alcohol dehydrogenase were separated and purified to apparent homogeneity using streptomycin sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and anion exchange chromatography. The isozymes are dimers with the same molecular weight (116,000 ± 2,000), but significantly different isoelectric pH values. The Michaelis constants for NAD+ and ethanol are 0.1 millimolar and 12 millimolar, respectively. The substrate specificity of the three alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes was investigated. Images

Langston, Pat J.; Pace, C. Nick; Hart, Gary E.

1980-01-01

338

Luminometric Assays of ATP, Phosphocreatine, and Creatine for Estimation of Free ADP and Free AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present methods to measure ATP, phosphocreatine, and total creatine (the sum of creatine and phosphocreatine) in alkaline cell extracts. Knowledge of these parameters, together with the known equilibrium constants for the creatine kinase and adenylate kinase-catalyzed reactions, allows one to estimate the levels of free ADP and free AMP inside cells. The enzymatic assays for the above-mentioned metabolites all

Peter Ronner; Edward Friel; Katharina Czerniawski; Stefanie Fränkle

1999-01-01

339

Oxidative Myocytes of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Express Abundant Sarcomeric Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of a high energy phosphate between ATP and creatine. To study cellular distribution of the kinase, we performed immunocytochemical studies using a peptide antiserum specific for the kinase protein. Our results demonstrated that the sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase gene is abundantly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle, with no protein detected in

Wenning Qin; Zaza Khuchua; Jaime Boero; R. Mark Payne; Arnold W. Strauss

1999-01-01

340

The cataract and glucosuria associated monocarboxylate transporter MCT12 is a new creatine transporter.  

PubMed

Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822

Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M R; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara

2013-08-15

341

Compartmentation of brain-type creatine kinase and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase in neurons: evidence for a creatine phosphate energy shuttle in adult rat brain.  

PubMed

Multiple isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) are expressed in specific cell types as part of an energy delivery or shuttle system. To test the hypothesis that neurons utilize a creatine phosphate energy shuttle, we examined the pattern of CK isoform expression and localization in adult rat brain. Two isoforms of CK are present in brain extracts, "brain-type," or BCK, and the ubiquitous form of the mitochondrial CK (uMtCK), as detected by enzyme activity following nondenaturing electrophoresis and by Western blotting following denaturing electrophoresis. In formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections of rat brain, uMtCK immunostaining is detected in the somata of all Golgi type I neurons in the cerebellum, pontine reticular formation, red nucleus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. Immunostaining for uMtCK appears throughout the cell body but not in nuclei. BCK immunostaining is also present in somata of Golgi type I neurons in the cerebellum, red nucleus, and pons and is distributed throughout the cell body and within nuclei. BCK immunostaining also appears in neuronal processes and is concentrated in the molecular layers of the cerebellum and the hippocampus and in cortical pyramidal cell dendrites. These results demonstrate a coordinate pattern of expression and compartmentation of BCK and uMtCK isoforms in neurons, which provides an anatomic basis for the transfer of metabolic energy via a creatine phosphate energy shuttle. PMID:7517967

Friedman, D L; Roberts, R

1994-05-15

342

Effects of creatine and ?-guanidinopropionic acid and alterations in creatine transporter and creatine kinases expression in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models  

PubMed Central

Background In order to confirm the roles of creatine (Cr) in epilepsy, we investigated the anti-convulsive effects of Cr, creatine transporter (CRT) and creatine kinases (CKs) against chemical-induced acute seizure activity and chronic epileptic seizure activity. Results Two hr after pilocarpine (PILO)-seizure induction, ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) immunoreactivity was unaltered as compared to control level. However, brain-type cytoplasm CK (BCK) immunoreactivity was decreased to 70% of control level. CRT immunoreactivity was decreased to 60% of control level. Following Cr or Tat-CK treatment, uMtCK or CRT immunoreactivity was unaffected, while BCK immunoreactivity in Cr treated group was increased to 3.6-fold of control levels. ?-Guanidinopropionic acid (GPA, a competitive CRT inhibitor) reduced BCK and CRT expression. In addition, Cr and tat-BCK treatment delayed the beginning of seizure activity after PILO injection. However, GPA treatment induced spontaneous seizure activity without PILO treatment. In chronic epilepsy rats, both uMtCK and CRT immunoreactivities were reduced in the hippocampus. In contrast, BCK immunoreactivity was similar to that observed in control animals. Cr-, GPA and tat-BCK treatment could not change EEG. Conclusion Cr/CK circuit may play an important role in sustaining or exacerbating acute seizure activity, but not chronic epileptic discharge.

2010-01-01

343

Blocking creatine kinase refolding by trace amounts of copper ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine kinase (CK) is a key enzyme to maintain the energy homeostasis in vertebrate excitable tissues. Due to its importance in cellular energetics, the activity and level of CK are crucial to cellular and body functions. CK is sensitive to oxidative stresses and is thought to be one of the main targets of oxidative modification in neurodegenerative diseases. In this

Shan Feng; Zhen Xu; Yong-Bin Yan

2008-01-01

344

Ontogeny regulates creatine metabolism in rat small and large intestine.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of intestinal CRT, AGAT and GAMT was investigated in foetuses, newborn, suckling, weaning and adult rats. In the colon, CRT mediates creatine transport because it was Na(+)- and Cl(-) dependent and inhibited by creatine and GPA. In addition, Northern assays showed two CRT transcripts (2.7-kb and 4.2-kb) and the in situ hybridisation revealed that CRT mRNA is restricted to the colon epithelial cells. The immunohistochemistry revealed that CRT protein was at the apical membrane of colon epithelia. Maturation decreased colonic CRT activity to undetectable levels and increased CRT mRNA abundance. Western assays revealed 57-, 65-, 80- and 116-kDa polypeptides at the intestinal apical membrane. The abundance of the 65-, 80- and 116-kDa polypeptides decreased with age, and that of 57-kDa was only observed in adult rats. The small and large intestine express AGAT and GAMT mRNAs. Maturation decreased AGAT mRNA abundance without affecting that of GAMT. For comparison, renal AGAT mRNA levels were measured and they were increased with age. The study reports for the first time that: i) the apical membrane of rat colon have an active CRT, ii) development down-regulates CRT activity via post-transcriptional mechanism(s), iii) the intestine might synthesize creatine and iv) intestinal and renal creatine synthesis is ontogenically regulated at the level of AGAT gene expression. PMID:19826191

Garcia-Miranda, P; Garcia-Delgado, M; Peral, M J; Calonge, M L; Ilundain, A A

2009-09-01

345

Hair Bundles Are Specialized for ATP Delivery via Creatine Kinase  

PubMed Central

Summary When stimulated strongly, a hair cell's mechanically sensitive hair bundle may consume ATP too rapidly for replenishment by diffusion. To provide a broad view of the bundle's protein complement, including those participating in energy metabolism, we used shotgun mass spectrometry methods to identify proteins of purified chicken vestibular bundles. In addition to cytoskeletal proteins, proteins involved in Ca2+ regulation, and stress-response proteins, many of the most abundant bundle proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry were involved in ATP synthesis. After ? -actin, the cytosolic brain isoform of creatine kinase was the second-most abundant bundle protein; at ~0.5 mM, creatine kinase is capable of maintaining high ATP levels despite 1 mM/s ATP consumption by the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Consistent with this critical role in hair-bundle function, the creatine kinase circuit is essential for high-sensitivity hearing, as demonstrated by hearing loss in creatine kinase knockout mice.

