Sample records for lactate dehydrogenase creatine

  1. Measurement of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase using reflectance spectroscopy and reagent strips.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

    1983-01-01

    Two new methods for the assay of total activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase are described, in which the enzyme activities are measured from a solid-state reagent strip during a kinetic reaction, the reaction being monitored in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum by reflectance spectroscopy. The performances of these methods are evaluated, and compared to conventional "wet" chemistry methods. The solid-phase reagent methods demonstrated precision and accuracy acceptable for diagnostic purposes, and were easy to use by trained operators. PMID:6655069

  2. THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

    Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

  3. The Effects of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation and Cardiomyopathy Syndrome on Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Powell, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising. PMID:22701371

  4. The effects of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation and cardiomyopathy syndrome on creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Powell, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising. PMID:22701371

  5. Depressive symptoms of female nursing staff working in stressful environments and their association with serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The activity of creatine kinase (CK) in serum has recently been reported to be potentially associated with several types of depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether serum enzymes, including CK, vary even in a healthy population with depressive symptoms caused by work-related stress. We gave questionnaires and blood examinations to 93 healthy female nursing home workers and did an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of CK isozyme muscle-type M chain (CK-MM) in serum. Findings Depressive symptoms were determined using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and compared with the results of the blood examination and serum CK-MM levels. The CES-D results showed significant negative correlations with total CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and CK-MM level (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0062; r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0065; r?=?-0.33, p?=?0.0016, respectively). Conclusions Total CK and LDH activities and serum CK-MM level appear to be associated with the depressive symptoms of healthy nurses working in stressful environments, although the significance level was relatively low. The simultaneous detection of serum CK and LDH activities or serum CK-MM level and LDH activity may be useful as an indicator of depressive symptoms, at least for female nursing staff with work-related stress. PMID:25243019

  6. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is lactate dehydrogenase deficiency? Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition ...

  8. Lactate Dehydrogenases in Human Testes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Blanco; William H. Zinkham

    1963-01-01

    A unique form of lactate dehydrogenase was observed in the starch-gel electrophoretic patterns of adult human testes. It was present in sperm, but absent in prepubertal testes. Its electrophoretic mobility, heat stability, kinetic behavior with pyridine nucleotide analogs, and chromatographic characteristics on diethylaminoethyl cellulose were intermediate to those observed for lactate dehydrogenase isozymes 3 and 4.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a...

  19. Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to

    E-print Network

    Glover, Mark

    Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to Extreme Thermal; accepted 18 September 2007 Available online 22 September 2007 Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with concomitant oxidation of NADH during the last step in anaerobic

  20. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. PMID:25542170

  1. ISOZYME PROFILES OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE IN NEONATAL MOUSE HEARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isozyme profiles of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined in cardiac tissue of mice during postnatal development. LDH isozymes 1 and 5 showed a definite developmental change, achieving the adult values by 20 days of age, while the other three...

  2. Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Viana; María Jesús Yebra; José Luis Galán; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

    2005-01-01

    In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of l-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a d-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes

  3. Creatine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Malate, Di-Creatine Malate, Éthyle Ester de Créatine, Glycine, N-(aminoiminométhyl)-N-Méthyl, Kre-Alkalyn Pyruvate, Malate de Tricréatine, N-amidinosarcosine, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N Methyl Glycine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphocréatine, Tricreatine HCA, Tricréatine HCA, Tricreatine Malate, ...

  4. A Specific, Highly Active Malate Dehydrogenase by Redesign of a Lactate Dehydrogenase Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Wilks; Keith W. Hart; Raymond Feeney; Cameron R. Dunn; Hilary Muirhead; William N. Chia; David A. Barstow; Tony Atkinson; Anthony R. Clarke; J. John Holbrook

    1988-01-01

    Three variations to the structure of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus were made to try to change the substrate specificity from lactate to malate: Asp197--> Asn, Thr246--> Gly, and Gln102--> Arg). Each modification shifts the specificity from lactate to malate, although only the last (Gln102--> Arg) provides an effective and highly specific catalyst for the

  5. Lactate Dehydrogenase Undergoes a Substantial Structural Change to Bind its Substrate

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    Lactate Dehydrogenase Undergoes a Substantial Structural Change to Bind its Substrate Linlin Qiu and thermodynamics of the formation of a very early ternary binding intermediate formed when lactate dehydrogenase is formed in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We focus on how the enzymeÁligand encounter complex is formed

  6. Acta Cryst. (2000). D56, 8183 Lee et al. Lactate dehydrogenase 81 crystallization papers

    E-print Network

    Suh, Se Won

    Acta Cryst. (2000). D56, 81±83 Lee et al. Lactate dehydrogenase 81 crystallization papers Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography ISSN 0907-4449 Lactate dehydrogenase from of Crystallography Printed in Denmark ± all rights reserved l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme

  7. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yuan Hwan

    2009-05-15

    The primary objectives of this research were to characterize the involvement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in color stability of physiologically different bovine muscles, and to investigate the influence of lactate enhancement on the myoglobin...

  9. Stability of lactate dehydrogenases. I. Chemical modification of lysines.

    PubMed

    Müller, J

    1981-07-28

    The lysine residues of lactate dehydrogenase (L-lactate: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) can be amidinated by methyl-4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzimidate to introduce nitrophenolate anions. This modification results in lowered thermal stability, as does acetylation. The conversion of these groups into uncharged aminophenol groups without further modification of the enzyme itself stabilizes the enzymes from pig heart and muscle and from chicken muscle, as does acetamidination, but the unusually stable enzyme from chicken heart reverts only to the stability of the native form. The results allow for the following conclusions. Destabilization is brought about at many points at the surface of lactate dehydrogenases by neutralization of positive charges. Stabilization, in contrast, is concluded to be due to modification of one lysine at position 241 of the sequence. This lysine must have been changed to arginine during the evolution of heart-type lactate dehydrogenases in going from lower to higher reptiles. This exchange has been conserved in the enzymes from the hearts of birds and therefore the enzyme from chicken heart is very stable and cannot further be stabilized by modification of lysines. From X-ray structure analysis, the stabilization by exchange of Arg for Lys at position 241 or by amidination is explained by the formation of additional ion pairs with aspartic acid57 of the Q-related subunits. PMID:6793082

  10. Lactate dehydrogenase mutants of Streptococcus mutans: isolation and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, J D

    1978-01-01

    Mutants of Streptococcus mutans were isolated which lack the enzyme activity L (+)-lactate dehydrogenase. Reversion studies indicate that the genetic defects are in the structural gene for the enzyme. The mutants produce less titratable acid from glucose, adhere better to hydroxyapatite, and accumulate more plaque when grown in the presence of sucrose than does the parent strain. These findings suggest a possible use for the mutants as effector strains in the replacement therapy of dental caries. Images PMID:30695

  11. Anti-peptide antibodies differentiate between plasmodial lactate dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona Hurdayal; Ikechukwu Achilonu; David Choveaux; Theresa H. T. Coetzer; J. P. Dean Goldring

    2010-01-01

    Malaria lactate dehydrogenase, a glycolytic enzyme, is a malaria diagnostic target in lateral flow immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests. Recombinant Plasmodium yoelii LDH was cloned into the pET-28a vector, expressed and the expressed protein purified from a Ni-NTA affinity matrix. A pan-malarial LDH antibody directed against a common malaria LDH peptide (APGKSDKEWNRDDLL) and two anti-peptide antibodies, each targeting a unique Plasmodium

  12. Probing the Role of Dynamics in Hydride Transfer Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    Probing the Role of Dynamics in Hydride Transfer Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase Nickolay Zhadin, Bronx, New York 10461 ABSTRACT The dynamic nature of the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate as catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is characterized by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation

  13. The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic Enzymes (Lactate Dehydrogenase)

    E-print Network

    (Lactate Dehydrogenase) By Trevor M. Selch A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements Enzymes (Lactate Dehydrogenase) This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent investigation THE COST OF CAPTURING PREY: MEASURING LARGEMOUTH BASS FORAGING ACTIVITY USING GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES (LACTATE

  14. Nuclear Lactate Dehydrogenase: Bridging Central Metabolism to Epigenetic Modifications in Mammalian Cellular Systems

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    1 Nuclear Lactate Dehydrogenase: Bridging Central Metabolism to Epigenetic Modifications isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its role in modifying histone acetylation states due to its to serve as substrate for nuclear LDH. This enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate

  15. POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) ON CARDIAC LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND CREATINE KINASE (CK) ISOZYMES IN CD-1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 50 mg HCB/kg body weight on days 6-17 of gestation and studied on day 1 or 21 postpartum (pp). Hearts of the dams and pups were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kina...

