These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

2

Evaluation of Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Amylase Concentrations in Umbilical Blood of Preterm Infants after Long-Term Tocolysis  

PubMed Central

Creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and amylase levels of preterm infants following long-term tocolysis in pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to determine if the tocolytic therapy affects CK, LDH, and amylase levels in the umbilical blood. This study included 215 preterm infants born to women treated with and without ritodrine hydrochloride. CK, LDH, and amylase levels in the umbilical blood at delivery were determined. Infants were divided according to the ritodrine tocolysis, as follows: Group A (n = 91), not exposed to ritodrine; Group B (n = 44), IV ritodrine for <1 week; Group C (n = 80), IV ritodrine for ?1 week. The CK concentration in cord blood of Group C (198.8 ± 14.2?IU/L) was significantly higher in comparison with Group A (155.0 ± 7.3?IU/L, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in LDH and amylase levels in the three groups. The CK significantly correlated with gestational age (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) and birth weight (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). LDH and amylase levels did not change with gestational age nor birth weight. In conclusion, long-term ritodrine tocolysis leads to increased umbilical blood CK level. PMID:24693289

Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Masaoka, Naoki

2014-01-01

3

Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

2008-02-01

4

Controlling the highest lactate dehydrogenase activity known in nature.  

PubMed

In the shipjack, Euthynnus pelamis, white muscle appears to possess a powerful anaerobic capacity as well as a significant carbohydrate based aerobic potential. Lactate dehydrogenase occurs at higher activities than found thus far anywhere else in nature and clearly functions in anaerobic glycolysis. Alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase also occurs in unusually high activities and appears to play a role in aerobic glycolysis. Regulation of these two reactions is accomplished by temperature, pH, and creatine phosphate levels. High temperature, low pH, and low creatine phosphate levels all appear to favor lactate dehydrogenase over alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; low temperature, high pH, and high creatine-phosphate levels, all expected during the quiescent state in this species, and when metabolism in aerobic, all favor alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:24351

Guppy, M; Hochachka, P W

1978-03-01

5

Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

6

D-lactate dehydrogenase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.  

PubMed

D-Lactate dehydrogenase, the starting enzyme for carbon and energy metabolism in dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria, has been purified 36-fold from the soluble fraction of the sonicate of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Miyazaki. The enzyme is specific for D-lactate (Km = 0.8 mM) and DL-2-hydroxybutyrate (probably its D-isomer) as the electron donor substrate. It reduces, in the presence of lactate, various artificial electron acceptors such as 1-methoxyphenazinium methyl sulfate, ferricyanide, tetrazolium dyes, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. When 2 mol of ferricyanide was reduced, 1 mol of pyruvate was produced during the reaction. Among natural electron carriers, only cytochrome c-553 isolated from the same organism can be reduced by the enzyme. The ferric complex of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate can act as an electron acceptor if cytochrome c-553 is present in the reaction system. NAD+, NADP+, FAD, FMN, cytochrome c3, high-molecular-weight cytochrome, eucaryotic cytochromes c (yeast and horse) and O2 could not be reduced. The enzyme does not have any diaphorase activity. The D-lactate dehydrogenase of D. vulgaris must therefore be named D-lactate:ferricytochrome c-553 oxidoreductase [EC subclass 1.1.2]. A similar enzyme exists in the formate dehydrogenase-less mutant of D. vulgaris, Miyazaki, and in D. vulgaris, Hildenborough. PMID:7275946

Ogata, M; Arihara, K; Yagi, T

1981-05-01

7

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

2012-04-01

8

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

10

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system....

2014-04-01

11

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system....

2011-04-01

12

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

...Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the...

2014-04-01

13

Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of l-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a d-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes

Rosa Viana; María Jesús Yebra; José Luis Galán; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

14

Properties of lactate dehydrogenase in a psychrophilic marine bacterium.  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Vibrio marinus MP-1 was purified 15-fold and ammonium activated. The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction was 7.4. Maximum lactate dehydrogenase activity occurred at 10 to 15 degrees C, and none occurred at 40 degrees C. The crude-extract enzyme was stable between 15 and 20 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 45 degrees C. The partially purified enzyme was stable between 8 and 15 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 30 degrees C. The thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase was increased by mercaptoethanol, with 50% remaining activity at 42 degrees C. Images PMID:4004236

Mitchell, P; Yen, H C; Mathemeier, P F

1985-01-01

15

Lactate production yield from engineered yeasts is dependent from the host background, the lactate dehydrogenase source and the lactate export  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolic pathway manipulation for improving the properties and the productivity of microorganisms is becoming a well established concept. For the production of important metabolites, but also for a better understanding of the fundamentals of cell biology, detailed studies are required. In this work we analysed the lactate production from metabolic engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase

Paola Branduardi; Michael Sauer; Luca De Gioia; Giuseppe Zampella; Minoska Valli; Diethard Mattanovich; Danilo Porro

2006-01-01

16

ISOZYME PROFILES OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE IN NEONATAL MOUSE HEARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Isozyme profiles of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined in cardiac tissue of mice during postnatal development. LDH isozymes 1 and 5 showed a definite developmental change, achieving the adult values by 20 days of age, while the other three...

17

Interaction Between Lactate Dehydrogenase and Tween 80 in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The weak aqueous interaction between the protein lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 has been investigated, because weak protein-amphiphile interactions are of significant importance in pharmaceutical formulations, but are experimentally hard to determine. The system LDH\\/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as reference because SDS, by its strong protein binding, denatures LDH completely.

Anna Hillgren; Hans Evertsson; Maggie Aldén

2002-01-01

18

Creatine  

MedlinePLUS

... that combining creatine with caffeine and the herb ephedra (also called Ma Huang) might increase the chance ... CaffeineThere is some concern that combining caffeine, ephedra, and creatine ... is a report of stroke in an athlete who consumed creatine monohydrate ...

19

Effects of lactate dehydrogenase suppression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase overexpression on cellular metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstact  In order to conduct a physiological functional study of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase\\u000a (GPDH), we engineered a CHO dhfr\\u000a ? cell, by overexpressing either the anti-sense LDH-A RNA (anti-LDH cells) or GPDH (GP3 cells), or both (GP3\\/anti-LDH cells).\\u000a LDH activity in the cell cytosol, and lactate content and pHe change in the growth media were found to decrease

Dae-won Jeong; Il Taeg Cho; Tae Soo Kim; Gun Won Bae; Ik-Hwan Kim; Ick Young Kim

2006-01-01

20

Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by translational readthrough in mammals.  

PubMed

Translational readthrough gives rise to low abundance proteins with C-terminal extensions beyond the stop codon. To identify functional translational readthrough, we estimated the readthrough propensity (RTP) of all stop codon contexts of the human genome by a new regression model in silico, identified a nucleotide consensus motif for high RTP by using this model, and analyzed all readthrough extensions in silico with a new predictor for peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) showed the highest combined RTP and PTS1 probability. Experimentally we show that at least 1.6% of the total cellular LDHB is targeted to the peroxisome by a conserved hidden PTS1. The readthrough-extended lactate dehydrogenase subunit LDHBx can also co-import LDHA, the other LDH subunit, into peroxisomes. Peroxisomal LDH is conserved in mammals and likely contributes to redox equivalent regeneration in peroxisomes. PMID:25247702

Schueren, Fabian; Lingner, Thomas; George, Rosemol; Hofhuis, Julia; Dickel, Corinna; Gärtner, Jutta; Thoms, Sven

2014-01-01

21

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-11-22

22

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(?)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L-1 of optically pure D(?)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min-1 (mg protein)-1. By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(?) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2011-01-01

23

Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.

1988-12-01

24

Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis  

PubMed Central

Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD+/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis. PMID:24898534

Acharya, Abhinav P.; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C.; Gardner, Austin B.; Murthy, Niren

2014-01-01

25

Conversion of Lactobacillus pentosus D-lactate dehydrogenase to a D-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase through a single amino acid replacement.  

PubMed

The single amino acid replacement of Tyr52 with Leu drastically increased the activity of Lactobacillus pentosus NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase toward larger aliphatic or aromatic 2-ketoacid substrates by 3 or 4 orders of magnitude and decreased the activity toward pyruvate by about 30-fold, converting the enzyme into a highly active D-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase. PMID:12897026

Tokuda, Chizuka; Ishikura, Yoshiro; Shigematsu, Mayu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Shino; Nakahira, Yusaku; Tamura, Yusuke; Shinoda, Takeshi; Arai, Kazuhito; Takahashi, O; Taguchi, Hayao

2003-08-01

26

Conversion of Lactobacillus pentosus d-Lactate Dehydrogenase to a d-Hydroxyisocaproate Dehydrogenase through a Single Amino Acid Replacement  

PubMed Central

The single amino acid replacement of Tyr52 with Leu drastically increased the activity of Lactobacillus pentosus NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase toward larger aliphatic or aromatic 2-ketoacid substrates by 3 or 4 orders of magnitude and decreased the activity toward pyruvate by about 30-fold, converting the enzyme into a highly active d-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase. PMID:12897026

Tokuda, Chizuka; Ishikura, Yoshiro; Shigematsu, Mayu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Shino; Nakahira, Yusaku; Tamura, Yusuke; Shinoda, Takeshi; Arai, Kazuhito; Takahashi, O; Taguchi, Hayao

2003-01-01

27

Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibitors: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is an important enzyme in fermentative glycolysis, generating most energy for cancer cells that rely on anaerobic respiration even under normal oxygen concentrations. This renders LDHA a promising molecular target for the treatment of various cancers. Several efforts have been made recently to develop LDHA inhibitors with nanomolar inhibition and cellular activity, some of which have been studied in complex with the enzyme by X-ray crystallography. In this work, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the binding interactions of selected ligands with human LDHA. Conventional MD simulations demonstrate different binding dynamics of inhibitors with similar binding affinities, whereas steered MD simulations yield discrimination of selected LDHA inhibitors with qualitative correlation between the in silico unbinding difficulty and the experimental binding strength. Further, our results have been used to clarify ambiguities in the binding modes of two well-known LDHA inhibitors. PMID:24466056

Shi, Yun; Pinto, B. Mario

2014-01-01

28

[Changes in lactate dehydrogenase isoforms in the process of oncogenesis].  

PubMed

Isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase were studied by disc-electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, and in the clinic--in 1% agar gel. Oncovirus A12 invasion of the culture of rat embryo fibroblasts (REF) was found to result in the increased percentage of the cathode fractions activity (LDG-4 and LD-5) and in the disappearance of LDG-1 yet during the first day of the experiment prior to hypoxia and enhanced proliferation, i. e. it is most likely to be primary. In the homogenates of cancerous tumor and large intestine polyps of man also a reliable increase of the cathode and a decrease or disappearance of the anode fractions accur. A correlation of the experimental and clinical data allowed a suggestion to be made that LDG isoenzymes changes are genetically conditioned and play an important role in the process of oncogenesis, providing conditions for the increased intensity of glycolysis and proliferation. PMID:636370

Ageenko, A I; Vitorgan, Iu E; Chernomordik, A E

1978-01-01

29

Enzymatic urea adaptation: lactate and malate dehydrogenase in elasmobranchs.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) electrophoretic tissue patterns of two different orders of Elasmobranchii: Carchariniformes (Galeus melanostomus and Prionace glauca) and Squaliformes (Etmopterus spinax and Scymnorinus licha) were studied. The number of loci expressed for these enzymes was the same of other elasmobranch species. Differences in tissue distribution were noted in LDH from G. melanostomus due to the presence of an additional heterotetramer in the eye tissue. There were also differences in MDH. In fact, all the tissues of E. spinax and G. melanostomus showed two mitochondrial bands. Major differences were noted in the number of isozymes detected in the four compared elasmobranchs. The highest polymorphism was observed in E. spinax and G. melanostomus, two species that live in changeable environmental conditions. The resistance of isozymes after urea treatment was examined; the resulting patterns showed a quite good resistance of the enzymes, higher for LDH than MDH, also at urea concentration much greater than physiological one. These results indicated that the total isozyme resistance can be considered higher in urea accumulators (such as elasmobranchs) than in the non-accumulators (such as teleosts). PMID:16497106

Laganà, G; Bellocco, E; Mannucci, C; Leuzzi, U; Tellone, E; Kotyk, A; Galtieri, A

2006-01-01

30

D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(-)-lactate and D(+)-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by multiple events of gene duplication in both vertebrates and invertebrates, a shared evolutionary history of this gene in the two groups is apparent. Moreover, the high degree of sequence similarity among D-LDH amino acid sequences suggests that they share a common evolutionary history. PMID:18828920

2008-01-01

31

POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) ON CARDIAC LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND CREATINE KINASE (CK) ISOZYMES IN CD-1 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 50 mg HCB/kg body weight on days 6-17 of gestation and studied on day 1 or 21 postpartum (pp). Hearts of the dams and pups were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kina...

32

Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027) is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. RESULTS: Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by

Osamu Kato; Jung-Won Youn; K Corinna Stansen; Daisuke Matsui; Tadao Oikawa; Volker F Wendisch

2010-01-01

33

Sequence analysis of teleost retina-specific lactate dehydrogenase C: evolutionary implications for the vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase gene family.  

PubMed Central

At least two gene duplication events have led to the three lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B, and LDH-C) of chordates. The prevailing model for the evolution of the LDH loci involves duplication of a primordial LDH locus near the origin of vertebrates, giving rise to Ldh-A and Ldh-B. A third locus, designated Ldh-C, is expressed in the spermatocytes of mammals and a single family of birds and in the eye or liver tissues of teleost fishes. Ldh-C might have arisen independently in these taxa as duplications of either Ldh-A or Ldh-B. Several authors have challenged this traditional hypothesis on the basis of amino acid sequence and immunological similarity of the three LDH isozymes. They suggest that the primordial LDH gene was duplicated to form Ldh-C and a locus that later gave rise to Ldh-A and Ldh-B. We have differentiated between these hypotheses by determining the cDNA sequence of the retina-specific LDH-C from a teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus. On the basis of amino acid sequence similarity, we conclude that the LDH-C isozymes in fish and mammals are not orthologous but derive from independent gene duplications. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses support previous hypotheses that teleost Ldh-C is derived from a duplication of the Ldh-B locus. PMID:8419929

Quattro, J M; Woods, H A; Powers, D A

1993-01-01

34

Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase in patients with pectus excavatum  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity and the depression of the anterior chest wall, which compresses the internal organs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pectus excavatum on blood laboratory findings. Material and Methods From March 2011 to December 2011, 71 patients with pectus excavatum who visited Seoul Saint Mary Hospital for Nuss procedure were reviewed and analyzed. The blood samples were routinely taken at the day before surgery and pectus bar removal was usually performed in 2 to 3 years after Nuss procedure. To investigate the effects on blood laboratory findings, preoperative routine blood laboratory data and postoperative changes of abnormal laboratory data were analyzed. Results Only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), one of 26 separate routine laboratory tests, was abnormal and significantly elevated than normal value (age <10, p?=?0.008; age ?10, p?

2014-01-01

35

Incorporating expression data in metabolic modeling: a case study of lactate dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

Integrating biological information from different sources to understand cellular processes is an important problem in systems biology. We use data from mRNA expression arrays and chemical kinetics to formulate a metabolic model relevant to K562 erythroleukemia cells. MAP kinase pathway activation alters the expression of metabolic enzymes in K562 cells. Our array data show changes in expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which activates MAP kinase signaling. We model the change in lactate production which occurs when the MAP kinase pathway is activated, using a non-equilibrium, chemical-kinetic model of homolactic fermentation. In particular, we examine the role of LDH isoforms, which catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Changes in the isoform ratio are not the primary determinant of the production of lactate. Rather, the total concentration of LDH controls the lactate concentration.

Joshua Downer; Joel R. Sevinsky; Natalie G. Ahn; Katheryn A. Resing; M. D. Betterton

2005-11-12

36

Nasopharyngeal Lactate Dehydrogenase Concentrations Predict Bronchiolitis Severity in a Prospective Multicenter Emergency Department Study  

PubMed Central

We re-examined the finding of an inverse relationship between values of nasopharyngeal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of the innate immune response, and bronchiolitis severity. In a prospective, multicenter study of 258 children we found in a mutlivariable model that higher nasopharyngeal LDH values in young children with bronchiolitis were independently associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization. PMID:22517336

Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Laham, Federico R.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

37

Hypoxia and cobalt stimulate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in vascular smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

O2 plays a dominant role in the metabolism and viability of cells; changes in O2 supply lead to many physiological responses in the cell. Recent reports have shown that hypoxia induces the transcription of a number of genes, among them those for the glycolytic enzymes. We have investigated signalling events that may lead to enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

Hugo H. Marti; Hans H. Jung; Josef Pfeilschifter; Christian Bauer

1994-01-01

38

Histamine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in ischemic myocardium of the guinea-pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine has been proved to be released during myocardial infarction and ischemic arrhythmias in dogs. The aim of the present experiments was to evaluate if ischemia and reperfusion modify histamine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in isolated guinea-pig heart. The results obtained show a steady increase of LDH release both in the ischemic and reperfusion phases. The release of histamine

E. Masini; E. Giannella; S. Bianchi; P. F. Mannaioni

1987-01-01

39

NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase catalyses the first step in respiratory utilization of lactate by Lactococcus lactis?  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis can undergo respiration when hemin is added to an aerobic culture. The most distinctive feature of lactococcal respiration is that lactate could be consumed in the stationary phase concomitantly with the rapid accumulation of diacetyl and acetoin. However, the enzyme responsible for lactate utilization in this process has not yet been identified. As genes for fermentative NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH) and potential electron transport chain (ETC)-related NAD-independent l-LDH (l-iLDH) exist in L. lactis, the activities of these enzymes were measured in this study using crude cell extracts prepared from respiratory and fermentation cultures. Further studies were conducted with purified preparations of recombinant LDH homologous proteins. The results showed that l-iLDH activity was hardly detected in both crude cell extracts and purified l-iLDH homologous protein while l-nLDH activity was very significant. This suggested that l-iLDHs were inactive in lactate utilization. The results of kinetic analyses and the effects of activator, inhibitor, substrate and product concentrations on the reaction equilibrium showed that l-nLDH was much more prone to catalyze the pyruvate reduction reaction but could reverse its role provided that the concentrations of NADH and pyruvate were extremely low while NAD and lactate were abundant. Metabolite analysis in respiratory culture revealed that the cellular status in the stationary phase was beneficial for l-nLDH to catalyze lactate oxidation. The factors accounting for the respiration- and stationary phase-dependent lactate utilization in L. lactis are discussed here. PMID:24251099

Zhao, Rui; Zheng, Sui; Duan, Cuicui; Liu, Fei; Yang, Lijie; Huo, Guicheng

2013-01-01

40

Control of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Lactate Glycolysis, and ?-Amylase by O2 Deficit in Barley Aleurone Layers 1  

PubMed Central

After 4 days in an atmosphere of N2, aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) remained viable as judged by their ability to produce near normal amounts of ?-amylases when incubated with gibberellic acid (GA3) in air. However, layers did not produce ?-amylase when GA3 was supplied under N2, apparently because ?-amylase mRNA failed to accumulate. When an 8-hour pulse of [U-14C]glucose was supplied under N2 to freshly prepared aleurone layers, both [14C]lactate and [14C]ethanol accumulated; the [14C]lactate/[14C]ethanol ratio was about 0.3. Prior incubation of layers for 1 day under N2 changed this ratio to about 0.8, indicating an increase in the relative importance of the lactate branch of glycolysis. l(+)Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was low in freshly prepared aleurone layers and increased 10-fold during 2 days under N2, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase activity (ADH) was high initially and rose by 60%. The responses of LDH and ADH activities to O2 tension were dissimilar; when layers were incubated in various O2/N2 mixtures, LDH activity peaked at 2 to 5% O2 whereas ADH activity was highest at 0% O2. The LDH activity was resolved into several enzymically active bands by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We conclude that barley aleurone layers are highly adapted to O2 deficiency, that they possess an inducible LDH system as well as an ADH system, and we infer that the LDH and ADH systems are independently regulated. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:16663667

Hanson, Andrew D.; Jacobsen, John V.

1984-01-01

41

Design and synthesis of novel lactate dehydrogenase A inhibitors by fragment-based lead generation.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, utilizing NADH as a cofactor. It has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in the area of cancer metabolism. In this manuscript we report our progress using fragment-based lead generation (FBLG), assisted by X-ray crystallography to develop small molecule LDHA inhibitors. Fragment hits were identified through NMR and SPR screening and optimized into lead compounds with nanomolar binding affinities via fragment linking. Also reported is their modification into cellular active compounds suitable for target validation work. PMID:22417091

Ward, Richard A; Brassington, Claire; Breeze, Alexander L; Caputo, Alessandro; Critchlow, Susan; Davies, Gareth; Goodwin, Louise; Hassall, Giles; Greenwood, Ryan; Holdgate, Geoffrey A; Mrosek, Michael; Norman, Richard A; Pearson, Stuart; Tart, Jonathan; Tucker, Julie A; Vogtherr, Martin; Whittaker, David; Wingfield, Jonathan; Winter, Jon; Hudson, Kevin

2012-04-12

42

Liquid-liquid extraction of lactate dehydrogenase from muscle using polymer-bound triazine dyes.  

PubMed

An extract from porcine muscle containing soluble enzymes has been partitioned between the two liquid phases of an aqueous, biphasic system consisting of dextran, polyethylene glycol, and water. The influence of polymer-bound triazine dyes (Cibacron blue F3G-A and Procion yellow HE-3G) on the partition of lactate dehydrogenase and total protein was studied. The effects of pH and concentrations of polymers and buffer on this so-called affinity partitioning were also determined. The two-phase systems were used in extraction procedures for purification of lactate dehydrogenase to a specific activity of 456-494 U (7.6-8.4 mukat) per mg protein. The use of these systems for extraction of enzymes in technical scale is discussed. PMID:3752985

Johansson, G; Joelsson, M

1986-08-01

43

A Role for Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Cervical Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Lactate is an abundant metabolite, produced by host tissues and commensal organisms, and it represents an important potential carbon source for bacterial pathogens. In the case of Neisseria spp., the importance of the lactate permease in colonization of the host has been demonstrated, but there have been few studies of lactate metabolism in pathogenic Neisseria in the postgenomic era. We describe herein the characterization of genome-annotated, respiratory, and substrate-level lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) from the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biochemical assays using N. gonorrhoeae 1291 wild type and isogenic mutant strains showed that cytoplasmic LdhA (NAD(+)-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase) and the membrane-bound respiratory enzymes, LdhD (D-lactate dehydrogenase) and LldD (L-lactate dehydrogenase) are correctly annotated. Mutants lacking LdhA and LdhD showed greatly reduced survival in neutrophils compared with wild type cells, highlighting the importance of D-lactate metabolism in gonococcal survival. Furthermore, an assay of host colonization using the well-established human primary cervical epithelial cell model revealed that the two respiratory enzymes make a significant contribution to colonization of and survival within the microaerobic environment of the host. Taken together, these data suggest that host-derived lactate is critical for the growth and survival of N. gonorrhoeae in human cells. PMID:24737798

Atack, John M; Ibranovic, Ines; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; Chen, Nathan H; Vanden Hoven, Rachel; Jennings, Michael P; Edwards, Jennifer L; McEwan, Alastair G

2014-10-15

44

Computational analyses of mammalian lactate dehydrogenases: Human, mouse, opossum and platypus LDHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences and gene locations for mammalian lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes and proteins using genome sequence databanks. Human LDHA, LDHC and LDH6A genes were located in tandem on chromosome 11, while LDH6B and LDH6C genes were on chromosomes 15 and 12, respectively. Opossum LDHC and LDH6B genes were located in tandem with

Roger S. Holmes; Erwin Goldberg

2009-01-01

45

Physical and Functional Association of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) with Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria*  

PubMed Central

The intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate generated in the cytosol is oxidized by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the same cell. To examine whether skeletal muscle mitochondria oxidize lactate, mitochondrial respiratory oxygen flux (JO2) was measured during the sequential addition of various substrates and cofactors onto permeabilized rat gastrocnemius muscle fibers, as well as isolated mitochondrial subpopulations. Addition of lactate did not alter JO2. However, subsequent addition of NAD+ significantly increased JO2, and was abolished by the inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. In experiments with isolated subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial subpopulations, only subsarcolemmal exhibited NAD+-dependent lactate oxidation. To further investigate the details of the physical association of LDH with mitochondria in muscle, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and immunoblotting approaches were used. LDH clearly colocalized with mitochondria in intact, as well as permeabilized fibers. LDH is likely localized inside the outer mitochondrial membrane, but not in the mitochondrial matrix. Collectively, these results suggest that extra-matrix LDH is strategically positioned within skeletal muscle fibers to functionally interact with mitochondria. PMID:23873936

Elustondo, Pia A.; White, Adrienne E.; Hughes, Meghan E.; Brebner, Karen; Pavlov, Evgeny; Kane, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

46

Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 ?M, while at 2.5 ?M, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

2014-01-01

47

Lysine-5 Acetylation Negatively Regulates Lactate Dehydrogenase A and Is Decreased in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Tumor cells commonly have increased glucose uptake and lactate accumulation. Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells and is important for cell growth. Elevated transcription by c-Myc or HIF1? may contribute to increased LDH-A in some cancer types. Here, we show that LDH-A is acetylated at lysine 5 (K5) and that this acetylation inhibits LDH-A activity. Furthermore, the K5-acetylated LDH-A is recognized by the HSC70 chaperone and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Replacement of endogenous LDH-A with an acetylation mimetic mutant decreases cell proliferation and migration. Importantly, K5 acetylation of LDH-A is reduced in human pancreatic cancers. Our study reveals a mechanism of LDH-A upregulation in pancreatic cancers. PMID:23523103

Zhao, Di; Zou, Shao-Wu; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Xin; Mo, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Yan-Hui; Dong, Bo; Xiong, Yue; Lei, Qun-Ying; Guan, Kun-Liang

2013-01-01

48

Lactate dehydrogenase ontogeny, paternal gene activation, and tetramer assembly in embryos of brook trout, lake trout, and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of lactate dehydrogenase in reciprocal hybrids of trout during development revealed that a maternal effect was involved in the regulation of enzyme levels until resorption of the yolk sac was completed. Malate dehydrogenase specific activities were the same in these embryos and larvae. The more negatively charged B subunits of LDH predominated during early stages of embryogenesis in lake

Erwin Goldberg; J. P. Cuerrier; J. C. Ward

1969-01-01

49

Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

2014-12-01

50

Factors Affecting the Activity of the Lactate Dehydrogenase of Streptococcus cremoris  

PubMed Central

Studies with partially purified extracts of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked l(+)-lactate dehydrogenase of Streptococcus cremoris US3 showed that fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) was essential for the catalytic reduction of pyruvate in the pH range 5.0 to 7.0, outside of which the organism does not grow. In the absence of FDP, enzyme activity was observed only in the region of pH 8.0. The optimal pH for the oxidation of lactate was approximately 8.0 in the presence and absence of FDP. The FDP-activated enzyme was markedly inhibited by inorganic phosphate. The enzyme lost activity on standing at 5 C in alkaline triethanolamine, was quite stable at pH 6.0 to 6.5, and underwent irreversible denaturation below pH 5.0. Inorganic phosphate or FDP increased the stability of the enzyme in alkaline buffers. Some distinguishing properties of individual lactate dehydrogenases, activated by FDP, are discussed. PMID:4340864

Jonas, H. A.; Anders, R. F.; Jago, G. R.

1972-01-01

51

Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

2005-01-01

52

Metabolic characterization of Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase using in vivo 13C-NMR.  

PubMed

The metabolism of glucose by nongrowing cells of Lactococcus lactis strain FI7851, constructed from the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 by disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene [Gasson, M.J., Benson, K., Swindel, S. & Griffin, H. (1996) Lait 76, 33-40] was studied in a noninvasive manner by 13C-NMR. The kinetics of the build-up and consumption of the pools of intracellular intermediates mannitol 1-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and phosphoenolpyruvate as well as the utilization of [1-13C]glucose and formation of products (lactate, acetate, mannitol, ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol) were monitored in vivo with a time resolution of 30 s. The metabolism of glucose by the parental wild-type strain was also examined for comparison. A clear shift from typical homolactic fermentation (parental strain) to a mixed acid fermentation (lactate dehdydrogenase deficient; LDHd strain) was observed. Furthermore, high levels of mannitol were transiently produced and metabolized once glucose was depleted. Mannitol 1-phosphate accumulated intracellularly up to 76 mM concentration. Mannitol was formed from fructose 6-phosphate by the combined action of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase. The results show that the formation of mannitol 1-phosphate by the LDHd strain during glucose catabolism is a consequence of impairment in NADH oxidation caused by a highly reduced LDH activity, the transient production of mannitol 1-phosphate serving as a regeneration pathway for NAD+ regeneration. Oxygen availability caused a drastic change in the pattern of intermediates and end-products, reinforcing the key-role of the fulfilment of the redox balance. The flux control coefficients for the step catalysed by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase were calculated and the implications in the design of metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. PMID:10849005

Neves, A R; Ramos, A; Shearman, C; Gasson, M J; Almeida, J S; Santos, H

2000-06-01

53

Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027) is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate  

PubMed Central

Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:21159175

2010-01-01

54

Kinetic resolution of 2-hydroxybutanoate racemic mixtures by NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically active d-2-hydroxybutanoate is an important building block intermediate for medicines and biodegradable poly(2-hydroxybutanoate). Kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxybutanoate may be a green and desirable alternative for d-2-hydroxybutanoate production. In this work, d-2-hydroxybutanoate at a high concentration (0.197M) and a high enantiomeric excess (99.1%) was produced by an NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) containing biocatalyst. 2-Oxobutanoate, another important intermediate, was co-produced

Chao Gao; Wen Zhang; Cuiqing Ma; Peng Liu; Ping Xu

2011-01-01

55

Resting oxygen consumption varies among lactate dehydrogenase genotypes in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of the common Ldh homozygote exceeded the respiration rate of the heterozygote by more than 50 per cent. The differences in respiration rates are consistent with previously reported viability differentials at the Ldh polymorphism.

Mitton, J. B.; Carter, P. A.; DiGiacomo, A.

1997-01-01

56

The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5–3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of

R. V. T. Santos; R. A. Bassit; E. C. Caperuto; L. F. B. P Costa Rosa

2004-01-01

57

Crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.  

PubMed

The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Ljd-LDH) is a key enzyme in the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of d-lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The crystal structures of Ljd-LDH and in complex with NAD(+) were determined at 2.13 and 2.60? resolutions, respectively. The Ljd-LDH monomer consists of the N-terminal substrate-binding domain and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain. The Ljd-LDH forms a homodimeric structure, and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain mostly enables the dimerization of the enzyme. The NAD cofactor is bound to the GxGxxG NAD-binding motif located between the two domains. Structural comparisons of Ljd-LDH with other d-LDHs reveal that Ljd-LDH has unique amino acid residues at the linker region, which indicates that the open-close dynamics of Ljd-LDH might be different from that of other d-LDHs. Moreover, thermostability experiments showed that the T50(10) value of Ljd-LDH (54.5°C) was much higher than the commercially available d-lactate dehydrogenase (42.7°C). In addition, Ljd-LDH has at least a 7°C higher denaturation temperature compared to commercially available d-LDHs. PMID:24794195

Kim, Sangwoo; Gu, Sol-A; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

2014-07-01

58

Integration of aqueous two-phase extraction and affinity precipitation for the purification of lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Integration of extraction in aqueous two-phase system and affinity precipitation was investigated as a technique for purification of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from porcine muscle extract. An enteric coating polymer, Eudragit S 100, which can be made reversibly soluble and insoluble by change in pH was used as the ligand carrier. The ligand used was Cibacron blue 3GA. The polymer is nearly totally partitioned to the top phase (> 98%) in PEG-dextran aqueous two-phase system. The enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, was first spontaneously partitioned to the bottom phase in a 6% (w/w) PEG 8000-8% (w/w) dextran T250 phase system. New PEG phase and Eudragit-dye were then added to the bottom phase, which helped in extraction of LDH to the top phase. After a washing step with a fresh bottom phase, Eudragit-dye-target protein affinity complex was precipitated out from the top phase by lowering the pH to 5.1. The enzyme was recovered by treatment of the complex with 0.5 M NaCl with a yield of 54% and a specific activity of 245 units/mg. The purification of LDH by this procedure was better than that obtained by a single step of affinity partitioning. PMID:7516243

Guoqiang, D; Kaul, R; Mattiasson, B

1994-05-01

59

Pyruvate dehydrogenase and the path of lactate degradation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.  

PubMed

Pyruvate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was partially purified from the soluble fraction of the bacterial sonicate, and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA, in contrast to statements in current review articles in which acetyl phosphate is indicated to be a direct decomposition product of pyruvate in sulfate-reducing bacteria. The established reaction stoichiometry is: pyruvate + CoA + FMN----acetyl-CoA + CO2 + FMNH2. The Km values are 2.9 mM for pyruvate, 32 microM for CoA and 6.7 mumol for FMN. Participation of thiamine diphosphate in the enzymic process was not proven. 2-Oxobutyrate, but not 2-oxoglutarate, can substitute for pyruvate. The three flavin compounds, FMN, FAD, and flavodoxin, as well as clostridial ferredoxin, serve as electron carriers for the enzyme. Thus the enzyme is a kind of pyruvate synthase [EC 1.2.7.1], but acts in the direction of pyruvate degradation in the growing cells. The rate of cytochrome C3 reduction is extremely low, but in the presence of flavodoxin as an electron mediator, the reduction rate of cytochrome C3 becomes faster than the reduction rate of flavodoxin alone. It seems that the physiological electron acceptor for this enzyme is flavodoxin, which might be complexed with cytochrome C3 to produce a very efficient electron transfer system in the cell. The soluble fraction of D. vulgaris cells has been proved to contain, in addition to the pyruvate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (Ogata, M., Arihara, K., & Yagi, T. (1981) J. Biochem. 89, 1423-1431), phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, i.e., all the enzymes necessary to convert lactate to acetate, producing ATP by substrate level phosphorylation. PMID:3023304

Ogata, M; Yagi, T

1986-08-01

60

[Myoglobinuria due to enzyme abnormalities in glycolytic pathway--especially lactate dehydrogenase M subunit deficiency].  