Shin, Jung-Bum; Streijger, Femke; Beynon, Andy; Peters, Theo; Gadzalla, Laura; McMillen, Debra; Bystrom, Cory; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M; Wallimann, Theo; Gillespie, Peter G.

2007-01-01

346

Molecular characterization of the creatine kinases: and some historical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 15 years, molecular characterization of the creatine kinase (CK) gene family has paralleled the molecular revolution of understanding gene structure, function, and regulation. In this review, we present a summary of advances in molecular analysis of the CK gene family with a few vignettes of historical interest. We describe how the muscle CK gene provided an essential

Wenning Qin; Zaza Khuchua; Judy Cheng; Jaime Boero; R. Mark Payne; Arnold W. Strauss

1998-01-01

347

Determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity in serum using immunological inhibition of creatine kinase M subunit activity. Activity kinetics and diagnostic significance in myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

This is a new method for the determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity in serum. The method uses direct activity measurement of creatine kinase B subunit activity after blocking of CK-M subunit activity by inhibiting antibodies. The test takes no longer than 15 min. The method yields an intra-serial C.V. of 2.0-12.9%, and a C.V. from day to day of 5.5%. The detection limit is 3.4 U/l creatine kinase MB. In the 95 cases with proven myocardial infarction several types of creatine kinase MB activity kinetics could be determined. The percentage of creatine kinase MB of peak CK-total is 6-25%, with a mean of 11.1%. The amount of creatine kinase MB with respect to total CK activity after reinfarction is higher than the amount after initial infarction. PMID:1000863

Neumeier, D; Prellwitz, W; Würzburg, U; Brundobler, M; Olbermann, M; Just H-J; Knedel, M; Lang, H

1976-12-01

348

Production of panic-like symptoms by lactate is associated with increased neural firing and oxidation of brain redox in the rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Lactate uses an unknown mechanism to induce panic attacks in people and panic-like symptoms in rodents. We tested whether intraperitoneal (IP) lactate injections act peripherally or centrally to induce panic-like symptoms in rats by examining whether IP lactate directly affects the CNS. In Long-Evans rats, IP lactate (2 mmol/kg) injection increased lactate levels in the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid. IP lactate also induced tachycardia and behavioral freezing suggesting the production of panic-like behavior. To enter intermediate metabolism, lactate is oxidized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to pyruvate with co-reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. Therefore, we measured the ratio of NADH/NAD(+) to test whether IP lactate altered lactate metabolism in the CNS. Lactate metabolism was studied in the hippocampus, a brain region believed to contribute to panic-like symptoms. IP lactate injection lowered the ratio of NADH/NAD(+) without altering the total amount of NADH and NAD(+) suggesting oxidation of hippocampal redox state. Lactate oxidized hippocampal redox since intrahippocampal injection of the LDH inhibitor, oxamate (50mM) prevented the oxidation of NADH/NAD(+) by IP lactate. In addition to oxidizing hippocampal redox, IP lactate rapidly increased the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Similar IP pyruvate injections had no effect. Neural discharge also increased following intrahippocampal lactate injection suggesting that increased discharge was a direct action of lactate on the hippocampus. These studies show that oxidation of brain redox and increased hippocampal firing are direct actions of lactate on the CNS that may contribute to the production of lactate-induced panic. PMID:19429039

Bergold, Peter J; Pinkhasova, Valariya; Syed, Maryam; Kao, Hsin-Yi; Jozwicka, Anna; Zhao, Ning; Coplan, Jeremy D; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Fenton, André A

2009-04-10

349

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

350

Lactate-induced release of GABA in the ventromedial hypothalamus contributes to counterregulatory failure in recurrent hypoglycemia and diabetes.  

PubMed

Suppression of GABAergic neurotransmission in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is crucial for full activation of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and increased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) output contributes to counterregulatory failure in recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) and diabetic rats. The goal of this study was to establish whether lactate contributes to raising VMH GABA levels in these two conditions. We used microdialysis to deliver artificial extracellular fluid or L-lactate into the VMH and sample for GABA. We then microinjected a GABAA receptor antagonist, an inhibitor of lactate transport (4CIN), or an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, oxamate (OX), into the VMH prior to inducing hypoglycemia. To assess whether lactate contributes to raising GABA in RH and diabetes, we injected 4CIN or OX into the VMH of RH and diabetic rats before inducing hypoglycemia. L-lactate raised VMH GABA levels and suppressed counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. While blocking GABAA receptors did not prevent the lactate-induced rise in GABA, inhibition of lactate transport or utilization did, despite the presence of lactate. All three treatments restored the counterregulatory responses, suggesting that lactate suppresses these responses by enhancing GABA release. Both RH and diabetic rats had higher baseline GABA levels and were unable to reduce GABA levels sufficiently to fully activate counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. 4CIN or OX lowered VMH GABA levels in both RH and diabetic rats and restored the counterregulatory responses. Lactate likely contributes to counterregulatory failure in RH and diabetes by increasing VMH GABA levels. PMID:23939392

Chan, Owen; Paranjape, Sachin A; Horblitt, Adam; Zhu, Wanling; Sherwin, Robert S

2013-12-01

351

Isolation and properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.  

PubMed

Four independent ace mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex have been isolated. They resembled ace mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in requiring acetate as an essential supplement for aerobic growth on glucose, succinate or lactate and in their ability to utilize acetate as sole carbon and energy source. Assays for the individual components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex indicated that they lacked the pyruvate dehydrogenase component (El) or the pyruvate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase components (E1 and E2) but not the lipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). Genetic studies with plasmid R68.45-mediated conjugation and phage F116L-mediated transduction indicated that the ace mutations are located at approximately 15 min in the P. aeruginosa PAO linkage map. PMID:6785385

Jeyaseelan, K; Guest, J R

1980-10-01

352

Simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate, creatine and 12 nucleotides in rat heart by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate (CP), creatine (Cr) and 12 nucleotides in rat heart. The analytes, ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, CTP, CDP, CMP, UTP, UDP, UMP, CP, Cr, were extracted from heart tissue with pre-cooled (0°C) methanol/water (1:1, v/v) and separated on a Hypersil Gold AQ C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3?m) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 2mmol/L ammonium acetate in water (pH 10.0, adjusted with ammonia). The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in selective reaction monitoring mode (SRM). In the assay, all the analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.99). The accuracy was between 80.7% and 120.6% and the precision expressed in RSD was less than 15.6%. This method was successfully applied to measure the concentrations of the 12 nucleotides, creatine phosphate and creatine in rat heart for the first time. PMID:24705537

Wang, Jun-Mei; Chu, Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Guo, Jia-Hua; Yan, Lu-Lu; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Ying-Li; Yin, Qi-Hui; Liu, Chang-Xiao

2014-05-01

353

Quantitative determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme catalytic concentrations in serum using immunological methods.  