  16. Uncommon serum creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase increase during diosmin therapy: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Short-term administration of diosmin is usually considered safe, with only minor side effects (stomach and abdominal pain, diarrhea, dermatological disorders, and headache) occasionally observed. Within a 4-year period, a general practitioner noticed 17 cases of mild, diosmin-induced side effects, two of which showed particular interest. Cases presentation Case 1: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with chronic leg venous insufficiency. She was prescribed diosmin 450mg twice a day. After 5 days of therapy, she developed pain in the legs (myalgia), and diosmin therapy was suspended. She made a spontaneous attempt of drug rechallenge and her leg pain reappeared. Thus, she underwent blood analysis, which showed elevation of creatine phosphokinase levels. Creatine phosphokinase values normalized only after prolonged discontinuation of the therapy. Case 2: A 79-year-old Caucasian man, who was diagnosed with acute hemorrhoidal syndrome. After 21 days of continuous diosmin treatment, increased levels of serum lactic dehydrogenase were detected. In both cases a comprehensive analysis of all possible causes for enzyme elevation was made. Conclusions A feasible hypothesis to explain these rare effects could be that exaggerated adrenergic activity occurred on microcirculation, leading to an excessive peripheral vasoconstriction and subsequent ischemic damage. An individual predisposition is strongly suggested. A concurrence of events was probably responsible for the elevation of nonspecific tissue necrosis markers. Physicians and patients must be aware of these rare, but possible, adverse drug reactions. PMID:24934505

  17. Detection of Necrosis by Release of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Moriwaki, Kenta; De Rosa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Summary Apoptosis and necrosis are two major forms of cell death observed in normal and disease pathologies. Although there are many assays for detection of apoptosis, relatively few assays are available for measuring necrosis. A key signature for necrotic cells is the permeabilization of plasma membrane. This event can be quantified in tissue culture settings by measuring the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). When combined with other methods, measuring LDH release is a useful method for detection of necrosis. In this chapter, we describe the step-by-step procedure for detection of LDH release from necrotic cells using a microtiter plate based colorimetric absorbance assay. PMID:23397389

  18. Activity patterns of phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in microdissected fast and slow fibres from rabbit psoas and soleus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Spamer; Dirk Pette

    1977-01-01

    Methods for standardized determination of phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in nanogram samples of microdissected single fibres of rabbit psoas and soleus muscle are described. Fast and slow fibres in soleus muscle show lower absolute activities of these enzymes than the respective fibre types in psoas muscle. Slow fibres represent a more

  19. Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by translational readthrough in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Schueren, Fabian; Lingner, Thomas; George, Rosemol; Hofhuis, Julia; Dickel, Corinna; Gärtner, Jutta; Thoms, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Translational readthrough gives rise to low abundance proteins with C-terminal extensions beyond the stop codon. To identify functional translational readthrough, we estimated the readthrough propensity (RTP) of all stop codon contexts of the human genome by a new regression model in silico, identified a nucleotide consensus motif for high RTP by using this model, and analyzed all readthrough extensions in silico with a new predictor for peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) showed the highest combined RTP and PTS1 probability. Experimentally we show that at least 1.6% of the total cellular LDHB is targeted to the peroxisome by a conserved hidden PTS1. The readthrough-extended lactate dehydrogenase subunit LDHBx can also co-import LDHA, the other LDH subunit, into peroxisomes. Peroxisomal LDH is conserved in mammals and likely contributes to redox equivalent regeneration in peroxisomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03640.001 PMID:25247702

  20. Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Abstract Lactate has long been regarded as an end (CCF-STTG1) to consume lactate and to generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. 13 C-NMR and HPLC

  1. Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. PMID:24035452

  2. The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions

    E-print Network

    MacAlpine, David Michael

    1995-01-01

    in anoxic maize root tips, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prior to sustained ethanolic fermentation. The initial lactic acid production may contribute to cytoplasmic acidosis. However, barley roots, when deprived of oxygen, exhibit a long term...

  3. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  4. Characterization of Hypoxically Inducible Lactate Dehydrogenase in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, M. E.; Good, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation induces a wide variety of genes, but the most extensively studied are those encoding enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) activity increases up to 3.5-fold in maize (Zea mays L.) roots during several days of hypoxic induction. This increase in activity is accompanied by a decrease in in vitro enzyme stability. LDH activity in aerobic root extracts has an in vitro half-life of 240 min, decreasing to 100 min in 72-h hypoxically induced plant root extracts. The increase in enzyme activity during hypoxic induction is the result of increased protein levels, which correlate with increased transcript levels. Two ldh transcripts of 1.3 and 1.7 kb are induced, with maximum levels reached by 8 and 24 h, respectively. This suggests that the two ldh genes are differentially regulated. Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide does not preclude ldh induction during the first few hours of hypoxic stress, suggesting that new protein synthesis may not be essential for elevation of ldh transcript levels under hypoxic conditions. The rapid and substantial increase in ldh mRNA levels under hypoxic conditions and in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the ldh gene may be valuable in analyzing the hypoxic signal transduction pathway. PMID:12226430

  5. Mitochondrial and plasma membrane lactate transporter and lactate dehydrogenase isoform expression in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hussien, Rajaa

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that dysregulation of lactate/pyruvate (monocarboxylate) transporters (MCT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer. Therefore, we assayed for the expression levels and the localizations of MCT (1, 2, and 4), and LDH (A and B) isoforms in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and compared results with those from a control, untransformed primary breast cell line, HMEC 184. Remarkably, MCT1 is not expressed in MDA-MB-231, but MCT1 is expressed in MCF-7 cells, where its abundance is less than in control HMEC 184 cells. When present in HMEC 184 and MCF-7 cells, MCT1 is localized to the plasma membrane. MCT2 and MCT4 were expressed in all the cell lines studied. MCT4 expression was higher in MDA-MB-231 compared with MCF-7 and HMEC 184 cells, whereas MCT2 abundance was higher in MCF-7 compared with MDA-MB-231 and HMEC 184 cells. Unlike MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 were localized in mitochondria in addition to the plasma membrane. LDHA and LDHB were expressed in all the cell-lines, but abundances were higher in the two cancer cell lines than in the control cells. MCF-7 cells expressed mainly LDHB, while MDA-MB-231 and control cells expressed mainly LDHA. LDH isoforms were localized in mitochondria in addition to the cytosol. These localization patterns were the same in cancerous and control cell lines. In conclusion, MCT and LDH isoforms have distinct expression patterns in two breast cancer cell lines. These differences may contribute to divergent lactate dynamics and oxidative capacities in these cells, and offer possibilities for targeting cancer cells. PMID:21177384

  6. Sequence analysis of teleost retina-specific lactate dehydrogenase C: evolutionary implications for the vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Quattro, J M; Woods, H A; Powers, D A

    1993-01-01

    At least two gene duplication events have led to the three lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B, and LDH-C) of chordates. The prevailing model for the evolution of the LDH loci involves duplication of a primordial LDH locus near the origin of vertebrates, giving rise to Ldh-A and Ldh-B. A third locus, designated Ldh-C, is expressed in the spermatocytes of mammals and a single family of birds and in the eye or liver tissues of teleost fishes. Ldh-C might have arisen independently in these taxa as duplications of either Ldh-A or Ldh-B. Several authors have challenged this traditional hypothesis on the basis of amino acid sequence and immunological similarity of the three LDH isozymes. They suggest that the primordial LDH gene was duplicated to form Ldh-C and a locus that later gave rise to Ldh-A and Ldh-B. We have differentiated between these hypotheses by determining the cDNA sequence of the retina-specific LDH-C from a teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus. On the basis of amino acid sequence similarity, we conclude that the LDH-C isozymes in fish and mammals are not orthologous but derive from independent gene duplications. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses support previous hypotheses that teleost Ldh-C is derived from a duplication of the Ldh-B locus. PMID:8419929

  7. Incorporating expression data in metabolic modeling: a case study of lactate dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Joshua Downer; Joel R. Sevinsky; Natalie G. Ahn; Katheryn A. Resing; M. D. Betterton

    2005-11-12

    Integrating biological information from different sources to understand cellular processes is an important problem in systems biology. We use data from mRNA expression arrays and chemical kinetics to formulate a metabolic model relevant to K562 erythroleukemia cells. MAP kinase pathway activation alters the expression of metabolic enzymes in K562 cells. Our array data show changes in expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which activates MAP kinase signaling. We model the change in lactate production which occurs when the MAP kinase pathway is activated, using a non-equilibrium, chemical-kinetic model of homolactic fermentation. In particular, we examine the role of LDH isoforms, which catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Changes in the isoform ratio are not the primary determinant of the production of lactate. Rather, the total concentration of LDH controls the lactate concentration.

  8. Ligand Binding and Protein Dynamics in Lactate Dehydrogenase J. R. Exequiel T. Pineda,* Robert Callender,y

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    Ligand Binding and Protein Dynamics in Lactate Dehydrogenase J. R. Exequiel T. Pineda,* Robert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York ABSTRACT Recent experimental studies suggest that lactate an enzyme binds its substrate at the earliest stages of binding. We specifically ex- amine the lactate

  9. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  10. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in prostate and testis of wild animals and some histological remarks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Van Camp; M. Van Sande

    1988-01-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern of prostate and of testis of 27 wild animals showed that in several species more than 5 isoenzymes are detected, with electrophoretic mobilities different to those found in humans. The LDH-X band, found in testis from mature humans is also observed in the testis of wild animals. However, in several species more than one

  11. Increasing the heme-dependent respiratory efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Daniele; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Pedersen, Martin B; Pedersen, Per Dedenroth; Dal Bello, Fabio; Mora, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of heme-induced respiration in Lactococcus lactis has radically improved the industrial processes used for the biomass production of this species. Here, we show that inhibition of the lactate dehydrogenase activity of L. lactis during growth under respiration-permissive conditions can stimulate aerobic respiration, thereby increasing not only growth efficiency but also the robustness of this organism. PMID:23064338

  12. THE ROLE OF LIPID PHASE STRUCTURE IN THE INTERACTION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE WITH PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE. ACTIVITY STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRZEGORZ TERLECKI; JAN GUTOWICZ

    2002-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase is one of the enzymes of the glycolytic path. It has been shown to be able to bind in vitro to cellular membranes. The presence of anionic phospholipids induces changes in the catalytic properties of the enzyme similar to those found when the enzyme is bound to natural membranes. In this study, a nonionic detergent (Tween 20), at

  13. Resting Oxygen Consumption Varies among Lactate Dehydrogenase Genotypes in the Sow Bug, Porcellio scaber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffry B. Mitton; Patrick A. Carter; Adam Digiacomo

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of

  14. Intracellular lactate dehydrogenase concentration as an index of cytotoxicity in rat hepatocyte primary culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eddie S. Chao; Deborah Dunbar; Laurence S. Kaminsky

    1988-01-01

    In searching for a reliable index for cytotoxicity testing in rat hepatocyte primary culture, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations in lysates of attached hepatocytes and LDH released into the culture medium were compared under conditions of exposure to various dosages of sodium chloride, sodium salicylate, R-warfarin, acetaminophen, phenylbutazone, and furosemide (frusemide). The amount of intracellular LDH was assessed by inducing the

  15. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  16. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity to body measurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to examine 1) relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of grazing beef cows, and 2) the association between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth weight (BRW), hip height (HH) at weaning, and adjusted weaning weight ...