PubMed

Glycolysis is an important energy productive system. Enzyme abnormalities the in glycolytic pathway, which cause myoglobinuria, are deficiencies of phosphofructokinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Common symptoms of these enzyme abnormalities are muscle cramp, muscle pain, and rhabdomyolysis after strenuous exercise. Acute renal failure owing to myoglobinuria is the most noteworthy symptom. In daily life, symptoms are rarely observed and prognosis is usually good. Correct and fast diagnosis of such latent symptomatic disorders is important to prevent a turn for the worse of these symptoms. LDH M subunit deficiency was first discovered by urinary discoloration and a discrepancy of laboratory data. Since then, only four cases have been reported in the Japanese population. The response to ischemic forearm work is characteristic (an increase of venous lactate concentration after ischemic work is not observed and a marked increase of venous pyruvate is found). The increase of pyruvate concentration is specific in LDH-M subunit deficiency, and is not observed in other abnormalities of the glycolytic pathway. Glycolysis was markedly retarded in the patient's muscle in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) step, possibly due to the impaired reoxidation of NADH produced by GA3PD activity. Then, the excess NADH is reoxidized by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphates are drained to alpha-glycerophosphate and glycerol. Therefore ATP production is significantly impaired and muscle tissue is damaged. A genetical study revealed a deletion of 20 base-pairs in exon 6 in LDH-M subunit deficiency. This mutation results in a frame-shift translation and premature termination. PMID:1828277

Maekawa, M; Kanno, T; Sudo, K

1991-02-01

61

Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

Abboud, Jean

2013-01-01

62

The maximum activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, nucleoside diphosphatekinase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and arginine kinase in relation to carbohydrate utilization in muscles from marine invertebrates.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase in muscles from marine invertebrates indicates that they can be divided into three groups. First, the activities of the three enzymes are low in coelenterate muscles, catch muscles of molluscs and muscles of echinoderms; this indicates a low rate of carbohydrate (and energy) utilization by these muscles. Secondly, high activities of phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase relative to those of hexokinase are found in, for example, lobster abdominal and scallop snap muscles; this indicates that these muscles depend largely on anaerobic degradation of glycogen for energy production. Thirdly, high activities of hexokinase are found in the radular muscles of prosobranch molluscs and the fin muscles of squids; this indicates a high capacity for glucose utilization, which is consistent with the high activities of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in these muscles [Alp, Newsholme & Zammit (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 689-700]. 2. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase were measured in order to provide a qualitative indication of the importance of different processes for oxidation of glycolytically formed NADH. The muscles are divided into four groups: those that have a high activity of lactate dehydrogenase relative to the activities of phosphofructokinase (e.g. crustacean muscles); those that have high activities of octopine dehydrogenase but low activities of lactate dehydrogenase (e.g. scallop snap muscle); those that have moderate activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase (radular muscles of prosobranchs), and those that have low activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase, but which possess activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (oyster adductor muscles). It is suggested that, under anaerobic conditions, muscles of marine invertebrates form lactate and/or octopine or succinate (or similar end product) according to the activities of the enzymes present in the muscles (see above). The muscles investigated possess low activities of cytosolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which indicates that glycerol phosphate formation is quantitatively unimportant under anaerobic conditions, and low activities of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, which indicates that the glycerol phosphate cycle is unimportant in the re-oxidation of glycolytically produced NADH in these muscles under aerobic conditions. Conversely, high activities of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase are present in some muscles, which indicates that the malate-aspartate cycle may be important in oxidation of glycolytically produced NADH under aerobic conditions. 3. High activities of nucleoside diphosphate kinase were found in muscles that function for prolonged periods under anaerobic conditions (e.g... PMID:13783

Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

1976-01-01

63

Quinoline 3-sulfonamides inhibit lactate dehydrogenase A and reverse aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Most normal cells in the presence of oxygen utilize glucose for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, many cancer cells rapidly convert glucose to lactate in the cytosol, a process termed aerobic glycolysis. This glycolytic phenotype is enabled by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potent and selective inhibitors of LDHA. Methods High throughput screening and lead optimization were used to generate inhibitors of LDHA enzymatic activity. Effects of these inhibitors on metabolism were evaluated using cell-based lactate production, oxygen consumption, and 13C NMR spectroscopy assays. Changes in comprehensive metabolic profile, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed upon compound treatment. Results 3-((3-carbamoyl-7-(3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)-6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl) amino) benzoic acid was identified as an NADH-competitive LDHA inhibitor. Lead optimization yielded molecules with LDHA inhibitory potencies as low as 2 nM and 10 to 80-fold selectivity over LDHB. Molecules in this family rapidly and profoundly inhibited lactate production rates in multiple cancer cell lines including hepatocellular and breast carcinomas. Consistent with selective inhibition of LDHA, the most sensitive breast cancer cell lines to lactate inhibition in hypoxic conditions were cells with low expression of LDHB. Our inhibitors increased rates of oxygen consumption in hepatocellular carcinoma cells at doses up to 3 microM, while higher concentrations directly inhibited mitochondrial function. Analysis of more than 500 metabolites upon LDHA inhibition in Snu398 cells revealed that intracellular concentrations of glycolysis and citric acid cycle intermediates were increased, consistent with enhanced Krebs cycle activity and blockage of cytosolic glycolysis. Treatment with these compounds also potentiated PKM2 activity and promoted apoptosis in Snu398 cells. Conclusions Rapid chemical inhibition of LDHA by these quinoline 3-sulfonamids led to profound metabolic alterations and impaired cell survival in carcinoma cells making it a compelling strategy for treating solid tumors that rely on aerobic glycolysis for survival. PMID:24280423

2013-01-01

64

Redox Balance via Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Important for Multiple Stress Resistance and Virulence in Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus faecalis is a highly stress resistant opportunistic pathogen. The intrinsic ruggedness of this bacterium is supposed to be the basis of its capacity to colonize the hostile environments of hospitals and to cause several kinds of infections. We show in this work that general resistance to very different environmental stresses depends on the ability of E. faecalis to maintain redox balance via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Furthermore, LDH-deficient mutants are less successful than the wild type at colonizing host organs in a murine model of systemic infection. Taken together, our results, as well as those previously published for Staphylococcus aureus (A. R. Richardson, S. J. Libby, and F. C. Fang, Science 319:1672–1676, 2008), identify LDH as an attractive drug target. These drugs may have additional applications, as in the fight against glycopeptide antibiotic-resistant bacteria and even cancer. PMID:23649090

Rana, Nosheen Fatima; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Bao, YinYin; Nes, Ingolf; Rince, Alain; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

65

The Core of Allosteric Motion in Thermus caldophilus l-Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

For Thermus caldophilus l-lactate dehydrogenase (TcLDH), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) reduced the pyruvate S0.5 value 10(3)-fold and increased the Vmax value 4-fold at 30 °C and pH 7.0, indicating that TcLDH has a much more T state-sided allosteric equilibrium than Thermus thermophilus l-lactate dehydrogenase, which has only two amino acid replacements, A154G and H179Y. The inactive (T) and active (R) state structures of TcLDH were determined at 1.8 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. The structures indicated that two mobile regions, MR1 (positions 172-185) and MR2 (positions 211-221), form a compact core for allosteric motion, and His(179) of MR1 forms constitutive hydrogen bonds with MR2. The Q4(R) mutation, which comprises the L67E, H68D, E178K, and A235R replacements, increased Vmax 4-fold but reduced pyruvate S0.5 only 5-fold in the reaction without FBP. In contrast, the P2 mutation, comprising the R173Q and R216L replacements, did not markedly increase Vmax, but 10(2)-reduced pyruvate S0.5, and additively increased the FBP-independent activity of the Q4(R) enzyme. The two types of mutation consistently increased the thermal stability of the enzyme. The MR1-MR2 area is a positively charged cluster, and its center approaches another positively charged cluster (N domain cluster) across the Q-axis subunit interface by 5 Å, when the enzyme undergoes the T to R transition. Structural and kinetic analyses thus revealed the simple and unique allosteric machinery of TcLDH, where the MR1-MR2 area pivotally moves during the allosteric motion and mediates the allosteric equilibrium through electrostatic repulsion within the protein molecule. PMID:25258319

Ikehara, Yoko; Arai, Kazuhito; Furukawa, Nayuta; Ohno, Tadashi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakajima, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Taguchi, Hayao

2014-11-01

66

Lactate Dehydrogenase A is a potential prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Over 90% of cancer-related deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are caused by tumor relapse and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need for new molecular markers that can potentiate the efficacy of the current clinical-based models of prognosis assessment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential significance of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), assessed by immunohistochemical staining, as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcome. Methods We assessed the expression of LDHA at the protein level, by immunohistochemistry, and correlated its expression with multiple clinicopathological features including tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, disease-free and overall survival in 385 patients with primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We also correlated the LDHA expression with overall survival, at mRNA level, in an independent data set of 170 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for the potential clinicopathological factors were used to test for associations between the LDHA expression and both disease-free survival and overall survival. Results There is statistically significant positive correlation between LDHA level of expression and tumor size, clinical stage and histological grade. Moreover, LDHA expression shows significantly inverse correlation with both disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our results are validated by examining LDHA expression, at the mRNA level, in the independent data set of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases which also shows that higher lactate dehydrogenase A expression is associated with significantly shorter overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicate that LDHA up-regulation can be a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Thus, it represents a potential prognostic biomarker that can boost the accuracy of other prognostic models in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24885701

2014-01-01

67

The Approach to the Michaelis Complex in Lactate Dehydrogenase: The Substrate Binding Pathway  

PubMed Central

We examine here the dynamics of forming the Michaelis complex of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase by characterizing the binding kinetics and thermodynamics of oxamate (a substrate mimic) to the binary lactate dehydrogenase/NADH complex over multiple timescales, from nanoseconds to tens of milliseconds. To access such a wide time range, we employ standard stopped-flow kinetic approaches (slower than 1 ms) and laser-induced temperature-jump relaxation spectroscopy (10 ns–10 ms). The emission from the nicotinamide ring of NADH is used as a marker of structural transformations. The results are well explained by a kinetic model that has binding taking place via a sequence of steps: the formation of an encounter complex in a bimolecular step followed by two unimolecular transformations on the microsecond/millisecond timescales. All steps are well described by single exponential kinetics. It appears that the various key components of the catalytically competent architecture are brought together as separate events, with the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between active site His195 and substrate early in binding and the closure of the catalytically necessary protein surface loop over the bound substrate as the final event of the binding process. This loop remains closed during the entire period that chemistry takes place for native substrates; however, motions of other key molecular groups bringing the complex in and out of catalytic competence appear to occur on faster timescales. The on-enzyme Kd values (the ratios of the microscopic rate constants for each unimolecular step) are not far from one. Either substantial, ?10–15%, transient melting of the protein or rearrangements of hydrogen bonding and solvent interactions of a number of water molecules or both appear to take place to permit substrate access to the protein binding site. The nature of activating the various steps in the binding process seems to be one overall involving substantial entropic changes. PMID:15980172

McClendon, Sebastian; Zhadin, Nick; Callender, Robert

2005-01-01

68

Catabolism of mannitol in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and a mutant defective in lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Mannitol metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and in a derivative strain deficient in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH(d)) was characterized. Both strains had the ability to grow on mannitol as an energy source, although this polyol was a poorer substrate for growth than glucose. When compared to glucose, the metabolism of mannitol caused an NADH burden due to formation of an additional NADH molecule at the reaction catalysed by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Mtl1PDH). This resulted in a prominent accumulation of mannitol 1-phosphate (Mtl1P) both in growing and resting cells, suggesting the existence of a severe bottleneck at Mtl1PDH. Growth on mannitol induced the activity of Mtl1PDH in both the LDH(d) and MG1363 strains. The lower accumulation of Mtl1P in mannitol-grown cells when compared to glucose-grown LDH(d) cells, as monitored by in vivo (13)C-NMR, reflects this induction. A clear shift towards the production of ethanol was observed on mannitol, indicating pressure to regenerate NAD(+) when this substrate was used. A strategy to obtain a mannitol-overproducing strain is proposed. PMID:12427938

Neves, Ana Rute; Ramos, Ana; Shearman, Claire; Gasson, Michael J; Santos, Helena

2002-11-01

69

Evolutionary implications of the cDNA sequence of the single lactate dehydrogenase of a lamprey.  

PubMed Central

All vertebrates other than lampreys exhibit multiple loci encoding lactate dehydrogenase +ADL-LDH; (S)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27+BD. Of these loci, Ldh-A is expressed predominantly in muscle, Ldh-B is expressed predominantly in heart, and Ldh-C (where present) exhibits different tissue-restricted patterns of expression depending on the taxon. To examine the relationship of the single LDH of lampreys to other vertebrate LDHs, we have determined the cDNA sequence of the LDH of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and compared it to previously published sequences from bacteria, plants, and vertebrates. The lamprey sequence exhibits a mixture of features of both LDH-A and LDH-B at the amino acid level that may account for its intermediate kinetic properties. Both distance and maximum parsimony analyses strongly reject a relationship of lamprey LDH with mammalian LDH-C but do not significantly distinguish among remaining alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. Evolutionary parsimony analyses suggest that the lamprey LDH is related to Ldh-A and that the single locus condition has arisen as a result of the loss of Ldh-B (prior to the appearance of Ldh-C). The collection of LDH sequences for further studies of the evolution of the vertebrate LDH gene family will be facilitated by the PCR approach that we have used to obtain the lamprey sequence. PMID:1542673

Stock, D W; Whitt, G S

1992-01-01

70

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1?Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E.; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-01-01

71

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-05-01

72

Direct evidence of catalytic heterogeneity in lactate dehydrogenase by temperature jump infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm(-1), respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

Reddish, Michael J; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R Brian

2014-09-18

73

Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm?1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

Reddish, Michael; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S.; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R. Brian

2014-01-01

74

Assessment of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activities in Cow’s Milk as an Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase\\u000a (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were\\u000a collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those\\u000a which were classified as

H. Babaei; L. Mansouri-Najand; M. M. Molaei; A. Kheradmand; M. Sharifan

2007-01-01

75

Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic ad- aptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (21.86 to 1°C) and three South American (4 to 10°C) noto- thenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American

PETER A. FIELDS; GEORGE N. SOMERO

1998-01-01

76

Direct electrochemistry of lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on silica sol–gel modified gold electrode and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct electrochemistry of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilized in silica sol–gel film on gold electrode was investigated, and an obvious cathodic peak at about ?200mV (versus SCE) was found for the first time. The LDH-modified electrode showed a surface controlled irreversible electrode process involving a one electron transfer reaction with the charge-transfer coefficient (?) of 0.79 and the apparent heterogeneous

Junwei Di; Jiongjia Cheng; Quan Xu; Huie Zheng; Jingyue Zhuang; Yongbo Sun; Keyu Wang; Xiangyin Mo; Shuping Bi

2007-01-01

77

The promotion effect of titania nanoparticles on the direct electrochemistry of lactate dehydrogenase sol–gel modified gold electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promotion effect of titania nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) on the direct electron transfer between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the silica sol–gel modified gold electrode was investigated by adding nano-TiO2 (50nm) in the modification process. This nano-TiO2–LDH electrode showed a pair of quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetry peaks with the formal potential of 70mV (vs. SCE). Compared to the previous result of LDH modified

Jiongjia Cheng; Junwei Di; Jianhui Hong; Kaian Yao; Yongbo Sun; Jingyue Zhuang; Quan Xu; Huie Zheng; Shuping Bi

2008-01-01

78

Nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular genetic studies of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with molecular genetics. We are using the membrane-bound enzyme D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli as a model system to characterize interactions between proteins and lipids. We have labeled D-lactate dehydrogenase with 4-, 5-, and 6-fluorotryptophans and obtained high-resolution fluorine-19 NMR spectra showing five resonances, in agreement with the five tryptophan residues expected from the DNA sequence. The five 19F resonances in the spectra have been assigned to the specific tryptophan residues in the primary sequence of D-lactate dehydrogenase by site-directed oligonucleotide mutagenesis of the cloned gene. We observe large differences in the relative fluorine-19 chemical shifts of each tryptophan residue when labeled by different isomers of fluorotryptophan. We have determined by NMR methods that two tryptophans are exposed to the solvent and that none of the tryptophan residues are within 10 A of the lipid phase. On the basis of 19F NMR spectroscopy of the labeled tryptophan residues, the conformation of D-lactate dehydrogenase is similar in aqueous solution and in the presence of a variety of lipids and detergents. This result indicates that the presence of lipids or detergents is not required to maintain the tertiary structure of this membrane-bound enzyme. In contrast, Triton X-100 induces a change to an abnormal conformation of the enzyme as judged from both NMR spectroscopy and the effect of temperature on the maximal velocity of the enzyme in the presence of this detergent. PMID:3548821

Rule, G S; Pratt, E A; Simplaceanu, V; Ho, C

1987-01-27

79

Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating  

E-print Network

, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and adductor muscles were dissected from nine fresh hams. Each muscle was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after receiving one of eighteen treatments: fresh, untreated held at 4 C for 4 d; aged...). The semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were dissected and closely trimmed of all connective tissue membranes and seam and intermuscular fat. The hams were treated as follows: Ham Pl-Fresh. The four...

Collins, Sharen Sue

2012-06-07

80

Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.  

PubMed

Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3. PMID:24841241

Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

2014-09-01

81

Identification of proteins interacting with lactate dehydrogenase in claw muscle of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes  

PubMed Central

Biochemical adaptation of enzymes involves conservation of activity, stability and affinity across a wide range of intracellular and environmental conditions. Enzyme adaptation by alteration of primary structure is well known, but the roles of protein-protein interactions in enzyme adaptation are less well understood. Interspecific differences in thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in porcelain crabs (genus Petrolisthes) are related to intrinsic differences among LDH molecules and by interactions with other stabilizing proteins. Here, we identified proteins that interact with LDH in porcelain crab claw muscle tissue using co-immunoprecipitation, and showed LDH exists in high molecular weight complexes using size exclusion chromatography and Western blot analyses. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins were separated using 2D SDS PAGE and analyzed by LC/ESI using peptide MS/MS. Peptide MS/MS ions were compared to an EST database for Petrolisthes cinctipes to identify proteins. Identified proteins included cytoskeletal elements, glycolytic enzymes, a phosphagen kinase, and the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Our results support the hypothesis that LDH interacts with glycolytic enzymes in a metabolon structured by cytoskeletal elements that may also include the enzyme for transfer of the adenylate charge in glycolytically produced ATP. Those interactions may play specific roles in biochemical adaptation of glycolytic enzymes. PMID:21968246

Cayenne, Andrea P.; Gabert, Beverly; Stillman, Jonathon H.

2011-01-01

82

Antibody-mediated rejection: importance of lactate dehydrogenase and neutrophilia in early diagnosis.  

PubMed

We report the importance of elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutrophilia (NT) in two renal transplant recipients who developed renal impairment in the early post-operative period. One of our recipients developed oliguria and increased serum creatinine with unexplained elevation of LDH and NT. The biopsy was C4d positive with platelet and fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and arterioles and interpreted as acute vasculitis or thrombotic form of antibody-mediated rejection (VAMR) with positive donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Despite intensive treatment, this graft was lost. When another patient developed a similar picture, prompt immunoadsorption was started without waiting for a confirmatory biopsy or DSA, and both were later reported as positive. Improvement in renal function was associated with decreasing levels of LDH and NT. Neither of these was elevated in cases of acute cellular rejection (ACR) or antibody mediated rejection (AMR) with isolated tubular injury (TAMR). It may therefore be reasonable to assume that LDH and NT are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of VAMR. PMID:21566312

Khan, Taqi Toufeeq; Mirza, Anzar Baig; Zahid, Rafat; Haleem, Abdul; Al Hussaini, Hussa; Al Sulaiman, Mohammad; Mousa, Dujana

2011-05-01

83

Efficacy of DNA vaccines carrying Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase antigen gene against coccidiosis.  

PubMed

The efficacies of DNA vaccines encoding either Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigen or a combination of LDH antigen and chicken IL-2 or IFN-gamma were evaluated against chicken coccidiosis. Three vaccine plasmids pVAX-LDH, pVAX-LDH-IFN-gamma and pVAX-LDH-IL-2 were constructed using the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. Expressions of proteins encoded by plasmids DNA in vivo were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay. Average body weight gain, oocyst output, survival rate and lesion scores were measured to evaluate the protective effects of vaccination on challenge infection. The results showed that DNA vaccines could obviously alleviate body weight loss, duodenal lesions, oocyst output and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. Anti-coccidial indexes (ACIs) of pVAX-LDH-IFN-gamma and pVAX-LDH-IL-2 groups were higher than that of other groups. Flow cytometric analysis of T lymphocytes in spleen and cecal tonsil demonstrated that DNA vaccines had significantly increased percentages of CD3(+) T cells compared with pVAX1 alone or TE buffer. The results provided the first proof that DNA vaccine carrying E. acervulina LDH antigen gene induced protective immunity against homologous infection and its effect could be enhanced by co-expression of chicken IL-2 or IFN-gamma. PMID:20566413

Song, Hongyan; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Zhu, Huili; Li, Xiangrui

2010-10-01

84

Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Marker in Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aims at analyzing the changes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity during orthodontic movement. Methods: Twenty patients all requiring first premolar extractions were selected and treated with conventional straight wire mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 125 g Nitinol closed coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side served as the experimental site while the contralateral canine served as the control. GCF was collected from the canines before initiation of retraction, then 1 hour after initiating canine retraction, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. GCF LDH levels were estimated and compared with the control site. Results The results revealed significantly higher LDH levels on the 7th, 14th and 21st day at the sites where orthodontic force had been applied. The levels also showed a significant increase from 0 hour to the 21st day. Peak levels were seen on 14th and 21st day following initiation of retraction. Conclusions: The study showed that LDH could be successfully estimated in the GCF and its increased levels could indicate active tooth movement, which could aid the clinician in monitoring active orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:21760863

Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

2011-01-01

85

INACTIVATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE BY SEVERAL CHEMICALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR IN VITRO TOXICOLOGY STUDIES  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release is frequently used as an end-point for cytotoxicity studies. We have been unable to measure LDH release during studies using para-aminophenol (PAP) in LLC-PK1 cells. When LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with either PAP (0–10 mM) or menadione (0–1000 ?M), viability was markedly reduced when assessed by alamar Blue or total LDH activity but not by release of LDH into the incubation medium. In addition, we incubated cells with PAP or menadione and compared LDH activity using two different assays. Both assays confirmed our observation of decreased LDH activity in cell lysates without corresponding increases in LDH activity in incubation media. Using purified LDH and 10 mM PAP, we that PAP produced loss of LDH activity that was inversely proportional to the amount of LDH initially added. In additional experiments, we incubated 0.5 units of LDH for 1 h with varying concentrations of PAP, menadione, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cisplatin. All four chemicals produced concentration-dependent decreases in LDH activity. In previous experiments, inclusion of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate protected cells from PAP toxicity. GSH (1 mM) preserved LDH activity in the presence of toxicants while ascorbate (1 mM) only prevented LDH loss induced by PAP. These studies suggest that LDH that is released into the incubation medium is susceptible to degradation when reactive chemicals are present. PMID:17079110

Kendig, Derek M.; Tarloff, Joan B.

2007-01-01

86

The promoting vibration in human heart lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred vibrational channel  

PubMed Central

We examine if the rate promoting vibration of lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred axis of thermal energy transfer. While it seems plausible that such a mechanistically important motion is also a favored direction of energy transfer, none of the previous studies of rate promoting vibrations in enzymatic catalysis have addressed this question. It is equally likely that the promoting vibration, though catalytically important, has no different properties than any other axis in the protein. Resolution of this issue is important for two reasons: First, if energy is transferred along this axis in a preferred fashion, it shows that the protein is engineered in a way that transfers thermal energy into a motion that is coupled to the chemical step. Second, the discovery of a preferred direction of thermal transfer provides a potential route to experimental verification of the promoting vibration concept. Our computational experiments are specifically designed to mimic potential laser experiment with the deposition of thermal energy in an active site chromophore with subsequent measurement of temperature at various points in the protein. Our results indicate that the promoting vibration is indeed a preferred channel of energy transfer. In addition, we study the vibrational structure of the protein via the dynamical structure factor to show preferred vibrational motion along the promoting vibration axis is an inherent property of the protein structure via thermal fluctuations. PMID:22077414

Davarifar, Ardy; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

2011-01-01

87

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

88

Overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: its implication for treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is strongly expressed in several malignancies, that LDH-A expression is associated with poor prognosis, and that LDH-A inhibition severely diminishes tumorigenicity. However, little is known about the implications of LDH-A expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LDH-A and to clarify its effect on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Methods We studied the expression of LDH-A in tissue samples from patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n?=?54) using the ultrasensitive surfactant protein (S-P) immunohistochemical method. We then inhibited LDH-A using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line HuCCT-1 in vitro to study the role it plays in promoting growth and escaping apoptosis. Results We report that LDH-A was overexpressed in 52 of 54 (96%) paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples and 0 of 54 para-carcinoma tissue samples. Reduction of LDH-A by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HuCCT-1 cells. This result correlated with the elevation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Conclusions LDH-A expression is closely correlated with histopathological variables of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, indicating that LDH-A may serve as a new treatment target. PMID:24679073

2014-01-01

89

Improved partitioning in aqueous two-phase system of tyrosine-tagged recombinant lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The partitioning of Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in an aqueous two-phase system was studied. Particularly, the influence of tyrosine tags on the partitioning was evaluated. The hydrophobic effect, caused by the addition of tyrosine residues, was determined in a system based on dextran and the thermoseparating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide random copolymer (EO30PO70). Five different LDH variants were constructed with N-terminal tags containing tyrosines (Y3 and Y6), tyrosines and prolines (Y3P2 and Y6P2), and only prolines (P2). LDH fused with tags containing tyrosines increased the partitioning coefficient, and the more tyrosines added to the protein, the larger improvement in partitioning. When prolines were added between the tyrosine-rich tag and the protein, a further increased partitioning was obtained. The enhanced partitioning was attributed to the rigid structure of the proline, which in turn led to an increase in the exposure of the tag to the surroundings. The best tyrosine tag, Y6P2, increased the partition coefficient four times and additionally, a higher thermostability was observed. PMID:12135559

Fexby, Sara; Bülow, Leif

2002-07-01

90

Stable high surface area lactate dehydrogenase particles produced by spray freezing into liquid nitrogen.  

PubMed

Enzyme activities were determined for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) powder produced by lyophilization, and two fast freezing processes, spray freeze-drying (SFD) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) nitrogen. The 0.25 mg/mL LDH aqueous feed solutions included either 30 or 100 mg/mL trehalose. The SFL process produced powders with very high enzyme activities upon reconstitution, similar to lyophilization. However, the specific surface area of 13 m(2)/g for SFL was an order of magnitude larger than for lyophilization. In SFD activities were reduced in the spraying step by the long exposure to the gas-liquid interface for 0.1-1s, versus only 2 ms in SFL. The ability to produce stable high surface area submicron particles of fragile proteins such as LDH by SFL is of practical interest in protein storage and in various applications in controlled release including encapsulation into bioerodible polymers. The SFL process has been scaled down for solution volumes <1 mL to facilitate studies of therapeutic proteins. PMID:17027245

Engstrom, Josh D; Simpson, Dale T; Cloonan, Carrie; Lai, Edwina S; Williams, Robert O; Barrie Kitto, G; Johnston, Keith P

2007-02-01

91

An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

2014-01-01

92

Computational analyses of mammalian lactate dehydrogenases: human, mouse, opossum and platypus LDHs.  

PubMed

Computational methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences and gene locations for mammalian lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes and proteins using genome sequence databanks. Human LDHA, LDHC and LDH6A genes were located in tandem on chromosome 11, while LDH6B and LDH6C genes were on chromosomes 15 and 12, respectively. Opossum LDHC and LDH6B genes were located in tandem with the opossum LDHA gene on chromosome 5 and contained 7 (LDHA and LDHC) or 8 (LDH6B) exons. An amino acid sequence prediction for the opossum LDH6B subunit gave an extended N-terminal sequence, similar to the human and mouse LDH6B sequences, which may support the export of this enzyme into mitochondria. The platypus genome contained at least 3 LDH genes encoding LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B subunits. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analyses indicated that LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B genes are present in all mammalian genomes examined, including a monotreme species (platypus), whereas the LDHC gene may have arisen more recently in marsupial mammals. PMID:19679512

Holmes, Roger S; Goldberg, Erwin

2009-10-01

93

The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

2014-10-01

94

Kinetic study of heavy metal salt effects on the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase in solution or immobilized on an oxygen electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and convenient biosensor for detection of heavy metal salts has been developed. The method is based on the effects of heavy metal salts on the catalytic activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in solution or coimmobilized with L-lactate oxidase (LOD) on an oxygen electrode. At metal concentrations below 100 ?M, the kinetic behavior, with the LDH substrate NADH, showed

S. Fennouh; V. Casimiri; A. Geloso-Meyer; C. Burstein

1998-01-01

95

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.  

PubMed

Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. PMID:24835193

Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

2014-09-01

96

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.  

PubMed

Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species. PMID:24953504

Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

2014-08-01

97

Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies  

PubMed Central

The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use. PMID:21779323

Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; Franca, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

2011-01-01

98

Lactate Dehydrogenase B: A Metabolic Marker of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although breast cancers are known to be molecularly heterogeneous, their metabolic phenotype is less well understood and may predict response to chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate metabolic genes as individual predictive biomarkers in breast cancer. Methods mRNA microarray data from breast cancer cell lines were used to identify bimodal genes – those with highest potential for robust high/low classification in clinical assays. Metabolic function was evaluated in vitro for the highest scoring metabolic gene, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB). Its expression was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy response and relapse within clinical and PAM50-derived subtypes. Results LDHB was highly expressed in cell lines with glycolytic, basal-like phenotypes. Stable knockdown of LDHB in cell lines reduced glycolytic dependence, linking LDHB expression directly to metabolic function. Using patient datasets, LDHB was highly expressed in basal-like cancers and could predict basal-like subtype within clinical groups (odds ratio = 21 for hormone-receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative; odds ratio = 10 for triple-negative). Furthermore, high LDHB predicted pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for both HR-positive/HER2-negative (odds ratio = 4.1, P < .001) and triple-negative (odds ratio = 3.0, P = .003) cancers. For triple-negative tumors without pCR, high LDHB post-treatment also identified proliferative tumors with increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.2, P = .006). Conclusions Expression of LDHB predicted response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy within clinical subtypes independently of standard prognostic markers and PAM50-subtyping. These observations support prospective clinical evaluation of LDHB as a predictive marker of response for breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23697991

Dennison, Jennifer B.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Mitra, Shreya; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Balko, Justin M.; Kuba, Maria G.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Pinto, Joseph A.; Gomez, Henry L.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Brown, Robert E.; Mills, Gordon B.

2013-01-01

99

The effects of season and temperature on D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase in the foot of Helix pomatia L.  

PubMed

The effects of pH, season, environmental and experimental temperatures on the activities and kinetic parameters of D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase from the foot of the pulmonate snail Helix pomatia were analyzed. Both in phosphate and Tris buffers D-lactate dehydrogenase was the enzyme with the most acid maximum, arginine kinase that with the most alkaline, whilst pyruvate kinase occupied an intermediate position. Pyruvate kinase activity, measured at 20 degrees C, was positively correlated with the environmental temperature at the moment of collecting the animal, whereas neither arginine kinase nor D-lactate dehydrogenase showed such a relationship. A seasonal study based on approximately 100 specimens established that arginine kinase activity remained the same throughout the year. Pyruvate kinase activity was slightly lower, and D-lactate dehydrogenase activity significantly higher, in winter than in summer animals. Snails subjected in spring to a short warm-up period before enzyme extraction showed extreme variability and some extraordinarily high values of pyruvate kinase activity, suggesting that either season or elevated temperature may have an immediate effect on the activity of this enzyme. Individual variability of all three enzymes ranges from 300 to 400%. The activities of pyruvate kinase and D-lactate dehydrogenase are strongly correlated in summer, forming a "constant-proportion-group", whereas in winter, with D-lactate dehydrogenase activity increasing and pyruvate kinase activity decreasing these two enzymes become "uncoupled". The Km value of pyruvate kinase is independent of experimental temperature between 10 and 25 degrees C, whereas that of D-lactate dehydrogenase and arginine kinase increases about three-fold within this range. Thus the temperature relationship of a single enzymic reaction cannot be used as an arguemnt for or against the occurrence of temperature compensation of whole animal metabolism. The possibility of modulation of enzyme activity by environmental temperature is discussed. PMID:35457

Wieser, W; Wright, E

1979-04-01

100

Effect of water activity on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase during high pressure processing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water activity (aw) on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during high pressure processing (HPP). For microbial inactivation lyophilized cells of L. monocytogenes 19,115 were left dry or were suspended in 10 ml of 0.1% peptone water, 10 ml of glycerol, or mixtures of glycerol and peptone water. All samples of various aws were high pressure (HP) processed at ambient temperature at 600 MPa for 300 s. Following HPP, samples were serially diluted in 0.1% peptone and spread-plated on Tryptic Soy agar supplemented with Yeast Extract. For enzyme inactivation, 4.2 mg of lyophilized LDH was suspended in 2 ml of 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 2 ml of peptone water or glycerol, or in 2 ml mixtures of glycerol and peptone water. A lyophilized sample with no added liquid was also included. All enzyme samples were subjected to HPP as described above. After HPP, LDH was diluted to 0.28 microg/ml in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). LDH activity was assessed by measuring the change in concentration of beta-NADH as a function of time. Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS) was performed to examine the size distribution, polydispersity, and hydrodynamic radius of LDH before and after HPP. No significant difference in CFU/g was observed between lyophilized cells not subjected to HPP and lyophilized cells subjected to 600 MPa for 300 s (P<0.05). However, lyophilized cells that were suspended in 100% to 60% peptone water showed a approximately 7.5-log(10) reduction when subjected to HPP. Survival of L. monocytogenes following HPP significantly increased (P<0.05) when the peptone water concentration was decreased below 60% (aw approximately 0.8). DLS results revealed that LDH suspended in buffer underwent aggregation following HPP (600 MPa, 300 s). Inactivation rate constants obtained using a first-order kinetic model indicated that untreated and HP processed lyophilized LDH had similar activities. When LDH was subject to HPP in solutions containing glycerol, enzyme activity decreased as the water content increased (r2=0.95). Lyophilization completely protected L. monocytogenes and LDH from inactivation by high pressure. Furthermore, enzyme activity and cell survival increased as water activity was decreased. We postulate low aw results in protein stabilization, which prevents protein denaturation and cell death during HPP. PMID:18403036

Hayman, Melinda M; Kouassi, Gilles K; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Floros, John D; Knabel, Stephen J

2008-05-10

101

Circulating cell-free methylated DNA and lactate dehydrogenase release in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hypermethylation of DNA is an epigenetic alteration commonly found in colorectal cancer (CRC) and can also be detected in blood samples of cancer patients. Methylation of the genes helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and hyperplastic polyposis 1 (HPP1) have been proposed as prognostic, and neurogenin 1 (NEUROG1) as diagnostic biomarker. However the underlying mechanisms leading to the release of these genes are unclear. This study aimed at examining the possible correlation of the presence of methylated genes NEUROG1, HLTF and HPP1 in serum with tissue breakdown as a possible mechanism using serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a surrogate marker. Additionally the prognostic impact of these markers was examined. Methods Pretherapeutic serum samples from 259 patients from all cancer stages were analyzed. Presence of hypermethylation of the genes HLTF, HPP1, and NEUROG1 was examined using methylation-specific quantitative PCR (MethyLight). LDH was determined using an UV kinetic test. Results Hypermethylation of HLTF and HPP1 was detected significantly more often in patients with elevated LDH levels (32% vs. 12% [p = 0.0005], and 68% vs. 11% [p < 0.0001], respectively). Also, higher LDH values correlated with a higher percentage of a fully methylated reference in a linear fashion (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.18 for HLTF [p = 0.004]; 0.49 [p < .0001] for HPP1). No correlation between methylation of NEUROG1 and LDH was found in this study. Concerning the clinical characteristics, high levels of LDH as well as methylation of HLTF and HPP1 were significantly associated with larger and more advanced stages of CRC. Accordingly, these three markers were correlated with significantly shorter survival in the overall population. Moreover, all three identified patients with a worse prognosis in the subgroup of stage IV patients. Conclusions We were able to provide evidence that methylation of HLTF and especially HPP1 detected in serum is strongly correlated with cell death in CRC using LDH as surrogate marker. Additionally, we found that prognostic information is given by both HLTF and HPP1 as well as LDH. In sum, determining the methylation of HLTF and HPP1 in serum might be useful in order to identify patients with more aggressive tumors. PMID:24708595

2014-01-01

102

Marked reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and creatine kinase activities induced by acute lysine administration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice.  