PubMed

For the determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme catalytic concentrations in serum two methods based on immunological reactions are presented: One method uses inhibiting antibodies, which selectively block the activity of creatine kinase M subunits ("Inhibition Test"). This test is used for routine measurements of creatine kinase MB catalytic concentration; Another method uses precipitating antibodies, which allows a quantitative differentiation of creatine kinase isoenzymes MM, MB and BB ("Precipitation Test"). This test is used as a control for the Inhibition Test for the possible presence of creatine kinase BB activities in doubtful cases. Procedures, specificity, correlation and application of these methods are discussed. PMID:859004

Würzburg, U; Hennrich, N; Orth, H D; Lang, H; Prellwitz, W; Neumeier, D; Knedel, M; Rick, W

1977-03-01

354

Synthesis of guanidinoacetate and creatine from amino acids by rat pancreas.  

PubMed

Creatine is an important molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism. Creatine is spontaneously converted to creatinine at a rate of 1·7% per d; creatinine is lost in the urine. Creatine can be obtained from the diet or synthesised from endogenous amino acids via the enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT). The liver has high GAMT activity and the kidney has high AGAT activity. Although the pancreas has both AGAT and GAMT activities, its possible role in creatine synthesis has not been characterised. In the present study, we examined the enzymes involved in creatine synthesis in the pancreas as well as the synthesis of guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine by isolated pancreatic acini. We found significant AGAT activity and somewhat lower GAMT activity in the pancreas and that pancreatic acini had measurable activities of both AGAT and GAMT and the capacity to synthesise GAA and creatine from amino acids. Creatine supplementation led to a decrease in AGAT activity in the pancreas, though it did not affect its mRNA or protein abundance. This was in contrast with the reduction of AGAT activity and mRNA and protein abundance in the kidney, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of this enzyme in the pancreas are different from those in the kidney. Dietary creatine increased the concentrations of GAA, creatine and phosphocreatine in the pancreas. Unexpectedly, creatine supplementation decreased the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine, while those of S-adenosylhomocysteine were not altered significantly. PMID:24103317

da Silva, Robin P; Clow, Kathy; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

2014-02-01

355

Assignment of the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8) to human chromosome Xq28 telomeric to G6PD  

SciTech Connect

The creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle has important functions in the temporal and spatial maintenance of the energy supply to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Muscle cells do not synthesize creatine, but take it up via a specific sodium-dependent transporter - the creatine transporter. Thus, the creatine transporter has an important role in muscular physiology. Furthermore, inhibition of creatine transport in experimental animals causes muscle weakness. Recently, creatine transporter cDNAs have been isolated and characterized from rabbit and human. In this communication we report mapping of the creatine transporter gene to human chromosome Xq28. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Gregor, P. [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nash, S.R.; Caron, M.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); and others

1995-01-01

356

A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate  

PubMed Central

Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2?±?2?years, 181?±?7?cm, 82.1?±?12?kg, and 14.7?±?5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5?g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean?±?SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4?±?20.7 and 11.9?±?24.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L ?7.9?±?22.3, 4.7?±?27.0; KA-H 1.0?±?12.8, 9.1?±?23.2; CrM 11.3?±?23.9, 22.3?±?21.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.46). However, while no overall group differences were observed (p?=?0.14), pairwise comparison between the KA-L and CrM groups revealed that changes in muscle creatine content tended to be greater in the CrM group (KA-L ?1.1?±?4.3, CrM 11.2?±?4.3?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.053 [mean?±?SEM]). Although some significant time effects were observed, no significant group x time interactions (p?>?0.05) were observed in changes in body mass, fat free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, or total body water; bench press and leg press 1RM strength; WAC mean power, peak power, or total work; serum blood lipids, markers of catabolism and bone status, and serum electrolyte status; or, whole blood makers of lymphocytes and red cells. Serum creatinine levels increased in all groups (p?creatine promoting greater increases in serum creatinine (p?=?0.03) but the increases observed (0.1 – 0.2?mg/dl) were well within normal values for active individuals (i.e., <1.28?±?0.2?mg/dl). Serum LDL was decreased to a greater degree following ingesting loading doses in the CrM group but returned to baseline during the maintenance phase. No side effects were reported. Conclusions Neither manufacturers recommended doses of KA (1.5?g/d) or KA with equivalent loading (20?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance doses (5?g/d for 21-days) of CrM promoted greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM (20?g/d for 7-days, 5?g/d for 21-days). There was no evidence that supplementing the diet w

2012-01-01

357

Perioperative creatine phosphokinase trends in elderly patients with hip fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of the serum levels of unfractionated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in 69 consecutive elderly patients\\u000a undergoing surgery for hip fracture is reported. Serum unfractionated CPK levels were measured on admission, on the evening\\u000a following surgery and daily for the first five days post-operatively. All of the CPK levels measured on admission were within\\u000a the normal range for this

T. K. Kaar; M. O’Brien; P. F. Duggan; G. B. Mullen

1994-01-01

358

Non-invasive Monitoring of Lactate Dynamics in Human Forearm Muscle After Exhaustive Exercise by 1H-MRS at 7T  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance in energy metabolism, lactate in human skeletal muscle has been difficult to detect by non-invasive 1H MRS mainly due to interference from large water and lipid signals. Long echo-time (TE) acquisitions at 7 Tesla effectively attenuates the water and lipid signals in forearm muscle allowing direct observation of both lactate resonances, the methine at 4.09 ppm and the methyl at 1.31 ppm. Using this approach, we are able to monitor lactate dynamics at a temporal resolution of 32 sec. While lactate was not detectable at rest, immediately after an acute period of exercise to fatigue the forearm muscle, lactate rose to a level comparable to that of creatine (~30 mmol/kg wet weight). In a typical 1H MR spectrum collected using a TE of 140 ms, the lactate methine and methyl resonances both appear as doublets with an unusually large splitting of ~20 Hz due to residual dipolar coupling. During muscle recovery following exercise, the lactate signals decay rapidly with a time constant of t½ = 2.0 ± 0.6 min (n = 12 subjects). This fast and simple lactate detection method may prove valuable for monitoring lactate metabolism in cancer and in sports medicine applications.

Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

2013-01-01

359

Structural changes of creatine kinase upon substrate binding.  