  17. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  18. Acta Cryst. (1970). B26, 998 Crystallographic Studies on Lactate Dehydrogenase at -75C

    E-print Network

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    1970-01-01

    , Indiana 47907, U.S.A. (Received14 July 1969) Crystals of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were frozen of radiation damage for frozen crystals was tenfold less than for crystals at room temperature. The physical properties of frozen crystals are dis- cussed. Analysis of 3"5A data collected at -75°C for native LDH

  19. Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Lauren J.

    National Park, Uganda differed in traits related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential. Haematocrit was measured as an index of blood oxygen-carrying capacity, and tissue activities and isozyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as indices of tissue anaerobic capacity. To address whether site

  20. NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase catalyses the first step in respiratory utilization of lactate by Lactococcus lactis?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Zheng, Sui; Duan, Cuicui; Liu, Fei; Yang, Lijie; Huo, Guicheng

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis can undergo respiration when hemin is added to an aerobic culture. The most distinctive feature of lactococcal respiration is that lactate could be consumed in the stationary phase concomitantly with the rapid accumulation of diacetyl and acetoin. However, the enzyme responsible for lactate utilization in this process has not yet been identified. As genes for fermentative NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH) and potential electron transport chain (ETC)-related NAD-independent l-LDH (l-iLDH) exist in L. lactis, the activities of these enzymes were measured in this study using crude cell extracts prepared from respiratory and fermentation cultures. Further studies were conducted with purified preparations of recombinant LDH homologous proteins. The results showed that l-iLDH activity was hardly detected in both crude cell extracts and purified l-iLDH homologous protein while l-nLDH activity was very significant. This suggested that l-iLDHs were inactive in lactate utilization. The results of kinetic analyses and the effects of activator, inhibitor, substrate and product concentrations on the reaction equilibrium showed that l-nLDH was much more prone to catalyze the pyruvate reduction reaction but could reverse its role provided that the concentrations of NADH and pyruvate were extremely low while NAD and lactate were abundant. Metabolite analysis in respiratory culture revealed that the cellular status in the stationary phase was beneficial for l-nLDH to catalyze lactate oxidation. The factors accounting for the respiration- and stationary phase-dependent lactate utilization in L. lactis are discussed here. PMID:24251099

  1. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. T. Santos; R. A. Bassit; E. C. Caperuto; L. F. B. P Costa Rosa

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5–3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of

  2. Metabolic Imaging: A link between Lactate Dehydrogenase A, Lactate and Tumor Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sunitha B.; Vider, Jelena; Russell, James; Blasberg, Ronald; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We compared the metabolic profiles and the association between LDH-A expression and lactate production in two isogenic murine breast cancer cell lines and tumors (67NR and 4T1). These cell lines were derived from a single mammary tumor and have different growth and metabolic phenotypes. Experimental Design LDH-A expression, lactate concentration, glucose utilization and oxygen consumption were measured in cells, and the potential relationship between tumor lactate levels (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI)) and tumor glucose utilization (measured by [18F] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET)) was assessed in orthotopic breast tumors derived from these cell lines. Results We show a substantial difference in LDH-A expression between 67NR and 4T1 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. We also show that small orthotopic 4T1 tumors generate tenfold more lactate than corresponding 67NR tumors. The high lactate levels in small primary 4T1 tumors are associated with intense pimonidazole staining (a hypoxia indicator). Less intense hypoxia staining was observed in the larger 67NR tumors, and is consistent with the gradual increase and plateau of lactate concentration in enlarging 67NR tumors. Conclusions Lactate-MRSI has a greater dynamic range than [18F]FDG-PET and may be a more sensitive measure with which to evaluate the aggressive and metastatic potential of primary breast tumors. PMID:21844011

  3. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating

    E-print Network

    Collins, Sharen Sue

    1987-01-01

    LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

  5. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibodies to the Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Harty; Stephen P. K. Chan; Peter G. W. Plagemann

    1987-01-01

    Summary Spleen cells, from BALB\\/c mice that had been infected with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) for 6 days and that had or had not been previously immunized with glutaraldehyde-inactivated LDV, were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells. The fusion frequency was at least 10 times higher than with spleen cells of normal or chronically infected mice. Only 1 of 297 wells

  6. Lactate Dehydrogenase Undergoes a Substantial Structural Change to Bind its Substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linlin Qiu; Miriam Gulotta; Robert Callender

    2007-01-01

    Employing temperature-jump relaxation spectroscopy, we investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the formation of a very early ternary binding intermediate formed when lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) binds a substrate mimic on its way to forming the productive LDH\\/NADH·substrate Michaelis complex. Temperature-jump scans show two distinct submillisecond processes are involved in the formation of this ternary binding intermediate, called the encounter complex

  7. Effect of water activity on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase during high pressure processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda M. Hayman; Gilles K. Kouassi; Ramaswamy C. Anantheswaran; John D. Floros; Stephen J. Knabel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water activity (aw) on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during high pressure processing (HPP). For microbial inactivation lyophilized cells of L. monocytogenes 19,115 were left dry or were suspended in 10 ml of 0.1% peptone water, 10 ml of glycerol, or mixtures of glycerol and peptone water.

  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

  9. Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-01-01

    Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 ?M, while at 2.5 ?M, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

  10. Clinical research on neuroblastoma based on serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pang, Q M; Li, K; Ma, L J; Sun, R P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more and more scholars tend to study neuroblastoma (NB) since it possesses increasing morbidity, but lack of effective treatment. This paper aims to investigate variation and clinical significance of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level in serum of children with NB before and after Auto Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (APBSCT). A total of 90 children with NB from various hospitals were included in this research, and we analyzed the relationship between levels of NSE and LDH and the change of disease by comparing the two levels before and after APBSCT treatment. The results indicated that the positive rate of NSE in serum was high before treatment, and the levels of NSE and LDH were remarkably higher than those when the treatment was valid; after comprehensive treatment of chemotherapy, excision and radiotherapy, there was a significant difference of NSE and LDH levels in serum between children with complete remission (CR) and those with partial remission (PR); however, no significant differences of NSE and LDH levels were found among children in progressive stage compared to before treatment. It is believed that NSE and LDH levels are associated to the recurrence and treatment effect of NB, proving that both can reflect tumor load, therefore they can be taken as the auxiliary indicators for monitoring curative effects of NB treatment. PMID:25864749

  11. Modulation of DNA polymerases ?, ? and ? by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase 1 Enzymes: DNA polymerases ?, ?, and ?, deoxynucleoside-triphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed) (EC 2.7.7.7); lactate dehydrogenase, l-lactate:NAD + oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.27); 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, ATP:3-phospho- d-glycerate 1-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.2.3.). 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odilia Popanda; Gabriele Fox; Heinz Walter Thielmann

    1998-01-01

    Literature documents that glycolytic enzymes (among them lactate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase) can reside in nuclei of mammalian cells and exert functions in DNA replication, transcription and DNA repair, in addition to their role as catalysts in the cytoplasm. Transfer of glycolytic enzymes to cell nuclei requires modification, for example phosphorylation. We studied the effects of phosphorylated lactate dehydrogenase and

  12. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    PubMed Central

    KHOSROSHAHI, Nahid; ALIZADEH, Parastoo; KHOSRAVI, Mehdi; SALAMATI, Peyman; KAMRANI, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission in children. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis. Materials & Methods In this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group. Results The study group included 35 boys (58.3%) and 25 girls (41.7%). Their mean age was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8%) and 19 girls (44.2%). Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was 246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CT scan of the head (p=0.001). Conclusion Spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural and metabolic causes of altered mental status in children. PMID:25767536

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  14. An electrochemical biosensor with nanointerface for lactate detection based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Nesakumar, Noel; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2014-01-15

    Hepatic immaturity is observed particularly in children whose age is under three, when the lactate concentration is greater than the normal level in blood. An electrochemical lactate biosensor was developed by immobilizing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on to ZnO nanorods at pH 7.4 via chitosan. Growth of polycrystalline ZnO nanorods towards (101) plane was confirmed using XRD. The FE-SEM study revealed the formation of ZnO nanorods with an aspect ratio of 3.24. Immobilization of LDH on ZnO nanorods was confirmed using FTIR spectra and surface coverage. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry using three electrode system with Au/NanoZnO/LDH as working electrode, Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M KCl as reference electrode and Pt wire as counter electrode. The sensitivity of the biosensor was found to be 1.832 ?A ?mol(-1) L exhibiting linearity 0.2-0.8 ?mol L(-1) with the detection and quantification limits of 4.73 and 15.75 nmol L(-1) respectively. The response time of Au/NanoZnO/LDH bioelectrode was found to be <1 s. Prediction band for net current was framed to enhance specificity. Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) and maximum rate (Imax) values for immobilized LDH were found to be 0.38 ?mol L(-1) and 2.798 ?A respectively. Repeatability and reproducibility of LDH biosensor were also reported. PMID:24231089

  15. Resting oxygen consumption varies among lactate dehydrogenase genotypes in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, J. B.; Carter, P. A.; DiGiacomo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of the common Ldh homozygote exceeded the respiration rate of the heterozygote by more than 50 per cent. The differences in respiration rates are consistent with previously reported viability differentials at the Ldh polymorphism.