PubMed

Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by a severe deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity leading to accumulation of predominantly glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric (3HGA) acids in the brain and other tissues. Affected patients usually present with hypotonia and brain damage and acute encephalopathic episodes whose pathophysiology is not yet fully established. In this study we investigated important parameters of cellular bioenergetics in brain, heart and skeletal muscle from 15-day-old glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice (Gcdh(-/-)) submitted to a single intra-peritoneal injection of saline (Sal) or lysine (Lys - 8 ?mol/g) as compared to wild type (WT) mice. We evaluated the activities of the respiratory chain complexes II, II-III and IV, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (?-KGDH), creatine kinase (CK) and synaptic Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. No differences of all evaluated parameters were detected in the Gcdh(-/-) relatively to the WT mice injected at baseline (Sal). Furthermore, mild increases of the activities of some respiratory chain complexes (II-III and IV) were observed in heart and skeletal muscle of Gcdh(-/-) and WT mice after Lys administration. However, the most marked effects provoked by Lys administration were marked decreases of the activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in brain and CK in brain and skeletal muscle of Gcdh(-/-) mice. In contrast, brain ?-KGDH activity was not altered in WT and Gcdh(-/-) injected with Sal or Lys. Our results demonstrate that reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CK activities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative changes in GA I. PMID:22578804

Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Braga, Luisa Macedo; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Woontner, Michael; Koeller, David M; Goodman, Stephen; Wajner, Moacir

2012-09-01

103

Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Important for NADH/NAD+ Redox Homeostasis in Cancer Cells ?  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes an increase in aerobic glycolysis and enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) regulates the last step of glycolysis that generates lactate and permits the regeneration of NAD+. LDH-A gene expression is believed to be upregulated by both HIF and Myc in cancer cells to achieve increased lactate production. However, how oncogenic signals activate LDH-A to regulate cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 directly phosphorylates LDH-A. Phosphorylation at Y10 and Y83 enhances LDH-A activity by enhancing the formation of active, tetrameric LDH-A and the binding of LDH-A substrate NADH, respectively. Moreover, Y10 phosphorylation of LDH-A is common in diverse human cancer cells, which correlates with activation of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, cancer cells with stable knockdown of endogenous LDH-A and rescue expression of a catalytic hypomorph LDH-A mutant, Y10F, demonstrate increased respiration through mitochondrial complex I to sustain glycolysis by providing NAD+. However, such a compensatory increase in mitochondrial respiration in Y10F cells is insufficient to fully sustain glycolysis. Y10 rescue cells show decreased cell proliferation and ATP levels under hypoxia and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances LDH-A enzyme activity to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth by regulating the NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis, representing an acute molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. PMID:21969607

Fan, Jun; Hitosugi, Taro; Chung, Tae-Wook; Xie, Jianxin; Ge, Qingyuan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Boggon, Titus J.; Lonial, Sagar; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

2011-01-01

104

Efficient Production of (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-Phenylbutyric Acid by Using a Coupled Reconstructed d-Lactate Dehydrogenase and Formate Dehydrogenase System  

PubMed Central

Background (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. Methodology/Principal Findings The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA). The mutant d-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R)-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized. Conclusions/Significance Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R)-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99%) and productivity (47.9 mM h?1), the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R)-HPBA production. PMID:25089519

Sheng, Binbin; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lv, Min; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

105

Purification and characterization of a urea sensitive lactate dehydrogenase from the liver of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is able to withstand extremely arid conditions by estivating, in conjunction with dehydration tolerance and urea accumulation. Estivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate and recruit anaerobic glycolysis, driven by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) enzymes that reversibly convert pyruvate and NADH to lactate and NAD(+), to meet newly established ATP demands. The present study investigated purified LDH from the liver of dehydrated and control X. laevis. LDH from dehydrated liver showed a significantly higher K m for L-lactate (1.74 fold), NAD(+) (2.41 fold), and pyruvate (1.78 fold) in comparison to LDH from the liver of control frogs. In the presence of physiological levels of urea found in dehydrated animals, the K m values obtained for dehydrated LDH all returned to control LDH K m values. Dot blot analysis showed post-translational modifications may be responsible for the kinetic modification as the dehydrated form of LDH showed more phosphorylated serine residues (1.54 fold), less methylated lysine residues (0.43 fold), and a higher level of ubiquitination (1.90 fold) in comparison to control LDH. The physiological consequence of dehydration-induced LDH modification appears to adjust LDH function in conjunction with urea levels in dehydrated frogs. When urea levels are high during dehydration, LDH retains its normal function. Yet, as urea levels drop during rehydration, LDH function is reduced, possibly shunting pyruvate to the TCA cycle. PMID:24651940

Katzenback, Barbara A; Dawson, Neal J; Storey, Kenneth B

2014-07-01

106

Effects of the suppression of lactate dehydrogenase A on the growth and invasion of human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which regulates glycolytic flux by catalyzing pyruvate to lactate in the cytoplasm, is believed to be one of the highly attractive therapeutic targets for cancers. Firstly, we detected the expression of LDH-A in gastric cancer (GC) cells. LDH-A inhibitor oxamate was then used to suppress the LDH-A activity in GC cells. Cell proliferation, lactic acid production, Transwell migration assay and apoptosis were assessed, respectively. The results showed that inhibition of LDH-A by oxamate decreased the lactate production. In the presence of glucose, oxamate inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assay further confirmed a pro-apoptotic effect of oxamate, and this was likely through increased expression of Bax, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Therefore, we believe that oxamate inhibits cell growth, suppresses tumor invasion, and induces apoptosis in GC cells. LDH-A may be a potential therapeutic target for GC. PMID:25394466

Liu, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhongxia; Chen, Zhaofeng; Chen, Rui; Zhao, Da; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

2015-01-01

107

Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma  

E-print Network

in muscles [8]. The involvement of a lactate shuttle in peroxisomes confers this organelle with the ability to metabolize fatty acids. The presence of this enzyme was recently confirmed in liver peroxisomes [9

Appanna, Vasu

108

Importance of lactate dehydrogenase for the regulation of glycolytic flux and insulin secretion in insulin-producing cells.  

PubMed

The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the generation of the metabolic signal for insulin secretion was studied after stable overexpression in INS-1 and RINm5F insulin-producing cells. INS-1 cells with a 25-fold overexpression of LDH-A, the highest level achieved, showed a 20-30% decrease in the glucose oxidation rate at glucose concentrations above 5 mM when compared with control cells, whereas values were unchanged at lower glucose concentrations. Lactate release increased in parallel with a decrease in the glucose oxidation rate. However, the INS-1 cell glucose-induced insulin secretory response, together with the rate of glucose utilization, were not significantly affected by LDH-A overexpression. Despite 3-fold overexpression of LDH-A in glucose-unresponsive RINm5F cells, there was no change in insulin secretion, glucose metabolism or lactate production in these cells. Exogenously added pyruvate and lactate potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, an effect that was abolished after LDH-A overexpression. Both compounds significantly decreased glucose oxidation rates in control cells. After overexpression of LDH-A in INS-1 cells, the effects of pyruvate and lactate on glucose oxidation were diminished. On the other hand, after LDH-A overexpression, both glycolytic metabolites decreased the glucose utilization rate at 5 mM glucose. The present data suggest that the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is critical for correct channelling of pyruvate towards mitochondrial metabolism. Interestingly, glucokinase-mediated glycolytic flux was decreased after LDH-A overexpression. Thus preferential channelling of glucose towards aerobic metabolism by glucokinase may be determined, at least in part, by the low level of constitutive expression of LDH-A in pancreatic beta-cells. In conclusion, the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is an important determinant of the physiological insulin-secretory capacity, and also determines how pyruvate and lactate affect insulin secretion. PMID:11085930

Alcazar, O; Tiedge, M; Lenzen, S

2000-12-01

109

Enhanced activity of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by addition of the co-solvent 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (L)-lactate in aqueous phase of biphasic systems for reductive production of steroids.  

PubMed

The enzyme activity of 3alpha-hydrosteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) was enhanced by the addition of the co-solvent 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (L)-lactate ([Bmim][lactate]) to 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer. When utilizing [Bmim][lactate], the reaction velocity of HSDH increased. Also, reductive production of androsterone was investigated in an aqueous-organic solvent biphasic system containing 5% [Bmim][lactate] as the co-solvent of aqueous phase. In a coupled-enzyme system comprising HSDH and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), a two-fold increase in production rate of androsterone was obtained when utilizing [Bmim][lactate] with NADH regeneration. PMID:17092593

Okochi, Mina; Nakagawa, Izumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Shuhei; Furusaki, Shintaro; Honda, Hiroyuki

2007-02-01

110

Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

2014-01-01

111

The use of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme for the identification of semen in dried stains.  

PubMed

The sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme (Blanco and Zinkham, 1963; Goldberg, 1963) separated from other LDH isoenzymes of semen by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been found to be suitable for specific differentiation of human semen from other human body fluids and semen of commonly encountered animals. Seminal isoenzymes were found to be stable even 4 weeks after storage in tropical conditions. The method gave substantially more positive results than microscopic identification of spermatozoa when applied to a large number of relatively old stains on actual crime articles. It is therefore valuable in a large number of cases involving normal males and also in interpreting results of immunological and enzymological individualisation of semen stains. PMID:1033891

Mokashi, R H; Madiwale, M S

1976-01-01

112

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell  

E-print Network

with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers Philippe Connes1,2,3* , Yann Lamarre1,2 , Marie-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe Abstract Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79680. doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2012-01-01

114

Lactation  

PubMed Central

Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic. PMID:20604468

1989-01-01

115

Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers. PMID:24916961

Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

2014-08-01

116

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

PubMed Central

Background The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently degrades crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Plasmid transformation, random mutagenesis and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism, hindering genetic engineering. Results The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain, resulting in a substantial shift in fermentation toward ethanol production. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products, corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant's tricarboxylic acid pathway. Conclusions The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first non-random, targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from cellobiose, cellulose and switchgrass. PMID:22214220

2012-01-01

117

Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Value of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Expression in Gastric Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction LDH-A, the enzyme responsible for transforming pyruvate into lactate, has been demonstrated to be up-regulated in many types of cancer and to give rise to more aggressive behavior by regulating proliferation and anti-apoptosis. However, its expression in gastric cancer (GC) has not been characterized thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression and potential impact of LDH-A in GC. Methods We examined LDH-A expression by immunohistochemistry on GC tissue microarray (TMA) and using Western blot on fresh GC tissues and cell lines. Prognostic value and correlation with other clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. We transfected siRNA into GC cells against LDH-A. LDH-A was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Cell growth was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Lactate and ATP production by cells were determined. Results There was significantly higher LDH-A expression in carcinoma than in non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM). There was a positive correlation of LDH-A expression with age, histological type and Lymph node metastases. Survival analysis demonstrated that high expression of LDH-A in GC was associated with lower overall survival (OS). When stratified by Lauren grade and histological classification, significance appeared in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. In multivariate analysis, the LDH-A expression in GC was an independent prognostic risk factor for OS (hazard ratio?=?1.829, 95%CI 1.375–2.433,P<0.0001). Specific siRNA against LDH-A in GC cell line retarded cell growth both in vitro and in mouse models. LDH-A knockdown also reduced lactate and ATP production in GC cells. Conclusions Our study indicated the oncogenic role of LDH-A in GC. LDH-A expression is an independent prognostic risk factor in GC patients and up-regulated expression of LDH-A could be predictive of poor outcomes in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. Our results suggested that LDH-A might be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:24608789

Sun, Xuren; Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi; Guan, Haixia; Zhang, Junyan; Zhang, Yining; Xu, Huimian; Sun, Mingjun

2014-01-01

118

Diverse allosteric and catalytic functions of tetrameric d-lactate dehydrogenases from three Gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases (d-LDHs) reduce pyruvate into d-lactate with oxidation of NADH into NAD+. Although non-allosteric d-LDHs from Lactobacilli have been extensively studied, the catalytic properties of allosteric d-LDHs from Gram-negative bacteria except for Escherichia coli remain unknown. We characterized the catalytic properties of d-LDHs from three Gram-negative bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum (FNLDH), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PALDH), and E. coli (ECLDH) to gain an insight into allosteric mechanism of d-LDHs. While PALDH and ECLDH exhibited narrow substrate specificities toward pyruvate like usual d-LDHs, FNLDH exhibited a broad substrate specificity toward hydrophobic 2-ketoacids such as 2-ketobutyrate and 2-ketovalerate, the former of which gave a 2-fold higher kcat/S0.5 value than pyruvate. Whereas the three enzymes consistently showed hyperbolic shaped pyruvate saturation curves below pH 6.5, FNLDH and ECLDH, and PALDH showed marked positive and negative cooperativity, respectively, in the pyruvate saturation curves above pH 7.5. Oxamate inhibited the catalytic reactions of FNLDH competitively with pyruvate, and the PALDH reaction in a mixed manner at pH 7.0, but markedly enhanced the reactions of the two enzymes at low concentration through canceling of the apparent homotropic cooperativity at pH 8.0, although it constantly inhibited the ECLDH reaction. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and certain divalent metal ions such as Mg2+ also markedly enhanced the reactions of FNLDH and PALDH, but none of them enhanced the reaction of ECLDH. Thus, our study demonstrates that bacterial d-LDHs have highly divergent allosteric and catalytic properties.

2014-01-01

119

The blood counts and lactate dehydrogenase levels in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).  

PubMed

The blood counts and lactic dehydrogenase values of eight patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) were reviewed in relation to the clinical course. Three of the eight patients died. In these patients, the hemoglobin was significantly lower and the LDH higher at the time of presentation than that of the patients responding to treatment. The height of the absolute reticulocyte count and platelet count did not correlate as well with outcome as did the degree of anemia and LDH elevation. Microangiopathic changes were noted in all eight patients. A differential count showed that the total microangiopathic changes varied from 0.8 to 54%. The more severe microangiopathic changes occurred in the fatal cases. The observations indicate that the degree of anemia, elevation of LDH, and severity of microangiopathic changes at the time of presentation correlate with the outcome in TTP and provide useful parameters in the assessment of response to therapy. PMID:6685430

Crowley, J P; Metzger, J B; L'Europa, R A

1983-11-01

120

The role of an NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenase and acetate in the utilization of lactate by Clostridium acetobutylicum strain P262  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium acetobutylicum strain P262 utilized lactate at a rapid rate [600 nmol min?1 (mg protein)?1], but lactate could not serve as the sole energy source. When acetate was provided as a co-substrate, the growth rate was\\u000a 0.05h?1. Butyrate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen were the end products of lactate and acetate utilization, and the stoichiometry was\\u000a 1 lactate + 0.4 acetate

Francisco Diez-Gonzalez; James B. Russell; Jean B. Hunter

1995-01-01

121

Changes in the cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase) and plasma membrane (acetylcholinesterase) marker enzymes in the synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria derived from rats with moderate hyperammonemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the cytoplasmic and plasma membrane marker enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a (AChE), respectively, were measured in the cerebral homogenates, in the synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions,\\u000a and in the postmitochondrial supernatants derived from rats in which a 3-d, moderately hyperammonemic condition (no more than\\u000a 120% increases in blood ammonia) was produced by repeated administration of ammonium

Lidia Faff-Michalak; Jan Albrecht

1993-01-01

122

Serum Level of Lactate Dehydrogenase is a Useful Clinical Marker to Monitor Progressive Multiple Myeloma Diseases: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

To follow the progression of multiple myeloma (MM) disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are as useful markers as beta-2 microglobulin and monoclonal immunoglobulin. With this study, we have presented a case of a patient with a multiple myeloma which was fulminant course, whose LDH levels were normal at the onset of diagnosis increasing as 27 times more than normal as the disease progressed and who showed the development of extramedullary plasmacytomas. The patient, an 80-year-old female, was diagnosed with stage IIIA IgA type multiple myeloma and melphalan-prednisolon (MP) treatment was started. Although the LDH levels were low during the diagnosis and chemotherapy, the LDH levels increased up to 7557 U/L following the progression and occurrence of extramedullary plasmacytomas and the patient died. During the observation of the patient with MM, if the LDH levels are abnormally high, the progression of the disease should be considered after eliminating the other causes. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy should be examined and the progression or relapse should be shown. On the other hand, the patients with LDH levels are high should be considered to have added plasmacytomas, the whole body should be examined at an early stage before the development of clinical symptoms and early treatment should be started. PMID:24764735

Teke, Hava Uskudar; Basak, Mustafa; Teke, Deniz; Kanbay, Mehmet

2014-01-01

123

Purification of a recombinant histidine-tagged lactate dehydrogenase from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, and characterization of its properties.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), serves as a drug target and immunodiagnostic marker. The LDH cDNA generated from total RNA of a clinical isolate of the parasite was cloned into pRSETA plasmid. Recombinant his-tagged PvLDH was over-expressed in E. coli Rosetta2DE3pLysS and purified using Ni(2+)-NTA resin giving a yield of 25-30 mg/litre bacterial culture. The recombinant protein was enzymatically active and its catalytic efficiency for pyruvate was 5.4 × 10(8) min(-1) M(-1), 14.5 fold higher than a low yield preparation reported earlier to obtain PvLDH crystal structure. The enzyme activity was inhibited by gossypol and sodium oxamate. The recombinant PvLDH was reactive in lateral flow immunochromatographic assays detecting pan- and vivax-specific LDH. The soluble recombinant PvLDH purified using heterologous expression system can facilitate the generation of vivax LDH-specific monoclonals and the screening of chemical compound libraries for PvLDH inhibitors. PMID:25048245

Sundaram, Balamurugan; Varadarajan, Nandan Mysore; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun

2014-12-01

124

Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.  

PubMed

The thermostable D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (LjD-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the D-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The LjD-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100?mM Tris-HCl pH 9, 200?mM magnesium sulfate at 295?K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1?Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8?Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.58?Å(3)?Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative. PMID:25084378

Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

2014-08-01

125

Recognition and separation of isoenzymes by metal chelates. Immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-bound chelated metal ions partition preferentially into the top, PEG-rich, phase of a PEG-salt or PEG-dextran aqueous two-phase system. Extraction by this soluble affinity ligand of proteins is due to a selective interaction of the chelated metal ion with accessible histidine residues on the protein surface. Using Cu-iminodiacetate-PEG (Cu-IDA-PEG) the surface of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes from different species was probed for the presence of metal chelate binding sites. It was demonstrated that the homotetramers (LDH-1)(H4) from rabbit, bovine and pig displayed weak binding to chelated copper whereas the M4-type isoenzymes (LDH-5) bound strongly to this ligand. The binding of the different heterotetramers increases as the number of M-type subunits increases. In contrast, the human isoenzymes are bound to chelated copper in a reversed sequence. The comparison of the affinity partitioning effect of Cu-IDA-PEG in PEG-salt and PEG-dextran systems revealed that the discriminatory effect of copper is promoted by high salt concentrations. Resolution of isoenzymes by multiple extraction using counter-current distribution provides valuable data on the partitioning of enzymes relative to that of the bulk proteins. The efficacy of metal chelate affinity partitioning for the purification of LDH from tissue samples by batchwise extraction was also demonstrated. PMID:7690357

Otto, A; Birkenmeier, G

1993-07-30

126

An alternative allosteric regulation mechanism of an acidophilic l-lactate dehydrogenase from Enterococcus mundtii 15-1A  

PubMed Central

A plant-derived Enterococcus mundtii 15-1A, that has been previously isolated from Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Hanelt var. linearifolia by our group, possesses two kinds of l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH): LDH-1 and LDH-2. LDH-1 was activated under low concentration of fluctose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at both pH 5.5 and 7.5. Although LDH-2 was also activated under the low concentration of FBP at pH 5.5, a high concentration of FBP is necessary to activate it at pH 7.5. The present study shows the crystal structures of the acidophilic LDH-2 in a complex with and without FBP and NADH. Although the tertiary structure of the ligands-bound LDH-2 is similar to that of the active form of other bacterial l-LDHs, the structure without the ligands is different from that of any other previously determined l-LDHs. Major structural alterations between the two structures of LDH-2 were observed at two regions in one subunit. At the N-terminal parts of the two regions, the ligands-bound form takes an ?-helical structure, while the form without ligands displays more disordered and extended structures. A vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism analysis showed that the ?-helix content of LDH-2 in solution is approximately 30% at pH 7.5, which is close to that in the crystal structure of the form without ligands. A D241N mutant of LDH-2, which was created by us to easily form an ?-helix at one of the two parts, exhibited catalytic activity even in the absence of FBP at both pH 5.5 and 7.5. PMID:25379380

Matoba, Yasuyuki; Miyasako, Masashi; Matsuo, Koichi; Oda, Kosuke; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

2014-01-01

127

Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase at posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome onset in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is incompletely understood; however, an underlying state of immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction has been proposed. We examined alterations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, relative to the development of PRES in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective Institutional Review Board approved database of 88 PRES patients was examined. PRES diagnosis was confirmed by congruent clinical diagnosis and MRI. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Serum LDH values were collected at three time points: prior to, at the time of, and following PRES diagnosis. Student's t-test was employed. LDH values were available during the course of treatment in 12 patients (nine women; mean age 57.8 years [range 33-75 years]). Chemotherapy-associated PRES patients were more likely to be normotensive (25%) versus the non-chemotherapy group (9%). LDH levels at the time of PRES diagnosis were higher than those before and after (p=0.0263), with a mean difference of 114.8 international units/L. Mean time intervals between LDH measurement prior to and following PRES diagnosis were 44.8 days and 51.4 days, respectively. Mean elapsed time between last chemotherapy administration and PRES onset was 11.1days. In conclusion, serum LDH, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, shows statistically significant elevation at the onset of PRES toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Our findings support a systemic process characterized by endothelial injury/dysfunction as a factor, if not the prime event, in the pathophysiology of PRES. PMID:24780237

Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Wright, Steven M; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Van Hemert, Rudy; Brown, Aliza T; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

2014-09-01

128

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase A by microRNA?34a resensitizes colon cancer cells to 5?fluorouracil.  

PubMed

5?Fluorouracil (5?FU) chemotherapy is widely used in the treatment of advanced colon cancer. However, the development of resistance to 5?FU is a significant obstacle to successful treatment. MicroRNA?34a (miR?34a) has been reported to be downregulated in a number of tumor types and has also been shown to act as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of miR?34a in chemoresistance remain unclear. The present study showed that the expression of miR?34a is downregulated in 5?FU?resistant colon cancer cells. In addition, 5?FU?resistant colon cancer cells exhibited upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression and activity compared with parental cells. Furthermore, LDHA was shown to be a direct target of miR?34a. Overexpression of miR?34a reduced the expression of LDHA, probably through binding to the 3' untranslated region, leading to the re?sensitization of 5?FU?resistant cancer cells to 5?FU. Additionally, overexpression of LDHA rendered colon cancer cells resistant to 5?FU, suggesting that the miR?34a?induced sensitization to 5?FU is mediated through the inhibition of LDHA. In conclusion, the current study showed that miR?34a is involved in sensitivity to 5?FU in part through its effects on LDHA expression. This indicates that miR?34a?mediated inhibition of glucose metabolism may be a therapeutic target in patients with chemoresistant colon cancer. PMID:25333573

Li, Xiangyong; Zhao, Haibin; Zhou, Xijian; Song, Lei

2015-01-01

129

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

130

Impact of probiotic-supplemented diet on the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase in the leukocytes of rabbits.  

PubMed

Probiotics are known as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms that colonize the intestine and provide benefit to the host. The present study aims to measure one important energy metabolism-related enzyme activity in blood of rabbits fed on probiotics of recommended concentration. In addition, it also aims for the evaluation of the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Two groups of rabbits are used: control group receiving normal standardized diet and the other probiotic-supplemented group receiving the same diet containing probiotic, namely, Mega acidophilus (200 million cfu/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that the rabbits supplemented with probiotics showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) when compared with control group. Risk factors detected by measuring TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios showed statistically significant decrease in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. In addition, blood glucose and total LDH activity were elevated in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. RT-PCR products of LDH-M gene produced two specific amplicons. One amplicon has the expected size of 243 bp from all samples of rabbits as revealed by GelPro software. The level of LDH-M expression was found to be increased in the probiotic-supplemented group. However, unexpected amplicons are produced at 586 bp in all the samples, which may be a dimeric form of the amplified region. It was concluded that this probiotic blend is beneficiary for the metabolic reactions of lipids in the body. Moreover, LDH expression level can be considered as a biomarker for the effect of probiotic and hence monitoring the metabolic changes as reflected from its administration. PMID:22865283

Ghoneim, Magdy A E; Moselhy, Said S

2014-04-01

131

Simultaneous production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid and 1,3-propanediol from glycerol using resting cells of the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae overexpressing an aldehyde dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

In the present study, the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (ldhA(-)) recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae overexpressing an ALDH (KGSADH) was developed and the co-production of 3-HP and PDO from glycerol by this recombinant under resting cell conditions was examined. The new recombinant did not produce any appreciable lactate, which seriously inhibits the production of 3-HP and PDO. The final titers of 3-HP and PDO by the ldhA(-) recombinant strain at 60 h were 252.2 mM and 308.7 mM, respectively, which were improved by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to those by the counterpart recombinant strain, which was the wild type for ldhA. In addition, after deleting ldhA, the cumulative yield on glycerol and specific production rate of these two metabolites (3-HP and PDO) were enhanced by 41.4% and 52%, respectively. PMID:23228456

Kumar, Vinod; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Durgapal, Meetu; Zhou, Shengfang; Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Sarkar, Ritam; Park, Sunghoon

2013-05-01

132

Exposing local adaptation: synergistic stressors elicit population-specific lactate dehydrogenase-B ( ldh - b ) expression profiles in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular response of fish to independently and\\/or concurrently applied ecological stressors (e.g. thermal and\\/or aerobic\\u000a stress) can be quantified at the level of transcript abundance (i.e. gene expression). In temperate fish, the expression of\\u000a the metabolic candidate gene lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b) responds to both aerobic swimming challenge and extended acclimation to various ecologically relevant temperatures. We examined\\u000a hepatic ldh-b

Richard C. Edmunds; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Lynne van Herwerden; Christopher J. Fulton; Dean R. Jerry

133

A novel polyclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for detection of Plasmodium vivax developed from two lactate dehydrogenase protein segments  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays for Plasmodium detection are, presently, most frequently based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), which are cheaper to develop and manufacture, are much less frequently used. In the present study we describe a sandwich ELISA assay which is capable of detecting P. vivax Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in clinical blood samples, without cross reacting with those infected with P. falciparum. Methods Two recombinant proteins were produced from different regions of the P. vivax LDH gene. Two sandwich ELISA assay were then designed: One which uses mouse anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs as primary antibodies (“Test 1”) and another which uses anti-LDH 35-305aa PAbs (“Test 2”) as the primary antibodies. Rabbit anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs were used as capture antibodies in both ELISA assays. Blood samples taken from P. vivax and P. falciparum infected patients (confirmed by light microscopy) were analysed using both tests. Results “Test 2” performed better at detecting microscopy-positive blood samples when compared to “Test 1”, identifying 131 of 154 positive samples (85%); 85 positives (55%) were identified using “test 1”. “Test 1” produced one false positive sample (from the 20 malaria-free control) blood samples; “test 2” produced none. Kappa coefficient analysis of the results produced a value of 0.267 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with “test 1”, but 0.734 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with the results from “test 2”. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were observed to be 98% and 22% respectively, for “Test 1”, and 99% and 45%, for “test 2”. No cross reactivity was detected with P. falciparum positive blood samples (n?=?15) with either test assay. Conclusion Both tests detected P. vivax infected blood and showed no evidence of cross-reacting with P. falciparum. Further studies will need to be conducted to establish the full potential of this technique for malaria diagnostics. As well as representing a promising new cost-effective novel technique for P. vivax diagnosis and research, the method for developing this assay also highlights the potential for PAb-based strategies for diagnostics in general. PMID:24475751

2014-01-01

134

Cyclic AMP and AKAP-mediated targeting of protein kinase A regulates lactate dehydrogenase subunit A mRNA stability.  

PubMed

Expression of the lactate dehydrogenase A subunit (ldh-A) gene is controlled through transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms. Both mechanisms involve activation of protein kinase A (PKA) into its subunits and subsequent phosphorylation and activation of several key regulatory factors. In rat C6 glioma cells, post-transcriptional gene regulation occurs through PKA-mediated stabilization of LDH-A mRNA and subsequent increase of intracellular LDH-A mRNA levels. Previous studies have demonstrated a cAMP-stabilizing region (CSR) located in the LDH-A 3'-untranslated region which, in combination with several phosphorylated CSR-binding proteins (CSR-BP), regulates the PKA-mediated stabilization of LDH-A mRNA. However, the mechanistic details of interaction of CSR with proteins as they pertain to mRNA stabilization by PKA are so far largely unknown. In this study we tested the hypothesis that ribosomal protein extracts (RSW) from glioma cells contain PKA regulatory (RII) and catalytic (C) subunits that, in combination with a protein kinase A anchoring protein (AKAP 95) and CSR-BPs participate in forming CSR-protein complexes that are responsible for mRNA stability regulation. To demonstrate the importance of CSR-protein complex formation, the PKA subunits and AKAP 95 were removed from the RSW by immunoprecipitation, and the antigen-deleted RSW were subjected to CSR binding analysis using gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking. It was shown that AKAP 95 as well as RII formed a direct linkage with CSR during CSR-protein complex formation. In contrast, the catalytic subunit formed part of the CSR-protein complex but did not bind to CSR directly in a covalent linkage. To determine whether formation of CSR complexes that included C, RII, and AKAP 95 constituted a functional event and was necessary for mRNA stabilization, cell-free decay reactions were carried out with RSW extracts, and the kinetics of decay of LDH-A mRNA was determined. Depletion of PKA subunits and AKAP 95 from RSW extracts by immunoprecipitation resulted in a marked loss of mRNA stabilization activity indicating that the presence of the PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits as well as AKAP 95 in the CSR-protein complexes was absolutely necessary to achieve LDH-A mRNA stabilization. PMID:15878851

Jungmann, Richard A; Kiryukhina, Olga

2005-07-01

135

Protective effects of caffeic acid on lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, electrocardiogram, adenosine triphosphatases, and hematology on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the protective effects of caffeic acid on isoproterenol-treated myocardial infarction. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with caffeic acid (15 mg/kg) daily for 10 days. After the pretreatment, rats were injected with isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-treated rats showed increased intensity of lactate dehydrogenase-1 and 2 isoenzyme bands and elevated ST segments. The activity of the heart sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase was decreased, and the activities of the heart magnesium adenosine triphosphatase and calcium adenosine triphosphatase were increased in isoproterenol-treated rats. Isoproterenol-treated rats also showed a significant increase in the concentration of heart calcium. Furthermore, it significantly increased the counts of red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and neutrophils and decreased significantly the concentration of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Pretreatment with caffeic acid showed protective effects on all the biochemical parameters, hematology and minimized alterations in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and electrocardiogram. In vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging potential of caffeic acid. The observed effects might be due to the free radical scavenging and membrane-stabilizing property of caffeic acid. PMID:21472895

Senthil Kumaran, K; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

2011-01-01

136

Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91±0.28mM and 2613.57±6.43?mol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55°C and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55°C and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50°C. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate. PMID:24412354

Jiang, Ting; Xu, Yanbing; Sun, Xiucheng; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

2014-03-01

137

Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) catalyses the reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate, having a principal position in the anaerobic cellular metabolism. Induction of LDH-5 occurs during hypoxia and LDH-5 transcription is directly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Serum LDH levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various neoplastic diseases. The expression, however, of LDH in tumours has never been investigated in the past. In the present study, we established an immunohistochemical method to evaluate the LDH-5 overexpression in tumours, using two novel antibodies raised against the rat muscle LDH-5 and the human LDH-5 (Abcam, UK). The subcellular patterns of expression in cancer cells were mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic. In direct contrast to cancer cells, stromal fibroblasts were reactive for LDH-5 only in a minority of cases. Serum LDH, although positively correlated with, does not reliably reflect the intratumoral LDH-5 status. Lactate dehydrogenase-5 overexpression was directly related to HIF1alpha and 2alpha, but not with the carbonic anhydrase 9 expression. Patients with tumours bearing high LDH-5 expression had a poor prognosis. Tumours with simultaneous LDH-5 and HIF1alpha (or HIF2alpha) overexpression, indicative of a functional HIF pathway, had a particularly aggressive behaviour. It is concluded that overexpression of LDH-5 is a common event in non-small-cell lung cancer, can be easily assessed in paraffin-embedded material and provides important prognostic information, particularly when combined with other endogenous markers of hypoxia and acidity. PMID:12942121

Koukourakis, M I; Giatromanolaki, A; Sivridis, E; Bougioukas, G; Didilis, V; Gatter, K C; Harris, A L

2003-09-01

138

Identification of Lactaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Its Involvement in Production of Lactate for F420 Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

One of the early steps in the biosynthesis of coenzyme F420 in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii requires generation of 2-phospho-l-lactate, which is formed by the phosphorylation of l-lactate. Preliminary studies had shown that l-lactate in M. jannaschii is not derived from pyruvate, and thus an alternate pathway(s) for its formation was examined. Here we report that l-lactate is formed by the NAD+-dependent oxidation of l-lactaldehyde by the MJ1411 gene product. The lactaldehyde, in turn, was found to be generated either by the NAD(P)H reduction of methylglyoxal or by the aldol cleavage of fuculose-1-phosphate by fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase, the MJ1418 gene product. PMID:16585745

Grochowski, Laura L.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

2006-01-01

139

Effects of Gram-negative Bacteria, E.coli and Cold Exposure on Free Radicals Production, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in the Lungs of Rats, Rattus norvigicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of LPS-gram negative bacteria and low ambient temperature on free radicals (FR) production, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lungs of rats, Rattus norvigisu. Twenty four male rats, matched with age and weigh, were divided randomly into four groups namely control (C), Bacteria (B),

Al-Said A. Haffor

140

Effects of sustained swimming on rainbow trout muscle structure, blood oxygen transport, and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes: evidence for increased aerobic capacity of white muscle.  