PubMed

Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analog complex (TSAC; Mg-ADP, creatine, and KNO3) to creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes (dimeric muscle-type (M)-CK and octameric mitochondrial (Mi)-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-nucleotide or TSAC. The radius of gyration of Mi-CK was reduced from 55.6 A (free enzyme) to 48.9 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 48.2 A (enzyme plus TSAC). M-CK showed similar changes from 28.0 A (free enzyme) to 25.6 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 25.5 A (enzyme plus TSAC). Creatine alone did not lead to significant changes in the radii of gyration, nor did free ATP or ADP. AK also showed a change of the radius of gyration from 21.5 A (free enzyme) to 19.7 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP), whereas with arginine alone only a minor change could be observed. The primary change in structure as seen with monomeric AK seems to be a Mg-nucleotide-induced domain movement relative to each other, whereas the effect of substrate may be of local order only. In CK, however, additional movements have to be involved. PMID:9675202

Forstner, M; Kriechbaum, M; Laggner, P; Wallimann, T

1998-08-01

360

Structural changes of creatine kinase upon substrate binding.  

PubMed Central

Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analog complex (TSAC; Mg-ADP, creatine, and KNO3) to creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes (dimeric muscle-type (M)-CK and octameric mitochondrial (Mi)-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-nucleotide or TSAC. The radius of gyration of Mi-CK was reduced from 55.6 A (free enzyme) to 48.9 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 48.2 A (enzyme plus TSAC). M-CK showed similar changes from 28.0 A (free enzyme) to 25.6 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 25.5 A (enzyme plus TSAC). Creatine alone did not lead to significant changes in the radii of gyration, nor did free ATP or ADP. AK also showed a change of the radius of gyration from 21.5 A (free enzyme) to 19.7 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP), whereas with arginine alone only a minor change could be observed. The primary change in structure as seen with monomeric AK seems to be a Mg-nucleotide-induced domain movement relative to each other, whereas the effect of substrate may be of local order only. In CK, however, additional movements have to be involved.

Forstner, M; Kriechbaum, M; Laggner, P; Wallimann, T

1998-01-01

361

Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

1982-01-01

362

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is a hereditary condition in which red blood cells ... doesn't have enough of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which helps red blood cells ...

363

Creatine and guanidinoacetate transport at blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers.  

PubMed

While it was thought that most of cerebral creatine is of peripheral origin, AGAT and GAMT are well expressed in CNS where brain cells synthesize creatine. While the creatine transporter SLC6A8 is expressed by microcapillary endothelial cells (MCEC) at blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is absent from their surrounding astrocytes. This raised the concept that BBB has a limited permeability for peripheral creatine, and that the brain supplies a part of its creatine by endogenous synthesis. This review brings together the latest data on creatine and guanidinoacetate transport through BBB and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) with the clinical evidence of AGAT-, GAMT- and SLC6A8-deficient patients, in order to delineate a clearer view on the roles of BBB and BCSFB in the transport of creatine and guanidinoacetate between periphery and CNS, and on brain synthesis and transport of creatine. It shows that in physiological conditions, creatine is taken up by CNS from periphery through SLC6A8 at BBB, but in limited amounts, and that CNS also needs its own creatine synthesis. No uptake of guanidinoacetate from periphery occurs at BBB except under GAMT deficiency, but a net exit of guanidinoacetate seems to occur from CSF to blood at BCSFB, predominantly through the taurine transporter TauT. PMID:22252611

Braissant, Olivier

2012-07-01

364

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update  

PubMed Central

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).

2012-01-01

365

Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

1982-01-01

366

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update.  

PubMed

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly). PMID:22817979

Cooper, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Allgrove, Judith; Jimenez, Alfonso

2012-01-01

367

Qualitative in vitro NMR analysis of creatine ethyl ester pronutrient in human plasma.  

PubMed

There are a number of forms of creatine available that attempt to improve the solubility and permeability, with the anticipation this will result in an improved pharmacokinetic profile and ultimately an enhanced ergogenic response. Previous research has shown that the different salt forms can improve solubility resulting in slightly altered pharmacokinetic profiles, however specific data exploring the conversion of esterified derivatives to creatine is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the assertion that creatine ethyl ester undergoes enzymatic conversion to creatine in human tissues. The IN VITRO response of creatine ethyl ester to incubation in human plasma was examined by H-NMR analysis. Lyophilized human plasma was reconstituted in D2O and phosphate-buffered saline and 1.5 mg of the analyte was added. Following incubation at 37 degrees C for 4 h and subsequent protein precipitation, the supernatant was analyzed by NMR, utilizing the diagnostic chemical shift of the methylene signal to determine the species present in solution, I.E. creatine ethyl ester, creatine, or creatinine. Both creatine and creatinine were run in parallel as control experiments and each assay was run in triplicate. As expected both creatine and creatinine remained unchanged. However, conversion of creatine ethyl ester to creatine by the esterases in human plasma was not observed to any detectable extent and the only species detected after the incubation period was creatinine. While not a definitive characterization of the IN VIVO behavior, these results strongly warrant a complete IN VIVO pharmacokinetic analysis of creatine ethyl ester since it appears these "pronutrients" may actually provide large exogenous sources of pharmacologically inactive creatinine rather than ergogenic creatine. PMID:19585404

Giese, M W; Lecher, C S

2009-10-01

368

Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Although oral creatine supplementation is very popular among athletes, no prospective placebo-controlled studies on the adverse effects of long-term supplementation have yet been conducted. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, because of the neuroprotective effects it was shown to have in animal experiments. The purpose of this paper is to compare the adverse effects, and to describe the effects on indirect markers of renal function of long-term creatine supplementation. 175 subjects (age = 57.7 +/- 11.1 y) were randomly assigned to receive creatine monohydrate 10 g daily or placebo during an average period of 310 days. After one month, two months and from then on every fourth month, adverse effects were scored using dichotomous questionnaires, plasma urea concentrations were measured, and urinary creatine and albumin concentrations were determined. No significant differences in the occurrence at any time of adverse effects due to creatine supplementation were found (23 % nausea in the creatine group, vs. 24 % in the placebo group, 19 % gastro-intestinal discomfort in the creatine group, vs. 18 % in the placebo group, 35 % diarrhoea in the creatine group, vs. 24 % in the placebo group). After two months of treatment, oedematous limbs were seen more often in subjects using creatine, probably due to water retention. Severe diarrhoea (n = 2) and severe nausea (n = 1) caused 3 subjects in the creatine group to stop intake of creatine, after which these adverse effects subsided. Long-term supplementation of creatine did not lead to an increase of plasma urea levels (5.69 +/- 1.47 before treatment vs. 5.26 +/- 1.44 at the end of treatment) or to a higher prevalence of micro-albuminuria (5.4 % before treatment vs. 1.8 % at the end of treatment). PMID:15795816

Groeneveld, G J; Beijer, C; Veldink, J H; Kalmijn, S; Wokke, J H J; van den Berg, L H

2005-05-01

369

Concomitant administration of sodium dichloroacetate and thiamine in West syndrome caused by thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treated a female patient with West syndrome caused by thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency. Infantile spasms occurred in association with elevated blood and CSF lactate concentrations; these symptoms disappeared when lactate concentrations had been lowered by treatment with concomitant sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and high dose thiamine. Sequencing the patient’s PDHC E1? subunit revealed a substitution of serine for