  16. Identification of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fauber, Benjamin P; Dragovich, Peter S; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Labadie, Sharada; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhou, Aihe

    2014-12-15

    A series of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones were identified as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Structure activity relationships were explored and a series of 6,6-spiro analogs led to improvements in LDHA potency (IC50 <350 nM). An X-ray crystal structure of an improved compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and it illustrated additional opportunities to enhance the potency of these compounds, resulting in the identification of 51 (IC50=30 nM). PMID:25467161

  17. Interaction Between Nanoparticulate Anatase TiO 2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanmei Duan; Na Li; Chao Liu; Huiting Liu; Yaling Cui; Han Wang; Fashui Hong

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC1.1.1.27), Institute of Cancer Research region mice were injected with nanoparticulate\\u000a anatase TiO2 (5 nm) of various doses into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined LDH activity in vivo and in vitro and\\u000a direct evident for interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 and

  18. The maximum activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, nucleoside diphosphatekinase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and arginine kinase in relation to carbohydrate utilization in muscles from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of the activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase in muscles from marine invertebrates indicates that they can be divided into three groups. First, the activities of the three enzymes are low in coelenterate muscles, catch muscles of molluscs and muscles of echinoderms; this indicates a low rate of carbohydrate (and energy) utilization by these muscles. Secondly, high activities of phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase relative to those of hexokinase are found in, for example, lobster abdominal and scallop snap muscles; this indicates that these muscles depend largely on anaerobic degradation of glycogen for energy production. Thirdly, high activities of hexokinase are found in the radular muscles of prosobranch molluscs and the fin muscles of squids; this indicates a high capacity for glucose utilization, which is consistent with the high activities of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in these muscles [Alp, Newsholme & Zammit (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 689-700]. 2. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase were measured in order to provide a qualitative indication of the importance of different processes for oxidation of glycolytically formed NADH. The muscles are divided into four groups: those that have a high activity of lactate dehydrogenase relative to the activities of phosphofructokinase (e.g. crustacean muscles); those that have high activities of octopine dehydrogenase but low activities of lactate dehydrogenase (e.g. scallop snap muscle); those that have moderate activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase (radular muscles of prosobranchs), and those that have low activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase, but which possess activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (oyster adductor muscles). It is suggested that, under anaerobic conditions, muscles of marine invertebrates form lactate and/or octopine or succinate (or similar end product) according to the activities of the enzymes present in the muscles (see above). The muscles investigated possess low activities of cytosolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which indicates that glycerol phosphate formation is quantitatively unimportant under anaerobic conditions, and low activities of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, which indicates that the glycerol phosphate cycle is unimportant in the re-oxidation of glycolytically produced NADH in these muscles under aerobic conditions. Conversely, high activities of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase are present in some muscles, which indicates that the malate-aspartate cycle may be important in oxidation of glycolytically produced NADH under aerobic conditions. 3. High activities of nucleoside diphosphate kinase were found in muscles that function for prolonged periods under anaerobic conditions (e.g... PMID:13783

  19. Placental 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase during the latter half of pregnancy in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, C H; Hensleigh, H C; Block, D L; Feeney, L A

    1993-07-01

    The specific activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17-HOR) with estradiol-17 beta (E2), estrone (E1) and testosterone (T), as well as that of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were measured in homogenates of CF-1 mouse placenta during the latter half of pregnancy. 17-HOR activity with E2 and T increased over 100-fold between days 9 and 12, and 3- to 4-fold between days 15 and 19, with no further change to day 21. In contrast, activity with E1 increased 39-fold between days 9 and 12, 3.8-fold between days 15 and 19 but then decreased between days 19 and 21. The E2/T activity ratio was constant while the E2/E1 ratio increased between days 9 and 21. LDH increased 2-fold between days 9 and 12 with no further increase to day 19. MDH was constant from day 9 to 19. Activity with E2 was inhibited by T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) and DHA but not by E1, androstenedione (A) or 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone. Activity with T was inhibited by E2, 5 alpha-DHT and DHA, but not by A. In contrast, activity with E1 was inhibited by A and DHA but not by E2, T or 5 alpha-DHT. The results suggest placental 17-HOR is developmentally regulated. Although the results are also suggestive of multiple forms of 17-HOR, a single enzyme with an ordered kinetic mechanism cannot be ruled out. PMID:8338791

  20. Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

  1. Regulation of transplacental virus infection by developmental and immunological factors: studies with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R Haven; Raymond R. R Rowland; Peter G. W Plagemann; Grace H. W Wong; Sarahann E Bradley; William A Cafruny

    1996-01-01

    Placental and fetal infections with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) were determined by virus titration, indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and in situ hybridization with cDNA probes. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of gestational age, timing of maternal LDV infection, and immunological (antibody and cytokine) factors on mouse placental and fetal LDV infection. Virus infection of the placenta was detected

  2. Renal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in short-term experimental obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, G; Emanuelli, G; Calcamuggi, G; Anfossi, G; Gatti, G

    1979-07-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of different zones of rat kidney has been investigated at different stages after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In the obstructed kidney, the cortical tissue showed an early (3 days) progressive shift toward a cathodic zymogram; at 7 days LDH-5 isoenzyme was the predominant fraction (44.7 +/- 2.5). In the outer medullary tissue a similar change was observed even though middle fractions were always quite evident. No significant changes were found in the inner medullary tissue. The observed enzymatic abnormalities are related to renal hypoxia and to the occurrence of a less differentiated nephronic cell population. They represent a metabolic marker of the morphologic and functional alterations which occur in obstructive nephropathy. PMID:447486

  3. Genomic structure and promoter activity of the human testis lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Cooker, L A; Brooke, C D; Kumari, M; Hofmann, M C; Millán, J L; Goldberg, E

    1993-06-01

    The structure of the gene encoding the human testis-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been characterized and a regulatory region identified by promoter activity. The single-copy ldh-c gene has two alternative 5' noncoding exons and seven coding exons comprising an approximately 40-kb locus. The gene does not contain the canonical TATA or CAAT promoter sequences, and ribonuclease protection experiments suggest multiple transcription start sites. In the present study an immortalized murine germ cell line was used to detect promoter activity driven by 5' sequence of human ldh-c with lacZ as the reporter gene. Reporter gene activity was nondetectable when promoter constructs were transfected into nongerminal cells. PMID:8318584

  4. Fever and high lactate dehydrogenase in HIV-positive patients from the Antilles and Surinam: histoplasmosis?

    PubMed

    Peters, E J G; Kauffmann, R H; Blok, P

    2006-09-01

    We describe four cases of HIV-positive patients, two from Surinam, one from the Dutch Antilles and one from Nigeria, who presented with a febrile illness and a high lactate dehydrogenase plasma level. In all four, the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made, in three of them by liver biopsy. Two patients had retinal abnormalities compatible with a systemic fungal infection. Three patients were treated successfully with antifungal agents. One patient died. Between 2000 and 2006, only 14 patients with HIV have been found to have histoplasmosis in the Netherlands. Although histoplasmosis is not endemic in the Netherlands, physicians are more likely to see cases because of a growing number of HIV -positive immigrants from endemic regions. PMID:16990694

  5. Identification of substituted 3-hydroxy-2-mercaptocyclohex-2-enones as potent inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dragovich, Peter S; Fauber, Benjamin P; Boggs, Jason; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ge, HongXiu; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hunsaker, Thomas; Labadie, Sharada; Li, Chiho; Liu, Yichin; Liu, Yingchun; Ma, Shuguang; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Pitts, Keith E; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Salphati, Laurent; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; VanderPorten, Erica; Wang, Jing; Wei, BinQing; Xu, Qing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Xuying; Zhou, Aihe

    2014-08-15

    A novel class of 3-hydroxy-2-mercaptocyclohex-2-enone-containing inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was identified through a high-throughput screening approach. Biochemical and surface plasmon resonance experiments performed with a screening hit (LDHA IC50=1.7 ?M) indicated that the compound specifically associated with human LDHA in a manner that required simultaneous binding of the NADH co-factor. Structural variation of this screening hit resulted in significant improvements in LDHA biochemical inhibition activity (best IC50=0.18 ?M). Two crystal structures of optimized compounds bound to human LDHA were obtained and explained many of the observed structure-activity relationships. In addition, an optimized inhibitor exhibited good pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration to rats (F=45%). PMID:25037916

  6. Neuroprotective effects of creatine.

    PubMed

    Beal, M Flint

    2011-05-01

    There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic lesions produced by N-methyl-D: -aspartate. We also showed that creatine is neuroprotective against lesions produced by the toxins malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) which are reversible and irreversible inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase, respectively. Creatine produced dose-dependent neuroprotective effects against MPTP toxicity reducing the loss of dopamine within the striatum and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We carried out a number of studies of the neuroprotective effects of creatine in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. We demonstrated that creatine produced an extension of survival, improved motor performance, and a reduction in loss of motor neurons in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Creatine produced an extension of survival, as well as improved motor function, and a reduction in striatal atrophy in the R6/2 and the N-171-82Q transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), even when its administration was delayed until the onset of disease symptoms. We recently examined the neuroprotective effects of a combination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) with creatine against both MPTP and 3-NP toxicity. We found that the combination of CoQ and creatine together produced additive neuroprotective effects in a chronic MPTP model, and it blocked the development of alpha-synuclein aggregates. In the 3-NP model of HD, CoQ and creatine produced additive neuroprotective effects against the size of the striatal lesions. In the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD, the combination of CoQ and creatine produced additive effects on improving survival. Creatine may stabilize mitochondrial creatine kinase, and prevent activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Creatine, however, was still neuroprotective in mice, which were deficient in mitochondrial creatine kinase. Administration of creatine increases the brain levels of creatine and phosphocreatine. Due to its neuroprotective effects, creatine is now in clinical trials for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and HD. A phase 2 futility trial in PD showed approximately a 50% improvement in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale at one year, and the compound was judged to be non futile. Creatine is now in a phase III clinical trial being carried out by the NET PD consortium. Creatine reduced plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in HD patients phase II trial and was well-tolerated. Creatine is now being studied in a phase III clinical trial in HD, the CREST trial. Creatine, therefore, shows great promise in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21448659

  7. Addressable self-immobilization of lactate dehydrogenase across multiple length scales.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, Sibel; Caliskan, H Burak; Yucesoy, Deniz T; Donatan, A Senem; Yuca, Esra; Urgen, Mustafa; Karaguler, Nevin G; Tamerler, Candan