PubMed

Groups of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) were continuously swum at 20 cm s-1 (1.0 body lengths s-1) for 0, 3, 30, and 200 days. No significant changes in fish condition factor, combined red and white muscle mass, muscle fibre size or fibre size distribution were observed. After 200 days of swimming there was a significant 2.2 fold increase in red muscle mass. Number of capillaries per red muscle fibre increased significantly in each group by a maximum of 27% after 200 days exercise. Number of capillaries per white muscle fibre increased significantly by 95% after 200 days exercise. Blood lactate, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration haematocrit, erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate, and whole blood oxygen affinity P50 were unchanged by swimming. After 30 and 200 days swimming there was a shift in expression of white muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes from LDH-A to LDH-B. Within the duplicated LDH-B isozyme complex, there was a shift in expression from LDH-B to LDH-B' subunits. These results suggest that sustained swimming at 1(-1) bl s-1 increased the aerobic capacity of red and particularly white (fast) muscle of rainbow trout but did not alter the gas transport characteristics of the blood. PMID:3950562

Davie, P S; Wells, R M; Tetens, V

1986-02-01

141

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis  

SciTech Connect

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli (MSU)

2012-08-31

142

Targeting lactate dehydrogenase--a inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer and impacts tumor-initiating cells.  

PubMed

The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers, and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use an inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by reactivation of mitochondrial function in vitro, but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer-initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC, including cancer stem cell-dependent drug-resistant tumors. PMID:24726384

Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N; Higashi, Richard M; Fan, Teresa W M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Seth, Pankaj

2014-05-01

143

The creatine kinase response to resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Resistance exercise can result in localized damage to muscle tissue. This damage may be observed in sarcolemma, basal lamina, as well as, in the contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Usually the damage is accompanied by release of enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and other proteins into the blood. Serum CK has been proposed as one of the best indirect indicators of muscle damage due to its ease of identification and the relatively low cost of assays to quantify it. Thus, CK has been used as an indicator of the training intensity and a diagnostic marker of overtraining. However, some issues complicate CK's use in this manner. There is great interindividual variability in serum CK, which complicates the assignment of reliable reference values for athletes. Furthermore, factors such as training level, muscle groups involved, and gender can influence CK levels to a greater extent than differences in exercise volume completed. This review will detail the process by which resistance exercise induces a rise in circulating CK, illuminate the various factors that affect the CK response to resistance exercise, and discuss the relative usefulness of CK as a marker of training status, in light of these factors. PMID:24583542

Koch, A J; Pereira, R; Machado, M

2014-03-01

144

Overexpression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A in Nerve Cells Confers Resistance to Amyloid ? and Other Toxins by Decreasing Mitochondrial Respiration and Reactive Oxygen Species Production*  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that nerve cell lines selected for resistance to amyloid ? (A?) peptide exhibit elevated aerobic glycolysis in part due to increased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Here, we show that overexpression of either PDK1 or LDHA in a rat CNS cell line (B12) confers resistance to A? and other neurotoxins. Treatment of A?-sensitive cells with various toxins resulted in mitochondrial hyperpolarization, immediately followed by rapid depolarization and cell death, events accompanied by increased production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, cells expressing either PDK1 or LDHA maintained a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ROS production with or without exposure to toxins. Additionally, PDK1- and LDHA-overexpressing cells exhibited decreased oxygen consumption but maintained levels of ATP under both normal culture conditions and following A? treatment. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis of wild type mouse primary cortical neurons treated with A? or cortical tissue extracts from 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice showed decreased expression of LDHA and PDK1 when compared with controls. Additionally, post-mortem brain extracts from patients with Alzheimer disease exhibited a decrease in PDK1 expression compared with nondemented patients. Collectively, these findings indicate that key Warburg effect enzymes play a central role in mediating neuronal resistance to ?? or other neurotoxins by decreasing mitochondrial activity and subsequent ROS production. Maintenance of PDK1 or LDHA expression in certain regions of the brain may explain why some individuals tolerate high levels of A? deposition without developing Alzheimer disease. PMID:22948140

Newington, Jordan T.; Rappon, Tim; Albers, Shawn; Wong, Daisy Y.; Rylett, R. Jane; Cumming, Robert C.

2012-01-01

145

Engineering Lactococcus lactis for production of mannitol: high yields from food-grade strains deficient in lactate dehydrogenase and the mannitol transport system.  

PubMed

Mannitol is a sugar polyol claimed to have health-promoting properties. A mannitol-producing strain of Lactococcus lactis was obtained by disruption of two genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)). Genes mtlA and mtlF were independently deleted by double-crossover recombination in strain L. lactis FI9630 (a food-grade lactate dehydrogenase-deficient strain derived from MG1363), yielding two mutant (Delta ldh Delta mtlA and Delta ldh Delta mtlF) strains. The new strains, FI10091 and FI10089, respectively, do not possess any selection marker and are suitable for use in the food industry. The metabolism of glucose in nongrowing cell suspensions of the mutant strains was characterized by in vivo (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. The intermediate metabolite, mannitol-1-phosphate, accumulated intracellularly to high levels (up to 76 mM). Mannitol was a major end product, one-third of glucose being converted to this hexitol. The double mutants, in contrast to the parent strain, were unable to utilize mannitol even after glucose depletion, showing that mannitol was taken up exclusively by PEP-PTS(Mtl). Disruption of this system completely blocked mannitol transport in L. lactis, as intended. In addition to mannitol, approximately equimolar amounts of ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, and lactate were produced. A mixed-acid fermentation (formate, ethanol, and acetate) was also observed during growth under controlled conditions of pH and temperature, but mannitol production was low. The reasons for the alteration in the pattern of end products under nongrowing and growing conditions are discussed, and strategies to improve mannitol production during growth are proposed. PMID:15006767

Gaspar, Paula; Neves, Ana Rute; Ramos, Ana; Gasson, Michael J; Shearman, Claire A; Santos, Helena

2004-03-01

146

Homo-d-Lactic Acid Fermentation from Arabinose by Redirection of the Phosphoketolase Pathway to the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene-Deficient Lactobacillus plantarum?  

PubMed Central

Optically pure d-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose was achieved by using the Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase gene was substituted with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 27 h of fermentation, 38.6 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of arabinose. PMID:19502433

Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

2009-01-01

147

Oxygen-regulated control elements in the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and lactate dehydrogenase A genes: similarities with the erythropoietin 3' enhancer.  

PubMed Central

Production of the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) in response to hypoxic stimuli is almost entirely restricted to particular cells within liver and kidney, yet the transcriptional enhancer lying 3' to the Epo gene shows activity inducible by hypoxia after transfection into a wide variety of cultured cells. The implication of this finding is that many cells which do not produce Epo contain a similar, if not identical, oxygen-regulated control system, suggesting that the same system is involved in the regulation of other genes. We report that the human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and mouse lactate dehydrogenase A genes are induced by hypoxia with characteristics which resemble induction of the Epo gene. In each case expression is induced by cobalt, but not by cyanide, and hypoxic induction is blocked by the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. We show that the relevant cis-acting control sequences are located in the 5' flanking regions of the two genes, and we define an 18-bp element in the 5' flanking sequence of the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene which is both necessary and sufficient for the hypoxic response, and which has sequence and protein-binding similarities to the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 binding site within the Epo 3' enhancer. Images PMID:8022811

Firth, J D; Ebert, B L; Pugh, C W; Ratcliffe, P J

1994-01-01

148

Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

2012-01-01

149

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+) - but with no leg ulcers at the time of the study – were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

150

Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.  

PubMed

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+)--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

151

Immune evasion mediated by tumor-derived lactate dehydrogenase induction of NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells in glioblastoma patients.  

PubMed

Myeloid cells are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment, governing local immune responses. Here we report that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and circulating monocytes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) express ligands for activating the Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, which cause down-regulation of NKG2D on natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-infiltrating NK cells isolated from GBM patients fail to lyse NKG2D ligand-expressing tumor cells. We demonstrate that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform 5 secreted by glioblastoma cells induces NKG2D ligands on monocytes isolated from healthy individuals. Furthermore, sera from GBM patients contain elevated amounts of LDH, which correlate with expression of NKG2D ligands on their autologous circulating monocytes. NKG2D ligands also are present on circulating monocytes isolated from patients with breast, prostate, and hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinomas. Together, these findings reveal a previously unidentified immune evasion strategy whereby tumors produce soluble factors that induce NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells, subverting antitumor immune responses. PMID:25136121

Crane, Courtney A; Austgen, Kathryn; Haberthur, Kristen; Hofmann, Carly; Moyes, Kara White; Avanesyan, Lia; Fong, Lawrence; Campbell, Michael J; Cooper, Stewart; Oakes, Scott A; Parsa, Andrew T; Lanier, Lewis L

2014-09-01

152

A population pharmacodynamic model for lactate dehydrogenase and neuron specific enolase to predict tumor progression in small cell lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

The development of individualized therapies poses a major challenge in oncology. Significant hurdles to overcome include better disease monitoring and early prediction of clinical outcome. Current clinical practice consists of using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) to categorize response to treatment. However, the utility of RECIST is restricted due to limitations on the frequency of measurement and its categorical rather than continuous nature. We propose a population modeling framework that relates circulating biomarkers in plasma, easily obtained from patients, to tumor progression levels assessed by imaging scans (i.e., RECIST categories). We successfully applied this framework to data regarding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). LDH and NSE have been proposed as independent prognostic factors for SCLC. However, their prognostic and predictive value has not been demonstrated in the context of standard clinical practice. Our model incorporates an underlying latent variable ("disease level") representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment; these assumptions are in agreement with the known physiology of SCLC and these biomarkers. Our model predictions of unobserved disease level are strongly correlated with disease progression measured by RECIST criteria. In conclusion, the proposed framework enables prediction of treatment outcome based on circulating biomarkers and therefore can be a powerful tool to help clinicians monitor disease in SCLC. PMID:24740245

Buil-Bruna, Núria; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

2014-05-01

153

A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family. PMID:3629217

Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

1987-03-01

154

Rationally re-designed mutation of NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase: high optical resolution of racemic mandelic acid by the engineered Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM can potentially be used for the kinetic resolution of small aliphatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, this enzyme showed rather low activity towards aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Results Val-108 of l-iLDH was changed to Ala by rationally site-directed mutagenesis. The l-iLDH mutant exhibited much higher activity than wide-type l-iLDH towards l-mandelate, an aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Using the engineered Escherichia coli expressing the mutant l-iLDH as a biocatalyst, 40 g·L-1 of dl-mandelic acid was converted to 20.1 g·L-1 of d-mandelic acid (enantiomeric purity higher than 99.5%) and 19.3 g·L-1 of benzoylformic acid. Conclusions A new biocatalyst with high catalytic efficiency toward an unnatural substrate was constructed by rationally re-design mutagenesis. Two building block intermediates (optically pure d-mandelic acid and benzoylformic acid) were efficiently produced by the one-pot biotransformation system. PMID:23176608

2012-01-01

155

Dynamics of a Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism in the Wood Louse PORCELLIO SCABER Latr.: Evidence for Partial Assortative Mating and Heterosis in Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic separation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Porcellio scaber from 14 natural populations in California, and one each in Oregon, Delaware and Massachusetts, indicates a biallelic polymorphism. Phenotypes are recovered from laboratory matings of virgin females in frequencies agreeing with simple Mendelian inheritance, and the frequency distributions of phenotypes in natural populations are typically in agreement with the appropriate Hardy-Weinberg distributions for these same populations. The same allele predominates in all natural populations examined. Temporal stability within populations suggests that the polymorphism is at, or near, equilibrium. The spatial distribution of allele frequencies, however, is apparently mosaic. Abrupt discontinuities in gene frequency over short distances (50 m to 1 km) suggest that interpopulation migration is insufficient to swamp local differences in gene frequency. Analysis of the transmission dynamics of the polymorphism in natural populations using mother-offspring genotype comparisons suggests that the allelic frequencies of transmitted male gametes are not independent of female genotype. Specifically, the observed mating scheme in natural populations appears to be partially assortative. Comparisons of progeny genotype distributions with yearling (or adult) genotype distributions from the same populations indicate a superior post-partum viability of heterozygous individuals relative to homozygotes. The distortion of progeny genotypic distributions created by assortment is thus apparently counteracted by subsequent heterosis. PMID:640378

Sassaman, Clay

1978-01-01

156

Identification of a novel operon in Lactococcus lactis encoding three enzymes for lactic acid synthesis: phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The discovery of a novel multicistronic operon that encodes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is reported. The three genes in the operon, designated pfk, pyk, and ldh, contain 340, 502, and 325 codons, respectively. The intergenic distances are 87 bp between pfk and pyk and 117 bp between pyk and ldh. Plasmids containing pfk and pyk conferred phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, respectively, on their host. The identity of ldh was established previously by the same approach (R. M. Llanos, A. J. Hillier, and B. E. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 174:6956-6964, 1992). Each of the genes is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site. The operon is expressed in a 4.1-kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined to be a G nucleotide positioned 81 bp upstream from the pfk start codon. The pattern of codon usage within the operon is highly biased, with 11 unused amino acid codons. This degree of bias suggests that the operon is highly expressed. The three proteins encoded on the operon are key enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, the central pathway of energy production and lactic acid synthesis in L. lactis. For this reason, we have called the operon the las (lactic acid synthesis) operon. Images PMID:8478320

Llanos, R M; Harris, C J; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

1993-01-01

157

N-terminal tagged lactate dehydrogenase proteins: evaluation of relative hydrophobicity by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and aqueous two-phase system partition.  

PubMed

The hydrophobic contributions of 17 individual peptides, fused to the N-terminal of Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The constructs were sequenced from a protein library designed with a five-amino acid randomised region in the N-terminal of an LDH protein. The 17 LDH variants and an LDH control lacking the randomised region were expressed in Escherichia coli. HIC and ATPS behaviour of the proteins indicated significant differences in protein hydrophobicity, even though the modifications caused only 1% increase in protein molecular weight and 2% variation in isoelectric points. HIC and ATPS results correlated well (R(2) = 0.89). Protein expression was clearly affected by N-terminal modification, but there was no evidence that the modification affected protein activity. A GluAsnAlaAspVal modification resulted in increased protein expression. In most cases, HIC and ATPS results compared favourably with those predicted on the basis of 34 amino acid residue hydrophobicity scales; assuming exposure of tag residues to solution. Exceptions included LeuAlaGlyValIle and LeuTyrGlyCysIle modifications, which were predicted, assuming full solution exposure, to be more hydrophobic than observed. PMID:15177156

Fexby, Sara; Ihre, Henrik; Van Alstine, James; Bülow, Leif

2004-07-25

158

Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi; Li Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: drjunma@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2012-03-01

159

[Isoenzymes of lactate and malate dehydrogenases in nuclei of rat embryo fibroblasts infected with oncogenic adenovirus type 12].  

PubMed

The isoenzymatic spectrum of lactatedehydrogenase (LDG; L-lactate: NAD-oxireductase; EC 1.1.1.27) and malatedehydrogenase (MDG; 1-malate: NAD-oxireductase; EC 1.1.1.37) in nuclei of rat embryo fibroblast cells infected with adenovirus type 12 was studied at 3, 5, 8, 18 and 24 days of cultivation. The nuclei were isolated according to the method of Showo et al. modified by Zbarsky and Georgiev. Proteins were fractionated by disc electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. In the course of oncovirus-cell interaction three LDG isoenzymes were detected. Changes in the isoenzymatic spectrum of LDG were manifested in increased activity of LDG1 at 5 days after virus penetration into the cell. Partial morphological transformation at 18 days after infection was accompanied by increased activity of LDG1 and LDG2. The morphologically transformed culture was characterised by reduced LDG1 activity. Changes in the spectrum of MDG isoenzymes were detected at 3 days after addition of A-12 virus into the culture. At 24 days postinfection activity of MDG3 was definitely changed in nuclei of REF cells infected with A-12 virus. The revealed disorders in regulation of synthesis of individual isoenzymes are probably due to the epigenomic effect of oncovirus and may be used as indications of tissue culture malignization. PMID:1241176

Ageenko, A I; Vitorgan, Iu E

1975-01-01

160

A thioredoxin fusion protein of VanH, a D-lactate dehydrogenase from Enterococcus faecium: cloning, expression, purification, kinetic analysis, and crystallization.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the vancomycin resistance protein VanH from Enterococcus faecium, a D-lactate dehydrogenase, has been cloned into a thioredoxin expression system (pTRxFus) and expressed as a fusion protein. The use of several other expression systems yielded only inclusion bodies from which no functional protein could be recovered. Experiments to remove the thioredoxin moiety by enterokinase cleavage at the engineered recognition site under a variety of conditions resulted in nonspecific proteolysis and inactivation of the protein. The intact fusion protein was, therefore, used for kinetic studies and crystallization trials. It has been purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by phenyl Sepharose chromatography. Based on k(cat)/KM for pyruvate, it is 20% as active as native VanH. Michaelis constants for NADPH, NADH, and pyruvate, of approximately 3.5 microM, 19.0 microM, and 1.5 mM, respectively, were comparable to those reported for the native VanH (Bugg TDH et al., 1991, Biochemistry 30:10408-10415). Like native VanH, maximum activity of the fusion protein requires the presence of an anion (phosphate or acetate), however, in addition, a strongly reducing environment is needed for optimal efficacy. Competitive inhibition constants for ADP-ribose, NAD+, and oxamate have also been determined. Crystallization by hanging drop vapor diffusion produced two different crystal forms, one hexagonal and the other tetragonal. Flash-frozen crystals of the tetragonal form diffracted to 3.0 A resolution at a synchrotron radiation source. PMID:9605319

Stoll, V S; Manohar, A V; Gillon, W; MacFarlane, E L; Hynes, R C; Pai, E F

1998-05-01

161

Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ?70 and LDH ?240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ?70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ?240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

Partl, Richard, E-mail: richard.partl@medunigraz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Richtig, Erika [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Kapp, Karin S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

2013-03-01

162

Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.  

PubMed

Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization. PMID:22297553

Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

2012-06-01

163

Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antigens in the proven malaria cases. Methods: The antibodies were raised against two epitopes of PfHRP2 protein and three unique and unexplored epitopes of PfLDH protein. These antibodies were able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens in culture supernatant and parasitized RBC lysate of P. falciparum, respectively up to 50 parasites/?l. The in-house reagents were tested in 200 P. falciparum positive patients residing in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Results: Microsphere (PLGA) with CpG ODN were used to generate high titre and high affinity antibodies against selected peptides of PfHRP-2 and pLDH antigen in mice and rabbit. The peptide specific peak titre varied from 12,800 - 102,400 with an affinity ranging 0.73 - 3.0 mM. The indigenously developed reagents are able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens as low as 75 parasites/?l of blood with a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (100%). Interpretation & conclusions: The study highlight the identification of unique epitopes of PfHRP2 and PfLDH, and the generated antibodies against these antigens were used for quantitative estimation of these two antigens using sandwich ELISA. No corresreactivity with P. vivax infected patients was observed with the sera. PMID:24521645

Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D.N.

2013-01-01

164

A study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma by gel electrophoresis method  

PubMed Central

Context: The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is found in almost all the cells of body tissues, can be separated into five fractions and the isoenzyme pattern is believed to vary according to the metabolic requirement of each tissue. LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be considered to be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate salivary LDH isoenzyme pattern in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate between LDH isoenzyme levels and histopathologic grading in selected cases of OL and OSCC. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed 30 cases each of OL and OSCC were selected for the study and 30 healthy individuals of comparable age served as control. Unstimulated whole saliva was aseptically collected and was processed immediately for LDH isoenzymes measurement by agarose gel electrophoresis. Biopsy specimen obtained was processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Sections of OL and OSCC cases were scrutinized histopathologically and appropriately graded for epithelial dysplasia and differentiation of carcinoma respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two sample t test for testing the significance of difference between two group means was used. Results and Conclusion: The present salivary analysis for LDH isoenzyme reveals an overall increased salivary LDH isoenzyme level in OL and OSCC cases and a significant correlation between levels of salivary LDH isoenzymes and histopathologic grades of dysplasia in OL and OSCC. Salivary analysis of LDH will definitely provide the clinician and/or the patient himself with an efficient, non invasive and friendly new tool for diagnosis and monitoring of oral precancer and cancer. PMID:25364177

Joshi, Priya Shirish; Golgire, Someshwar

2014-01-01

165

Bioactivity-Guided Identification and Cell Signaling Technology to Delineate the Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibition Effects of Spatholobus suberectus on Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1? and subsequent accelerated HIF-1? proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1?/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

2013-01-01

166

Dacarbazine with or without oblimersen (a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide) in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal serum lactate dehydrogenase: 'The AGENDA trial'.  

PubMed

In a previous large randomized, open-label study, retrospective subset analysis revealed that the addition of the Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide oblimersen to dacarbazine (Dac) significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and the response rate in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and normal baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. To confirm and expand on this observation, we conducted a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether oblimersen augmented the efficacy of Dac in advanced melanoma patients with low-normal baseline LDH levels. A total of 314 chemotherapy-naive patients were randomly assigned to receive Dac (1000 mg/m(2)) preceded by a 5-day continuous intravenous infusion of either oblimersen sodium (7 mg/kg/day) or placebo every 21 days for less than eight cycles. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Response and progression of the disease were assessed by independent blinded review of computed tomography scan images. No difference in overall nor progression-free survival was observed between the Dac-oblimersen and Dac-placebo groups. Although the overall (17.2 vs. 12.1%) and durable (10.8 vs. 7.6%) response rates numerically favored Dac-oblimersen over Dac-placebo, they did not differ significantly (P=0.19 and 0.32, respectively). The incidence of hematologic adverse events, particularly thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, was higher in the Dac-oblimersen group than in the Dac-placebo group. Withdrawals from the study because of treatment-related adverse events were low (i.e. <2.5%) in both groups. The addition of oblimersen to Dac did not significantly improve overall survival nor progression-free survival in patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal levels of LDH at baseline. PMID:24667300

Bedikian, Agop Y; Garbe, Claus; Conry, Robert; Lebbe, Celeste; Grob, Jean J

2014-06-01

167

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

168

Complete inhibition of creatine kinase in isolated perfused rat hearts  

SciTech Connect

Transient exposure of an isolated isovolumic perfused rat heart to low concentrations (0.5 mM) of perfusate-born iodoacetamide resulted in complete inhibition of creatine kinase and partial inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the heart. At low levels of developed pressure, hearts maintained mechanical function, ATP, and creatine phosphate levels at control values. However, iodoacetamide-inhibited hearts were unable to maintain control values of end diastolic pressure or peak systolic pressure as work load increased. Global ischemia resulted in loss of all ATP without loss of creatine phosphate, indicating lack of active creatine kinase. These results indicate that isovolumic perfused rat hearts are able to maintain normal function and normal levels of high-energy phosphates without active creatine kinase at low levels of developed pressure. /sup 31/P-NMR of the heart was carried out.

Fossel, E.T.; Hoefeler, H.

1987-01-01

169

(1-3)-beta-D-glucan in association with lactate dehydrogenase as biomarkers of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major HIV-related illness caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Definitive diagnosis of PcP requires microscopic detection of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of two serum markers in the diagnosis of PcP. Serum levels of (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (BG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated in 100 HIV-positive adult patients and 50 healthy blood donors. PcP cases were confirmed using indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal anti-Pneumocystis antibodies and nested-PCR to amplify the large subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. BG and LDH levels in serum were measured using quantitative microplate-based assays. BG and LDH positive sera were statistically associated with PcP cases (P???0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV), and positive/negative likelihood ratios (PLR/NLR) were 91.3 %, 61.3 %, 85.1 %, 79.2 %, 2.359, and 0.142, respectively, for the BG kit assay, and 91.3 %, 35.5 %, 75.9 %, 64.7 %, 1.415 and 0.245, respectively, for the LDH test. Serologic markers levels combined with the clinical diagnostic criteria for PcP were evaluated for their usefulness in diagnosis of PcP. The most promising cutoff levels for diagnosis of PcP were determined to be 400 pg/ml of BG and 350 U/l of LDH, which combined with clinical data presented 92.8 % sensitivity, 83.9 % specificity, 92.8 % PPV, 83.9 % NPV, 5.764 PLR and 0.086 NLR (P?

Esteves, F; Lee, C-H; de Sousa, B; Badura, R; Seringa, M; Fernandes, C; Gaspar, J F; Antunes, F; Matos, O

2014-07-01

170

Base compositions of genes encoding alpha-actin and lactate dehydrogenase-A from differently adapted vertebrates show no temperature-adaptive variation in G + C content.  

PubMed

There is a long-standing debate in molecular evolution concerning the putative importance of GC content in adapting the thermal stabilities of DNA and RNA. Most studies of this relationship have examined broad-scale compositional patterns, for example, total GC percentages in genomes and occurrence of GC-rich isochores. Few studies have systematically examined the GC contents of individual orthologous genes from differently thermally adapted species. When this has been done, the emphasis has been on comparing large numbers of genes in only a few species. We have approached the GC-adaptation temperature hypothesis in a different manner by examining patterns of base composition of genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-a) and alpha-actin (alpha-actin) from 51 species of vertebrates whose adaptation temperatures ranged from -1.86 degrees C (Antarctic fishes) to approximately 45 degrees C (desert reptile). No significant positive correlation was found between any index of GC content (GC content of the entire sequence, GC content of the third codon position [GC(3)], and GC content at fourfold degenerate sites [GC(4)]) and any index of adaptation temperature (maximal, mean, or minimal body temperature). For alpha-actin, slopes of regression lines for all comparisons did not differ significantly from zero. For ldh-a, negative correlations between adaptation temperature and total GC content, GC(3), and GC(4) were observed but were shown to be due entirely to phylogenetic influences (as revealed by independent contrast analyses). This comparison of GC content across a wide range of ectothermic ("cold-blooded") and endothermic ("warm-blooded") vertebrates revealed that frogs of the genus Xenopus, which have commonly been used as a representative cold-blooded species, in fact are outliers among ectotherms for the alpha-actin analyses, raising concern about the appropriateness of choosing these amphibians as representative of ectothermic vertebrates in general. Our study indicates that, whereas GC contents of isochores may show variation among different classes of vertebrates, there is no consistent relationship between adaptation temperature and the percentage of thermal stability-enhancing G + C base pairs in protein-coding genes. PMID:12519912

Ream, Rachael A; Johns, Glenn C; Somero, George N

2003-01-01

171

A lactate dehydrogenase ELISA-based assay for the in vitro determination of Plasmodium berghei sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria is a well-known model for the investigation of anti-malarial drug efficacy in vivo. However, the availability of drug in vitro assays in P. berghei is reduced when compared with the spectrum of techniques existing for Plasmodium falciparum. New alternatives to the current manual or automated methods described for P. berghei are attractive. The present study reports a new ELISA drug in vitro assay for P. berghei using two monoclonal antibodies against the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods This procedure includes a short-in vitro culture, the purification of schizonts and the further generation of synchronized mice infections. Early stages of the parasite are then incubated against different concentrations of anti-malarial drugs using micro-plates. The novelty of this procedure in P. berghei relies on the quantification of the drug activity derived from the amount of pLDH estimated by an ELISA assay using two monoclonal antibodies: 14C1 and 19G7. The IC50s obtained through the ELISA assay were compared with those from the micro-test. Results The initial parameters of the synchronized samples used in the in vitro assays were a parasitaemia of 0.5% and haematocrit of 1%, with an incubation period of 22 hours at 36.5°C. pLDH detection using a 14C1 coating at 10 ?g/ml and 19G7 at 2.5 × 10-3 ?g/ml provided good readouts of optical densities with low background in negative controls and specific detection levels for all parasite stages. IC50s values derived from the ELISA assay for artesunate, chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine were: 15, 7, 2, and 144 nM, respectively. When artesunate and chloroquine IC50s were evaluated using the micro-test similar values were obtained. Conclusion This ELISA-based in vitro drug assay is easy to implement, fast, and avoids the use radioisotopes or expensive equipment. The utility of this simple assay for screening anti-malarial drug activity against P. berghei in vitro is demonstrated. PMID:23126583

2012-01-01

172

Creatine Use Among Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Creatine is a nutritional sup- plement that is purported to be a safe ergogenic aid in adults. Although as many as 28% of collegiate athletes admit taking creatine, there is little information about creatine use or potential health risk in children and ad- olescents. Although the use of creatine is not recom- mended in people less than 18 years

Jordan D. Metzl; Eric Small; Steven R. Levine; Jeffrey C. Gershel

173

Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase; and supplemented-trained (TCr) rats were given a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine and subjected to intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase. At the end of the experimental period, concentrations of creatine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx) and catalase (CAT). Liver tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were also determined. Results Hepatic creatine levels were highest in the CCr and TCr groups with increased concentration of H2O2 observed in the T and TCr animal groups. SOD activity was decreased in the TCr group. GSH-GPx activity was increased in the T and TCr groups while CAT was elevated in the CCr and TCr groups. GSH, GGS and the GSH/GSSG ratio did not differ between all animal subsets. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that creatine supplementation acts in an additive manner to physical training to raise antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. However, because markers of liver oxidative stress were unchanged, this finding may also indicate that training-induced oxidative stress cannot be ameliorated by creatine supplementation. PMID:24325803

2013-01-01

174

Creatine and the creatine transporter: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular role of creatine (Cr) and Cr phosphate (CrP) has been studied extensively in neural, cardiac and skeletal muscle. Several studies have demonstrated that alterations in the cellular total Cr (Cr + CrP) concentration in these tissues can produce marked functional and\\/or structural change. The primary aim of this review was to critically evaluate the literature that has examined

Rodney J. Snow; Robyn M. Murphy

2001-01-01

175

Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain  

SciTech Connect

Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

1990-12-01

176

In VivoLactate Editing with Simultaneous Detection of Choline, Creatine, NAA, and Lipid Singlets at 1.5 T Using PRESS Excitation with Applications to the Study of Brain and Head and Neck Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two T2-independent J-difference lactate editing schemes for the PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy localization sequence are introduced. The techniques, which allow for simultaneous acquisition of the lactate doublet (1.3 ppm) and edited singlets upfield of and including choline (3.2 ppm), exploit the dependence of the in-phase intensity of the methyl doublet upon the time interval separating two inversion (BASING) pulses applied to its coupling partner after initial excitation. Editing method 1, which allows for echo times TE = n/ J( n= 1, 2, 3, …), alters the BASING carrier frequency for each of two cycles so that, for one cycle, the quartet is inverted, whereas, for the other cycle, the quartet is unaffected. Method 2, which also provides water suppression, allows for editing for TE > 1/ Jby alternating, between cycles, the time interval separating the inversion pulses. Experimental results were obtained at 1.5 T using a Shinnar Le-Roux-designed maximum phase inversion pulse with a filter transition bandwidth of 55 Hz. Spectra were acquired from phantoms and in vivofrom the human brain and neck. In a neck muscle study, the lipid suppression factor, achieved partly through the use of a novel phase regularization algorithm, was measured to be over 10 3. Spectra acquired from a primary brain and a metastatic neck tumor demonstrated the presence of lactate and choline signals consistent with abnormal spectral patterns. The advantages and limitations of the methods are analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and significance of the results is discussed.

Star-Lack, Josh; Spielman, Daniel; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Kurhanewicz, John; Terris, David J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

1998-08-01

177

The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine.  

PubMed

The pleiotropic effects of creatine (Cr) are based mostly on the functions of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK) and its high-energy product phosphocreatine (PCr). Multidisciplinary studies have established molecular, cellular, organ and somatic functions of the CK/PCr system, in particular for cells and tissues with high and intermittent energy fluctuations. These studies include tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of CK isoforms, high-resolution molecular structures and structure-function relationships, transgenic CK abrogation and reverse genetic approaches. Three energy-related physiological principles emerge, namely that the CK/PCr systems functions as (a) an immediately available temporal energy buffer, (b) a spatial energy buffer or intracellular energy transport system (the CK/PCr energy shuttle or circuit) and (c) a metabolic regulator. The CK/PCr energy shuttle connects sites of ATP production (glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) with subcellular sites of ATP utilization (ATPases). Thus, diffusion limitations of ADP and ATP are overcome by PCr/Cr shuttling, as most clearly seen in polar cells such as spermatozoa, retina photoreceptor cells and sensory hair bundles of the inner ear. The CK/PCr system relies on the close exchange of substrates and products between CK isoforms and ATP-generating or -consuming processes. Mitochondrial CK in the mitochondrial outer compartment, for example, is tightly coupled to ATP export via adenine nucleotide transporter or carrier (ANT) and thus ATP-synthesis and respiratory chain activity, releasing PCr into the cytosol. This coupling also reduces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition, an early event in apoptosis. Cr itself may also act as a direct and/or indirect anti-oxidant, while PCr can interact with and protect cellular membranes. Collectively, these factors may well explain the beneficial effects of Cr supplementation. The stimulating effects of Cr for muscle and bone growth and maintenance, and especially in neuroprotection, are now recognized and the first clinical studies are underway. Novel socio-economically relevant applications of Cr supplementation are emerging, e.g. for senior people, intensive care units and dialysis patients, who are notoriously Cr-depleted. Also, Cr will likely be beneficial for the healthy development of premature infants, who after separation from the placenta depend on external Cr. Cr supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, as well as of babies and infants are likely to be of benefit for child development. Last but not least, Cr harbours a global ecological potential as an additive for animal feed, replacing meat- and fish meal for animal (poultry and swine) and fish aqua farming. This may help to alleviate human starvation and at the same time prevent over-fishing of oceans. PMID:21448658

Wallimann, Theo; Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata; Schlattner, Uwe

2011-05-01

178

Protein kinase A stimulates binding of multiple proteins to a U-rich domain in the 3'-untranslated region of lactate dehydrogenase A mRNA that is required for the regulation of mRNA stability.  

PubMed

We have explored the molecular basis of the cAMP-induced stabilization of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) mRNA and identified four cytoplasmic proteins of 96, 67, 52, and 50 kDa that specifically bind to a 30-nucleotide uridine-rich sequence in the LDH 3'-untranslated region with a predicted stem-loop structure. Mutational analysis revealed that specific protein binding is dependent upon an intact primary nucleotide sequence in the loop as well as integrity of the adjoining double-stranded stem structure, thus indicating a high degree of primary and secondary structure specificity. The critical stem-loop region is located between nucleotides 1473 and 1502 relative to the mRNA cap site and contains a previously identified cAMP-stabilizing region (CSR) required for LDH-A mRNA stability regulation by the protein kinase A pathway. The 3'-untranslated region binding activity of the proteins is up-regulated after protein kinase A activation, whereas protein dephosphorylation is associated with a loss of binding activity. These results imply a cause and effect relationship between LDH-A mRNA stabilization and CSR-phosphoprotein binding activity. We propose that the U-rich CSR is a recognition signal for CSR-binding proteins and for an mRNA processing pathway that specifically stabilizes LDH mRNA in response to activation of the protein kinase A signal transduction pathway. PMID:9774474

Tian, D; Huang, D; Brown, R C; Jungmann, R A

1998-10-23

179

On the rate of proton exchange with solvent of the catalytic histidine in flavocytochrome b2 (yeast L-lactate dehydrogenase).  