Etsuo Naito; Michinori Ito; Ichiro Yokota; Takahiko Saijo; Shuli Chen; Mitsuo Maehara; Yasuhiro Kuroda

1999-01-01

370

L-lactate production from seaweed hydrolysate of Laminaria japonica using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Renewable and carbon neutral, marine algal biomass could be an attractive alternative substrate for the production of biofuel and various biorefinery products. Thus, the feasibility of brown seaweed (Laminaria japonica) hydrolysate as a carbon source was investigated here for L-lactate production. This work reports the homofermentative route for L-lactate production by introducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus L-lactate dehydrogenase in an engineered Escherichia coli strain where synthesis of the competing by-product was blocked. The engineered strain utilized both glucose and mannitol present in the hydrolysate under microaerobic condition and produced 37.7 g/L of high optical purity L-lactate at 80 % of the maximum theoretical value. The result shown in this study implies that algal biomass would be as competitive with lignocellulosic biomass in terms of lactic acid production and that brown seaweed can be used as a feedstock for the industrial production of other chemicals. PMID:24297185

Mazumdar, Suman; Bang, Junho; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-02-01

371

Structure and function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of critical amino acids in co-substrate binding pocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal glycine motif, which forms a characteristic Rossman dinucleotide-binding fold in the co-substrate binding pocket, differentiates PfMDH (GlyXGlyXXGly) from other eukaryotic

Anupam Pradhan; Abhai K. Tripathi; Prashant V. Desai; Prasenjit K. Mukherjee; Mitchell A. Avery; Larry A. Walker; Babu L. Tekwani

2009-01-01

372

Lactate transport in L6 skeletal muscle cells and vesicles: allosteric or multisite mechanism and functional membrane marker of differentiation.  

PubMed

Membrane lactate transport was studied in skeletal muscle cells and membrane vesicles from the L6 line in relation to in vitro myogenesis. In myoblasts, lactate was transported by simple diffusion and insensitive to classical inhibitors: a positive correlation between onset of creatine kinase activity and lactate transport in differentiated myotubes was observed and could be considered to be a functional marker of cell differentiation. In myotubes, complete analysis of the velocity curves (direct coordinates, Eadie-Scatchard plots, Hill plots) gave parameters showing that lactate was carried by an allosteric or multisite system. This was confirmed by using sarcolemmal vesicles and specific inhibitors. In whole cells, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CIN) and parachloromercuribenzylsulphonic acid (pCMBS) inhibited the maximal velocity without modifying the global cooperativity of the system. The weak effect of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), which has a low affinity constant (Ki = 22.5 microM), implicated the monocarboxylate system rather than the anionic exchanger as a carrier system in muscle cells. CIN and DIDS exhibited one type of interaction with lactate carriers, and the curvilinear shape of the lactate Hill plot with or without inhibitors suggested that inhibitors were active at the same family of interaction sites and had a common range of affinities. The apparent competitive inhibition of pyruvate (Ki = 3.2 mM) did not modify the transport pathway of lactate in L6 myotubes. In conclusion, kinetic analysis of lactate transport in the presence or absence of inhibitors gave evidence for a multisite lactate carrier activity in myotubes composed of two systems at least, related to two or three isoforms of lactate carriers. PMID:9492900

Beaudry, M; Mouaffak, N; el Abida, K; Rieu, M; Mengual, R

1998-01-01

373

Continuous electrochemical monitoring of extracellular lactate production from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes following myocardial hypoxia.  

PubMed

Continuous monitoring of lactate production from cardiomyocytes is of great physiological and pathological importance since the level of lactate in extracellular fluid is closely associated with myocardial energy metabolism with implication in the diagnosis and therapeutics of myocardial hypoxia and ischemia. This study demonstrates an electrochemical approach to continuous monitoring of lactate production from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes following myocardial hypoxia with a dehydrogenase-based electrochemical biosensor and a negative pressure driven culture sampling. To eliminate the effect of pH variation occurring following the cardiomyocyte hypoxia on the biosensor response and to supply nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) cofactor necessary for the enzymatic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing NAD(+) cofactor is externally perfused and mixed online with cell culture before the culture goes to the detector. The method exhibits a high selectivity against the electrochemically active species endogenously existing in the extracellular culture of cardiomyocytes and a high tolerance against the variation of pH following cardiomyocyte hypoxia. The dynamic linear range for lactate detection is from 0.20 to 10 mM (I (nA) = 25.6 C(Lactate) (mM) + 20.1, ? = 0.996) with a detection limit of 0.16 mM (S/N = 3). The physiological level of the extracellular lactate of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is determined to be 1.1 ± 0.1 mM (n = 3) with the cell density of about 0.5 × 10(3) cells/mm(2). When the cardiomyocytes are subject to hypoxia induced with anoxic reagents, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), the extracellular lactate increases to 255 ± 30.3% (n = 3), relative to the physiological level, following 20 min of the hypoxia. This study essentially offers a new and effective electrochemical platform for investigating energy metabolism during cardiac physiological and pathological processes. PMID:22607532

Li, Xianchan; Zhao, Lingzhi; Chen, Zhenling; Lin, Yuqing; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

2012-06-19

374

Hormonal contraception and lactation.  

PubMed

Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

Kelsey, J J

1996-12-01

375

[Determination of creatine kinase-MB in serum using inhibiting antibodies (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A new method for the determination of creatine kinase-MB activity in the serum is presented. The principle of this method is the direct measurement of the activity of creatine kinase M subunits by inhibiting antibodies. The total test procedure takes 15 min. In the sera of all the 83 patients tested, who have clinically proven myocard infarction, creatine kinase-MB activity can be measured between the 6th and 28th hour after infarction. At the time of maximum total creatine kinase activity the percentage of creatine kinase-MB activity is between 6 and 17%, the mean value being 8%. In cases of emergency this method can be used for the differential diagnosis of elevated total creatine kinase activities of unknown origin. PMID:1271689

Würzburg, U; Hennrich, N; Lang, H; Prellwitz, W; Neumeier, D; Knedel, M

1976-04-15

376

The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training  

PubMed Central

Background Creatine supplementation is popular among tennis players but it is not clear whether it actually enhances tennis performance. Objectives To examine the effects of creatine supplementation on tennis specific performance indices. Methods In a randomised, double blind design, 36 competitive male tennis players (24 creatine, mean (SD) age, 22.5 (4.9) years; 12 placebo, 22.8 (4.8) years) were tested at baseline, after six days of creatine loading, and after a maintenance phase of four weeks (14 creatine, 10 placebo). Serving velocity (10 serves), forehand and backhand velocity (three series of 5×8 strokes), arm and leg strength (bench press and leg press), and intermittent running speed (three series of five 20 metre sprints) were measured. Results Compared with placebo, neither six days nor five weeks of creatine supplementation had a significant effect on serving velocity (creatine: +2?km/h; placebo: +2?km/h, p?=?0.90); forehand velocity (creatine: +4?km/h; placebo: +4?km/h, p?=?0.80), or backhand velocity (creatine: +3?km/h; placebo: +1?km/h, p?=?0.38). There was also no significant effect of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint power after 5, 10, and 20 metres, (creatine 20 m: ?0.03?m/s; placebo 20 m: +0.01?m/s, p?=?0.18), or in the strength of the upper and lower extremities. Conclusions Creatine supplementation is not effective in improving selected factors of tennis specific performance and should not be recommended to tennis players.