    2013-02-01

    Successful nanobiotechnology implementation largely depends on control over the interfaces between inorganic materials and biological molecules. Controlling the orientations of biomolecules and their spatial arrangements on the surface may transform many technologies including sensors, to energy. Here, we demonstrate the self-organization of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which exhibits enhanced enzymatic activity and stability on a variety of gold surfaces ranging from nanoparticles to electrodes, by incorporating a gold-binding peptide tag (AuBP2) as the fusion partner for Bacillus stearothermophilus LDH (bsLDH). Binding kinetics and enzymatic assays verified orientation control of the enzyme on the gold surface through the genetically incorporated peptide tag. Finally, redox catalysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy systems as the anodic counterpart. Our results demonstrate that the LDH enzyme can be self-immobilized onto different gold substrates using the short peptide tag under a biologically friendly environment. Depending on the desired inorganic surface, the proposed peptide-mediated path could be extended to any surface to achieve single-step oriented enzyme immobilization for a wide range of applications. PMID:23386458

  8. The importance of arginine 171 in substrate binding by Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hart, K W; Clarke, A R; Wigley, D B; Chia, W N; Barstow, D A; Atkinson, T; Holbrook, J J

    1987-07-15

    A variant of lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been engineered by site-directed mutagenesis in which an active-site arginine residue at position 171 in the protein sequence is replaced by lysine. Replacement of this arginine by lysine has no effect on co-enzyme binding, a relatively small effect on the rate of turnover of the enzyme, but causes a 2000-fold increase in the Michaelis constant for pyruvate, a 6000-fold increase in the dissociation constant for oxamate and results in a Michaelis constant for lactate which is too high to measure. The decrease in binding energy for these carboxylate-containing substrates caused by this mutation is very large, around 5.5 kcal.mol-1 and in part, is explained by the small increase in the distance of a lysine-substrate carboxylate interaction at this site and the absence of the additional hydrogen bond from a two-point arginine-carboxylate interaction. Consistent with this last observation, the ability of this mutant enzyme to stabilize an NAD+-sulphite compound in its active site (an alternative enzyme-substrate complex which does not involve bifurcated bonding to arginine) is only reduced 14-fold. PMID:3606622

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene 1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hengchuan; Wu, Chao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Jing; Feng, Fan; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lin

    2011-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate into lactate and constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. Recently, LDH draws a great deal of attention for its potential to be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and malaria. Insect LDHs have been mainly identified from fruit fly and mosquitoes, but not from silkworm. In this study, a novel LDH homologue, designated as BmLDH1, was firstly identified and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The BmLDH1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 996 bp, and encodes a protein of 331 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. Sequence comparison showed BmLDH1 is a highly conserved protein. RT-PCR revealed BmLDH1 is transcripted in all tissues and in all developmental stages tested, indicating its essential roles for silkworm physiology and development. The BmLDH1 gene was subcloned and expressed in E. coli, and was further characterized by Western blot and Mass Spectrometry. The expressed protein contained the LDH activity, and could be inhibited by reduced glutathione in vitro. Immunofluoresence showed that the BmLDH1 was located in the cytoplasm. The cloned BmLDH1 sequence was deposited in the GenBank (accession number EU334850). PMID:20852941

  10. Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras

    2015-05-15

    Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface. PMID:25108848

  11. Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

  12. Evolutionary implications of the cDNA sequence of the single lactate dehydrogenase of a lamprey.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, D W; Whitt, G S

    1992-01-01

    All vertebrates other than lampreys exhibit multiple loci encoding lactate dehydrogenase +ADL-LDH; (S)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27+BD. Of these loci, Ldh-A is expressed predominantly in muscle, Ldh-B is expressed predominantly in heart, and Ldh-C (where present) exhibits different tissue-restricted patterns of expression depending on the taxon. To examine the relationship of the single LDH of lampreys to other vertebrate LDHs, we have determined the cDNA sequence of the LDH of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and compared it to previously published sequences from bacteria, plants, and vertebrates. The lamprey sequence exhibits a mixture of features of both LDH-A and LDH-B at the amino acid level that may account for its intermediate kinetic properties. Both distance and maximum parsimony analyses strongly reject a relationship of lamprey LDH with mammalian LDH-C but do not significantly distinguish among remaining alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. Evolutionary parsimony analyses suggest that the lamprey LDH is related to Ldh-A and that the single locus condition has arisen as a result of the loss of Ldh-B (prior to the appearance of Ldh-C). The collection of LDH sequences for further studies of the evolution of the vertebrate LDH gene family will be facilitated by the PCR approach that we have used to obtain the lamprey sequence. PMID:1542673

  13. Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reddish, Michael; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S.; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm?1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

  14. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production. PMID:20677017

  15. Energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: relationship to catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Dyer, R Brian; Callender, Robert

    2014-03-25

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the "live" reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ? LDH·NAD(+)·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate's C2?O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2?O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2?O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2?O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure-activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

  16. Energy Landscape of the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase: Relationship to Catalytic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the “live” reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ? LDH·NAD+·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate’s C2=O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2=O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2=O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2=O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure–activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

  17. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  18. The core of allosteric motion in Thermus caldophilus L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Yoko; Arai, Kazuhito; Furukawa, Nayuta; Ohno, Tadashi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakajima, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Taguchi, Hayao

    2014-11-01

    For Thermus caldophilus L-lactate dehydrogenase (TcLDH), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) reduced the pyruvate S(0.5) value 10(3)-fold and increased the V(max) value 4-fold at 30 °C and pH 7.0, indicating that TcLDH has a much more T state-sided allosteric equilibrium than Thermus thermophilus L-lactate dehydrogenase, which has only two amino acid replacements, A154G and H179Y. The inactive (T) and active (R) state structures of TcLDH were determined at 1.8 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. The structures indicated that two mobile regions, MR1 (positions 172-185) and MR2 (positions 211-221), form a compact core for allosteric motion, and His(179) of MR1 forms constitutive hydrogen bonds with MR2. The Q4(R) mutation, which comprises the L67E, H68D, E178K, and A235R replacements, increased V(max) 4-fold but reduced pyruvate S(0.5) only 5-fold in the reaction without FBP. In contrast, the P2 mutation, comprising the R173Q and R216L replacements, did not markedly increase V(max), but 10(2)-reduced pyruvate S(0.5), and additively increased the FBP-independent activity of the Q4(R) enzyme. The two types of mutation consistently increased the thermal stability of the enzyme. The MR1-MR2 area is a positively charged cluster, and its center approaches another positively charged cluster (N domain cluster) across the Q-axis subunit interface by 5 Å, when the enzyme undergoes the T to R transition. Structural and kinetic analyses thus revealed the simple and unique allosteric machinery of TcLDH, where the MR1-MR2 area pivotally moves during the allosteric motion and mediates the allosteric equilibrium through electrostatic repulsion within the protein molecule. PMID:25258319

  19. Calpain-like and lactate dehydrogenase activities in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Brylev; A. A. Yakovlev; M. V. Onufriev; M. N. Zakharova; I. A. Zavalishin; N. V. Gulyaeva

    2007-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is neurodegenerative disease accompanied by the death of motor neurons. To clarify the\\u000a role of calpain in the ALS-induced death of neurons, we measured the calpainlike and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities\\u000a in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients and patients of a control group. The LDH activity measured in the CSF of\\u000a patients with ALS

  20. A double mutant of highly purified Geobacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase recognises l-mandelic acid as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Binay, Bar??; Sessions, Richard B; Karagüler, Nevin Gül

    2013-05-10

    Lactate dehydrogenase from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) (bsLDH) has a crucial role in producing chirally pure hydroxyl compounds. ?-Hydroxy acids are used in many industrial situations, ranging from pharmaceutical to cosmetic dermatology products. One drawback of this enzyme is its limited substrate specificity. For instance, l-lactate dehydrogenase exhibits no detectable activity towards the large side chain of 2-hydroxy acid l-mandelic acid, an ?-hydroxy acid with anti-bacterial activity. Despite many attempts to engineer bsLDH to accept ?-hydroxy acid substrates, there have been no attempts to introduce the industrially important l-mandelic acid to bsLDH. Herein, we describe attempts to change the reactivity of bsLDH towards l-mandelic acid. Using the Insight II molecular modelling programme (except 'program' in computers) and protein engineering techniques, we have successfully introduced substantial mandelate dehydrogenase activity to the enzyme. Energy minimisation modelling studies suggested that two mutations, T246G and I240A, would allow the enzyme to utilise l-mandelic acid as a substrate. Genes encoding for the wild-type and mutant enzymes were constructed, and the resulting bsLDH proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using the TAGZyme system. Enzyme assays showed that insertion of this double mutation into highly purified bsLDH switched the substrate specificity from lactate to l-mandelic acid. PMID:23608509

  1. Understanding interactions of functionalized nanoparticles with proteins: a case study on lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Stueker, Oliver; Ortega, Van A; Goss, Greg G; Stepanova, Maria

    2014-05-28

    Nanomaterials in biological solutions are known to interact with proteins and have been documented to affect protein function, such as enzyme activity. Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles with biological components at the molecular level will allow for rational designs of nanomaterials for use in medical technologies. Here we present the first detailed molecular mechanics model of functionalized gold nanoparticle (NP) interacting with an enzyme (L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the response of LDH to the NP binding demonstrate that although atomic motions (dynamics) of the main chain exhibit only a minor response to the binding, the dynamics of side chains are significantly constrained in all four active sites that predict alteration in kinetic properties of the enzyme. It is also demonstrated that the 5 nm gold NPs cause a decrease in the maximal velocity of the enzyme reaction (V(max)) and a trend towards a reduced affinity (increased K(m)) for the ?-NAD binding site, while pyruvate enzyme kinetics (K(m) and V(max)) are not significantly altered in the presence of the gold NPs. These results demonstrate that modeling of NP:protein interactions can be used to understand alterations in protein function. PMID:24591162

  2. Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Marker in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims at analyzing the changes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity during orthodontic movement. Methods: Twenty patients all requiring first premolar extractions were selected and treated with conventional straight wire mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 125 g Nitinol closed coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side served as the experimental site while the contralateral canine served as the control. GCF was collected from the canines before initiation of retraction, then 1 hour after initiating canine retraction, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. GCF LDH levels were estimated and compared with the control site. Results The results revealed significantly higher LDH levels on the 7th, 14th and 21st day at the sites where orthodontic force had been applied. The levels also showed a significant increase from 0 hour to the 21st day. Peak levels were seen on 14th and 21st day following initiation of retraction. Conclusions: The study showed that LDH could be successfully estimated in the GCF and its increased levels could indicate active tooth movement, which could aid the clinician in monitoring active orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:21760863