PubMed Central

The family of FMN-dependent, alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes catalyzes substrate dehydrogenation by a mechanism the first step of which is abstraction of the substrate alpha-proton (so-called carbanion mechanism). For flavocytochrome b2 and lactate oxidase, it was shown that once on the enzyme this proton is lost only slowly to the solvent (Lederer F, 1984, In: Bray RC, Engel PC, Mayhew SG, eds, Flavins & flavoproteins, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp 513-526; Urban P, Lederer F, 1985, J Biol Chem 260:11115-11122). This suggested the occurrence of a pKa increase of the catalytic histidine upon enzyme reduction by substrate. For flavocytochrome b2, the crystal structure indicated 2 possible origins for the stabilization of the imidazolium form of His 373: either a network of hydrogen bonds involving His 373, Tyr 254, flavin N5 and O4, a heme propionate, and solvent molecules, and/or electrostatic interactions with Asp 282 and with the reduced cofactor N1 anion. In this work, we probe the effect of the hydrogen bond network at the active site by studying proton exchange with solvent for 2 mutants: Y254F and the recombinant flavodehydrogenase domain, in which this network should be disrupted. The rate of proton exchange, as determined by intermolecular hydrogen transfer experiments, appears identical in the flavodehydrogenase domain and the wild-type enzyme, whereas it is about 3-fold faster in the Y254F mutant. It thus appears that specific hydrogen bonds to the solvent do not play a major role in stabilizing the acid form of His 373 in reduced flavocytochrome b2. Removal of the Y254 phenol group induces a pKa drop of about half a pH unit for His 373 in the reduced enzyme. Even then, the rate of exchange of the imidazolium proton with solvent is still lower by several orders of magnitude than that of a normally ionizing histidine. Other factors must then also contribute to the pKa increase, such as the electrostatic interactions with D282 and the anionic reduced cofactor, as suggested by the crystal structure. PMID:8142887

Balme, A.; Lederer, F.

1994-01-01

180

Effects of 28 Days of Beta-Alanine and Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Muscle Carnosine, Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active Females  

E-print Network

Early research with beta-alanine (beta-ALA) supplementation has shown increases in muscle carnosine as well as improvements in body composition, exercise performance and blood lactate levels. Creatine monohydrate supplementation has been extensively...

Kresta, Julie Yong

2012-07-16

181

Effect of leucine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on oxidative stress and enzymes activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.  

PubMed

Maple Syrup Urine Disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by severe deficiency in the activity of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological disorder is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease. Although leucine is considered the main toxic metabolite, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by leucine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some oxidative stress parameters as well as the activities of some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Leucine administration induced oxidative stress and altered the activities of pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was partially effective in the prevention of some alterations provoked by leucine administration on the oxidative stress but not in the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network. These results suggest that non-treated maternal hyperleucinemia may be toxic to the brain of the offspring. PMID:23277415

de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Vargas, Alessandra Pinto; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Campos, Aline Guimarães; Rech, Virginia Cielo; Feksa, Luciane Rosa; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

2013-03-01

182

Utilization of enzyme cascades for complete oxidation of lactate in an enzymatic biofuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate\\/lactic acid has been considered as a biofuel for enzymatic biofuel cells, but only with single enzyme bioanodes containing lactate dehydrogenase. A single enzyme-based bioanode results in the oxidation of lactate to pyruvate, which only allows for 2 of the total of 12 electrons to be harnessed from the lactate leaving the majority of the energy density of the fuel

Daria Sokic-Lazic; Adalgisa Rodrigues de Andrade; Shelley D. Minteer

183

Enzymes Related to Lactate Metabolism in Green Algae and Lower Land Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained two enzymes capable of oxidizing d-lactate; these were glycolate dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase. The two enzymes could be distinguished by differential centrifugation, glycolate dehydrogenase being largely particulate and NAD+-d-lactate dehydrogenase being soluble. The reduction of pyruvate by NADH proceeded more rapidly than the reverse reaction, and the apparent Michaelis constants for pyruvate and NADH were lower than for d-lactate and NAD+. These data indicated that under physiological conditions, the NAD+-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase probably functions to produce d-lactate from pyruvate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity dependent on NAD+ was found in a number of other green algae and in the green tissues of a few lower land plants. When present in species which contain glycolate oxidase rather than glycolate dehydrogenase, the enzyme was specific for l-lactate rather than d-lactate. A cyclic system revolving around the production and utilization of d-lactate in some species and l-lactate in certain others is proposed. PMID:16658670

Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen; Tolbert, N. E.

1974-01-01

184

Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post- resistance exercise hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat- ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten

Juliano Rodrigues Moreno; Gisela Arsa da Cunha; Pedro Luiz Braga; Carmen Silvia; Grubert Campbell; Herbert Gustavo Simões

185

Comparison of results of the CellTiter Blue, the tetrazolium (3-[4,5-dimethylthioazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), and the lactate dehydrogenase assay applied in brain cells after exposure to advanced glycation endproducts.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) arise in vivo from the reaction of proteins with sugars or dicarbonyl compounds. They are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several binding molecules for AGEs have been described and it is assumed that many of the effects of AGEs are mediated by receptors like the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). AGEs are known to induce the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated glia in the AD brain and thus AGEs affect the cell viability of neurons and glia. In cell culture experiments controversial effects of AGEs on cell growth and viability were reported by different research groups ranging from stimulation to inhibition of the cell viability. In the present study, the effect of in vitro prepared highly modified AGEs on the viability and the membrane integrity of cultured brain cells was investigated. Three different brain cell lines were treated with glucose human serum albumin AGEs (Glc-AGEs) and methyl glyoxal human serum albumin AGEs (MG-AGEs). To investigate the effect of these model AGEs on cell viability the CellTiter Blue (CTB) and the tetrazolium (3-[4,5-dimethylthioazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) were used. The membrane integrity after exposure to AGEs was assayed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. When using the CTB assay for evaluation all AGEs were found to reduce the viability compared with the native protein in all three cell lines. Additionally, all AGEs were found to affect the membrane integrity compared with the native protein in all cell lines. When using the MTT assay for evaluation only MG-AGEs were found to cause a decrease in the viability in all cell lines used. The results of the MTT assay in Glc-AGEs treated cells varied between the cell lines. To gain a deeper understanding of the cellular responses after exposure of cells to AGEs, the present study compares results obtained when using the CTB, the MTT or the LDH assay in identically AGE treated cells. PMID:17391910

Bigl, Katrin; Schmitt, Annett; Meiners, Ina; Münch, Gerald; Arendt, Thomas

2007-08-01

186

Six hours of resting platelet concentrates stored at 22-24 ?C for 48 hours in permeable bags preserved pH, swirling and lactate dehydrogenase better and caused less platelet activation  

PubMed Central

Background During transportation, platelet concentrates (PC) usually undergo a long period without agitation. Whether this interruption improves quality and viability or, contrariwise, has deleterious effects on PC stored for 48 hours (h) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metabolic resting (6 h of interruption of agitation) vs continue agitation of PC stored for 48 h in the blood bank of Tehran. Materials and methods PC were prepared from platelet-rich plasma and stored in permeable bags in a shaker/incubator for 42 h at room temperature (20–24 ºC). Then, simply by stopping the agitator, the PC remained stationary (“resting”) without agitation for 6 h (WCA6h), prior to transfusion. In vitro measurements of platelet quality were carried out just after completion of the resting period and the results were compared with those of PC continuously agitated in the same day (designated as the control group, CA6h). The in vitro variables measured were swirling, ristocetin-induced aggregation (GPIb-related function), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release and P-selectin expression (activation markers). Results The mean platelet counts of the control group (CA6h) and rested (WCA6h) PC were not statistically different (P =0.548). Likewise, the mean pH values were not significantly different: WCA6h (7.16±0.08) and CA6h (7.22±0.16) (P =0.300). Although ristocetin-induced aggregation did not differ significantly between CA6h (79.2±4.4) and WCA6h (66.65±28.55) (P =0.186), WCA6h showed significantly less PFA release (P =0.015) and lower P-selectin expression (P =0.006). Conclusions We observed that PC stored under agitation for 42 h at 22–24 ºC in permeable bags and then rested for 6 h had better preserved pH, swirling and LDH and less platelet activation then PC kept under continuous agitation for the whole 48 h storage period. PMID:23149136

Naghadeh, Hossin T.; Badlou, Bahram A.; Ferizhandy, Ali S.; Mohammadreza, Tabatabai S.; Shahram, Vaeli

2013-01-01

187

The Effect of 7 Days of Creatine Supplementation on 24Hour Urinary Creatine Excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery that oral ingestion of creatine leads to an increase in intramuscular creatine, its supplementation has become widespread. However, the dosage necessary to max- imize retention and create significant increases in intramus- cular creatine is poorly understood. In this study, 24-hour urinary creatine and creatinine levels of 20 university men's football players and 20 university men's hockey players

DARREN G. BURKE; TRUIS SMITH-PALMER; LAURENCE E. HOLT; BRIAN HEAD; PHILIP D. CHILIBECK

2001-01-01

188

INVITED REVIEW The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine  

E-print Network

INVITED REVIEW The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine Theo Wallimann at Springerlink.com Abstract The pleiotropic effects of creatine (Cr) are based mostly on the functions of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK) and its high-energy product phosphocreatine (PCr). Multidisciplinary studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Molecular Model of Creatine Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules for this month come from the paper Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment by Andri Smith and Paula Tan on the synthesis of creatine in introductory organic chemistry. This synthesis is sufficiently straightforward to be used in non-majors and general chemistry courses. The structures illustrate some of the limitations associated with the computation of molecular structure. The two adenosine phosphates ADP and ATP exhibit a large number of conformations due to rotation of the adenine system around the bond to the ribose ring, multiple rotational conformations in the phosphate groups, the ionic state of the compound, and the interaction with the solvent or another species such as creatine. The structures that are given for ADP and ATP are derived from PM3MM calculations and are very similar to those derived using the UFF force field. Sarcosine, creatine, and creatine phosphate were treated using the model chemistry B3LYP/6-31+G(d). Perhaps the most interesting structural feature is found in the small molecule cyanamide. Observant students might notice in the Web-based structure that the NCN grouping in cyanamide is non-linear, with an angle of about 177°. This is found for essentially all levels of theory we examined up through the G2 combined model. For students who do notice this deviation from linearity it is useful to ask them whether they are surprised, ask them to defend their answer, send them to the literature to see whether such behavior is seen for cyanamide in other phases (it is), and finally to speculate on possible explanations for the observed non-linearity.

190

Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung  

SciTech Connect

Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

1986-05-01

191

Free creatine available to the creatine phosphate energy shuttle in isolated rat atria  

SciTech Connect

To measure the actual percentage of intracellular free creatine participating in the process of energy transport, the incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C)creatine into the free creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) pools in spontaneously beating isolated rat atria, under various conditions, was examined. The atria were subjected to three consecutive periods, control, anoxia, and postanoxic recover, in medium containing tracers of (1-{sup 14}C)creatine. The tissue content and specific activity of creatine and PCr were determined at the end of each period. The higher specific activity found for tissue PCr (1.87 times) than creatine, independent of the percentage of total intracellular creatine that was present as free creatine, provides evidence for the existence of two separate pools of free creatine. Analysis of the data shows that in the normal oxygenated state {approx} 9% of the total intracellular creatine is actually free to participate in the process of energy transport (shuttle pool). About 36% of the total creatine is bound to unknown intracellular components and the rest exists as PCr. The creatine that was taken up and the creatine that was released from the breakdown of PCr have much greater access to the site of phosphorylation than the rest of the intracellular creatine. A sharp increase in the specific activity of residual PCr on prolongation of anoxic time was also observed. This provides evidence for a nonhomogeneous pool of PCr, for the most recently formed (radioactive) PCr appeared to be hydrolyzed last.

Savabi, F. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1988-10-01

192

The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation on performance during 3, 30 s bouts maximal isokinetic cycling and on plasma ammonia and blood lactate accumulation during exercise was investigated. Placebo (P) ingestion had no effect on peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO) and total work output during each bout of exercise. Cr ingestion (4 × 5 g.day–1 for

R. Birch; D. Noble; P. L. Greenhaff

1994-01-01

193

D-lactate metabolism in the alga, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 14/C)D-lactate rapidly accumulates in Chlamydomonas cells under anaerobic conditions from the sugar-phosphate pools which are labeled during photosynthesis with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. A soluble D-lactate dehydrogenase (30 ..mu..mol NADH oxidized/h/mg Chl), which functions only in the direction of pyruvate reduction, has been partially purified and characterized. The D-lactate is reoxidized in Chlamydomonas by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase. This enzyme is known in the plant literature as glycolate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the oxidative photosynthetic carbon (C/sub 2/) cycle. This dehydrogenase may be linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain, although the direct electron acceptor is unknown. Therefore, D-lactate accumulation may be, in part, due to the shut down of electron transport during anaerobiosis. In vivo chase experiments have shown that the D-lactate turns over rapidly when algal cells, which have been grown with air levels of CO/sub 2/ (0.04%), are returned to aerobic conditions in the light. Such turnover is not observed in cells which had been grown with 1 to 5% CO/sub 2/. Cells grown with high CO/sub 2/ have lower levels of glycolate dehydrogenase activity. They are currently using mutants of Chlamydomonas deficient in mitochondrial respiration to study the role of D-lactate oxidation in these algae.

Husic, D.W.; Tolbert, N.E.

1986-05-01

194

Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

CREATINE kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2), an enzyme important for energy metabolism in cells of high and fluctuating energy requirements, catalyses the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl goup from phosphocreatine to ADP1-3. We have solved the structure of the octameric mitochondrial isoform, Mib-CK, which is located in the intermembrane compartment and along the cristae membranes. Mib-CK consumes ATP produced in the

Karin Fritz-Wolf; Thomas Schnyder; Theo Wallimann; Wolfgang Kabsch

1996-01-01

195

Pyruvate into lactate and back: From the Warburg effect to symbiotic energy fuel exchange in cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells fuel their metabolism with glucose and glutamine to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferation. Hypoxia and oncogenic mutations drive glycolysis, with the pyruvate to lactate conversion being promoted by increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The NAD+ pool is consecutively regenerated and supports the high glycolytic flux required to produce anabolic

Olivier Feron

2009-01-01

196

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or...

2011-04-01

197

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or...

2013-04-01

198

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or...

2014-04-01

199

Lactate production and measurement in critically ill horses.  

PubMed

Blood lactate concentration can be easily measured by practitioners using inexpensive point-of-care meters. Anaerobic tissue metabolism resulting from inadequate oxygen delivery (DO2) is the most important cause of an increase in blood lactate concentration in equine patients. However,hyperlactatemia also occurs under conditions of apparently adequate DO2, usually in association with sepsis and an intense inflammatory reaction. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed for aerobic hyperlactatemia, including increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity in response to inflammatory mediators; inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in glucose metabolism; and increased lactate production by activated inflammatory cells. The liver is responsible for most lactate metabolism, and liver disease might contribute to an increase in blood lactate concentration in some patients. Skeletal muscle is usually considered the most important source of lactate during sepsis. The roles of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract in lactate production have been investigated but remain uncertain. PMID:22180135

Tennent-Brown, Brent S

2011-12-01

200

Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

2012-03-20

201

Functional Insights into the Creatine Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine and phosphocreatine provide an intracellular, high-energy phosphate buffering system, essential to maintain ATP levels\\u000a in tissues with high energy demands. A specific plasma membrane creatine transporter (CRT) is required for the cellular uptake\\u000a of creatine. This transporter is related to the \\\\UPgamma -aminobutyric acid (GAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and\\u000a is part of a large gene family of Na+-

David L. Christie

202

Utilization of Lactate Isomers by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii: Regulatory Role for Intracellular Pyruvate.  

PubMed

Five strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii utilized the l-(+) isomer of lactate at a faster rate than they did the d-(-) isomer when grown with a mixture of lactate isomers under a variety of conditions. ATCC 9614, grown anaerobically in defined medium containing 160 mM dl-lactate, utilized only 4 and 15% of the d-(-)-lactate by the time 50 and 90%, respectively, of the l-(+)-lactate was used. The intracellular pyruvate concentration was high (>100 mM) in the initial stages of lactate utilization, when either dl-lactate or the l-(+) isomer was the starting substrate. The concentration of this intermediate dropped during dl-lactate fermentation such that when only d-(-)-lactate remained, the concentration was <20 mM. When only the d-(-) isomer was initially present, a similar relatively low concentration of intracellular pyruvate was present, even at the start of lactate utilization. The NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenase activities in extracts showed different kinetic properties with regard to pyruvate inhibition, depending upon the lactate isomer present. Pyruvate gave a competitive inhibitor pattern with l-(+)-lactate and a mixed-type inhibitor pattern with d-(-)-lactate. It is suggested that these properties of the lactate dehydrogenases and the intracellular pyruvate concentrations explain the preferential use of the l-(+) isomer. PMID:16347134

Crow, V L

1986-08-01

203

Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection  

E-print Network

Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection criterion for stress susceptibility July 1991) Summary ― Estimation of serum creatine kinase isoenzyme activity was used sensitivity. creatine kinase isoenzymes / pig / standardized stress / halothane anaesthesia / ACTH / syn

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Newborn Screening Stategies for Disorders of Creatine Metabolism.  

E-print Network

??Creatine is necessary to transfer energy between cellularcompartments. Creatine is converted to phosphocreatine by the creatinekinase reaction within mitochondria and phosphocreatine generatesadenosine triphosphate (ATP) in… (more)

Bentley, Rebecca L.

2011-01-01

205

Caffeine and Creatine Use in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Caffeine and creatine are 2 of the most widely available and used compounds in sport. Although the use of either is not considered a doping infraction, the evidence does suggest ergogenic potential in certain sports. The purpose of this paper is to review the pharmacology and potential mechanism(s) of action of caffeine and creatine as they pertain to possible

Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2010-01-01

206

Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the lct locus at min 80 on the chromosome map is associated with ability to grow on L-lactate and to synthesize a substrate-inducible flavin-linked dehydrogenase. Similar to that of the glpD-encoded aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of induced enzyme activity is elevated by aerobiosis. Both of these controls are mediated by the two-component signal transduction system ArcB/ArcA, although sensitivity to the control is much more striking for L-lactate dehydrogenase. This study disclosed that the lct locus contained three overlapping genes in the clockwise order of lctD (encoding a flavin mononucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase), lctR (encoding a putative regulator), and lctP (encoding a permease) on the chromosomal map. These genes, however, are transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. No homology in amino acid sequence was found between aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. A phi (lctD-lac) mutant was inducible by L-lactate but not D-lactate. Although the mutant lost the ability to grow on L-lactate, growth on D-lactate, known to depend on a different enzyme, remained normal. Images PMID:8407843

Dong, J M; Taylor, J S; Latour, D J; Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

1993-01-01

207

Comprehensive review on lactate metabolism in human health.  

PubMed

Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Monocarboxylate transporters are being investigated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy of these and other disorders. Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption. Lactate removal takes place via its oxidation to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate may be either oxidized to carbon dioxide producing energy or transformed into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation requires oxygen supply and the cooperation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. Congenital or acquired deficiency on gluconeogenesis or pyruvate oxidation, including tissue hypoxia, may induce lactate accumulation. Both obese individuals and patients with diabetes show elevated plasma lactate concentration compared to healthy subjects, but there is no conclusive evidence of hyperlactatemia causing insulin resistance. Available evidence suggests an association between defective mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the pancreatic ?-cells and diminished insulin secretion that may trigger the development of diabetes in patients already affected with insulin resistance. Several mutations in the mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus, although the pathogenesis remains unsettled. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. d-lactate is a lactate enantiomer normally formed during glycolysis. Excess d-lactate is generated in diabetes, particularly during diabetic ketoacidosis. d-lactic acidosis is typically associated with small bowel resection. PMID:24929216

Adeva-Andany, M; López-Ojén, M; Funcasta-Calderón, R; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, E; Donapetry-García, C; Vila-Altesor, M; Rodríguez-Seijas, J

2014-07-01

208

Creatine as a therapeutic strategy for myopathies.  

PubMed

Myopathies are genetic or acquired disorders of skeletal muscle that lead to varying degrees of weakness, atrophy, and exercise intolerance. In theory, creatine supplementation could have a number of beneficial effects that could enhance function in myopathy patients, including muscle mass, strength and endurance enhancement, lower calcium levels, anti-oxidant effects, and reduced apoptosis. Patients with muscular dystrophy respond to several months of creatine monohydrate supplementation (~0.075-0.1 g/kg/day) with greater strength (~9%) and fat-free mass (~0.63 kg). Patients with myotonic dystrophy do not show as consistent an effect, possibly due to creatine transport issues. Creatine monohydrate supplementation shows modest benefits only at lower doses and possibly negative effects (cramping) at higher doses in McArdle's disease patients. Patients with MELAS syndrome show some evidence of benefit from creatine supplementation in exercise capacity, with the effects in patients with CPEO being less robust, again, possibly due to limited muscle creatine uptake. The evidence for side effects or negative impact upon serological metrics from creatine supplementation in all groups of myopathy patients is almost non-existent and pale in comparison to the very substantial and well-known side effects from our current chemotherapeutic interventions for some myopathies (i.e., corticosteroids). PMID:21399918

Tarnopolsky, M A

2011-05-01

209

Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine kinase catalyses the reversible transphosphorylation of creatine by ATP. In the cell, creatine kinase isoenzymes are specifically localized at strategic sites of ATP consumption to efficiently regenerate ATP in situ via phosphocreatine or at sites of ATP generation to build-up a phosphocreatine pool. Accordingly, the creatine kinase\\/phosphocreatine system plays a key role in cellular energy buffering and energy transport,

Robert H. Andres; Angélique D. Ducray; Uwe Schlattner; Theo Wallimann; Hans Rudolf Widmer

2008-01-01

210

RESEARCH Open Access Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine: creatinine ratios were-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) but no AGAT (GATM) [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

2014-04-01

212

Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubtful allegations of adverse effects of creatine supplementation have been released through the press media and through\\u000a scientific publications. In the present review we have tried to separate the wheat from the chaff by looking for the experimental\\u000a evidence of any such claims. Anecdotal reports from athletes have appeared on muscle cramp and gastrointestinal complaints\\u000a during creatine supplementation, but the

Hyo Jeong Kim; Chang Keun Kim; A. Carpentier; Jacques R. Poortmans

2011-01-01

213

Efficient Production of Pyruvate from DL-Lactate by the Lactate-Utilizing Strain Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM  

PubMed Central

Background The platform chemical lactate is currently produced mainly through the fermentation of sugars presented in biomass. Besides the synthesis of biodegradable polylactate, lactate is also viewed as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Pyruvate, another important platform chemical, can be produced from lactate through biocatalysis. Methodology/Principal Findings It was established that whole cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM catalyze lactate oxidation with lactate-induced NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases (iLDHs) through the inherent electron transfer chain. Unlike the lactate oxidation processes observed in previous reports, the mechanism underlying lactate oxidation described in the present study excluded the costliness of the cofactor regeneration step and production of the byproduct hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions/Significance Biocatalysis conditions were optimized by using the cheap dl-lactate as the substrate and whole cells of the lactate-utilizing P. stutzeri SDM as catalyst. Under optimal conditions, the biocatalytic process produced pyruvate at a high concentration (48.4 g l?1) and a high yield (98%). The bioconversion system provides a promising alternative for the green production of pyruvate. PMID:22792404

Gao, Chao; Qiu, Jianhua; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2012-01-01

214

Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20–100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts were protected against I/R injury in vivo in a dose-dependent manner (average 27% less myocardial necrosis) and exhibited greatly improved functional recovery following ex vivo I/R (59% of baseline vs. 29%). Mechanisms contributing to ischaemic protection in CrT-OE hearts include elevated PCr and glycogen levels and improved energy reserve. Furthermore, creatine loading in HL-1 cells did not alter antioxidant defences, but delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in response to oxidative stress, suggesting an additional mechanism to prevent reperfusion injury. Conclusion Elevation of myocardial creatine by 20–100% reduced myocardial stunning and I/R injury via pleiotropic mechanisms, suggesting CrT activation as a novel, potentially translatable target for cardiac protection from ischaemia. PMID:22915766

Lygate, Craig A.; Bohl, Steffen; ten Hove, Michiel; Faller, Kiterie M.E.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Zervou, Sevasti; Medway, Debra J.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan

2012-01-01

215

[High-efficiency L-lactate production from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

High-efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate is beneficial for the development of both oil hydrolysis industry and biodegradable materials manufacturing industry. In order to construct an L-lactate producer, we first cloned a coding region of gene BcoaLDH encoding an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans CICIM B1821 and the promoter sequence (P(ldhA)) of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhA) from Escherichia coli CICIM B0013. Then we assembled these two DNA fragments in vitro and yielded an expression cassette, P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH. Then, the cassette was chromosomally integrated into an ldhA mutant strain, Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-080C, by replacing lldD encoding an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. An L-lactate higher-producer strain, designated as E. coli B0013-090B, possessing genotype of lldD::P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH, deltaack-pta deltapps deltapflB deltadld deltapoxB deltaadhE deltafrdA and deltaldhA, was generated. Under the optimal condition, 132.4 g/L L-lactate was accumulated by B0013-090B with the lactate productivity of 4.90 g/Lh and the yield of 93.7% in 27 h from glycerol. The optical purity of L-lactate in broth is above 99.95%. PMID:24409690

Tian, Kangming; Shi, Guiyang; Lu, Fuping; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-09-01

216

Physicochemical characterization of creatine N-methylguanidinium salts.  

PubMed

Creatine is widely used as a dietary supplement for body builders to enhance athletic performance. As the monohydrate, its low solubility in water and high dose lead to water retention and gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, alternative creatine derivatives with enhanced water solubility and potential therapeutic advantages have been synthesized. As a zwitterionic compound, creatine can form salts at the N-methyl guanidinium or carboxylic acid functional groups. In this study, we determined the aqueous solubilities and partition coefficients of six N-methyl guanidinium salts of creatine compared to those of creatine monohydrate; two of these were new salts, namely, creatine mesylate and creatine hydrogen maleate. The aqueous solubilities of the salts were significantly more than that of creatine monohydrate with the hydrochloride and mesylate being 38 and 30 times more soluble, respectively. The partition coefficients of the creatine salts were very low indicating their relatively high polarity. Permeabilities of creatine pyruvate, citrate, and hydrochloride in Caco-2 monolayers were compared to that of creatine monohydrate. Aside from the creatine citrate salt form that had reduced permeability, there were no significant differences in permeability characteristics in Caco-2 monolayers. Typical of an amphoteric compound, creatine is least soluble in the pH region near the isoelectric point. PMID:22432515

Gufford, Brandon T; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Miller, Nicholas J; Miller, Donald W; Gu, Xiaochen; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Robinson, Dennis H

2010-09-01

217

Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  

PubMed Central

Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

Allen, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

218

Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  

PubMed

Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

Allen, Patricia J

2012-05-01

219

[Whey protein and creatine as nutritional supplements].  

PubMed

Nutritional supplements are very popular especially among athletes although some studies show either controversial or even negative results. However, whey protein and creatine seem to have positive effects on muscle size, strength and athletic performance without major adverse effects and high costs. Most studies have shown that supplementation of whey protein can enhance muscle growth in response to resistance training. Some studies also suggest that whey may enhance recovery from heavy exercise and possibly decrease muscle damage and soreness. Creatine supplementation increases the intracellular pool of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle. Phosphocreatine provides a reserve of energy to rapidly regenerate ATP, which is consumed as a result of muscle contraction. Creatine has been studied in hundreds of clinical trials and has shown benefits including increased muscle strength, power and size. PMID:21553504

Sundell, Jan; Hulmi, Juha; Rossi, Jari

2011-01-01

220

Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ? 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p < 0.001). CRF group showed a significant increase in bench press 1RM from T1-T2 (p < 0.001), and also increased from T2-T3 (p = 0.032). Leg press 1RM significantly increased at all time points for PL, CRD, and CRF groups (p < 0.05). No additional between or within group changes were observed for any performance variables and serum clinical safety profiles (p > 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

2011-01-01

221

A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.  

PubMed

The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress. PMID:25214213

Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

2014-12-01

222

Ergogenic Effects of Creatine in Sports and Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily oral ingestion of supplementary creatine monohydrate can substantially elevate the creatine content of human skeletal\\u000a muscle. This chapter aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the impact muscle creatine loading can have on exercise\\u000a performance and rehabilitation. The major part of the elevation of muscle creatine content is already obtained after one week\\u000a of supplementation, and the response

Peter Hespel; Wim Derave

223

Cerebral Creatine Deficiency Syndromes: Clinical Aspects, Treatment and Pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDSs) are a group of inborn errors of creatine metabolism comprising two autosomal\\u000a recessive disorders that affect the biosynthesis of creatine – i.e. arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency (AGAT;\\u000a MIM 602360) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT; MIM 601240) – and an X-linked defect that affects the\\u000a creatine transporter, SLC6A8 deficiency (SLC6A8; MIM 300036). The biochemical hallmarks of these

Sylvia Stockler; Peter W. Schutz; Gajja S. Salomons

224

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated

Richard B. Kreider

2003-01-01

225

Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with intermittent moderate-intensity exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, effort and salivary concentrations of cortisol and melatonin were examined. Subjects were divided into a creatine supplementation group and a placebo group. They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate or a placebo, dependent on their group, four times a day for 7 days

T. McMorris; R. C. Harris; A. N. Howard; G. Langridge; B. Hall; J. Corbett; M. Dicks; C. Hodgson

2007-01-01

226

Creatine supplementation alters insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary creatine supplementation has been used to improve skeletal muscle performance. However, dietary creatine manipulation also affects glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary creatine supplementation on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and quadriceps glycogen metabolism in chow-fed rats. Forty-eight rats in total were divided into 2 groups of 24 and were then subdivided

Kieron Rooney; Janet Bryson; Jenny Phuyal; Gareth Denyer; Ian Caterson; Campbell Thompson

2002-01-01

227

Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of studies have been published on creatine supplementation over the last decade. Many studies show that creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training augments gains in muscle strength and size. The underlying physiological mechanism(s) to explain this ergogenic effect remain unclear. Increases in muscle fiber hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain expression have been observed with creatine supplementation.

Jeff S. Volek; Eric S. Rawson

2004-01-01

228

Aerobic Training, But Not Creatine, Modifies Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate by means of an ultrasound examination the composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 12 purebred Arabian horses submitted to aerobic training for 90 days, with and without creatine supplementation. Creatine supplementation was carried out by daily administration of 75 g creatine monohydrate mixed into the ration during 90 days of training.

Flora H. F. D'Angelis; Marcílio D. S. Mota; Eduardo V. V. Freitas; Guilherme C. Ferraz; André R. Abrahão; José C. Lacerda-Neto; Antonio Queiroz-Neto

2007-01-01

229

Original article Compared kinetics of plasma creatine kinase activity  

E-print Network

Original article Compared kinetics of plasma creatine kinase activity in rabbits after intravenous 1993) Summary ― The purpose of this study was to compare the disposition parameters of creatine muscle damage. creatine kinase / kinetics / muscle damage / rabbit Résumé ― Cinétiques comparées

Boyer, Edmond

230

Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation (CrS) could improve mechanical power output, and swimming performance in highly trained junior competitive fin swimmers. Sixteen male fin swimmers (age:15.9+/-1.6 years) were randomly and evenly assigned to either a creatine (CR, 4x5 g/day creatine monohydrate for 5 days) or placebo group (P, same dose of a dextrose-ascorbic acid placebo) in a double-blind research. Before and after CrS the average power output was determined by a Bosco-test and the swimming time was measured in two maximal 100 m fin swims. After five days of CrS the average power of one minute continuous rebound jumps increased by 20.2%. The lactate concentration was significantly less after 5 minutes restitution at the second measurement in both groups. The swimming time was significantly reduced in both first (pre: 50.69+/-1.41 s; post: 48.86+/-1.34 s) and second (pre: 50.39+/-1.38 s; post: 48.53+/-1.35 s) sessions of swimming in CR group, but remained almost unchanged in the P group.The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers. PMID:19706374

Juhász, Imre; Györe, I; Csende, Zs; Rácz, L; Tihanyi, J

2009-09-01

231

Comparison of Different Forms of Creatine on Creatine Availability, Retention, and Training Adaptations  

E-print Network

as well. For example, Birch et al. found lower plasma ammonia levels following 3 successive 30 sec bouts of maximal effort isokinetic cycling following creatine loading ( 20 g/d for 5 days) [63]. The authors suggested these results indicate... as protein and carbohydrates (1.5 g/kg/d) during a resistance training program [85]. Burke et al. observed significantly greater improvements in lean body mass, bench press 1RM and isokinetic strength following 6 weeks of resistance training and creatine...

Jagim, Andrew Ryan

2013-03-25

232

Glycoprotein Expression in Human Milk During Lactation  

PubMed Central

While milk proteins have been studied for decades, strikingly little effort has been applied to determining how the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of these proteins may change during the course of lactation. PTMs, particularly glycosylation, can greatly influence protein structure, function, and stability and can particularly influence the gut where their degradation products are potentially bioactive. In this work, previously undiscovered temporal variations in both expression and glycosylation of the glycoproteome of human milk are observed. Lactoferrin, one of the most abundant glycoproteins in human milk, is shown to be dynamically glycosylated during the first ten days of lactation. Variations in expression or glycosylation levels are also demonstrated for several other abundant whey proteins, including tenascin, bile salt-stimulated lipase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and mannose receptor. PMID:20415418

Froehlich, John W.; Dodds, Eric D.; Barboza, Mariana; McJimpsey, Erica L.; Seipert, Richard R.; Francis, Jimi; An, Hyun Joo; Freeman, Samara; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

2010-01-01

233

Isolation of a lactic dehydrogenase-A-deficient CHO-K1 mutant by nylon cloth replica plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell deficient in lactate dehydrogenase A activity has been isolated using a nonselective technique. The method uses histochemical staining to examine colonies directly for enzyme activity and nylon cloth replica plating to recover particular clones. The mutant cell has an apparent Km (pyruvate to lactate) that is nearly tenfold higher than the parental cell, while

T. D. Stamato; Carol Jones

1977-01-01

234

Maternal Dietary Creatine Supplementation Does Not Alter the Capacity for Creatine Synthesis in the Newborn Spiny Mouse  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that maternal creatine supplementation protects the neonate from hypoxic injury. Here, we investigated whether maternal creatine supplementation altered expression of the creatine synthesis enzymes (arginine:glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoaceteate methyltransferase [GAMT]) and the creatine transporter (solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, creatine] member 8: SLC6A8) in the term offspring. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a 5% creatine monohydrate diet from midgestation (day 20) to term (39 days). Placentas and neonatal kidney, liver, heart, and brain collected at 24 hours of age underwent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Maternal creatine had no effect on the expression of AGAT and GAMT in neonatal kidney and liver, but mRNA expression of AGAT in brain tissues was significantly decreased in both male and female neonates born to mothers who were fed the creatine diet. SLC6A8 expression was not affected by maternal dietary creatine loading in any tissues. Maternal dietary creatine supplementation from midgestation in the spiny mouse did not alter the capacity for creatine synthesis or transport. PMID:23427185

Dickinson, Hayley; Ireland, Zoe J.; LaRosa, Domenic A.; O'Connell, Bree A.; Ellery, Stacey; Snow, Rod; Walker, David W.