Pluim, B M; Ferrauti, A; Broekhof, F; Deutekom, M; Gotzmann, A; Kuipers, H; Weber, K

2006-01-01

377

Creatine Increases Survival and Delays Motor Symptoms in a Transgenic Animal Model of Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence for bioenergetic defects in Huntington's disease (HD). Creatine administration increases brain phosphocreatine levels and it stabilizes the mitochondrial permeability transition. We examined the effects of creatine administration in a transgenic mouse model of HD produced by 82 polyglutamine repeats in a 171 amino acid N-terminal fragment of huntingtin (N171-82Q). Dietary supplementation of 2% creatine significantly improved

Ole A. Andreassen; Alpaslan Dedeoglu; Robert J. Ferrante; Bruce G. Jenkins; Kimberly L. Ferrante; Melissa Thomas; Avi Friedlich; Susan E. Browne; Gabriele Schilling; David R. Borchelt; Steven M. Hersch; Christopher A. Ross; M. Flint Beal

2001-01-01

378

Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis.Here, we report

Femke Streijger; Helma Pluk; Frank Oerlemans; Gaby Beckers; Antonio C. Bianco; Miriam O. Ribeiro; Bé Wieringa; Catharina E. E. M. Van der Zee

2009-01-01

379

Stability of creatine derivatives during simulated digestion in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Newly developed forms of creatine are often claimed to exhibit improved bioavailability and efficacy. They are of great interest for sports nutrition and therapeutic uses. However, for most newer creatine forms stability after ingestion under physiological conditions is insufficiently documented, relevant data are inconsistent or even missing. Therefore, we developed a controlled simulated digestion system for testing different creatine derivatives in specific simulated parts of the human digestive system. All derivatives showed high stability with negligible formation of creatinine. PMID:24366174

Hageböck, Martin; Stahl, Ulf; Bader, Johannes

2014-02-01

380

Dissociation of AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 in CNS: relevance to creatine deficiency syndromes.  

PubMed

AGAT and GAMT, the two enzymes of the creatine synthesis pathway, are well expressed within CNS, suggesting autonomous brain creatine synthesis. This contradicts SLC6A8 deficiency, which causes creatine deficiency despite CNS expression of AGAT and GAMT. We hypothesized that AGAT and GAMT were not co-expressed by brain cells, and that guanidinoacetate must be transported between cells to allow creatine synthesis. We finely analyzed the cell-to-cell co-expression of AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 in various regions of rat CNS, and showed that in most structures, cells co-expressing AGAT+GAMT (equipped for autonomous creatine synthesis) were in low proportions (<20%). Using reaggregating brain cell cultures, we also showed that brain cells take up guanidinoacetate and convert it to creatine. Guanidinoacetate uptake was competed by creatine. This suggests that in most brain regions, guanidinoacetate is transported from AGAT- to GAMT-expressing cells through SLC6A8 to allow creatine synthesis, thereby explaining creatine deficiency in SLC6A8-deficient CNS. PMID:19879361

Braissant, Olivier; Béard, Elidie; Torrent, Céline; Henry, Hugues

2010-02-01

381

Creatine Protects against Excitoxicity in an In Vitro Model of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Creatine has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging, neurodegenerative conditions and brain injury. As a common molecular background, oxidative stress and disturbed cellular energy homeostasis are key aspects in these conditions. Moreover, in a recent report we could demonstrate a life-enhancing and health-promoting potential of creatine in rodents, mainly due to its neuroprotective action. In order to investigate the underlying pharmacology mediating these mainly neuroprotective properties of creatine, cultured primary embryonal hippocampal and cortical cells were challenged with glutamate or H2O2. In good agreement with our in vivo data, creatine mediated a direct effect on the bioenergetic balance, leading to an enhanced cellular energy charge, thereby acting as a neuroprotectant. Moreover, creatine effectively antagonized the H2O2-induced ATP depletion and the excitotoxic response towards glutamate, while not directly acting as an antioxidant. Additionally, creatine mediated a direct inhibitory action on the NMDA receptor-mediated calcium response, which initiates the excitotoxic cascade. Even excessive concentrations of creatine had no neurotoxic effects, so that high-dose creatine supplementation as a health-promoting agent in specific pathological situations or as a primary prophylactic compound in risk populations seems feasible. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that the protective potential of creatine was primarily mediated by its impact on cellular energy metabolism and NMDA receptor function, along with reduced glutamate spillover, oxidative stress and subsequent excitotoxicity.

Genius, Just; Geiger, Johanna; Bender, Andreas; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Klopstock, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan

2012-01-01

382

Exposing cardiomyocytes to subclinical concentrations of doxorubicin rapidly reduces their creatine transport.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin is commonly used to treat leukemia, lymphomas, and solid tumors, such as soft tissue sarcomas or breast cancer. A major side effect of doxorubicin therapy is dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin's effects on cardiac energy metabolism are emerging as key elements mediating its toxicity. We evaluated the effect of doxorubicin on [(14)C]creatine uptake in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes and HL-1 murine cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter protein. A significant and irreversible decrease in creatine transport was detected after an incubation with 50-100 nmol/l doxorubicin. These concentrations are well below peak plasma levels (5 ?mol/l) and within the ranges (25-250 nmol/l) for steady-state plasma concentrations reported after the administration of 15-90 mg/m(2) doxorubicin for chemotherapy. The decrease in creatine transport was not solely because of increased cell death due to doxorubicin's cytotoxic effects. Kinetic analysis showed that doxorubicin decreased V(max), K(m), and creatine transporter protein content. Cell surface biotinylation experiments confirmed that the amount of creatine transporter protein present at the cell surface was reduced. Cardiomyocytes rely on uptake by a dedicated creatine transporter to meet their intracellular creatine needs. Our findings show that the cardiomyocellular transport capacity for creatine is substantially decreased by doxorubicin administration and suggest that this effect may be an important early event in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity. PMID:22752631

Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mantilla, Jose Gabriel; Mishra, Rajashree; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Santacruz, Lucia; Jacobs, Danny O

2012-09-01

383

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

1995-01-01

384

Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 ?M as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival.

Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

2014-01-01

385

Quantification of creatine and guanidinoacetate using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for the detection of cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes.  