  3. The effects of lanthanoid on the structure–function of lactate dehydrogenase from mice heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Duan, Yanmei; Zhou, Min; Liu, Chao; Hong, Fashui

    2009-12-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC1.1.1.27) is often changed upon inflammatory responses in animals. Lanthanoid (Ln) was shown to provoke various inflammatory responses both in rats and mice; however, the molecular mechanism by which Ln3+ exert its toxicity has not been completely understood, especially that we know little about the mechanism of the interaction between Ln with 4f electron shell and alternation valence and LDH. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms of LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 on LDH activity in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that La3+, Ce3+, and Nd3+ could significantly activate LDH in vivo and in vitro; the order of activation was Ce3+>Nd3+> La3+>control. The affinity of LDH for Ce3+ was higher than Nd3+ and La3+; the saturated binding sites for Ce3+ on the LDH protein were 1.2 and for La3+ and Nd3+ 1.55. Ln3+ caused the reduction of exposure degree of cysteine or tryptophan/tyrosine of LDH, the increase of space resistance, and the enhancement of ?-helix in secondary structure of LDH, which was greatest in Ce3+ treatment, medium in Nd3+ treatment, and least in La3+ treatment. It implied that the changes of structure-function on LDH caused by Ln3+ were closely related to the characteristics of 4f electron shell and alternation valence in Ln. PMID:19396407

  4. Glycoconjugates Influence Caspase Release and Minimize Production of Lactate Dehydrogenase upon Pathogen Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Many pathogens stimulate cell death of immune cells while promoting survival of pathogens. Early cell death is characterized by the release of mediators, namely Caspases (Cas). Infections caused by pathogens can be eradicated if immune cells could resist cell death and kill pathogens upon exposure. In this research, we studied whether glycoconjugates (GCs) influence Cas release and cytotoxicity upon pathogen damage. GC1 and GC3 constituted samples studied principally. Bacterial spores were used as a pathogen model. GC effects were determined "prior to," "during," and "following" pathogen exposure throughout phagocytosis. Cytotoxic damage was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) production. Our data show that GC3 was more effective than GC1 during phagocytosis. GC3 controls Cas release under all three exposure conditions. Minimum production of LDH was noticed in the "following" exposure condition compared to the "prior to" and "during" exposure conditions for GC1 and GC3. The present study provided the selection method of GC ligands bearing anti-cytotoxic and anti-apoptotic properties.

  5. Detection of an intermediate late in the unfolding pathway of bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleigh, Roger N.; Halsall, David J.; Clarke, Anthony R.; Behan-Martin, Moira; Holbrook, J. J.

    1994-08-01

    In vivo proteins fold to form one active structure in minutes or seconds, ruling out the possibility that a polypeptide samples all possible conformational space during folding. We have used site directed mutagenesis to produce 15 single tryptophan containing mutants of Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase (BS LDH) thus enabling the equilibria of unfolding to be seen from 15 defined positions. These mutant versions of BS LDH have the same X-ray structure as the wild type protein8. Previously Smith et al.11 had detected and assigned structures to 4 folding states. The first intermediate, a monomer with secondary and super secondary structure largely intact, is formed after the dimer dissociates at 0.55 M guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl). The second intermediate on the unfolding pathway is stable at 2.2 M GuHCl. It had been assumed previously that the transition from this molten-globule structure to the fully denatured form occurred as a single process. We have now identified a core folding motif. In this, helix (alpha) -1F forms a helix-sheet interaction with (beta) -K and (beta) -K has interactions with both (alpha) -2G and (alpha) -3G. This super secondary interaction forms the most stable folding motif in BS LDH and is lost at 2.8 M GuHCl leaving helix (alpha) -1F, (alpha) -2G, and (alpha) -3G which are stable until 3 M GuHCl.

  6. A single amino acid substitution deregulates a bacterial lactate dehydrogenase and stabilizes its tetrameric structure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A R; Wigley, D B; Barstow, D A; Chia, W N; Atkinson, T; Holbrook, J J

    1987-05-27

    We have engineered a variant of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus in which arginine-173 at the proposed regulatory site has been replaced by glutamine. Like the wild-type enzyme, this mutant undergoes a reversible, protein-concentration-dependent subunit assembly, from dimer to tetramer. However, the mutant tetramer is much more stable (by a factor of 400) than the wild type and is destabilized rather than stabilized by binding the allosteric regulator, fructose 1,6-biphosphate (Fru-1,6-P2). The mutation has not significantly changed the catalytic properties of the dimer (Kd NADH, Km pyruvate, Ki oxamate and kcat), but has weakened the binding of Fru-1,6-P2 to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of the enzyme and has almost abolished any stimulatory effect. We conclude that the Arg-173 residue in the wild-type enzyme is directly involved in the binding of Fru-1,6-P2, is important for allosteric communication with the active site, and, in part, regulates the state of quaternary structure through a charge-repulsion mechanism. PMID:3580377

  7. An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

  8. Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

    1987-12-01

    Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

  9. The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

  10. Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat

    2014-03-01

    Organisms inhabiting submarine canyons can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW Mediterranean canyon (i.e. Blanes canyon) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the canyon (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside canyon (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the canyon. PMID:24296242

  11. Regulation of the synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase-X during spermatogenesis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Total mouse testis RNA directs the synthesis of the sperm-specific C subunit of lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) when translated in a cell- free system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. The newly synthesized C subunits were isolated by immunoprecipitation with antibody specific for this isozyme, and quantitated by electrophoresis on SDS polyacrylamide gels. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme subunit was directly proportional to the amount of testis RNA added to the translational system, thereby providing a sensitive and reliable method for assessing relative LDH-X mRNA activity. A combination of sucrose gradient centrifugation and oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography resulted in a 23-fold purification of LDH-X mRNA over total cytoplasmic testis RNA. Analysis of LDH-X mRNA activity in the developing testis indicated that the appearance of functional LDH-X mRNA activity coincides with the appearance of LDH-X catalytic activity at 14 d postpartum. Measurement of LDH-X mRNA levels in separated testis cell populations prepared by centrifugal elutriation demonstrated that LDH-X mRNA represents 0.17-0.18% of the total functional mRNA activity in fractions enriched in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but only 0.09-0.10% of the translation products of elongated spermatids. PMID:7217199

  12. Acrosome reaction in bovine spermatozoa: role of reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase C4.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, C; Breininger, E; Beorlegui, N; Beconi, M T

    2005-10-30

    After capacitation, mammalian spermatozoa accomplish the acrosome reaction (AR), a well-controlled exocytosis process crucial to fertilize mature oocytes that involves several protein kinases such as protein kinase A (PKA), C (PKC), and tyrosine kinase (PTK). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in both bovine sperm capacitation and AR. Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) was associated with bovine and mouse sperm capacitation. Our aims were to study the participation of LDH-C4 to contribute with the status redox required for AR and the role of ROS in the regulation of PKA, PKC, and PTK involved in the exocytotic event. Sodium oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH-C4, prevented the AR induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) or NADH. Hydrogen peroxide promoted and superoxide dismutase (scavenger of superoxide), catalase (scavenger of hydrogen peroxide), diphenyleneiodinum, diphenyliodonium, cibacron blue, and lapachol (inhibitors of NADPH oxidase) prevented the AR, suggesting that ROS and a sperm oxidase are involved in the AR induced by these compounds. Inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and PTK also prevented the AR induced by LPC or NADH, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in the process. These results suggest that LDH-C4 may participate in the regulation of the redox status required to achieve the AR in bovine spermatozoa and that ROS are key elements in the regulation of protein kinases associated with the AR process. PMID:16112812

  13. Decreasing lactate level and increasing antibody production in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) by reducing the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meixia Zhou; Yongping Crawford; Domingos Ng; Jack Tung; Abigail F. J. Pynn; Angela Meier; Inn H. Yuk; Natarajan Vijayasankaran; Kimberly Leach; John Joly; Bradley Snedecor; Amy Shen

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fed-batch cell culture processes of CHO cells are the standard platform for the clinical and commercial production of monoclonal antibodies. Lactate is one of the major by-products of CHO fed-batch culture. In pH-controlled bioreactors, accumulation of high levels of lactate is accompanied by high osmolality due to the addition of base to control pH of the cell culture medium,

  14. Epidermal growth factor or serum stimulation of rat fibroblasts induces an elevation in mRNA levels for lactate dehydrogenase and other glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Matrisian, L M; Rautmann, G; Magun, B E; Breathnach, R

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated cloned cDNAs corresponding to five mRNAs whose level is increased following stimulation of quiescent rat fibroblasts by either epidermal growth factor or serum. Partial sequencing followed by a computer search of data banks has shown that the cloned cDNAs correspond to mRNAs encoding proteins with extensive homology to lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, triose phosphate isomerase, and actin. The complete nucleotide sequence of a rat fibroblast lactate dehydrogenase is presented. Images PMID:3873645

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. PMID:24835193

  16. Temporal changes in the involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in muscle lactate accumulation during lipopolysaccharide infusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alamdari, N; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Murton, A J; Gardiner, S M; Bennett, T; Layfield, R; Greenhaff, P L