2013-01-01

235

LACTATE-DEGRADING SYSTEM IN BUTYRIBACTERIUM RETTGERI SUBJECT TO GLUCOSE REPRESSION  

PubMed Central

Wittenberger, Charles L. (National Institute of Dental Research, U.S. Public Health Service, Bethesda, Md.), and Ann S. Haaf. Lactate-degrading system in Butyribacterium rettgeri subject to glucose repression. J. Bacteriol. 88:896–903. 1964.—The ability of Butyribacterium rettgeri to utilize lactate as the main energy source for growth requires the formation of a lactate-degrading system. The precise nature of this system is unknown, but preliminary evidence suggests that cellular acquisition of lactate-decomposing activity involves the formation of a nonpyridine nucleotide-linked lactic dehydrogenase. This enzyme, which can couple lactate oxidation to the reduction of ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6-lactic de-hydrogenase (LDH)], is absent from glucose-grown cells; this observation appears to account for the inability of such cells to decompose lactate even though they may form lactate from glucose. The formation of K3Fe(CN)6-LDH in growing cultures requires the addition of lipoic acid to the medium, and is repressed by glucose, pyruvate, or fructose. When any of the latter substrates are included in the growth medium with lactate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked LDH activity is present in cells at markedly higher levels than it is in cells grown on lactate alone. PMID:14219052

Wittenberger, Charles L.; Haaf, Ann S.

1964-01-01

236

Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

Meany, J. E.

2007-01-01

237

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt...

2011-04-01

238

The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

Wolf, Edward C.

1988-01-01

239

Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

Ma, L.

2000-09-12

240

RNA silencing of lactate dehydrogenase gene in Rhizopus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus, belonging to the order Mucorales. It can ferment a wide range of carbohydrates hydrolyzed from lignocellulosic materials and even cellobiose to produce ethanol. However, R. oryzae also produces lactic acid as a major metabolite, which reduces the yield of ethanol. In this study, we show that significant reduction of lactic acid production could be achieved by short (25nt) synthetic siRNAs targeting the ldhA gene. The average yield of lactic acid production by R. oryzae during the batch fermentation process, where glucose had been used as a sole carbon source, diminished from 0.07gm/gm in wild type to 0.01gm/gm in silenced samples. In contrast, the average yield of ethanol production increased from 0.39gm/gm in wild type to 0.45gm/gm in silenced samples. These results show 85.7% (gm/gm) reduction in lactic acid production as compared with the wild type R. oryzae, while an increase of 15.4% (gm/gm) in ethanol yield. PMID:21769297

Gheinani, Ali Hashemi; Jahromi, Neda Haghayegh; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2011-01-01

241

Fiber optic biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and L-lactate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical fiber biosensor for the selective determination of hydrogen peroxide has been developed as the base sensor for the construction of multienzyme optodes involving lactate converting enzymes for the analysis of lactic acid. The optode uses the H2O2 dependent oxidation of homovanillic acid by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the sensing reaction. The fluorescence of the dimeric product formed is used as the measuring signal related to the concentration of H2O2. HRP was immobilized on a membrane and combined with a bifurcated fiber optic probe. Under optimized conditions the sensor responds linearly to hydrogen peroxide between 1 micrometers ol/l and 0.12 mmol/l and exhibits a half life of 90 days. Using a lactate oxidase-HRP membrane, the sensor is suitable for lactate measurement with a linear range of 3 micrometers ol/l-0.2 mmol/l. To increase the sensitivity for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase was coimmobilized on the sensor membrane. In the presence of NADH the signal for lactate is amplified fourfold through the internal analyte recycling accomplished by the lactate-converting enzymes.

Schubert, Florian; Rinneberg, Herbert H.; Wang, Fang

1995-02-01

242

Functional Aspects of Creatine Kinase in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinct isoenzyme-specific localization of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes found recently in brain suggests an important function for CK in brain energetics and points to adaptation of the CK system to the special energy requirements of different neuronal and glial cell types. For example, the presence of brain-type B-CK in Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes is very likely related to

Wolfram Hemmer; Theo Wallimann

1993-01-01

243

Effect of antidiuresis on renal creatine metabolism.  

PubMed

The current work investigates whether creatine metabolism is involved in renal adaptation to dehydration. Wistar rats were either deprived of water or induced to drink water abundantly during 60 h. Cortical and medullar mRNA levels of Na(+)/Cl(-)/creatine transporter (CRT), l-arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and of the tonicity sensitive genes coding for aquaporin 2, Na(+)/Cl(-)/betaine transporter and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase were measured by real-time PCR assays. The activity of the CRT and that of Na(+)/alpha-methyl-glucose transporter were evaluated in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. In water loaded animals, the mRNA levels of AGAT and CRT, and the activity of the CRT were greater in the cortex than in the medulla. GAMT mRNA levels were of similar magnitude and lower than those of AGAT mRNA. Dehydration decreased cortical and medullar AGAT and CRT mRNA levels and CRT activity and it did no affect GAMT mRNA abundance. These decreases were creatine specific because dehydration increased Na(+)/alpha-methyl-glucose transporter activity and the mRNA abundance of aquaporin 2, Na(+)/Cl(-)/betaine transporter and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that: i) the kidneys express significant amounts of GAMT mRNA, ii) dehydration down-regulates the expression of AGAT gene and iii) dehydration down-regulates CRT gene expression and activity. PMID:20228419

Garcia-Miranda, P; Peral, M J; Ilundain, A A

2010-02-01

244

Creatine supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic creatine ingestion in vivo: Down-regulation of the expression of creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in creatine (Cr) as a nutritional supplement and ergogenic aid for athletes has surged over recent years. After cellular uptake, Cr is phosphorylated to phosphocreatine (PCr) by the creatine kinase (CK) reaction using ATP. At subcellular sites with high energy requirements, e.g. at the myofibrillar apparatus during muscle contraction, CK catalyzes the transphosphorylation of PCr to ADP to regenerate

Maria Lourdes Guerrero-Ontiveros; Theo Wallimann

1998-01-01

245

Creatine supplementation affects sprint endurance in juvenile rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerling rainbow trout were supplemented with equal amounts of creatine (Cr) by two routes: dietary (12.5 mg Cr per g food); or intraperitoneal injection (0.5 mg Cr per g fish). Endurance in a fixed velocity sprint test (at a speed of 7 BL s?1), and resting levels of white muscle metabolites (total creatine [a measure of free creatine plus phosphocreatine

W. J McFarlane; G. J. F Heigenhauser; D. G McDonald

2001-01-01

246

THE EFFECT OF CREATINE INGESTION ON RUGBY-SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bennett C. The Effect of Creatine Ingestion on Rugby-Specific Performance, Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research, 2008; 3(2): 34-45. Purpose: At this moment in time, there has been no actual scientific evidence that creatine supplementation has an adverse effects on the human body. There is considerable but not unanimous support for creatine as an ergogenic aid (6) and shortage of scientific

CHRIS BENNETT

247

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

248

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

249

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

250

On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H 2O or D 2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D 2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

2001-03-01

251

Detection of intracellular lactate with localized diffusion { 1H- 13C}-spectroscopy in rat glioma in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion characteristic of lactate and alanine in a brain tumor model to that of normal brain metabolites known to be mainly intracellular such as N-acetylaspartate or creatine. The diffusion of 13C-labeled metabolites was measured in vivo with localized NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 T (400 MHz) using a previously described localization and editing pulse sequence known as ACED-STEAM ('adiabatic carbon editing and decoupling'). 13C-labeled glucose was administered and the apparent diffusion coefficients of the glycolytic products, { 1H- 13C}-lactate and { 1H- 13C}-alanine, were determined in rat intracerebral 9L glioma. To obtain insights into { 1H- 13C}-lactate compartmentation (intra- versus extracellular), the pulse sequence used very large diffusion weighting (50 ms/?m 2). Multi-exponential diffusion attenuation of the lactate metabolite signals was observed. The persistence of a lactate signal at very large diffusion weighting provided direct experimental evidence of significant intracellular lactate concentration. To investigate the spatial distribution of lactate and other metabolites, 1H spectroscopic images were also acquired. Lactate and choline-containing compounds were consistently elevated in tumor tissue, but not in necrotic regions and surrounding normal-appearing brain. Overall, these findings suggest that lactate is mainly associated with tumor tissue and that within the time-frame of these experiments at least some of the glycolytic product ([ 13C] lactate) originates from an intracellular compartment.

Pfeuffer, Josef; Lin, Joseph C.; DelaBarre, Lance; Ugurbil, Kamil; Garwood, Michael

2005-11-01

252

Proton MR spectroscopy reveals lactate in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD).  

PubMed

Changes of cerebral metabolites detected by proton MR spectroscopy in two cases of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy are described. A 6 11/12-year-old boy and a girl (aged 4 1/12 years at the first and 5 2/12 years at the second examination) with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the basal ganglia. The signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex was increased on T2-weighted, proton density, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The long echo time (135 ms) spectra revealed the presence of lactate in the basal ganglia of both cases in all investigations. The N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio was reduced in Case 1 and in the second investigation of Case 2. The choline/creatine ratio was always increased. As the diagnosis of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is made by a synopsis of various clinical, neuropathological, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological data, the presence of lactate in the basal ganglia spectra may help to narrow down the diagnosis and can support the decision to perform more invasive diagnostic procedures (such as biopsies of skin, conjunctiva or even of the brain). PMID:11414651

Mader, I; Krägeloh-Mann, I; Seeger, U; Bornemann, A; Nägele, T; Küker, W; Grodd, W

2001-04-01

253

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

254

Metabolism of D-lactate and structurally related organic acids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

During the initial minutes of anaerobiosis, /sup 14/C-labeled D-lactate, derived from the photosynthetic sugar phosphate pool, accumulated in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The production of the D-isomer of lactate by algae is in contrast to plant and mammalian cells in which L-lactate is formed. After initial lactate formation, Chlamydomonas exhibits a mixed-acid type fermentation, thereby avoiding lactate accumulation and enabling the cells to tolerate extended periods of anaerobiosis. A pyruvate reductase which catalyzes the formation of D-lactate in Chlamydomonas was partially purified and characterized. Lactate produced anaerobically was metabolized only when Chlamydomonas cells were returned to aerobic conditions, and reoxidation of the D-lactate was apparently catalyzed by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase, rather than by the soluble pyruvate reductase. Mutants of Chlamydomonas, deficient in mitochondrial respiration, were used to demonstrate that lactate metabolism was linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In addition, the oxidation of glycolate, a structural analog of lactate, was also linked to mitochondrial electron transport in vivo.

Husic, D.W.

1986-01-01

255

A Novel Relationship Between Creatine Transport at the Blood-Brain and Blood-Retinal Barriers, Creatine Biosynthesis, And its Use for Brain and Retinal Energy Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is increasing that the creatine\\/phosphocreatine shuttle system plays an essential role in energy homeostasis in the\\u000a brain and retina to ensure proper development and function. Thus, our understanding of the mechanism of creatine supply and\\u000a creatine usage in the brain and retina and of creatine supplementation in patients with creatine deficiency syndromes is an\\u000a important step towards improved therapeutic

Masanori Tachikawa; Ken-Ichi Hosoya; Sumio Ohtsuki; Tetsuya Terasaki

256

Alternative schemes of butyrate production in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and their relationship to acetate utilization, lactate production, and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains D1 and A38 produced little lactate, but strain 49 converted as much as 75% of its glucose to lactate. Strain 49 had\\u000a tenfold more lactate dehydrogenase activity than strains D1 or A38, this activity was stimulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate,\\u000a and had a pH optimum of 6.25. A role for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or pH regulation of lactate production

Francisco Diez-Gonzalez; Daniel R. Bond; Elizabeth Jennings; James B. Russell

1999-01-01

257

Creatine kinase, cell membrane and Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1958 Professor Setsuro Ebashi found that serum creatine kinase activity is increased in patients suffering from various muscular dystrophies, especially Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). He and others proposed that creatine kinase passes through the cell membrane as it is released from DMD muscle fibers.

Eijiro Ozawa; Yasuko Hagiwara; Mikiharu Yoshida

1999-01-01

258

A potential role for creatine in drug abuse?  

PubMed

Supplemental creatine has been promoted for its positive health effects and is best known for its use by athletes to increase muscle mass. In addition to its role in physical performance, creatine supplementation has protective effects on the brain in models of neuronal damage and also alters mood state and cognitive performance. Creatine is found in high protein foods, such as fish or meat, and is also produced endogenously from the biosynthesis of arginine, glycine, and methionine. Changes in brain creatine levels, as measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are seen in individuals exposed to drugs of abuse and depressed individuals. These changes in brain creatine indicate that energy metabolism differs in these populations relative to healthy individuals. Recent work shows that creatine supplementation has the ability to function in a manner similar to antidepressant drugs and can offset negative consequences of stress. These observations are important in relation to addictive behaviors as addiction is influenced by psychological factors such as psychosocial stress and depression. The significance of altered brain levels of creatine in drug-exposed individuals and the role of creatine supplementation in models of drug abuse have yet to be explored and represent gaps in the current understanding of brain energetics and addiction. PMID:21399936

D'Anci, Kristen E; Allen, Patricia J; Kanarek, Robin B

2011-10-01

259

Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUJIKA, I., S. PADILLA, J. IBANEZ, M. IZQUIERDO, and E. GOROSTIAGA. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 518 -525, 2000. Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise activities specific to competitive soccer. Methods: On two occasions 7 d apart, 17 highly trained

SABINO PADILLA; MIKEL IZQUIERDO; ESTEBAN GOROSTIAGA

2000-01-01

260

Potential Toxicity of Chronic Creatine Supplementation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine is alleged to be a popular nutrition to enhance sports performance. It can be metabolized to methylamine, which is further converted to formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and ammonium by semicarbazied-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO). Until now, there is no scientific available data for demonstration the long-term health risks of chronic creatine ingestion. In this study, we demonstrated that after chronic oral

Lin Wang; Shengyuan Xiao; Yujuan Li; Lu Wang; Baoquan Che; Xuan Zhao; Yulin Deng

2009-01-01

261

Lactation in Islam.  

PubMed

Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk. PMID:12266219

Hefnawi, F I

1982-01-01

262

Combinatorial engineering of ldh-a and bcl-2 for reducing lactate production and improving cell growth in dihydrofolate reductase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, rapid glucose metabolism normally leads to inefficient use of glucose, most of which\\u000a is converted to lactate during cell cultures. Since lactate accumulation during the culture often exerts a negative effect\\u000a on cell growth and valuable product formation, several genetic engineering approaches have been developed to suppress lactate\\u000a dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), the enzyme converting pyruvate

Min Kyoung Jeon; Da Young Yu; Gyun Min Lee

263

[Temperature-switched high-efficiency D-lactate production from glycerol].  

PubMed

Glycerol from oil hydrolysis industry is being considered as one of the abundent raw materials for fermentation industry. In present study, the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and growth properties on glycerol by Esherichia coli CICIM B0013-070, a D-lactate over-producing strain constructed previously, at different temperatures were investigated, followed by a novel fermentation process, named temperature-switched process, was established for D-lactate production from glycerol. Under the optimal condition, lactate yield was increased from 64.0% to 82.6%. Subsequently, the yield of D-lactate from glycerol was reached up to 88.9% while a thermo-inducible promoter was used to regulate D-lactate dehydrogenase transcription. PMID:23631124

Tian, Kangming; Zhou, Li; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Shi, Guiyang; Singh, Suren; Lu, Fuping; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-01-01

264

Effect of physical exercise on changes in activities of creatine kinase, cytochrome c oxidase and ATP levels caused by ovariectomy.  

PubMed

The reduction in the secretion of ovarian hormones, principally estrogen, is a consequence of menopause. Estrogens act primarily as female sex hormones, but also exert effects on different physiological systems including the central nervous system. The treatment normally used to reduce the symptoms of menopause is the hormone therapy, which seems to be effective in treating symptoms, but it may be responsible for adverse effects. Based on this, there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies that minimize signs and symptoms of menopause. In the present study we investigated the effect of ovariectomy and/or physical exercise on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes, such as creatine kinase (cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions), pyruvate kinase, succinate dehydrogenase, complex II, cytochrome c oxidase, as well as on ATP levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats with 90 days of age were subjected to ovariectomy (an animal model widely used to mimic the postmenopausal changes). Thirty days after the procedure, the rats were submitted to the exercise protocol, which was performed three times a week for 30 days. Twelve hours after the last training session, the rats were decapitated for subsequent biochemical analyzes. Results showed that ovariectomy did not affect the activities of pyruvate kinase, succinate dehydrogenase and complex II, but decreased the activities of creatine kinase (cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions) and cytochrome c oxidase. ATP levels were also reduced. Exercise did not produce the expected results since it was only able to partially reverse the activity of creatine kinase cytosolic fraction. The results of this study suggest that estrogen deficiency, which occurs as a result of ovariectomy, affects generation systems and energy homeostasis, reducing ATP levels in hippocampus of adult female rats. PMID:24810635

Siebert, Cassiana; Kolling, Janaína; Scherer, Emilene B S; Schmitz, Felipe; da Cunha, Maira Jaqueline; Mackedanz, Vanize; de Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Wyse, Angela T S

2014-09-01

265

Inhibition of lactate-induced swelling by dichloroacetate in human astrocytoma cells.  

PubMed

High levels of tissue lactate exacerbate tissue damage that results from cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury that follows. Post-ischemic treatment with dichloroacetate (DCA) facilitates a decrease in lactate in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals during reperfusion following experimental ischemia, thus it may help to ameliorate ischemic cell damage. It has been suggested that the lactate lowering effect is mediated through a stimulatory effect of DCA on pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) activity. We have studied such a hypothesis in a human astrocytoma derived cell line, UC-11MG. Under conditions resembling those of the ischemic tissue (i.e. high lactate and low pH) these cells accumulate lactate, driven by the inwardly directed proton gradient, and swell as a consequence of the osmotic effect of intracellular lactate. We have demonstrated that DCA increases PDHC activity and also reduces lactate-induced swelling. However, we also found that these two effects could be uncoupled and that the ability of DCA to prevent swelling is still present in the absence of any stimulation of PDHC. We also demonstrated that DCA competitively inhibits the uptake of lactate (Ki = 1.9 mM) and increases the efflux of lactate in a trans-acting manner that suggests the presence of a lactate-DCA exchange. We present a mechanism by which reduction in the rate of lactate uptake could account for the observed inhibition of swelling. This effect of DCA on lactate transport indicates another possible mechanism of action for DCA in facilitating the decrease in lactate observed in vivo during reperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1814583

Tomsig, J L; Gruenstein, E; Dimlich, R V

1991-12-24

266

Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.  

PubMed

Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention. PMID:14636103

Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

2003-11-01

267

Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.  

PubMed

Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders. PMID:25192512

Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

2014-07-01

268

Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation  

PubMed Central

Bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy is an increasing clinical challenge. However, the inter-individual variation in this risk is poorly understood. We assessed whether the level of plasma creatine kinase, the enzyme that utilizes ADP and phosphocreatine to rapidly regenerate ATP, may modulate bleeding risk through a dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation. Exogenous creatine kinase (500 to 4000?IU/L, phosphocreatine 5?mM) added to human plasma induced a dose-dependent reduction to complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Accordingly, endogenous plasma creatine kinase, studied in 9 healthy men (mean age 27.9?y, SE 3.3; creatine kinase 115 to 859?IU/L, median 358), was associated with reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ?0.6; p < 0.05). After exercise, at an endogenous creatine kinase level of 4664, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was undetectable, normalizing after rest, with a concomitant reduction of creatine kinase to normal values. Thus, creatine kinase reduces ADP-induced platelet activation. This may promote bleeding, in particular when patients use platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors. PMID:25298190

Horjus, D. L.; Nieuwland, R.; Boateng, K. B.; Schaap, M. C. L.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Clark, J. F.; Sturk, A.; Brewster, L. M.

2014-01-01

269

Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

Bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy is an increasing clinical challenge. However, the inter-individual variation in this risk is poorly understood. We assessed whether the level of plasma creatine kinase, the enzyme that utilizes ADP and phosphocreatine to rapidly regenerate ATP, may modulate bleeding risk through a dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation. Exogenous creatine kinase (500 to 4000 IU/L, phosphocreatine 5 mM) added to human plasma induced a dose-dependent reduction to complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Accordingly, endogenous plasma creatine kinase, studied in 9 healthy men (mean age 27.9 y, SE 3.3; creatine kinase 115 to 859 IU/L, median 358), was associated with reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, -0.6; p < 0.05). After exercise, at an endogenous creatine kinase level of 4664, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was undetectable, normalizing after rest, with a concomitant reduction of creatine kinase to normal values. Thus, creatine kinase reduces ADP-induced platelet activation. This may promote bleeding, in particular when patients use platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors. PMID:25298190

Horjus, D L; Nieuwland, R; Boateng, K B; Schaap, M C L; van Montfrans, G A; Clark, J F; Sturk, A; Brewster, L M

2014-01-01

270

Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo

John Rosene; Tracey Matthews; Christine Ryan; Keith Belmore; Alisa Bergsten; Jill Blaisdell; James Gaylord; Rebecca Love; Michael Marrone; Kristine Ward; Eric Wilson

2009-01-01

271

Creatine Supplementation Exacerbates Allergic Lung Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplement is the most popular nutritional supplement, and has various metabolic functions and sports medicine applica- tions. Creatine supplementation increases muscle mass and can decrease muscular inflammation. Some studies have also suggested a beneficial role of creatine supplementation on chronic pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis.Amongathletes,theprevalenceofasthmaishigh,andmany of these individuals may be taking creatine. However,

Rodolfo P. Vieira; Anna Cecilia; S. Duarte; Renata C. Claudino; Adenir Perini; Angela B. G. Santos; Henrique T. Moriya; Fernanda M. Arantes-Costa; M ilton A. Martins; Celso R. F. Carvalho; Marisa Dolhnikoff

272

Simultaneous determination of creatine and creatinine using amperometric biosensors.  

PubMed

In order to determine creatine and creatinine amperometric biosensors were proposed. A bienzymatic biosensor based on creatinase (CI) and sarcosine oxidase (SO) was used for the assay of creatine and a trienzymatic biosensor based on CI, SO and creatininase (CA) for the assay of creatinine. The linear concentration ranges are of pmol l(-1) to nmol l(-1) magnitude order, with very low limits of detection. The biosensors proved high reliability for determination of creatine and creatinine as raw material, and in the pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:18969149

Stefan, Raluca-Ioana; Bokretsion, Rahel Girmai; van Staden, Jacobus F; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

2003-08-29

273

Ethanol intake during lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactating rats, with litters adjusted to 8 pups on day 1, were divided into 4 groups: control animals (C), which received water and Nuvilab chow ad libitum, and ethanol animals (E), which received 20% (E20), 10% (E10), or 5% (E5) ethanol diluted in the drinking water and Nuvilab chow ad libitum. On day 12 of life, the pups were weighed

L. M Oyama; R. C Couto; G. E. C Couto; A. R Dâmaso; C. M Oller do Nascimento

2000-01-01

274

Adult rat cardiomyocytes cultured in creatine-deficient medium display large mitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions, enriched for creatine kinase  

PubMed Central

In adult regenerating cardiomyocytes in culture, in contrast to fetal cells, mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) was expressed. In the same cell, two populations of mitochondria, differing in shape, in distribution within the cell and in content of Mi-CK, could be distinguished. Immunofluorescence studies using antibodies against Mi- CK revealed a characteristic staining pattern for the two types of mitochondria: giant, mostly cylindrically shaped, and, as shown by confocal laser light microscopy, randomly distributed mitochondria exhibited a strong signal for Mi-CK, whereas small, "normal" mitochondria, localized in rows between myofibrils, gave a much weaker signal. Transmission EM of the giant mitochondria demonstrated paracrystalline inclusions located between cristae membranes. Immunogold labeling with anti-Mi-CK antibodies revealed a specific decoration of these inclusions for Mi-CK. Addition of 20 mM creatine, the substrate of Mi-CK, to the essentially creatine-free culture medium caused the disappearance of the giant cylindrically shaped mitochondria as well as of the paracrystalline inclusions, accompanied by an increase of the intracellular level of total creatine. Replacement of creatine in the medium by the creatine analogue and competitor beta- guanidinopropionic acid caused the reappearance of the enlarged mitochondria. It is believed that the accumulation of Mi-CK within the paracrystalline inclusions, similar to those observed in certain myopathies, represents a compensatory effect of the cardiomyocytes to cope with a metabolic stress situation caused by low intracellular total creatine levels. PMID:1849138

1991-01-01

275

Living Without Creatine: Unchanged Exercise Capacity and Response to Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Creatine-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Rationale Creatine is thought to be involved in the spatial and temporal buffering of ATP in energetic organs such as heart and skeletal muscle. Creatine depletion affects force generation during maximal stimulation, while reduced levels of myocardial creatine are a hallmark of the failing heart, leading to the widely held view that creatine is important at high workloads and under conditions of pathological stress. Objective We therefore hypothesised that the consequences of creatine-deficiency in mice would be impaired running capacity, and exacerbation of heart failure following myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Surprisingly, mice with whole-body creatine deficiency due to knockout of the biosynthetic enzyme (guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase – GAMT) voluntarily ran just as fast and as far as controls (>10km/night) and performed the same level of work when tested to exhaustion on a treadmill. Furthermore, survival following myocardial infarction was not altered, nor was subsequent LV remodelling and development of chronic heart failure exacerbated, as measured by 3D-echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. These findings could not be accounted for by compensatory adaptations, with no differences detected between WT and GAMT?/? proteomes. Alternative phosphotransfer mechanisms were explored; adenylate kinase activity was unaltered, and although GAMT?/? hearts accumulated the creatine pre-cursor guanidinoacetate, this had negligible energy-transfer activity, while mitochondria retained near normal function. Conclusions Creatine-deficient mice show unaltered maximal exercise capacity and response to chronic myocardial infarction, and no obvious metabolic adaptations. Our results question the paradigm that creatine is essential for high workload and chronic stress responses in heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:23325497

Lygate, Craig A.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Dawson, Dana; Hove, Michiel ten; Phillips, Darci; de Bono, Joseph P.; Medway, Debra J.; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Hunyor, Imre; Channon, Keith M.; Clarke, Kieran; Zervou, Sevasti; Watkins, Hugh; Balaban, Robert S.; Neubauer, Stefan

2014-01-01

276

Brain alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Significant alcohol dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the soluble fraction of rat brain and is very similar to the liver enzyme in kinetic properties and responses to inhibitors. A cerebral mechanism that oxidizes ethanol may play a significant role in local adjustments during exposure to ethanol and in the pathogenesis of the neural disorders associated with chronic alcohol ingestion or withdrawal. PMID:4300045

Raskin, N H; Sokoloff, L

1968-10-01

277

Properties of Alanine Dehydrogenase and Aspartase from Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.  

PubMed

During lactate fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii ATCC 9614, the only amino acid metabolized was aspartate. After lactate exhaustion, alanine was one of the two amino acids to be metabolized. For every 3 mol of alanine metabolized, 2 mol of propionate, 1 mol each of acetate and CO(2), and 3 mol of ammonia were formed. The specific activity of alanine dehydrogenase was 0.08 U/mg of protein during lactate fermentation, and it increased to 0.9 U/mg of protein after lactate exhaustion. Alanine dehydrogenase and aspartase, key enzymes in the metabolism of alanine and aspartate, respectively, were partially purified, and some of their properties were studied. Alanine dehydrogenase had a pH optimum of 9.2 to 9.6 and high K(m) values for both NAD (1 to 4 mM) and alanine (7 to 20 mM). Activity was inhibited by low concentrations of pyruvate and NADH. The pH optimum of aspartase decreased from approximately 7.5 to approximately 6.4 when the MgCl(2) and aspartate concentrations were decreased. Plots of aspartate concentration versus activity showed either hyperbolic or sigmoidal kinetics (interaction coefficient, up to a value of 3.1), depending on pH and MgCl(2) concentration. MgCl(2) was either an activator or an inhibitor, depending on pH and its concentration. Aspartase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of fumarate. The properties of alanine dehydrogenase and aspartase are consistent with the finding that aspartate is metabolized during lactate fermentation, while alanine is only fermented after lactate exhaustion and then at a slow rate. PMID:16347414

Crow, V L

1987-08-01

278

Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAZZUCCHI, I., F. FELICI, and M. SACCHETTI. Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1934-1941, 2009. Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether short-term creatine (Cr) supplementation would affect 1) muscle contractile properties assessed by evoked and voluntary contractions, 2) force-velocity relationship, and 3) mean muscle

ILENIA BAZZUCCHI; FRANCESCO FELICI; MASSIMO SACCHETTI

2009-01-01

279

Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing\\u000a Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of\\u000a the ldh1 gene, encoding the main l-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a

Reinout De Boeck; Luz Adriana Sarmiento-Rubiano; Inmaculada Nadal; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; María J. Yebra

2010-01-01

280

Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood\\u000a and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation\\u000a of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group\\u000a D (placebo control group).

Shi Daling

2005-01-01

281

Succinate Dehydrogenase 1  

PubMed Central

A procedure was developed for the partial purification of succinate dehydrogenase from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls and soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. v. Ransom) cotyledons. The procedure utilized a Triton X-100 extraction followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The final fraction was enriched in two polypeptides with approximate molecular weights of 67,000 and 30,000 daltons, exhibited a pH optima of 7.0 to 7.5, contained a b-type cytochrome, and exhibited the characteristic ferredoxin-type and high potential iron-sulfur protein-type electron paramagnetic resonance signals reported for the iron-sulfur centers of mammalian succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition constants of 1.15 and 24.6 micromolar for oxaloacetate and malonate, respectively, were obtained. PMID:16662722

Burke, John J.; Siedow, James N.; Moreland, Donald E.

1982-01-01

282

Creatine and guanidinoacetate reference values in a French population.  

PubMed

Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference normal values are given within the age range. Despite the long known role of creatine for muscle physiology, muscle signs are not necessarily the major complaint expressed by PCDD patients. These disorders drastically affect brain function inducing, in patients, intellectual disability, autistic behavior and other neurological signs (delays in speech and language, epilepsy, ataxia, dystonia and choreoathetosis), being a common feature the drop in brain creatine content. For this reason, screening of PCDD patients has been repeatedly carried out in populations with neurological signs. This report is aimed at providing reference laboratory values and related age ranges found for a large scale population of patients with neurological signs (more than 6 thousand patients) previously serving as a background population for screening French patients with PCDD. These reference laboratory values and age ranges compare rather favorably with literature values for healthy populations. Some differences are also observed, and female participants are discriminated from male participants as regards to urine but not blood values including creatine on creatinine ratio and guanidinoacetate on creatinine ratio values. Such gender differences were previously observed in healthy populations; they might be explained by literature differential effects of testosterone and estrogen in adolescents and adults, and by estrogen effects in prepubertal age on SLC6A8 function. Finally, though they were acquired on a population with neurological signs, the present data might reasonably serve as reference laboratory values in any future medical study exploring abnormalities of creatine metabolism and transport. PMID:24090707

Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Cheillan, David; Briand, Gilbert; Salomons, Gajja S; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Lion-François, Laurence; Des Portes, Vincent; Chabli, Allel; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Benoist, Jean-François; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Simard, Gilles; Douay, Olivier; Deiva, Kumaran; Tardieu, Marc; Afenjar, Alexandra; Héron, Delphine; Rivier, François; Chabrol, Brigitte; Prieur, Fabienne; Cartault, François; Pitelet, Gaëlle; Goldenberg, Alice; Bekri, Soumeya; Gerard, Marion; Delorme, Richard; Porchet, Nicole; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vamecq, Joseph

2013-11-01

283

Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels.  

PubMed

Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies. PMID:24271489

Santacruz, Lucia; Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Jacobs, Danny O

2014-02-01

284

Elevated plasma citrulline: look for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency.  

PubMed

The E3 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/DLD/lipoamide dehydrogenase/LAD), is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme and also a part of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. DLD deficiency (MIM #246900), is relatively frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population but occurs in other populations as well. Early diagnosis is important to prevent episodes of metabolic decompensation, liver failure, and encephalopathy. The clinical presentations are varied and may include Reye-like syndrome, hepatic failure, myopathy, and myoglobinuria. Laboratory markers, such as elevated urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, blood pyruvate, lactate, and ammonia, are mostly nonspecific and not always present, making the diagnosis difficult. Since we observed elevated plasma citrulline levels in a number of confirmed cases, we retrospectively examined the value of citrulline as a biochemical marker for DLD deficiency. Data was gathered from the files of 17 pediatric patients with DLD deficiency, confirmed by enzymatic and genetic analysis. The control group included 19 patients in whom urea cycle defects were ruled out but DLD deficiency was suspected. Seven of the DLD-deficient patients presented with elevated plasma citrulline levels (median value 205 ?M, range 59-282 ?M) (normal range 1-45 ?M) while none in the control patient group. In five patients, elevated citrulline was associated with elevated plasma glutamine and metabolic acidosis. Interestingly, elevated plasma citrulline was associated with the common G229C mutation. In conclusion, we suggest that elevated plasma citrulline in the absence of urea cycle defects warrants an investigation for DLD deficiency. PMID:23995961

Haviv, Ruby; Zeharia, Avraham; Belaiche, Corinne; Haimi Cohen, Yishai; Saada, Ann

2014-02-01

285

L-lactate production from seaweed hydrolysate of Laminaria japonica using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Renewable and carbon neutral, marine algal biomass could be an attractive alternative substrate for the production of biofuel and various biorefinery products. Thus, the feasibility of brown seaweed (Laminaria japonica) hydrolysate as a carbon source was investigated here for L-lactate production. This work reports the homofermentative route for L-lactate production by introducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus L-lactate dehydrogenase in an engineered Escherichia coli strain where synthesis of the competing by-product was blocked. The engineered strain utilized both glucose and mannitol present in the hydrolysate under microaerobic condition and produced 37.7 g/L of high optical purity L-lactate at 80 % of the maximum theoretical value. The result shown in this study implies that algal biomass would be as competitive with lignocellulosic biomass in terms of lactic acid production and that brown seaweed can be used as a feedstock for the industrial production of other chemicals. PMID:24297185

Mazumdar, Suman; Bang, Junho; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-02-01

286

Lactating Mother and Psychotropic Drugs  

PubMed Central

Usage of psychotropics during pregnancy and lactation has always been a topic of debate and controversy. The debate stems from the potential adverse effects on the growing fetus or infants due to the transfer of psychotropic drugs through placenta or breast milk of mothers receiving them; and the problem of discontinuing psychotropics in lactating mother considering chances of relapse. However, most of the psychotropics are found to be relatively safe when used cautiously during the lactation phase. This article describes available data on the use of psychotropics in lactating mothers, in particular, in relation to the safety profile of infants. PMID:21327172

Tripathi, B. M.; Majumder, Pradipta

2010-01-01

287

75 FR 17769 - In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of Commission Issuance...the Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester of Respondents Found in Default...certain products advertised as containing creatine ethyl ester by reason of false...