PubMed

Inherited defects in creatine biosynthesis and cellular uptake are neurometabolic disorders characterized by seizures, developmental delay, mental retardation, autistic-like behavior, and creatine deficiency in the brain. Metabolic screening of these disorders is possible using analytical techniques that quantify creatine and its precursor guanidinoacetate in urine, plasma, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Elevated creatine in urine is suggestive of a deficiency of the X-linked creatine transporter, SLC6A8. Decreased or elevated levels of guanidinoacetate in urine, plasma, or CSF suggest deficiencies of the creatine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) or guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), respectively. This unit describes three stable isotope dilution-mass spectrometric methods for analyzing creatine and guanidinoacetate. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with negative-ion chemical ionization is a highly sensitive technique, suitable for detection of low analyte levels resulting from AGAT deficiency and in CSF. The two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric approaches are amenable to high-throughput screening and have simple sample preparation requirements. PMID:18428409

Young, Sarah; Struys, Eduard; Wood, Tim

2007-07-01

386

Central lactate metabolism suppresses food intake via the hypothalamic AMP kinase/malonyl-CoA signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that centrally administered glucose and fructose exert different effects on food intake--glucose decreasing and fructose increasing food intake. Because of the uncertainty of whether fructose can cross the blood-brain-barrier, the question is raised; can dietary fructose directly enter the CNS? Evidence is presented that fructose administered by intraperitoneal (ip) injection to mice is rapidly (<10 min) converted to lactate in the hypothalamus. Thus, fructose can cross the blood-brain-barrier to enter the CNS/hypothalamus for conversion to lactate without prior (slower) conversion to glucose in the liver. Fructose-derived hypothalamic lactate is not, however, responsible for the orexigenic effect of fructose. Ip lactate administered at a level equivalent to that of fructose generates a higher level of hypothalamic lactate, which rapidly triggers dephosphorylation/inactivation of AMP-kinase. Thereby, ACC--a substrate of AMP-kinase that catalyzes malonyl-CoA formation--is dephosphorylated and activated. Consistent with these findings, ip or centrally (icv) administered lactate rapidly increases (<10 min) hypothalamic malonyl-CoA. Increasing hypothalamic malonyl-CoA suppresses the expression of the orexigenic and increases the expression of the anorexigenic neuropeptides, which decrease food intake. All downstream effects of hypothalamic lactate are blocked by icv administered oxamate, a potent inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, thus verifying the central action of lactate. PMID:19523445

Cha, Seung Hun; Lane, M Daniel

2009-08-14

387

Mammary Candidosis in Lactating Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though perceived to be a growing problem by lactation professionals, fungal infection of the breast (mammary candidosis) is largely unstudied. Candida albicans, a commensal organism encountered frequently in the vagina and gastrointestinal tract of humans, has been reported to be responsible for both superficial (cutaneous) and localized (ductal) infection of the mammary gland in lactating women, though the latter association

M. Jane Heinig; Jimi Francis; Demosthenes Pappagianis

1999-01-01

388

INTERPRETATION OF THE LACTATION CURVE  

PubMed Central

The validity of the assumption of a substance determining the rate of milk secretion and undergoing monomolecular destruction, based on group behavior, is questioned on the evidence from a large number of individual lactation curves. It seems probable that the rate of decrease in the rate of milk secretion with advance in lactation is dependent upon factors of a nutritional nature.

Gaines, W. L.

1926-01-01

389

Elevated plasma citrulline: look for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency.  

PubMed

The E3 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/DLD/lipoamide dehydrogenase/LAD), is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme and also a part of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. DLD deficiency (MIM #246900), is relatively frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population but occurs in other populations as well. Early diagnosis is important to prevent episodes of metabolic decompensation, liver failure, and encephalopathy. The clinical presentations are varied and may include Reye-like syndrome, hepatic failure, myopathy, and myoglobinuria. Laboratory markers, such as elevated urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, blood pyruvate, lactate, and ammonia, are mostly nonspecific and not always present, making the diagnosis difficult. Since we observed elevated plasma citrulline levels in a number of confirmed cases, we retrospectively examined the value of citrulline as a biochemical marker for DLD deficiency. Data was gathered from the files of 17 pediatric patients with DLD deficiency, confirmed by enzymatic and genetic analysis. The control group included 19 patients in whom urea cycle defects were ruled out but DLD deficiency was suspected. Seven of the DLD-deficient patients presented with elevated plasma citrulline levels (median value 205 ?M, range 59-282 ?M) (normal range 1-45 ?M) while none in the control patient group. In five patients, elevated citrulline was associated with elevated plasma glutamine and metabolic acidosis. Interestingly, elevated plasma citrulline was associated with the common G229C mutation. In conclusion, we suggest that elevated plasma citrulline in the absence of urea cycle defects warrants an investigation for DLD deficiency. PMID:23995961

Haviv, Ruby; Zeharia, Avraham; Belaiche, Corinne; Haimi Cohen, Yishai; Saada, Ann

2014-02-01

390

[Interactions between heart mitochondrial creatine kinase and oxidative phosphorylation].  

PubMed

The conditions for chromatographic separation in Silufol plates of adenine nucleotides, creatinine phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and Pi have been found. Using this method, it was shown that in the presence of Pi and non-labelled ATP the specific radioactivity of creatine phosphate formed by mitochondrial creatinine kinase via oxidative phosphorylation increases at the same rate as does the specific radioactivity of the surrounding solution of ATP. It is concluded that under the given experimental conditions the ATP formed via oxidative phosphorylation enters the enzyme active center only after it has passed into the solution rather than immediately from the adenine nucleotide carrier. PMID:7236785

Lipskaia, T Iu; Templ, V D; Belousova, L V; Molokova, E V

1980-08-01

391

Pre-symptomatic treatment of creatine biosynthesis defects.  

PubMed

Recent observations in two patients, one with AGAT deficiency (AGAT-D) and one with GAMT deficiency (GAMT-D), both diagnosed already at birth, provide first evidence for important therapeutic effects of pre-symptomatic treatment with creatine (Cr) supplementation in AGAT-D and Cr supplementation plus guanidinoacetate lowering strategies in GAMT-D. Although long-term data are lacking, the results suggest that complete prevention of neurological sequelae in early treated patients could be feasible (Battini et al., 2006; Schulze et al., 2006). PMID:18652077

Schulze, Andreas; Battini, Roberta

2007-01-01

392

Breast abscesses in Nigeria: lactational versus non-lactational.  

PubMed

This review of 299 cases of breast abscesses seen over a 10-year period (1981-1990) at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Nigeria seeks to establish the current status of breast abscesses in the tropics. Lactational breast abscess constitutes 95% of breast abscesses while non-lactational breast abscess constitutes only 5% in this review. The commonest pathogen cultured from lactational breast abscess is Staphylococcus aureus and the disease responds to incision and drainage and systemic antibiotics, while non-lactational breast abscess is caused mostly by anaerobic organisms, usually with underlying mammary duct ectasia. The low incidence of non-lactational breast abscess corresponds to the low incidence of cigarette smoking and mammary duct ectasia in Nigerian women. While the high incidence of lactational breast abscess corresponds to the high rate of breast feeding and low level of personal hygiene in the low income group Nigerian women in which the disease is commonest. Economic recession has also reduced patronage of artificial feeds thus intensifying breast feeding and consequent lactational breast abscess. PMID:7738892

Efem, S E

1995-02-01

393

Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

2010-09-01

394

Creatine supplementation: can it improve quality of life in the elderly without associated resistance training?  