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic manifestation of sepsis is muscle lactate accumulation. This study examined any putative (causative) association between pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) inhibition and lactate accumulation in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of rats infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and explored the involvement of increased transcription of muscle-specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Conscious, male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused i.v. with saline (0.4 ml h?1, control) or LPS (150 ?g kg?1 h?1) for 2 h, 6 h or 24 h (n = 6–8). Muscle lactate concentration was elevated after 2, 6 and 24 h LPS infusion. Muscle PDC activity was the same at 2 h and 6 h, but was 65% lower after 24 h of LPS infusion (P < 0.01), when there was a 47% decrease in acetylcarnitine concentration (P < 0.05), and a 24-fold increase in PDK4 mRNA expression (P < 0.001). These changes were preceded by marked increases in tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 mRNA expression at 2 h. The findings indicate that the early (2 and 6 h) elevation in muscle lactate concentration during LPS infusion was not attributable to limited muscle oxygen availability or ATP production (evidenced by unchanged ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations) or to PDC inhibition, whereas after 24 h, muscle lactate accumulation appears to have resulted from PDC activation status limiting pyruvate flux, most probably due to cytokine-mediated up-regulation of PDK4 transcription. PMID:18218678

  17. Regulation of the Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenases from Four Lactic Acid Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L.; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C.; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ? Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ? Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs. PMID:23720742

  18. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S) for Glutamic acid (F) at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive. PMID:21767386

  19. Regulation of liver lactate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in response to anoxia in a freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zi Jian; Storey, Kenneth B

    2012-10-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis and key to hypoxia/anoxia survival by most animals. In this study, the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 7°C in nitrogen-bubbled water) were assessed on LDH from liver of an anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Liver LDH from aerobic and anoxic turtles was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The kinetic properties and thermal stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing significant differences between the two enzyme forms in V(max), K(m) pyruvate, and I(50) pyruvate as well as melting temperature determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms of LDH was visualized by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining, the results indicating that the anoxic form had a higher phosphorylation state. Incubation studies that promoted protein kinase versus protein phosphatase actions showed that changes in the phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms mimicked the anoxia-responsive changes in K(m) pyruvate and I(50) pyruvate. The high phosphate form of liver LDH that occurs in anoxic turtles appears to be a less active form. Turtle liver LDH was also subject to another form of posttranslational modification, protein acetylation, with a 70% higher content of acetylated lysine residues on anoxic versus aerobic LDH. This is the first study to show that LDH function in an anoxia-tolerant animal can be differentially modified between aerobic and anoxic states via the mechanism of posttranslational modification. PMID:22735190

  20. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

    2014-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers. PMID:24916961

  1. Assessment of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in cow's milk as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Babaei, H; Mansouri-Najand, L; Molaei, M M; Kheradmand, A; Sharifan, M

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those which were classified as positive by California mastitis test (CMT) were deemed to have subclinical mastitis. All the milk samples were skimmed by centrifugation at 10 000g at 0 degrees C and were used for enzyme activities estimations. The mean activities of LDH and ALP were higher in the milk from udders with SCM than in the milk from healthy udders (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AST values. The maximum agreement rates between the CMT results and LDH and ALP values were seen at thresholds of > 180 IU/L and > 40 IU/L respectively (kappa values 0.65 and 0.79, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the tests for identifying SCM at these thresholds was higher for ALP (96.4%) than for LDH (68.5%). In this study, LDH and ALP tests were standardized for cow's milk and results showed that only the ALP test was reliable in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. PMID:17268916

  2. Effect of water activity on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase during high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Melinda M; Kouassi, Gilles K; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Floros, John D; Knabel, Stephen J

    2008-05-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water activity (aw) on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during high pressure processing (HPP). For microbial inactivation lyophilized cells of L. monocytogenes 19,115 were left dry or were suspended in 10 ml of 0.1% peptone water, 10 ml of glycerol, or mixtures of glycerol and peptone water. All samples of various aws were high pressure (HP) processed at ambient temperature at 600 MPa for 300 s. Following HPP, samples were serially diluted in 0.1% peptone and spread-plated on Tryptic Soy agar supplemented with Yeast Extract. For enzyme inactivation, 4.2 mg of lyophilized LDH was suspended in 2 ml of 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 2 ml of peptone water or glycerol, or in 2 ml mixtures of glycerol and peptone water. A lyophilized sample with no added liquid was also included. All enzyme samples were subjected to HPP as described above. After HPP, LDH was diluted to 0.28 microg/ml in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). LDH activity was assessed by measuring the change in concentration of beta-NADH as a function of time. Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS) was performed to examine the size distribution, polydispersity, and hydrodynamic radius of LDH before and after HPP. No significant difference in CFU/g was observed between lyophilized cells not subjected to HPP and lyophilized cells subjected to 600 MPa for 300 s (P<0.05). However, lyophilized cells that were suspended in 100% to 60% peptone water showed a approximately 7.5-log(10) reduction when subjected to HPP. Survival of L. monocytogenes following HPP significantly increased (P<0.05) when the peptone water concentration was decreased below 60% (aw approximately 0.8). DLS results revealed that LDH suspended in buffer underwent aggregation following HPP (600 MPa, 300 s). Inactivation rate constants obtained using a first-order kinetic model indicated that untreated and HP processed lyophilized LDH had similar activities. When LDH was subject to HPP in solutions containing glycerol, enzyme activity decreased as the water content increased (r2=0.95). Lyophilization completely protected L. monocytogenes and LDH from inactivation by high pressure. Furthermore, enzyme activity and cell survival increased as water activity was decreased. We postulate low aw results in protein stabilization, which prevents protein denaturation and cell death during HPP. PMID:18403036

  3. Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification. Results In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation. Knock out of ldhA had little influence on the yield of 2,3-BD, whereas knock out of adhE or pta significantly improved the formation of 2,3-BD. The accumulation of the intermediate of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, acetoin, was decreased in all the mutants. The mutants were then tested in five different carbon sources and increased 2,3-BD was observed. Also a double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA was constructed which resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. In fed-batch culture this strain achieved more than 100 g/L 2,3-BD from glucose with a relatively high yield of 0.49 g/g. Conclusion 2,3-BD production was dramatically improved with the inactivation of adhE and pta. The inactivation of ldhA could advance faster cell growth and shorter fermentation time. The double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. These results provide new insights for industrial production of 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae. PMID:24669952

  4. Efficient Production of (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-Phenylbutyric Acid by Using a Coupled Reconstructed d-Lactate Dehydrogenase and Formate Dehydrogenase System

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Binbin; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lv, Min; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. Methodology/Principal Findings The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA). The mutant d-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R)-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized. Conclusions/Significance Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R)-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99%) and productivity (47.9 mM h?1), the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R)-HPBA production. PMID:25089519

  5. Reduced diagnostic value of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the presence of radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, R-P; Fuhrmann, R; Mrowietz, C; Rickert, D; Hiebl, B; Jung, F

    2010-01-01

    Isoforms of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were found in almost all cells of the organism and an elevated activity of LDH in the circulation is thought to be a clear indicator of elevated cell destruction coinciding with an increased release of components from the cellular cytoplasm, e.g. LDH. Here, we report on an in-vitro examination to test whether radiographic contrast media (RCM) could induce cell destruction followed by an increase in LDH release. The RCM were tested in non-flow cultures of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) of the fourth passage seeded on extracellular matrix and the results were compared to those from control cultures not exposed to contrast media. The examination revealed that the addition of contrast media to the cell culture media supplemented with pooled human serum (HSP) as source of exogenous LDH was followed by a strong decrease in LDH activity both in the absence and presence of HUVEC. Within 1.5 min after the addition of contrast media to the culture medium supplemented with HSP (30% vol of the culture medium were replaced by either of two contrast media, Iodixanol or Iopromide) the LDH activity decreased about 80% compared to the initial values. In contrast, the LDH activity did not change in cell culture media not supplemented with RCM. The partial replacement of HSP supplemented cell culture medium by RCM will cause a dilution of cell culture medium constituents. The decrease of LDH activity, however, was much stronger than the decrease thought to be attributable to the effects of dilution of cell culture medium, so that the role of dilution seems to be a minor one in this case. It has to be assumed that the RCM could interact with the LDH available in the culture medium as well as with the substrates delivered with the measurement system for the assessment of LDH activity, so that both, the amount of LDH and the activities of enzymes involved might be influenced. In the presence of HUVEC a similar effect was observed. Here, a little less strong decrease of LDH activity occurred compared to the decrease in cell culture medium without HUVEC. This was unexpected because a considerable amount of HUVEC were detached after the addition of contrast media and many of these cells were damaged seriously so that a significant amount of endogenous LDH should have been released. These unexpected results make it necessary to re-evaluate those past time examinations focussed on cell damage/destruction in the presence of contrast media, where the measurement of LDH activity was used as indicator or cell vitality and where cell decease rates were correlated to questionable toxic influences. According to the results of the examination reported here it is difficult to uphold the interpretation of recently published findings that contrast media almost exclusively induce cellular apoptosis and not necrosis. PMID:20675892

  6. Changes in milk L-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin, and IgG during milk ejection and their association with somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Mirjam; Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-05-01

    In both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS), sensitive and reliable mastitis detection is important for profitable milk production. Mastitis detection parameters must be able to detect mastitis when the somatic cell count (SCC) is only slightly elevated. Owing to the pre-milking teat cleaning process in AMS, sampling cannot take place before the occurrence of alveolar milk ejection and importantly, this can affect the ability of parameters to detect mastitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of alveolar milk ejection on l-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin (SA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with SCC, a commonly used indicator of mastitis. In this experiment, milk samples were collected every 20 s from one quarter during a 120-s manual teat stimulation in ten cows. Samples were analysed for SCC, l-lactate, LDH, SA and IgG. Quarters were grouped by low (<5·0 log10 cells/ml), mid (5·0-5·7 log10 cells/ml), and high (>5·7 log10 cells/ml) SCC using the sample at t=0 s. Neither l-lactate nor LDH could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC quarters, but there were a significant difference in levels between the high-SCC quarters and low and mid-SCC quarters. SA could not differentiate between the low and mid-SCC quarters, but the SA levels for the high SCC quarters remained statistically different compared with low and mid-SCC quarters throughout the experiment. IgG could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC, although the high-SCC quarters were not statistically different from the mid-SCC quarters after 60 s. In the high-SCC quarters, a decrease was shown in all parameters during milk ejection, after t=60 s. In conclusion, alveolar milk ejection reduces the effectiveness of detection parameters when compared with SCC. With the exception of IgG, the ability of other tested parameters was not satisfactory to differentiate between quarters with low to mid-SCC levels. PMID:25467384