2010-04-07

288

Role of creatine kinase and its substrates in the central nervous system in norm and in various pathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is presented review of recent publications providing current understanding of role of creatine kinase-creatine phosphate\\u000a system and creatine, substrate of creatine kinase, in metabolism of cell and specifically of cells of the central nervous\\u000a system. Particularly noted are the protector role of creatine at mitochondrial and bioenergetic cell dysfunction and potential\\u000a significance of creatine bioadditions at treatment of neurodegenerative

L. S. Nersesova

2011-01-01

289

Effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation for 3 weeks on testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone in young rugby players.  

E-print Network

??Background. Creatine monohydrate is widely used for its purported ergogenic and anabolic properties. The mechanism by which creatine supplementation enhances muscle growth is not understood.… (more)

Van der Merwe, Johann

2006-01-01

290

Lactate Regulates Rat Male Germ Cell Function through Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Besides giving structural support, Sertoli cells regulate the fate of germ cells by supplying a variety of factors. These factors include hormones, several pro- and anti-apoptotic agents and also energetic substrates. Lactate is one of the compounds produced by Sertoli cells, which is utilized as an energetic substrate by germ cells, particularly spermatocytes and spermatids. Beyond its function as an energy source, some studies have proposed a role of lactate in the regulation of gene expression not strictly related to the energetic state of the cells. The general hypothesis that motivated this investigation was that lactate affects male germ cell function, far beyond its well-known role as energetic substrate. To evaluate this hypothesis we investigated: 1) if lactate was able to regulate germ cell gene expression and if reactive oxygen species (ROS) participated in this regulation, 2) if different signal transduction pathways were modified by the production of ROS in response to lactate and 3) possible mechanisms that may be involved in lactate stimulation of ROS production. In order to achieve these goals, cultures of germ cells obtained from male 30-day old rats were exposed to 10 or 20 mM lactate. Increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) C and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)2 expression, in Akt and p38-MAPK phosphorylation levels and in ROS production were observed. These effects were impaired in the presence of a ROS scavenger. Lactate stimulated ROS production was also inhibited by a LDH inhibitor or a NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. NOX4 expression was identified in male germ cells. The results obtained herein are consistent with a scenario where lactate, taken up by germ cells, becomes oxidized to pyruvate with the resultant increase in NADH, which is a substrate for NOX4. ROS, products of NOX4 activity, may act as second messengers regulating signal transduction pathways and gene expression. PMID:24498241

Galardo, Maria Noel; Regueira, Mariana; Riera, Maria Fernanda; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Meroni, Silvina Beatriz

2014-01-01

291

Mitochondrial boundary membrane contact sites in brain: points of hexokinase and creatine kinase location, and control of Ca2+ transport.  

PubMed

The location of hexokinase at the surface of brain mitochondria was investigated by electron microscopy using immuno-gold labelling techniques. The enzyme was located where the two mitochondrial limiting membranes were opposed and contact sites were possible. Disruption of the outer membrane by digitonin did not remove bound hexokinase and creatine kinase from brain mitochondria, although the activity of outer membrane markers and adenylate kinase decreased, suggesting a preferential location of both enzymes in the contact sites. In agreement with that, a membrane fraction was isolated from osmotically lysed rat brain mitochondria in which hexokinase and creatine kinase were concentrated. The density of this kinase-rich fraction was specifically increased by immuno-gold labelling of hexokinase, allowing a further purification by density gradient centrifugation. The fraction was composed of inner and outer limiting membrane components as shown by the specific marker enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and NADH-cytochrome-c-oxidase (rotenone insensitive). As reported earlier for the enriched contact site fraction of liver mitochondria the fraction from brain mitochondria contained a high activity of glutathione transferase and a low cholesterol concentration. Moreover, the contacts showed a higher Ca2+ binding capacity in comparison to outer and inner membrane fractions. This finding may have regulatory implications because glucose phosphorylation via hexokinase activated the active Ca2+ uptake system and inhibited the passive efflux, resulting in an increase of intramitochondrial Ca2+. PMID:2457393

Kottke, M; Adam, V; Riesinger, I; Bremm, G; Bosch, W; Brdiczka, D; Sandri, G; Panfili, E

1988-08-17

292

21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with...

2013-04-01

293

21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.  

...crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with...

2014-04-01

295

Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in dermatomyositis: a noncardiac source  

SciTech Connect

Three patients with polymyositis had elevated serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. The presence of this isoenzyme is used extensively to diagnose myocardial infarction, but the isoenzyme is also found in sera of patients with primary muscular and neuromuscular disorders. Researchers studied cardiac function in two of our patients with electrocardiograms, technetium stannous pyrophosphate scanning, and technetium 99m-labeled erythrocyte gated blood pool imaging and in the third patient by postmortem examination. There was no evidence of myocardial involvement to account for the high serum levels of isoenzyme. Creatine kinase MB in the sera of patients with polymyositis does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis.

Larca, L.J.; Coppola, J.T.; Honig, S.

1981-03-01

296

Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism after acute\\u000a aerobic and anaerobic exercise. A total of 112 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: aerobic exercise (A), aerobic exercise\\u000a plus creatine supplementation (ACr), anaerobic exercise (An), and anaerobic exercise plus creatine-supplemented (AnCr). Creatine\\u000a supplementation consisted of the addition of 2%

Rafael Deminice; Helio Vannucchi; Lívia Maria Simões-Ambrosio; Alceu Afonso Jordao

297

Investigations of the lactate minimum test.  

PubMed

We evaluated: the agreement between lactate minimum and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) cycling powers (study 1); whether rates of change of blood lactate concentration during the lactate minimum test reflect that of constant power exercise (study 2); whether the lactate minimum power is influenced by the muscle groups used to elevate blood lactate concentration (study 3). Study 1: 32 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase (five 4 min stages); MLSS was subsequently determined. Study 2: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test and five 22 min constant power tests at the incremental phase exercise intensities. Study 3: 10 subjects performed two identical lactate minimum tests, except during the second test the lactate elevation phase comprised arm-cranking. Lactate minimum and MLSS powers demonstrated good agreement (mean bias+/-95% limits of agreement: 2+/-22 W). Rates of change of blood lactate concentration during each incremental phase stage and corresponding constant power test did not correlate. Lactate minimum power was lowered when arm-cranking was used during the lactate elevation phase (157+/-29 vs. 168+/-21 W; p<0.05). The lactate elevation phase modifies blood lactate concentration responses during the incremental phase, thus good agreement between lactate minimum and MLSS powers seems fortuitous. PMID:19199204

Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R; Brown, P I

2009-06-01

298

Potential cytotoxic effect of chronic administration of creatine, a nutrition supplement to augment athletic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine is alleged to be an ergogenic aid to enhance sports performance and recently became a popular sports nutrition supplement. Although short-term supplementation of creatine has not been associated with major health risks, the safety of prolonged use has caused some concern. The present study demonstrates that creatine is metabolized to methylamine, which is further converted to formaldehyde by semicarbazide-sensitive

P. H. Yu; Y. Deng

2000-01-01

299

Effect of creatine plus caffeine supplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximum exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of acute caffeine ingestion following short-term creatine supplementation on an incremental cycling to exhaustion task. Twelve active males performed the task under three conditions: baseline condition (BASE, no ergogenic aid), creatine plus caffeine condition (CRE + CAF), and creatine with placebo condition (CRE + PLA). Following the establishment of BASE condition, participants were administered CRE

Chia Lun Lee; Jung Charng Lin; Ching Feng Cheng

2012-01-01

300

Effects of creatine treatment on the survival of dopaminergic neurons in cultured fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease is a disabling neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a predominant and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent findings suggest that impaired energy metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The endogenously occurring guanidino compound creatine is a substrate for mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinases. Creatine supplementation improves the

R. H. Andres; A. W. Huber; U. Schlattner; A. Pérez-Bouza; S. H. Krebs; R. W. Seiler; T. Wallimann; H. R. Widmer

2005-01-01

301

Effect of creatine plus caffeine supplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximum exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of acute caffeine ingestion following short-term creatine supplementation on an incremental cycling to exhaustion task. Twelve active males performed the task under three conditions: baseline condition (BASE, no ergogenic aid), creatine plus caffeine condition (CRE + CAF), and creatine with placebo condition (CRE + PLA). Following the establishment of BASE condition, participants were administered CRE

Chia Lun Lee; Jung Charng Lin; Ching Feng Cheng

2011-01-01

302

Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle performance are generally related to an increase in muscle phosphocreatine content. However, creatine supplementation may benefit endurance sports through increased glycogen re-synthesis following exercise. This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle glycogen content, submaximal exercise fuel utilisation and endurance performance following 4 weeks of endurance training. Thirteen healthy, physically active,

T. F. Reardon; P. A. Ruell; M. A. Fiatarone Singh; C. H. Thompson; K. B. Rooney

2006-01-01

303

Crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY  

E-print Network

Crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY *, Grzegorz BujaczY , Alexander Abstract The crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase, solved at 2.35 Aî resolution by X of arginine residues. The putative binding site of creatine, which is occupied by a sulfate group

304

The effects of a 16 mile run on Creatine Kinase levels 24, 48, and 72 hours  

E-print Network

The effects of a 16 mile run on Creatine Kinase levels 24, 48, and 72 hours post run. L. J. Palombo in their regular training program. This training run may cause muscle damage. Creatine Kinase (CK), an enzyme analysis of the Creatine Kinase values revealed that CK was significantly higher (p=0.0053) 24 and 48 hours

New Hampshire, University of

305

The cataract and glucosuria associated monocarboxylate transporter MCT12 is a new creatine transporter.  

PubMed

Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822

Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M R; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara

2013-08-15

306

Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization  

SciTech Connect

The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

2009-02-24

307

Single-step bioluminescence analyses of enzymes, using Cibacrone Blue chromatography for removal of interfering dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

To provide for bioluminescence measurements of the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, disturbing contaminants were removed from a bacterial luciferase extract by chromatography, using Blue Sepharose CL-6B, a cross-linked agarose to which Cibacrone Blue F3G-A is covalently attached. This compound has a strong affinity to the dinucleotide fold, which is a region in enzymes binding NAD(H) or NADP(H). In contrast to the absorbed dehydrogenases, both luciferase and oxidoreductase were easily eluted and appeared close to the main bulk of UV-absorbing but analytically less important material. A rapid recording of the elution of luciferase was accomplished with a new electrochemical bioluminescence assay. Due to this and the early elution of the desired material, it could be chromatographed, recognized and collected in less than two hours. Thereby the light-yielding capacity of the sensitive material was well preserved. For bioluminescence assay solutions composed of pooled oxidoreductase-luciferase fractions, FMN and a long chain aldehyde were prepared and supplemented with NAD+ and either lactate, malate or 3-hydroxybutyrate. The analyses were carried out in a single step performance by adding the enzyme sample to the luciferase solution. Minute amounts of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase yielded a linear light response permitting assay in the lower part of the femtomole region. In case a dehydrogenase does not occur as a contaminant of a commercial luciferase preparation, purification with Cibacrone Blue can be omitted as demonstrated for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6633514

Brolin, S E

1983-01-01

308

In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: qle@stanford.edu; Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Narasimhan, Balasubramanian [Department of Health Research and Policy, Division of Biostatistics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Graves, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Pinto, Harlan [Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Brown, J. Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Spielman, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

2008-07-15

309

Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

2001-01-01

310

Creatine Supplementation and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n?=?15) were given 5 g four times a day

Terry McMorris; Gregorsz Mielcarz; Roger C. Harris; Jonathan P. Swain; Alan Howard

2007-01-01

311

Creatine Supplementation and Its Effect on Musculotendinous Stiffness and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal reports suggesting that creatine (Cr) supplemen- tation may cause side effects, such as an increased incidence of muscle strains or tears, require scientific examination. In this study, it was hypothesized that the rapid fluid retention and ''dry matter growth'' evident after Cr supplementation may cause an increase in musculotendinous stiffness. Intui- tively, an increase in musculotendinous stiffness would in-

MARK L. WATSFORD; ARON J. MURPHY; WARWICK L. SPINKS; ANDREW D. WALSHE

2003-01-01

312

Compartmentation of creatine kinases during perinatal development of mammalian heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturation of the cardiac cell is characterized by increasing diversity of isozymic expression of creatine kinases. Expression of the M-CK isozyme always precedes that of mitochondrial isozyme (mi-CK), however the expression of an isoform does not inform about its localization or cellular function. The functional role of isozymes binding to sites of energy utilization and production characteristic of the adult

Jacqueline A. Hoerter; Renée Ventura-Clapier; Andrey Kuznetsov

1994-01-01

313

A europium luminescence assay of lactate and citrate in biological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate and citrate are essential oxy-anions in nature. Their determination is typically based on multi-component enzymatic methods of analysis, using lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) or citrate lyase, 1 most commonly linked to absorption spectropho- tometric analysis of NAD + at 340 nm. The limit of sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay is about 0.1 mM; and therefore requires a relatively high

Robert Pal; David Parker; Leslie C. Costellob

2009-01-01

314

Amperometric determination of lactate with novel trienzyme/poly(carbamoyl) sulfonate hydrogel-based sensor.  

PubMed

A novel trienzyme sensor for the amperometric determination of lactate was constructed by immobilizing salicylate hydroxylase (SHL, E.C. 1.14.13.1), l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, E.C. 1.1.1.27), and pyruvate oxidase (PyOD, E.C. 1.2.3.3) on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The enzymes were entrapped by a poly(carbamoyl) sulfonate (PCS) hydrogel on a Teflon membrane. LDH catalyzes the specific dehydrogenation of lactate consuming NAD(+). SHL catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation and the hydroxylation of salicylate in the presence of oxygen and NADH produced by LDH. PyOD decarboxylates pyruvate using oxygen and phosphate. SHL and PyOD force the equilibrium of dehydrogenation of lactate by LDH to the product side by consuming NADH and pyruvate, respectively. Dissolved oxygen acts as an essential material for both PyOD and SHL during their respective enzymatic reactions. Therefore, an amplified signal, caused by the consumptions of dissolved oxygen by the two enzymes, was observed in the measurement of lactate. Regeneration of cofactor was found in the trienzyme system. A Teflon membrane was used to fabricate the sensor in order to avoid interferences. The sensor has a fast response (2s) and short recovery times (2 min). The total test time for a measurement by using this lactate sensor (4 min) was faster than using a commercial lactate testing kit (up to 10 min). The sensor has a linear range between 10 and 400 microM lactate, with a detection limit of 4.3 microM. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9984) with a commercial lactate testing kit was obtained in beverage sample measurements. PMID:15142609

Kwan, Roger C H; Hon, Phoebe Y T; Mak, Karen K W; Renneberg, Reinhard

2004-07-15

315

Synthesis of guanidinoacetate and creatine from amino acids by rat pancreas.  

PubMed

Creatine is an important molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism. Creatine is spontaneously converted to creatinine at a rate of 1·7% per d; creatinine is lost in the urine. Creatine can be obtained from the diet or synthesised from endogenous amino acids via the enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT). The liver has high GAMT activity and the kidney has high AGAT activity. Although the pancreas has both AGAT and GAMT activities, its possible role in creatine synthesis has not been characterised. In the present study, we examined the enzymes involved in creatine synthesis in the pancreas as well as the synthesis of guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine by isolated pancreatic acini. We found significant AGAT activity and somewhat lower GAMT activity in the pancreas and that pancreatic acini had measurable activities of both AGAT and GAMT and the capacity to synthesise GAA and creatine from amino acids. Creatine supplementation led to a decrease in AGAT activity in the pancreas, though it did not affect its mRNA or protein abundance. This was in contrast with the reduction of AGAT activity and mRNA and protein abundance in the kidney, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of this enzyme in the pancreas are different from those in the kidney. Dietary creatine increased the concentrations of GAA, creatine and phosphocreatine in the pancreas. Unexpectedly, creatine supplementation decreased the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine, while those of S-adenosylhomocysteine were not altered significantly. PMID:24103317

da Silva, Robin P; Clow, Kathy; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

2014-02-01

316

Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24847880

Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Zhang, Xian-Man; Braddock, Demetrios T; Albright, Ronald A; Prigaro, Brett J; Wood, John L; Bhanot, Sanjay; MacDonald, Michael J; Jurczak, Michael J; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cline, Gary W; Samuel, Varman T; Kibbey, Richard G; Shulman, Gerald I

2014-06-26

317

Assignment of the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8) to human chromosome Xq28 telomeric to G6PD  

SciTech Connect

The creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle has important functions in the temporal and spatial maintenance of the energy supply to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Muscle cells do not synthesize creatine, but take it up via a specific sodium-dependent transporter - the creatine transporter. Thus, the creatine transporter has an important role in muscular physiology. Furthermore, inhibition of creatine transport in experimental animals causes muscle weakness. Recently, creatine transporter cDNAs have been isolated and characterized from rabbit and human. In this communication we report mapping of the creatine transporter gene to human chromosome Xq28. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Gregor, P. [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nash, S.R.; Caron, M.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); and others

1995-01-01

318

Protein engineering of formate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) is one of the best enzymes for the purpose of NADH regeneration in dehydrogenase-based synthesis of optically active compounds. Low operational stability and high production cost of native FDHs limit their application in commercial production of chiral compounds. The review summarizes the results on engineering of bacterial and yeast FDHs aimed at improving their

Vladimir I. Tishkov; Vladimir O. Popov

2006-01-01

319

Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa  

E-print Network

can be used as a terminal electron acceptor in a me- ' dium containing substrate, cofactor, methylene blue, dia- phorase and hydrazine for localization of dehydrogenase activity after starch gel electrophoresis. The use of PMS was suggested... can be used as a terminal electron acceptor in a me- ' dium containing substrate, cofactor, methylene blue, dia- phorase and hydrazine for localization of dehydrogenase activity after starch gel electrophoresis. The use of PMS was suggested...

Lin, Hozong Robert

2012-06-07

320

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update.  

PubMed

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly). PMID:22817979

Cooper, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Allgrove, Judith; Jimenez, Alfonso

2012-01-01

321

Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

1982-01-01

322

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update  

PubMed Central

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly). PMID:22817979

2012-01-01

323

Potential of creatine supplementation for improving aging bone health.  

PubMed

Aging subsequently results in bone and muscle loss which has a negative effect on strength, agility, and balance leading to increased risks of falls, injuries, and fractures. Resistance training is an effective strategy for maintaining bone mass, possibly by increasing activity of cells involved in bone formation and reducing activity of cells involved in bone resorption. However, bone loss is still evident in older adults who have maintained resistance training for most of their life, suggesting that other factors such as nutrition may be involved in the aging bone process. Emerging evidence suggests that creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, has the potential to influence bone biology. However, research investigating the longer-term effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on aging bone is limited. PMID:20126964

Candow, D G; Chilibeck, P D

2010-02-01

324

Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Ethanol in the Stems of Trees 1  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic fermentation in plants is usually thought to be a transient phenomenon, brought about by environmental limitations to oxygen availability, or by structural constraints to oxygen transport. The vascular cambium of trees is separated from the air by the outer bark and secondary phloem, and we hypothesized that the cambium may experience sufficient hypoxia to induce anaerobic fermentation. We found high alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the cambium of several tree species. Mean activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in Populus deltoides was 165 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was also present in the cambium of P. deltoides, with mean activity of 26 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was not present in any tree species we examined. Contrary to our expectation, alcohol dehydrogenase activity was inversely related to bark thickness in Acer saccharum and unrelated to bark thickness in two Populus species. Bark thickness may be less important in limiting oxygen availability to the cambium than is oxygen consumption by rapidly respiring phloem and cambium in actively growing trees. Ethanol was present in the vascular cambium of all species examined, with mean concentrations of 35 to 143 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, depending on species. Ethanol was also present in xylem sap and may have been released from the cambium into the transpiration stream. The presence in the cambium of the enzymes necessary for fermentation as well as the products of fermentation is evidence that respiration in the vascular cambium of trees may be oxygen-limited, but other biosynthetic origins of ethanol have not been ruled out. PMID:16666209

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Stringer, Mary A.

1988-01-01

325

6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The reductive carboxylation of ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from Candida utilis was investigated using kinetic isotope effects. The intrinsic isotope effect for proton abstraction from Ru5P was found at 4.9 from deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K and from tritium isotope effects on V/K. The presence of 6-phosphogluconate (6PG) in the assay mixture changes the magnitude of the observed isotope effects. In the absence of 6PG D(V/K) and D(V) are 1.68 and 2.46, respectively, whereas the presence of 6PG increases D(V/K) to 2.84 and decreases D(V) to 1.38. A similar increase of T(V/K) is observed as 6PG builds up in the reaction mixture. These data indicate that in the absence of 6PG, a slow step, which precedes the chemical process, is rate-limiting for the reaction, whereas in the presence of 6PG, the rate-limiting step follows the isotope-sensitive step. Kinetic analysis of reductive carboxylation shows that 6PG at low concentrations decreases the Km of Ru5P, whereas at higher concentrations, the usual competitive pattern is observed. These data indicate that full activity of 6PGDH is achieved when one subunit carries out the catalysis and the other subunit carries an unreacted 6PG. Thus, 6PG is like an allosteric activator of 6PGDH. PMID:20452987

Hanau, Stefania; Montin, Katy; Cervellati, Carlo; Magnani, Morena; Dallocchio, Franco

2010-01-01

326

Prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for a central hypothyroidism in adult rat.  

PubMed

Malnutrition during lactation is associated with hypoprolactinemia and failure in milk production. Adult rats whose mothers were malnourished presented higher body weight and serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation caused higher body weight in adult life, suggesting an association between maternal prolactin (PRL) level and programming of the offspring's adult body weight. Here, we studied the consequences of the maternal PRL inhibition at the end of lactation by bromocriptine (BRO) injection, a dopaminergic agonist, upon serum TSH and thyroid hormones, thyroid iodide uptake, liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), liver and pituitary de-iodinase activities (D1 and/or D2), and in vitro post-TRH TSH release in the adult offspring. Wistar lactating rats were divided into BRO - injected with 1 mg/twice a day, daily for the last 3 days of lactation, and C - control, saline-injected with the same frequency. At 180 days of age, the offspring were injected with (125)I i.p. and after 2 h, they were killed. Adult animals whose mothers were treated with BRO at the end of lactation presented lower serum TSH (-51%), T(3) (-23%), and thyroxine (-21%), lower thyroid (125)I uptake (-41%), liver mGPD (-55%), and pituitary D2 (-51%) activities, without changes in the in vitro post-TRH TSH release. We show that maternal PRL suppression at the end of lactation programs a hypometabolic state in adulthood, in part due to a thyroid hypofunction, caused by a central hypothyroidism, probably due to decreased TRH secretion. We suggest that PRL during lactation can regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and programs its function. PMID:18490438

Bonomo, Isabela Teixeira; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Reis, Adelina Martha; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

2008-08-01

327

Creatine kinase in non-muscle tissues and cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past years, a concept for creatine kinase function, the ‘PCr-circuit’ model, has evolved. Based on this concept, multiple functions for the CK\\/PCr-system have been proposed, such as an energy buffering function, regulatory functions, as well as an energy transport function, mostly based on studies with muscle. While the temporal energy buffering and metabolic regulatory roles of CK are

Theo Wallimann; Wolfram Hemmer

1994-01-01

328

Clinical Use of Creatine in Neuromuscular and Neurometabolic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share\\u000a similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation.\\u000a Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium\\u000a and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients

Mark A. Tarnopolsky

329

Cadmium chloride inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human renal proximal tubules: a cellular metabolomic approach with 13C-NMR.  

PubMed

As part of a study on cadmium nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in isolated human renal proximal tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. Dose-effect experiments showed that 10-500 ?M CdCl2 reduced lactate removal, glucose production and the cellular levels of ATP, coenzyme A, acetyl-coenzyme A and of reduced glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. After incubation with 5 mM L: -[1-(13)C]-, or L: -[2-(13)C]-, or L: -[3-(13)C] lactate or 5 mM L: -lactate plus 25 mM NaH(13)CO3 as substrates, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by both enzymatic and carbon 13 NMR methods. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism previously validated showed that 100 ?M CdCl2 caused an inhibition of flux through lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase and through the entire gluconeogenic pathway; fluxes were diminished by 19% (lactate dehydrogenase), 28% (alanine aminotransferase), 28% (pyruvate carboxylase), 42% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 52% (glucose-6-phosphatase). Such effects occurred without altering the oxidation of the lactate carbons or fluxes through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle despite a large fall of the cellular ATP level, a marker of the energy status and of the viability of the renal cells. These results that were observed at clinically relevant tissue concentrations of cadmium provide a biochemical basis for a better understanding of the cellular mechanism of cadmium-induced renal proximal tubulopathy in humans chronically exposed to cadmium. PMID:21153630

Faiz, Hassan; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Boghossian, Michelle; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Ferrier, Bernard

2011-09-01

330

Improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma  

SciTech Connect

We describe convenient and relatively rapid procedures for purifying creatine kinase isoenzymes MM, BB, and MB, and their use in an improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma. The modifications include use of: (a) BB with a specific activity of 400 kU/G, which can be labeled with a specific radioactivity of 20 Ci/g; (b) albumin-free purified MB as inhibitor; (c) antiserum to MB creatine kinase; and (d) a second-antibody technique that necessitates only a 15-min incubation. The radioimmunoassay for MB has a sensitivity of 0.2 ..mu..g/L (80 mU/L) and a CV of <5%. Plasma MB average 22 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 normal subjects; 24 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 patients with chest pain without infarction; and 23 (SD 7) ..mu..g/L in 43 patients with renal disease, whether measured before or after dialysis. Peak values for plasma MB averaged 191 (SD 86) ..mu..g/L in 325 patients with documented myocardial infarction; BB was negligible. Extensive clinical experience indicates the radioimmunoassay to be suitably rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable as a diagnostic assay for MB on plasma.

Ritter, C.S.; Mumm, S.R.; Roberts, R.

1981-11-01

331

Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

1982-01-01

332

Nutritional aspects of human lactation*  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

1975-01-01

333

Midtrimester abortion by ethacridine lactate.  

PubMed

This article discusses a clinical trial with the abortifacient agent ethacridine lactate as it was used for midtrimester abortion in Calcutta during the period January-July 1980. Results are then compared with intraamniotic hypertonic saline. 130 subjects were divided into 2 groups--Group 1 (60 women) were terminated with ethacridine lactate and group 2 (70 women) were terminated with saline. In cases where the patient complained of pain, analgesia was administered. In both groups, the largest concentration of women fell in the age groups 16-20 and 21-25. Similarly, single women were the largest representation in both groups although the saline group included more widows. Ethacridine lactate can be administered earlier in the 2nd trimester than saline. With it, expulsion occurred within 36 hours in 56.6% of the cases as compared with 22.9% in group 2. Both groups required the same amount of assistance with oxytocin. In group 1, there were only 3 cases (5%) of minor complications whereas in group 2, 19 cases (27.1%) developed complications. This alone strongly recommends ethacridine lactate as the preferred abortifacient. The success rate was 98%. Thus, ethacridine lactate appears to be a safe and effective agent for pregnancy termination during the 2nd trimester. PMID:7142727

Goswami, B K; Raha, A; Gupta, A; Mukherjee, K

1982-07-01

334

Hypoxia stimulates lactate disposal in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Current understanding of lactate metabolism in fish is based almost entirely on the interpretation of concentration measurements that cannot be used to infer changes in flux. The goals of this investigation were: (1) to quantify baseline lactate fluxes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under normoxic conditions; (2) to establish how changes in rates of lactate appearance (R(a)) and disposal (R(d)) account for the increase in blood lactate elicited by hypoxia; and (3) to identify the tissues responsible for lactate production. R(a) and R(d) lactate of rainbow trout were measured in vivo by continuous infusion of [U-(14)C]lactate in trout exposed to 25% O(2) saturation or maintained in normoxia for 90 min. In normoxic fish, R(a) lactate decreased from 18.2 to 13.1 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1) and R(d) lactate from 19.0 to 12.8. R(a) and R(d) were always matched, thereby maintaining a steady baseline blood lactate concentration of ?0.8 mmol l(-1). By contrast, the hypoxic fish increased blood lactate to 8.9 mmol l(-1) and R(a) lactate from 18.4 to 36.5 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1). This stimulation of anaerobic glycolysis was unexpectedly accompanied by a 52% increase in R(d) lactate from 19.9 to 30.3 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1). White muscle was the main producer of lactate, which accumulated to 19.2 ?mol g(-1) in this tissue. This first study of non-steady-state lactate kinetics in fish shows that the increase in lactate disposal elicited by hypoxia plays a strategic role in reducing the lactate load on the circulation. Without this crucial response, blood lactate accumulation would double. PMID:21037059

Omlin, Teye; Weber, Jean-Michel

2010-11-15

335

Functional Replacement of the Escherichia coliD-(-)Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhA) with the L-(+)Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhL) from Pediococcus acidilactici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial production of L-()-lactic acid is rapidly expanding to allow increased production of poly- lactic acid (PLA), a renewable, biodegradable plastic. The physical properties of PLA can be tailored for specific applications by controlling the ratio of L-() and D-() isomers. For most uses of PLA, the L-() isomer is more abundant. As an approach to reduce costs associated

Shengde Zhou; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram

2003-01-01

336

Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance.  

PubMed

Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1). This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne; Weber, Jean-Michel

2014-10-15

337

Malate Dehydrogenases of Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria and leaf microbodies isolated from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) by sucrose density gradient centrifugation were each shown to have a unique form (isoenzyme) of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) based on chromatographic and kinetic properties. Root organelle preparations were shown to contain only a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase with physical and kinetic properties similar to the leaf form. The absence of a detectable root microbody malate dehydrogenase similar to the leaf enzyme, which is intermediate in electrophoretic and chromatographic properties between the mitochondrial and soluble isoenzymes, was confirmed by diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography and starch-gel electrophoresis of total homogenates from leaf and root tissue. These findings tend to support the role of the leaf microbody isoenzyme in a pathway unique to photosynthetic tissue. Images PMID:16658469

Zschoche, William C.; Ting, Irwin P.

1973-01-01

338

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement  

E-print Network

-B activity of bovine M.- Longissimus lumborum (LD), Semimembranosus (SM), and Psoas major (PM) steaks at 14 d (end of storage and display) at 1?C ............................................................ 73 4.3 LSMeans for TRA of bovine... M.- Longissimus lumborum (LD), Semimembranosus (SM), and Psoas major (PM) steaks at 14 d (end of storage and display) at 1?C ............................................................ 74 4.4 Pictures for bovine M...

Kim, Yuan Hwan

2009-05-15

339

Changes in creatine transporter function during cardiac maturation in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is well established that the immature myocardium preferentially utilises non-oxidative energy-generating pathways. It exhibits low energy-transfer capacity via the creatine kinase (CK) shuttle, reflected in phosphocreatine (PCr), total creatine and CK levels that are much lower than those of adult myocardium. The mechanisms leading to gradually increasing energy transfer capacity during maturation are poorly understood. Creatine is not

Alexandra Fischer; Michiel ten Hove; Liam Sebag-Montefiore; Helga Wagner; Kieran Clarke; Hugh Watkins; Craig A Lygate; Stefan Neubauer

2010-01-01

340

Additive anticonvulsant effects of creatine supplementation and physical exercise against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although physical activity and creatine supplementation have been a documented beneficial effect on neurological disorders, its implications for epilepsy are still controversial. Thus, we decided to investigate the effects of 6 weeks swimming training, creatine supplementation (300mg\\/kg; p.o.) or its combination seizures and neurochemical alterations induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We found that 6 weeks of physical training or creatine supplementation

Leonardo Magno Rambo; Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro; Mauro Schneider Oliveira; Ana Flávia Furian; Frederico Diniz Lima; Mauren Assis Souza; Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva; Leandro Thies Retamoso; Cristiane Lenz Dalla Corte; Gustavo Orione Puntel; Daiana Silva de Avila; Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares; Michele Rechia Fighera; Carlos Fernando Mello; Luiz Fernando Freire Royes

2009-01-01

341

EFFECTS OF CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION AND TRAINING ON ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN JUDO ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The investigation aimed to determine the effects of the two-week creatine monohydrate supplementation and specially designed training program on anaerobic power and body composition in judo athletes.Atotal of 12 athletes was divided into the creatine (C) and placebo (P) groups. During the first week, the C group subjects (n=6) were given a prepared aqueous solution of creatine monohydrate and

Dragan Radovanovic; Milovan Bratic; Dragana Milovanovi

342

The Phosphocreatine Shuttle of Sea Urchin Sperm: Flagellar Creatine Kinase Resulted from a Gene Triplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

TCK, the creatine kinase (ATP:creatine N-phosphotransferase) from sperm flagella of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a M_r 145,000 axonemal protein that is employed in energy transport. Its amino acid sequence was obtained by analysis of fragments from cyanogen bromide digestion and by sequencing cDNA clones from two sea urchin testis libraries. TCK contains three complete but nonidentical creatine kinase

D. D. Wothe; H. Charbonneau; B. M. Shapiro

1990-01-01

343

Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has been reported to be an effective ergogenic aid for athletes. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term safety of creatine supplementation. This study examined the effects of long-term creatine supplementation on a 69-item panel of serum, whole blood, and urinary markers of clinical health status in athletes. Over a 21-month period, 98 Division IA college football players

Richard B. Kreider; Charles Melton; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Michael Greenwood; Stacy Lancaster; Edward C. Cantler; Pervis Milnor; Anthony L. Almada

2003-01-01

344

Putting to rest the myth of creatine supplementation leading to muscle cramps and dehydration.  

PubMed

Creatine is one of the most popular athletic supplements with sales surpassing 400 million dollars in 2004. Due to the popularity and efficacy of creatine supplementation over 200 studies have examined the effects of creatine on athletic performance. Despite the abundance of research suggesting the effectiveness and safety of creatine, a fallacy appears to exist among the general public, driven by media claims and anecdotal reports, that creatine supplementation can result in muscle cramps and dehydration. Although a number of published studies have refuted these claims, a recent position statement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in 2000 advised individuals who are managing their weight and exercising intensely or in hot environments to avoid creatine supplementation. Recent reports now suggest that creatine may enhance performance in hot and/or humid conditions by maintaining haematocrit, aiding thermoregulation and reducing exercising heart rate and sweat rate. Creatine may also positively influence plasma volume during the onset of dehydration. Considering these new published findings, little evidence exists that creatine supplementation in the heat presents additional risk, and this should be taken into consideration as position statements and other related documents are published. PMID:18184753

Dalbo, V J; Roberts, M D; Stout, J R; Kerksick, C M

2008-07-01

345

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

1995-01-01

346

Creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiration in hearts of trout, cod and freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

The importance of the creatine kinase system in the cardiac muscle of ectothermic vertebrates is unclear. Mammalian cardiac muscle seems to be structurally organized in a manner that compartmentalizes the intracellular environment as evidenced by the substantially higher mitochondrial apparent Km for ADP in skinned fibres compared to isolated mitochondria. A mitochondrial fraction of creatine kinase is functionally coupled to the mitochondrial respiration, and the transport of phosphocreatine and creatine as energy equivalents of ATP and ADP, respectively, increases the mitochondrial apparent ADP affinity, i.e. lowers the Km. This function of creatine kinase seems to be absent in hearts of frog species. To find out whether this applies to hearts of ectothermic vertebrate species in general, we investigated the effect of creatine on the mitochondrial respiration of saponin-skinned fibres from the ventricle of rainbow trout, Atlantic cod and freshwater turtle. For all three species, the apparent Km for ADP appeared to be substantially higher than for isolated mitochondria. Creatine lowered this Km in trout and turtle, thus indicating a functional coupling between mitochondrial creatine kinase and respiration. However, creatine had no effect on Km in cod ventricle. In conclusion, the creatine kinase-system in trout and turtle hearts seems to fulfil the same functions as in the mammalian heart, i.e. facilitating energy transport and communication between cellular compartments. In cod heart, however, this does not seem to be the case. PMID:12856133

Birkedal, R; Gesser, H

2003-08-01

347

Inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase by piroxicam-derived radicals.  