PubMed

Introduction: Ageing is associated with decreased muscle mass, strength, power and function, and reduction in bone density and mineral content, leading to reduced independence and increased risk of falls. Creatine supplementation is reported to improve muscular strength and performance with training in younger athletes, and therefore could benefit older individuals. Aims: This review critically appraises the current literature on whether creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance and function, body composition, bone mineral density and content in older adults without the addition of resistance training, and thus determines whether creatine supplementation can lead to an improved lifestyle for the sedentary elderly population. Results: There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of creatine supplementation in older subjects. Generally, however, creatine supplementation, without associated resistance training, seems to enhance muscular strength, power and endurance, increase lean body mass (LBM) and improve the functional capacity of the elderly. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that increased muscle mass due to creatine supplementation can result in increased local bone density. It appears that the effect of creatine supplementation is more beneficial in larger muscles and less effective in smaller muscles, however there are exceptions. The mechanism by which creatine supplementation works requires further research, however it is likely that the effects of creatine are related to creatine kinase activity, providing enhanced energy production for greater muscular contraction. Conclusions: These data indicate that creatine supplementation without associated training in the elderly could potentially delay atrophy of muscle mass, improve endurance and strength, and increase bone strength, and thus may be a safe therapeutic strategy to help decrease loss in functional performance of everyday tasks. PMID:24304199

Moon, Anna; Heywood, Lara; Rutherford, Stephen; Cobbold, Christian

2013-12-01

395

Negligible direct lactate oxidation in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

We examined the controversial notion of whether lactate is directly oxidized by subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle. Respiratory control ratios were normal in SS and IMF mitochondria. At all concentrations (0.18-10 mm), and in all mitochondria, pyruvate oxidation greatly exceeded lactate oxidation, by 31- to 186-fold. Pyruvate and lactate oxidation were inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, while lactate oxidation was inhibited by oxamate. Excess pyruvate (10 mm) inhibited the oxidation of palmitate (1.8 mm) as well as lactate (1.8 mm). In contrast, excess lactate (10 mm) failed to inhibit the oxidation of either palmitate (1.8 mm) or pyruvate (1.8 mm). The cell-permeant adenosine analogue, AICAR, increased pyruvate oxidation; in contrast, lactate oxidation was not altered. The monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and 4 were present on SS mitochondria, but not on IMF mitochondria, whereas, MCT2, a high-affinity pyruvate transporter, was present in both SS and IMF mitochondria. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity associated with SS and IMF mitochondria was 200- to 240-fold lower than in whole muscle. Addition of LDH increased the rate of lactate oxidation, but not pyruvate oxidation, in a dose-dependent manner, such that lactate oxidation approached the rates of pyruvate oxidation. Collectively, these studies indicate that direct mitochondrial oxidation of lactate (i.e. an intracellular lactate shuttle) does not occur within the matrix in either IMF or SS mitochondria obtained from red or white rat skeletal muscle, because of the very limited quantity of LDH within mitochondria. PMID:17556391

Yoshida, Yuko; Holloway, Graham P; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hatta, Hideo; Spriet, Lawrence L; Hood, David A; Bonen, Arend

2007-08-01

396

Creatine accelerates the circadian clock in a unicellular alga.  

PubMed

The circadian clock is considered to be a universal feature of eucaryotic organisms, controlling the occurrence and rates of many different aspects of life, ranging from single enzymatic reactions and metabolism to complex behaviours such as activity and rest. Although the nature of the underlying cellular/biochemical oscillator is still unknown, many substances are known to influence either phase or period of circadian rhythms in different organisms. These include D2O, electrolytes and ion channel inhibitors, small organic molecules such as alcohols and aldehydes, inhibitors of protein synthesis and amino-acid analogues. Certain transmitter and neurochemical drugs also influence the circadian clock in higher animals. We report here that the period of free-running circadian rhythms in the unicellular marine alga Gonyaulax polyedra is shortened by extracts from mammalian cells. The effect is dose-dependent, accelerating the circadian clock by as much as 4 hours per day. The substance responsible for this effect has been isolated from bovine muscle and identified as creatine. Authentic creatine has identical biological effects at micromolar concentrations and is known in animal systems for its involvement in cellular energy metabolism. A period shortening substance with similar chemical properties is also present in extracts of Gonyaulax itself. PMID:3405289

Roenneberg, T; Nakamura, H; Hastings, J W

1988-08-01

397

Creatine kinase regulation by reversible phosphorylation in frog muscle.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase (CK) was analyzed from skeletal muscle of wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, a species that survives natural whole body freezing during the winter months. Muscle CK activity increased by 35% and apparent K(m) creatine decreased by 29% when frogs froze. Immunoblotting analysis showed that this activity increase was not due to a change in total CK protein. Frog muscle CK was regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation; in vitro incubations with (32)P-ATP under conditions that facilitated the actions of various protein kinases (PKA, PKG, PKC, CaMK or AMPK) resulted in immunoprecipitation of (32)P-labeled CK. Furthermore, incubations that stimulated CaMK or AMPK altered CK kinetics. Incubation under conditions that facilitated protein phosphatases (PP2B or PP2C) reversed these effects. Phosphorylation of CK increased activity, whereas dephosphorylation decreased activity. Ion-exchange chromatography revealed that two forms of CK with different phosphorylation states were present in muscle; low versus high phosphate forms dominated in muscle of control versus frozen frogs, respectively. However, CK from control versus frozen frogs showed no differences in susceptibility to urea denaturation or sensitivity to limited proteolysis by thermolysin. The increased activity, increased substrate affinity and altered phosphorylation state of CK in skeletal muscle from frozen frogs argues for altered regulation of CK under energy stress in ischemic frozen muscle. PMID:19266621

Dieni, Christopher A; Storey, Kenneth B

2009-04-01

398

Crystal structure of human ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase (CK), catalyzing the reversible trans-phosphorylation between ATP and creatine, plays a key role in the energy metabolism of cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements. We have solved the X-ray structure of octameric human ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) at 2.7 A resolution, representing the first human CK structure. The structure is very similar to the previously determined structure of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (sMtCK). The cuboidal octamer has 422 point group symmetry with four dimers arranged along the fourfold axis and a central channel of approximately 20 A diameter, which extends through the whole octamer. Structural differences with respect to sMtCK are found in isoform-specific regions important for octamer formation and membrane binding. Octameric uMtCK is stabilized by numerous additional polar interactions between the N-termini of neighboring dimers, which extend into the central channel and form clamp-like structures, and by a pair of salt bridges in the hydrophobic interaction patch. The five C-terminal residues of uMtCK, carrying positive charges likely to be involved in phospholipid-binding, are poorly defined by electron density, indicating a more flexible region than the corresponding one in sMtCK. The structural differences between uMtCK and sMtCK are consistent with biochemical studies on octamer stability and membrane binding of the two isoforms. PMID:10737943

Eder, M; Fritz-Wolf, K; Kabsch, W; Wallimann, T; Schlattner, U

2000-05-15