PubMed

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was used as a marker molecule to clarify the mechanism of gastric mucosal damage as a side effect of using piroxicam. Piroxicam inactivated ADH during interaction of ADH with horseradish peroxidase and H2O2 (HRP-H2O2). The ADH was more easily inactivated under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, indicating participation by oxygen. Superoxide dismutase, but not hydroxyl radical scavengers, inhibited inactivation of ADH, indicating participation by superoxide. Sulfhydryl (SH) groups in ADH were lost during incubation of piroxicam with HRP-H2O2. Adding reduced glutathione (GSH) efficiently blocked ADH inactivation. Other SH enzymes, including creatine kinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also inactivated by piroxicam with HRP-H2O2. Thus SH groups in the enzymes seem vulnerable to piroxicam activated by HRP-H2O2. Spectral change in piroxicam was caused by HRP-H2O2. ESR signals of glutathionyl radicals occurred during incubation of piroxicam with HRP-H2O2 in the presence of GSH. Under anaerobic conditions, glutathionyl radical formation increased. Thus piroxicam free radicals interact with GSH to produce glutathionyl radicals. Piroxicam peroxyl radicals or superoxide, or both, seem to inactivate ADH. Superoxide may be produced through interaction of peroxyl radicals with H2O2. Thus superoxide dismutase may inhibit inactivation of ADH through reducing piroxicam peroxyl radicals or blocking interaction of SH groups with O2 , or both. Other oxicam derivatives, including isoxicam, tenoxicam and meloxicam, induced ADH inactivation in the presence of HRP-H2O2. PMID:15129729

Muraoka, Sanae; Miura, Toshiaki

2004-03-01

348

Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Identification and Names for Gene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant gene products that have been described as `alcohol dehydrogenases' are surveyed and related to their CPGN nomenclature. Most are Zn-dependent medium chain dehydrogenases, including `classical' alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1), glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (Fdh1), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad2), and benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Bad1). Plant gene products belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase class should not be called alcohol dehydrogenases unless such activity

1999-01-01

349

Is lactation nature's contraceptive? Data from Samoa.  

PubMed

Data from a Samoan menstruation study suggest that lactation, even intensive on-demand lactation, does not inhibit menstruation or conception. This paper explores the applied and theoretical implications of continuing to accept lactation as a universally effective fertility control mechanism. Such thinking can have disastrous implications for family planning programs, and it keeps us from challenging long-held assumptions about lactation's role in population growth in early populations. PMID:1514124

Fitzgerald, M H

1992-01-01

350

The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V?O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

2011-01-01

351

Neuroendocrine mechanisms of lactational infertility in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current knowledge on the mechanisms of lactational infertility, discussed during a symposium of investigators in this subject, is reviewed. Three periods of lactation are examined: the first weeks postpartum, the period of extended lactational amenorrhea and the recovery of ovarian function. In the first postpartum weeks the inhibition of ovarian function is accounted by diminished pituitary response to GnRH,

S DIAZI; M SERON-FERRE; HB CROXATTO; J VELDHUIS

1995-01-01

352

The role of creatine in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Creatine is consumed in the diet and endogenously synthesised in the body. Over the past decade, the ergogenic benefits of synthetic creatine monohydrate have made it a popular dietary supplement, particularly among athletes. The anabolic properties of creatine also offer hope for the treatment of diseases characterised by weakness and muscle atrophy. Moreover, because of its cellular mechanisms of action, creatine offers potential benefits for diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent data also support the hypothesis that creatine may have a neuroprotective effect. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, resulting in weakening and atrophy of skeletal muscles. In patients with this condition, creatine offers potential benefits in terms of facilitating residual muscle contractility as well as improving neuronal function. It may also help stabilise mitochondrial dysfunction, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ALS. Indeed, the likely multifactorial aetiology of ALS means the combined pharmacodynamic properties of creatine offer promise for the treatment of this condition. Evidence from available animal models of ALS supports the utility of treatment with creatine in this setting. Limited data available in other neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases further support the potential benefit of creatine monohydrate in ALS. However, few randomised, controlled trials have been conducted. To date, two clinical trials of creatine monohydrate in ALS have been completed without demonstration of significant improvements in overall survival or a composite measure of muscle strength. These trials have also posed unanswered questions about the optimal dosage of creatine and its beneficial effects on muscle fatigue, a measure distinct from muscle strength. A large, multicentre, clinical trial is currently underway to further investigate the efficacy of creatine monohydrate in ALS and address these unresolved issues. Evidence to date shows that creatine supplementation has a good safety profile and is well tolerated by ALS patients. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, balanced review of the literature concerning creatine monohydrate in the treatment of ALS and related neurodegenerative diseases. The pharmacokinetics and rationale for the use of creatine are described along with available evidence from animal models and clinical trials for ALS and related neurodegenerative or neuromuscular diseases. PMID:15584767

Ellis, Amy Cameron; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

353

Novel sensory surface for creatine kinase electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

This work describes a novel concept of biosensor for quantifying enzymes, where the substrate is immobilized directly over the working area of a screen printed electrode (Au-SPE). This concept is applied here to creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), a cardiac biomarker in ischemic conditions. It acts as a phospho-transferase on creatine (Crea), requiring the presence of phosphate. So, the phosphorylated form of creatine (Pcrea) was immobilized on the Au/SPE previously aminated with cysteamine (Cys) by self-assembling monolayer technique. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were used to follow the chemical modifications in the Au-SPE. Since Pcrea is an electroactive species at low potential, its consumption over the platform by the enzyme changed the electrical response of the biosensor. So, CK-MB determination has been achieved in mediator free-conditions due the redox proprieties of the Pcrea. The analytical features of the resulting biosensor were studied by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The limit of detection was 0.11 µg/mL and the slope was -0.029(± 0.0035) µA × mL/µg. The interference effect of troponin T (TnT), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin (Myo) in the performance of the sensor was tested and good selectivity was observed. The biosensor was successfully applied to biological fluids, showing good stability at room temperature and excellent sensitivity and selectivity. This new concept of biosensor is especially useful for point of care (POC) applications, due to the low cost and small size of the final device. PMID:24508544

Moreira, Felismina T C; Dutra, Rosa A F; Noronha, João P; Sales, M Goreti F

2014-06-15

354

Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKC? expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

Aksentijevic, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

2014-01-01

355

Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Creatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (?0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276). Conclusion We conclude that Cr monohydrate supplementation associated with a specific resistance program promoted a meaningful increase in muscle strength without inducing changes in body composition. The observed significant increase in uric acid and the decrease in TAS suggest that creatine supplementation, despite promoting acute effects on muscle strength improvement, might induce oxidative stress and decreases total antioxidant status of subjects. PMID:23259853

2012-01-01

356

Formation of d(-)-1,2-propanediol and d(-)-lactate from glucose by Clostridium sphenoides under phosphate limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium sphenoides was grown on glucose in a phosphate-limited medium. Below 80 µM phosphate two new products were formed in addition to ethanol, acetate, H2 and CO2: d(-)-1,2-propanediol and d(-)-lactate. These compounds were apparently synthesized via the methylglyoxal by-pass. The activity of the enzymes involvedmethylglyoxal synthase, methylglyoxal reductase, 1,2-propanediol dehydrogenase and glyoxalase-could be demonstrated in cell extracts of C. sphenoides.

Khue Tran-Din; Gerhard Gottschalk

1985-01-01

357

The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants  

PubMed Central

Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

1973-01-01

358

Creatine reduces hepatic TG accumulation in hepatocytes by stimulating fatty acid oxidation.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a wide spectrum of liver damage including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. We have previously reported that creatine supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation in rats fed a high-fat diet. In this study, we employed oleate-treated McArdle RH-7777 rat hepatoma cells to investigate the role of creatine in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Creatine, but not structural analogs, reduced cellular TG accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Incubating cells with the pan-lipase inhibitor diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate (E600) did not diminish the effect of creatine, demonstrating that the TG reduction brought about by creatine does not depend on lipolysis. Radiolabeled tracer experiments indicate that creatine increases fatty acid oxidation and TG secretion. In line with increased fatty acid oxidation, mRNA analysis revealed that creatine-treated cells had increased expression of PPAR? and several of its transcriptional targets. Taken together, this study provides direct evidence that creatine reduces lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and TG secretion. PMID:25205520

da Silva, Robin P; Kelly, Karen B; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

2014-11-01

359

Chronic Creatine Supplementation Alters Depression-like Behavior in Rodents in a Sex-Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairments in bioenergetic function, cellular resiliency, and structural plasticity are associated with the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Preliminary evidence suggests that creatine, an ergogenic compound known to promote cell survival and influence the production and usage of energy in the brain, can improve mood in treatment-resistant patients. This study examined the effects of chronic creatine supplementation using the forced swim

Patricia J Allen; Kristen E D'Anci; Robin B Kanarek; Perry F Renshaw

2010-01-01

360

Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?  

Microsoft Academic Search

: We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. METHODS: Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or

Bruno Gualano; Carlos Ugrinowitsch; Guilherme G Artioli; Fabiana B Benatti; Fernanda B Scagliusi; Roger C Harris; Antonio H Lancha

2008-01-01

361

Creatine supplementation reduces skeletal muscle degeneration and enhances mitochondrial function in mdx mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mdx mouse serves as animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Energy status in muscles of mdx mice is impaired and we have demonstrated recently that the energy precursor creatine exerts beneficial effects on mdx skeletal muscle cells in culture. Here we show that feeding a creatine-enriched diet to new-born mdx mice strongly reduced the first wave of muscle necrosis

Anne-Catherine Passaquin; Mathilde Renard; Laurence Kay; Corinne Challet; Armand Mokhtarian; Theo Wallimann; Urs T. Ruegg

2002-01-01

362

Effects of creatine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: results of a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), whose mutations cause cystic fibrosis (CF), depends on ATP for activation and transport function. Availability of ATP in the cell and even more in specific cellular microcompartments often depends on a functional creatine kinase system, which provides the ‘energy buffer’ phosphocreatine. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase phosphocreatine levels, thus promoting muscle

Christian P. Braegger; Uwe Schlattner; Theo Wallimann; Anna Utiger; Friederike Frank; Beat Schaefer; Claus W. Heizmann; Felix H. Sennhauser

2003-01-01

363

Creatine supplementation in health and disease: What is the evidence for long-term efficacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation is an established ergogenic aid in sports and is now claimed to have therapeutical applications in a variety of diseases. The available literature mainly covers the short-term (one to several weeks) effects of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in health and disease, which is of little help to evaluate the long-term (two or more months) potential of

Wim Derave; Bert O. Eijnde; Peter Hespel

2003-01-01

364

THE CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES IN ORGANIZED METABOLIC NETWORKS AND REGULATION OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION  

E-print Network

1 REVIEW THE CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES IN ORGANIZED METABOLIC NETWORKS AND REGULATION OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION : A NEW ROLE FOR MAXWELL'S DEMON by Saks V 1,2 , Guerrero K.1 , Vendelin M.1,3 , Engelbrecht J.3 on the cellular mechanisms of functioning of the creatine kinases and their role in the regulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

Creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiration in hearts of trout, cod and freshwater turtle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the creatine kinase system in the cardiac muscle of ectothermic vertebrates is unclear. Mammalian cardiac muscle seems to be structurally organized in a manner that compartmentalizes the intracellular environment as evidenced by the substantially higher mitochondrial apparent K m for ADP in skinned fibres compared to isolated mitochondria. A mitochondrial fraction of creatine kinase is functionally coupled

R. Birkedal; H. Gesser

2003-01-01

366

Applied nutritional investigation Effects of creatine on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would interfere with normal body fluid shifts that occur during exercise in a hot environment due to its osmotic effect intracellularly. This study examined the effects of acute creatine loading (20 g\\/d for 5 d) on the thermoregulatory response of the body during a bout of exercise at 39°C. Methods: Subjects (15 men and

Ronald W. Mendel; Mark Blegen; Chris Cheatham; Jose Antonio; Tim Ziegenfuss

367

The effects of creatine supplementation: A review with special regards to ballgames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short review is based on general knowledge and guidelines about creatine metabolism and supplementation (CS). These principles provide the starting point for an attempt at inferring the theoretical effects in ballgames with their specific workload profiles. The self-reported prevalence of creatine use in game players ranges from 2% in female volleyball players to 71% in male American football players.

Alexander Ferrauti; Hubert Remmert

2003-01-01

368

Guanidino compounds in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a new inborn error of creatine synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first inborn error of creatine metabolism (guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT] deficiency) has recently been recognized in an infant with progressive extrapyramidal movement disorder. The diagnosis was established by creatine deficiency in the brain as detected by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by defective GAMT activity and two mutant GAMT alleles in a liver biopsy. Here, we describe characteristic guanidino-compound

S. Stöckler-Ipsiroglu; B. Marescau; P. R. De Deyn; J. M. F. Trijbels; F. Hanefeld

1997-01-01

369

Creatine monohydrate in ALS: effects on strength, fatigue, respiratory status and ALSFRS.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the effect of creatine monohydrate on disease progression in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One hundred and seven patients with the diagnosis of probable or definite ALS, of less than five years duration from symptom onset, were randomized to either treatment with daily creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) or placebo. In this multicenter, double-blinded study we followed changes in disease progression: using quantitative measures of strength via maximal isometric voluntary contraction, forced vital capacity, ALSFRS, quality of life, fatigue and survival. Patients were followed for nine months. The results showed that creatine monohydrate did not significantly improve motor, respiratory or functional capacity in this patient population. The drug was well tolerated and the study groups well balanced, especially considering the absence of forced vital capacity criteria for entrance into the study. There was a trend toward improved survival in patients taking daily creatine monohydrate and this was identical to the trend seen in another recently published report of creatine in ALS patients 1. In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing. PMID:18608103

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; King, Ruth M; Jackson, Carlayne E; Bedlack, Richard S; Barohn, Richard J; Dick, Arthur; Phillips, Lawrence H; Chapin, John; Gelinas, Deborah F; Lou, Jau-Shin

2008-10-01

370

Expression of NAD + -dependent formate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes and its involvement in anaerobic metabolism and H 2 production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression system for NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh1), from Candida boidinii, was constructed and cloned into Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183. With the fdh1 expression, the total H2 yield was attributed to a decrease in activity of the lactate pathway and an increase of the formate pathway flux due to\\u000a the NADH regeneration. Analysis of the redox state balance and ethanol-to-acetate

Yuan Lu; Hongxin Zhao; Chong Zhang; Qiheng Lai; Xi Wu; Xin-Hui Xing

2009-01-01

371

Medications in Pregnancy and Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the least-developed areas of clinical pharmacology and drug research is the use of medication during pregnancy and lactation. This article is the first in a two-part series designed to familiarize physicians with many aspects of the drugs they commonly prescribe for pregnant and breast-feeding women. Almost every pregnant woman is exposed to some type of medication during pregnancy.

Catalin S. Buhimschi; Carl P. Weiner

2009-01-01

372

Biophysical Journal Volume 73 November 1997 2667-2673 Mobility of Creatine Phosphokinase and f3-Enolase in Cultured  

E-print Network

Biophysical Journal Volume 73 November 1997 2667-2673 Mobility of Creatine Phosphokinase and f3, Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, F75005 Paris ABSTRACT The diffusion of f3-enolase and creatine. A fraction of creatine phosphokinase is mobile in the sarcoplasm. Its diffusion coefficient in the cytosol, 4

373

Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.

1988-10-01

374

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production.  

PubMed

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

375

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production  

PubMed Central

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

376

Maximal lactate steady state in kayaking.  

PubMed

A fixed blood lactate value of 4?mM was commonly used to calculate workload at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in kayaking. Our purpose was to measure the actual blood lactate value at MLSS and workload at MLSS in kayaking and assess the validity of using a fixed blood lactate value to calculate the workload at MLSS. 8 junior kayakers (15.1±1.2 years; 179.9±7.3?cm; 72.3±4.9?kg) participated in an incremental workload test and 4-6 sub-maximal constant workload tests (duration of 30?min) on a kayaking ergometer. Blood lactate was measured to calculate the blood lactate value and workload at MLSS. The blood lactate value at MLSS in kayaking was 5.4±0.7?mM. The measured workload at MLSS (112±22 watts) was significantly greater than the calculated workload using a lactate value of 4?mM (104±18 watts, p=0.016). The measured MLSS workload was not significantly different from the calculated workload using a fixed lactate value of 5.4?mM (115±19 watts, p=0.16) or 5.0?mM (113±19 watts, p=0.78) in the incremental tests. A fixed blood lactate value of 5?mM instead of 4?mM might be a better estimate in kayaking given the incremental workload test used in this study. PMID:24886924

Li, Y; Niessen, M; Chen, X; Hartmann, U

2014-10-01

377

Variations in the activity of several enzymes in the mammary glands of non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rabbits  

PubMed Central

1. The enzymes phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), ATP–citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) were assayed in rabbit mammary glands at various stages of the pregnancy–lactation cycle. 2. The activities of all enzymes were low during pregnancy and, with the exception of phosphofructokinase, in non-pregnant animals. Two- to ten-fold increases in enzyme activities occurred over the first 20 days of lactation. Although milk yield was considerably decreased, the enzyme activities remained elevated in late lactation (45 days after parturition). 3. These findings are discussed in relation to mammary-gland metabolism and compared with similar observations previously made on ruminants and other small mammals. PMID:4244890

Hartmann, P. E.; Jones, E. A.

1970-01-01

378

NAD(+)-dependent D-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Gene cloning and enzyme characterization.  

PubMed

A genomic library from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was used to complement an Escherichia coli mutant strain deficient for both lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase, and thus unable to grow anaerobically. One recombinant clone was found to display a broad specificity NAD(+)-dependent D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity. The corresponding gene (named hdhD) was subcloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded enzyme indicates a 333-residue protein closely related to D-2-hydroxyisocaproate (i.e. 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentanoate) dehydrogenase (D-HO-HxoDH) of Lactobacillus casei and other NAD(+)-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDH) from several other bacterial species. The hdhD gene was overexpressed under the control of the lambda phage PL promoter and the enzyme was purified with a two-step method. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus enzyme, like that of L. casei, was shown to be active on a wide variety of 2-oxoacid substrates except those having a branched beta-carbon. PMID:7925358

Bernard, N; Johnsen, K; Ferain, T; Garmyn, D; Hols, P; Holbrook, J J; Delcour, J

1994-09-01

379

Putative reaction mechanism of heterologously expressed octopine dehydrogenase from the great scallop, Pecten maximus (L).  

PubMed

cDNA for octopine dehydrogenase (ODH) from the adductor muscle of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, was cloned using 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cDNA comprises an ORF of 1197 nucleotides and the deduced amino acid sequence encodes a protein of 399 amino acids. ODH was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal penta His-tag. ODH-5His was purified to homogeneity using metal-chelate affinity chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. Recombinant ODH had kinetic properties similar to those of wild-type ODH isolated from the scallop's adductor muscle. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to elucidate the involvement of several amino acid residues for the reaction catalyzed by ODH. Cys148, which is conserved in all opine dehydrogenases known to date, was converted to serine or alanine, showing that this residue is not intrinsically important for catalysis. His212, Arg324 and Asp329, which are also conserved in all known opine dehydrogenase sequences, were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. Modification of these residues revealed their importance for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Conversion of each of these residues to alanine resulted in strong increases in K(m) and decreases in k(cat) values for pyruvate and L-arginine, but had little effect on the K(m) and k(cat) values for NADH. Assuming a similar structure for ODH compared with the only available structure of a bacterial opine dehydrogenase, these three amino acids may function as a catalytic triad in ODH similar to that found in lactate dehydrogenase or malate dehydrogenase. The carboxyl group of pyruvate is then stabilized by Arg324. In addition to orienting the substrate, His212 will act as an acid-base catalyst by donating a proton to the carbonyl group of pyruvate. The acidity of this histidine is further increased by the proximity of Asp329. PMID:18028427

Müller, Andre; Janssen, Frank; Grieshaber, Manfred K

2007-12-01

380

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-01

381

Lactate formation in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is regulated by the energy carriers pyrophosphate and ATP.  

PubMed

Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus displays superior H(2) yields on a wide range of carbon sources provided that lactate formation is avoided. Nevertheless, a low lactate flux is initiated as the growth rate declined in the transition to the stationary phase, which coincides with a drastic decrease in the glucose consumption and acetate production fluxes. In addition, the decrease in growth rate was accompanied by a sudden increase and then decrease in NADH levels. The V'(MAX) of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) doubled when the cells entered the stationary phase. Kinetic analysis revealed that at the metabolic level LDH activity is regulated through (i) competitive inhibition by pyrophosphate (PPi, k(i)=1.7 mM) and NAD (k(i)=0.43 mM) and (ii) allosteric activation by FBP (300%), ATP (160%) and ADP (140%). From these data a MWC-based model was derived. Simulations with this model could explain the observed lactate shift by displaying how the sensitivity of LDH activity to NADH/NAD ratio varied with different PP(i) concentrations. Moreover, the activation of LDH by ATP indicates that C. saccharolyticus uses LDH as a means to adjusts its flux of ATP and NADH production. To our knowledge, this is the first time PPi is observed as an effector of LDH. PMID:20060925

Willquist, Karin; van Niel, Ed W J

2010-05-01

382

Phosphorylant capacity study and lactate mitochondrial oxidation in frozen bovine sperm.  

PubMed

Frozen-stored bovine sperm-pellets of proven fertility were used, and the response to respiratory chain effectors was studied, thus demonstrating the energy conservation capacity. It was further observed that the assayed suspensions used lactate oxidatively, which proves the LDH-X mitochondrial activity (the presence of oxidative substrates is fundamental in capacitation and acrosome reaction processes). The suspensions were treated with 10mM phosphate buffer hypotonic medium to eliminate plasmalema and cytoplasmic content. Lactate respiration was sensitive to respiratory chain effectors, such as oligomycin and antimycin. To evaluate the LDH-X contribution to mitochondrial respiration, lipoate dehydrogenase was inhibited through 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA) in the presence of pyruvate-malate and citrate-malate, obtaining with the addition of lactate, oxygen uptakes of 18% and 51% with respect to respiration with the mentioned substrates. In the MICA dose-effect curve, a major sensitivity to inhibitor in active state mitochondrial respiration is obtained when pyruvate-malate is used. Lactate competence with pyruvate by mitochondrial LDH-X was observed. The results obtained would allow the thorough study of the necessity of oxidative energy in the capacitation and fertilization processes, and of the LDH-X role in frozen-stored bovine sperm. PMID:2402176

Beconi, M T; Beorlegui, N B; Sarmiento, N K; Mora, N G

1990-01-01

383

URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.05). UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r = ?0.34, p < 0.01) and lean mass (r = ?0.30, p < 0.05), and positively correlated with fat mass (r = 0.32, p < 0.05). After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

2014-01-01

384

Urinary creatine at rest and after repeated sprints in athletes: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.05). UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r = -0.34, p < 0.01) and lean mass (r = -0.30, p < 0.05), and positively correlated with fat mass (r = 0.32, p < 0.05). After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

Bezrati-Benayed, I; Nasrallah, F; Feki, M; Chamari, K; Omar, S; Alouane-Trabelsi, L; Ben Mansour, A; Kaabachi, N

2014-03-01

385

Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine.  

PubMed

Creatine has become one of the most popular dietary supplements in the sports nutrition market. The form of creatine that has been most extensively studied and commonly used in dietary supplements is creatine monohydrate (CM). Studies have consistently indicated that CM supplementation increases muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations by approximately 15-40%, enhances anaerobic exercise capacity, and increases training volume leading to greater gains in strength, power, and muscle mass. A number of potential therapeutic benefits have also been suggested in various clinical populations. Studies have indicated that CM is not degraded during normal digestion and that nearly 99% of orally ingested CM is either taken up by muscle or excreted in urine. Further, no medically significant side effects have been reported in literature. Nevertheless, supplement manufacturers have continually introduced newer forms of creatine into the marketplace. These newer forms have been purported to have better physical and chemical properties, bioavailability, efficacy, and/or safety profiles than CM. However, there is little to no evidence that any of the newer forms of creatine are more effective and/or safer than CM whether ingested alone and/or in combination with other nutrients. In addition, whereas the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of CM is clearly defined in almost all global markets; the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of other forms of creatine present in today's marketplace as a dietary or food supplement is less clear. PMID:21424716

Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Shao, Andrew; Inoue, Toshitada; Kreider, Richard B

2011-05-01

386

Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women.  

PubMed

The benefits of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle performance are generally related to an increase in muscle phosphocreatine content. However, creatine supplementation may benefit endurance sports through increased glycogen re-synthesis following exercise. This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle glycogen content, submaximal exercise fuel utilisation and endurance performance following 4 weeks of endurance training. Thirteen healthy, physically active, non-vegetarian subjects volunteered to take part and completed the study. Subjects were supplemented with either creatine monohydrate (CREAT, n = 7) or placebo-maltodextrin (CON, n = 6). Submaximal fuel utilisation and endurance performance were assessed before and after a 4 week endurance training program. Muscle biopsies were also collected before and following training for assessment of muscle creatine and glycogen content. Training increased quadriceps glycogen content to the same degree (approximately 20%) in both groups (P = 0.04). There was a significant training effect on submaximal fuel utilisation and improved endurance performance. However, there was no significant treatment effect of creatine supplementation. Creatine supplementation does not effect metabolic adaptations to endurance training. PMID:16896727

Reardon, T F; Ruell, P A; Fiatarone Singh, M A; Thompson, C H; Rooney, K B

2006-10-01

387

Increased production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli by overexpression of malate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli NZN111 is a double mutant with inactivated lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate-lyase. It cannot utilize glucose anaerobically\\u000a because of its unusually high intracellular NADH\\/NAD+ ratio. We have now constructed a recombinant strain, E. coli NZN111\\/pTrc99a-mdh, which, during anaerobic fermentation, produced 4.3 g succinic acid l?1 from 13.5 g glucose l?1. The NADH\\/NAD+ ratio decreased from 0.64 to 0.26. Furthermore, dual-phase fermentation (aerobic growth

Li-ya LiangRong-ming; Rong-ming Liu; Jiang-feng Ma; Ke-quan Chen; Min Jiang; Ping Wei

388

Lactate metabolism in fetal type II pneumocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal rat lung type II pneumocytes in organotypic culture produce significant quantities of both pyruvate and lactate, even\\u000a when maintained under aerobic conditions (5% CO2\\/air). A hypoxic atmosphere of 95% nitrogen\\/5% CO2 increased lactate production by 35%, while cells in a hyperoxic environment (95% oxygen\\/5% CO2) manufactured lactate at a rate similar to controls. Cells incubated under aerobic conditions following

Michael J. Engle; D. Jeannette Brown; Anne F. Dehring

1986-01-01

389

The effect of exercise on lactate metabolism  

PubMed Central

1. An I.V. injection of 5 ?c [U-14C]sodium L(+)-lactate was given to four subjects at rest and again 10 min after beginning a 40-50 min period of heavy exercise at an estimated 62-72% of their maximum aerobic power (V?O2 max.). Both blood lactate concentration and V?O2 remained relatively constant after the first few minutes of exercise. 2. In all subjects both at rest and during exercise blood lactate and total radioactivity were measured at frequent intervals after injection of [14C]lactate. Timed expired gas collections were made and the quantity of 14CO2 present in each collection measured. In two subjects the specific activity of lactate and of glucose isolated from blood was also measured. 3. It was found that during 30 min of exercise 35-68% of the administered [14C]lactate was recovered as 14CO2 in the expired gas, whereas at rest only 3-7% was recovered in the same period. 4. After injection of [14C]lactate the blood 14C concentration and the specific activity of the blood lactate declined very rapidly. This decline was more rapid during exercise than at rest. 5. In the two subjects in whom it was measured the specific activity of blood glucose was lower during exercise than at rest. 6. These results show that both at rest and during heavy exercise, lactate is removed from the blood and metabolized, and that during exercise this metabolism is much more rapid. 7. In the light of these findings the sustained blood lactate concentration observed in these experiments is regarded as representing a dynamic equilibrium between the production and metabolism of lactate during exercise. The results give no support to the hypothesis that lactate is produced only during the first few minutes of submaximal work. PMID:4715350

Hubbard, Judith L.

1973-01-01

390

Bacterial 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus possessing L(+)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced mainly meso-butanediol and small amounts of optically active butanediol; Acetobacter suboxydans, Bacillus polymyxa and Erwinia carotovora containing D(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced more optically active butanediol than meso-butanediol. Resting and growing cells of these organisms oxidized only one enantiomer of racemic butanediol. The D(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus polymyxa was

Hanni Höhn-Bentz; F. Radler

1978-01-01

391

The stress signalling pathway nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 is activated in the liver of sows during lactation  

PubMed Central

Background It has recently been shown that the lactation-induced inflammatory state in the liver of dairy cows is accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which regulates the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and thereby protects tissues from inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study aimed to study whether the Nrf2 pathway is activated also in the liver of lactating sows. Findings Transcript levels of known Nrf2 target genes, UGT1A1 (encoding glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1), HO-1 (encoding heme oxygenase 1), NQO1 (encoding NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1), GPX1 (encoding glutathione peroxidase), PRDX6 (encoding peroxiredoxin 6), TXNRD1 (encoding thioredoxin reductase 1), and SOD (encoding superoxide dismutase), in the liver are significantly elevated (between 1.7 and 3.1 fold) in lactating sows compared to non-lactating sows. The inflammatory state in the liver was evidenced by the finding that transcript levels of genes encoding acute phase proteins, namely haptoglobin (HP), fibrinogen ? (FGG), complement factor B (CFB), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), were significantly higher (2 to 8.7 fold) in lactating compared to non-lactating sows. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the Nrf2 pathway in the liver of sows is activated during lactation. The activation of Nrf2 pathway during lactation in sows might be interpreted as a physiologic means to counteract the inflammatory process and to protect the liver against damage induced by inflammatory signals and ROS. PMID:23039904

2012-01-01

392

Creatine and Its Potential Therapeutic Value for Targeting Cellular Energy Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Substantial evidence indicates bioenergetic dysfunction and mitochondrial impairment contribute either directly and/or indirectly to the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment paradigms aimed at ameliorating this cellular energy deficit and/or improving mitochondrial function in these neurodegenerative disorders may prove to be useful as a therapeutic intervention. Creatine is a molecule that is produced both endogenously, and acquired exogenously through diet, and is an extremely important molecule that participates in buffering intracellular energy stores. Once creatine is transported into cells, creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transphosphorylation of creatine via ATP to enhance the phosphocreatine energy pool. Creatine kinase enzymes are located at strategic intracellular sites to couple areas of high energy expenditure to the efficient regeneration of ATP. Thus, the creatinekinase/phosphocreatine system plays an integral role in energy buffering and overall cellular bioenergetics. Originally, exogenous creatine supplementation was widely used only as an ergogenic aid to increase the phosphocreatine pool within muscle to bolster athletic performance. However, the potential therapeutic value of creatine supplementation has recently been investigated with respect to various neurodegenerative disorders that have been associated with bioenergetic deficits as playing a role in disease etiology and/or progression which include; Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease. This review discusses the contribution of mitochondria and bioenergetics to the progression of these neurodegenerative diseases and investigates the potential neuroprotective value of creatine supplementation in each of these neurological diseases. In summary, current literature suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation is most efficacious as a treatment paradigm in Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease but appears to be less effective for ALS and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19005780

Adhihetty, Peter J.

2010-01-01

393

Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.  

PubMed

Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

Tarnopolsky, Mark A

2007-01-01

394

Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual P/sub i/ is described. 20 references.

Savabi, F.; Geiger, P.J.; Bessman, S.P.

1984-03-01

395

Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny  

PubMed Central

1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine–glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish), buffalo fish (bony fish) or the snapping turtle. Transamidinase or guanidinoacetate methylpherase activity could not be found in the salamander or garter snake, respectively. 3. The results obtained with the lamprey are in direct contrast with those obtained with the hagfish (both subphylum Agnatha, class Cyclostomata). The lamprey had the ability to synthesize creatine and did not abstract creatine from lake water. The hagfish did not have any apparent ability to synthesize creatine and did abstract creatine from sea water. The present report thus supports the theory that the myxinoid (hagfish) and petromyzoid (lamprey) agnathans are only distantly related. 4. The lack of creatine-synthesizing enzyme activities in the cartilaginous fishes may have phylogenetic significance, but may also be explained by the availability of creatine in the diet of these animals. The lack of one or both enzyme activities in vertebrates other than the hagfish and the cartilaginous fish is suggested to be the result of creatine in the diet. PMID:5010856

Van Pilsum, John F.; Stephens, Grover C.; Taylor, Dorris

1972-01-01

396

Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

Anderson, Alexander J.

1988-01-01

397

Serum lactate dehydrogenase level as a prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of currently available treatments for Hodgkin's disease (HD) has led to a substantial modification in the prognosis of this disease; nevertheless there is still a group of patients that cannot be cured with conventional treatments and who will be candidates for alternative therapy. In the present work we analysed the prognostic influence of the most relevant clinico-biological characteristics

R García; JM Hernández; M González; J Galende; MC del Cañizo; L Vázquez; JF San Miguel

1993-01-01

398

The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions  

E-print Network

and style of Plant Physiology. regenerates the NAD' needed to maintain glycolysis and the minimal production . of ATP. Some tissues such as the anoxic leaves of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus maritimus and Typha latifolia (Barclay and Crawford, 1982... and style of Plant Physiology. regenerates the NAD' needed to maintain glycolysis and the minimal production . of ATP. Some tissues such as the anoxic leaves of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus maritimus and Typha latifolia (Barclay and Crawford, 1982...

MacAlpine, David Michael

2012-06-07

399

Pressure-induced thermostabilization of glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile  

E-print Network

Pressure-induced thermostabilization of glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile glutamate dehydrogenases ~GDHs!: the native enzyme from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus ~Pf spin resonance; glutamate dehydrogenase; glycerol; pressure; Pyrococcus furiosus; stability

Vetriani, Costantino

400

Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms. PMID:24098433

Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-01-01

401

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

1996-01-01

402

Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2