  7. Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

  8. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  9. Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers Philippe Connes1,2,3* , Yann Lamarre1,2 , Marie-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe Abstract Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79680. doi:10

  10. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

  11. Both creatine and its product phosphocreatine reduce oxidative stress and afford neuroprotection in an in vitro Parkinson's model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mauricio Peña; Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K; Tasca, Carla I; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; López, Manuela G

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson's model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine(473)) and GSK3? (Serine(9)). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  12. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D.; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K.; Tasca, Carla I.; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; López, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) and GSK3? (Serine9). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  13. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic. PMID:20604468

  14. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a “dead-end” waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS); it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected in a lactate-MAS. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the phosphocreatine shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation in a variety of cell types. PMID:25505376

  15. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently degrades crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Plasmid transformation, random mutagenesis and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism, hindering genetic engineering. Results The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain, resulting in a substantial shift in fermentation toward ethanol production. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products, corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant's tricarboxylic acid pathway. Conclusions The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first non-random, targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from cellobiose, cellulose and switchgrass. PMID:22214220

  16. Warburg effect in chemosensitivity: Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A re-sensitizes Taxol-resistant cancer cells to Taxol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Taxol is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Despite impressive clinical responses initially, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to Taxol. Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is one of the predominant isoforms of LDH expressed in breast tissue, which controls the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and plays an important role in glucose metabolism. In this study we investigated the role of LDH-A in mediating Taxol resistance in human breast cancer cells. Results Taxol-resistant subclones, derived from the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435, sustained continuous growth in high concentrations of Taxol while the Taxol-sensitive cells could not. The increased expression and activity of LDH-A were detected in Taxol-resistant cells when compared with their parental cells. The downregulation of LDH-A by siRNA significantly increased the sensitivity of Taxol-resistant cells to Taxol. A higher sensitivity to the specific LDH inhibitor, oxamate, was found in the Taxol-resistant cells. Furthermore, treating cells with the combination of Taxol and oxamate showed a synergistical inhibitory effect on Taxol-resistant breast cancer cells by promoting apoptosis in these cells. Conclusion LDH-A plays an important role in Taxol resistance and inhibition of LDH-A re-sensitizes Taxol-resistant cells to Taxol. This supports that Warburg effect is a property of Taxol resistant cancer cells and may play an important role in the development of Taxol resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the increased expression of LDH-A plays an important role in Taxol resistance of human breast cancer cells. This study provides valuable information for the future development and use of targeted therapies, such as oxamate, for the treatment of patients with Taxol-resistant breast cancer. PMID:20144215

  17. Lactate Dehydrogenase-B Is Silenced by Promoter Methylation in a High Frequency of Human Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola J.; Higham, Sue E.; Perunovic, Branko; Arafa, Mohammad; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Rehman, Ishtiaq

    2013-01-01

    Objective Under normoxia, non-malignant cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation for their ATP production, whereas cancer cells rely on Glycolysis; a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the Warburg effect in human breast cancer. Experimental design Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes were profiled using zymography. LDH-B subunit expression was assessed by reverse transcription PCR in cells, and by Immunohistochemistry in breast tissues. LDH-B promoter methylation was assessed by sequencing bisulfite modified DNA. Results Absent or decreased expression of LDH isoenzymes 1-4, were seen in T-47D and MCF7 cells. Absence of LDH-B mRNA was seen in T-47D cells, and its expression was restored following treatment with the demethylating agent 5'Azacytadine. LDH-B promoter methylation was identified in T-47D and MCF7 cells, and in 25/ 25 cases of breast cancer tissues, but not in 5/ 5 cases of normal breast tissues. Absent immuno-expression of LDH-B protein (<10% cells stained), was seen in 23/ 26 (88%) breast cancer cases, and in 4/8 cases of adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ lesions. Exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia (1% O2), for 48 hours resulted in significant increases in lactate levels in both MCF7 (14.0 fold, p?=?0.002), and T-47D cells (2.9 fold, p?=?0.009), but not in MDA-MB-436 (-0.9 fold, p?=?0.229), or MCF10AT (1.2 fold, p?=?0.09) cells. Conclusions Loss of LDH-B expression is an early and frequent event in human breast cancer occurring due to promoter methylation, and is likely to contribute to an enhanced glycolysis of cancer cells under hypoxia. PMID:23437403

  18. Membrane association of the C-terminal half of the open reading frame 1a protein of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Faaberg; P. G. W. Plagemann

    1996-01-01

    Summary ORF 1a of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, strain P (LDV-P), encodes a protein of 2206 amino acids. Eisenberg hydrophobic moment analysis of the protein predicted the presence of eleven transmembrane segments in the C-terminal half of the molecule (amino acids 980–1852) that flank the serine protease domain. cDNAs encoding ORF 1a protein segments encompassing transmembrane segments 5 to 11 and

  19. The interaction of solutes and temperature on A4-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Fields; Benjamin D. Wahlstrand; George N. Somero

    We examined the effects of temperature and stabilizing solutes on A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) from warm- and cold-adapted fishes, to determine how extrinsic stabilizers affect orthologs with different intrinsic stabilities. Conformational changes during substrate binding are rate- limiting for A4-LDH, thus stabilization due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors leads to decreased activity. A4-LDH from a warm-temperate goby (Gillichthys mirabilis ), which

  20. Diacetyl and ?-Acetolactate Overproduction by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Biovar Diacetylactis Mutants That Are Deficient in ?-Acetolactate Decarboxylase and Have a Low Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Christophe; Aymes, Frédéric; Corrieu, Georges

    2000-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strains are utilized in several industrial processes for producing the flavoring compound diacetyl or its precursor ?-acetolactate. Using random mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, we selected mutants that were deficient in ?-acetolactate decarboxylase and had low lactate dehydrogenase activity. The mutants produced large amounts of ?-acetolactate in anaerobic milk cultures but not in aerobic cultures, except when the medium was supplemented with catalase, yeast extract, or hemoglobin. PMID:11097941

  1. Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Value of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Expression in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuren; Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi; Guan, Haixia; Zhang, Junyan; Zhang, Yining; Xu, Huimian; Sun, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction LDH-A, the enzyme responsible for transforming pyruvate into lactate, has been demonstrated to be up-regulated in many types of cancer and to give rise to more aggressive behavior by regulating proliferation and anti-apoptosis. However, its expression in gastric cancer (GC) has not been characterized thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression and potential impact of LDH-A in GC. Methods We examined LDH-A expression by immunohistochemistry on GC tissue microarray (TMA) and using Western blot on fresh GC tissues and cell lines. Prognostic value and correlation with other clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. We transfected siRNA into GC cells against LDH-A. LDH-A was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Cell growth was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Lactate and ATP production by cells were determined. Results There was significantly higher LDH-A expression in carcinoma than in non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM). There was a positive correlation of LDH-A expression with age, histological type and Lymph node metastases. Survival analysis demonstrated that high expression of LDH-A in GC was associated with lower overall survival (OS). When stratified by Lauren grade and histological classification, significance appeared in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. In multivariate analysis, the LDH-A expression in GC was an independent prognostic risk factor for OS (hazard ratio?=?1.829, 95%CI 1.375–2.433,P<0.0001). Specific siRNA against LDH-A in GC cell line retarded cell growth both in vitro and in mouse models. LDH-A knockdown also reduced lactate and ATP production in GC cells. Conclusions Our study indicated the oncogenic role of LDH-A in GC. LDH-A expression is an independent prognostic risk factor in GC patients and up-regulated expression of LDH-A could be predictive of poor outcomes in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. Our results suggested that LDH-A might be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:24608789

  2. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Clark, D.P. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed terms of redox balance.

  3. Large Scale Dynamics of the Michaelis Complex in B. stearothermophilus Lactate Dehydrogenase Revealed by Single Tryptophan Mutants Study

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophylic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH•NADH•oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy having a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions at different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the ms - ?s time-scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called `loop motion' is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed. PMID:23428201

  4. Large scale dynamics of the Michaelis complex in Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase revealed by a single-tryptophan mutant study.

    PubMed

    Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

    2013-03-19

    Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH·NADH·oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the millisecond to microsecond time scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called "loop motion" is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on the catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed. PMID:23428201

  5. Introduction of a (poly)histidine tag in L-lactate dehydrogenase produces a mixture of active and inactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, C M; Morgan, G; Ou, C P; Cass, A E

    2001-08-15

    A (poly)histidine tag was fused to either the N- or the C-terminus of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Bacillus stearothermophilus to facilitate purification and immobilization of these enzymes. The C-terminally tagged enzyme displayed lower activity compared both to the wild-type and to the N-terminally tagged variant. The reason for this loss of activity was investigated by affinity chromatography of the enzymes on a 5'-AMP-Sepharose resin and by size-exclusion chromatography. The C-terminally tagged enzyme could be separated into an inactive, unbound fraction and an active, bound fraction. Further differences between the C-terminally tagged enzyme and the N-terminally tagged and wild-type LDH were observed on size-exclusion chromatography of the three enzymes. These data suggest that the introduction of a "his-tag" at the C-terminus may induce misfolding of the LDH and serve as a warning that the introduction of a (poly)histidine tag can produce unforseen changes in a protein. PMID:11488630

  6. Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gbotosho, Grace O.; Happi, Christian T.; Folarin, Onikepe; Keyamo, Ochuko; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva. PMID:20810809

  7. Adsorption of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on carbon nanotubes: how to get accurate results for the cytotoxicity of these nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Forest, Valérie; Figarol, Agathe; Boudard, Delphine; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-03-31

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) cytotoxicity is frequently investigated using in vitro classical toxicology assays. However, these cellular tests, usually based on the use of colorimetric or fluorimetric dyes, were designed for chemicals and may not be suitable for nanosized materials. Indeed, because of their unique physicochemical properties CNT can interfere with the assays and bias the results. To get accurate data and draw reliable conclusions, these artifacts should be carefully taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the interferences occurring between CNT and the commonly used lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Experiments under cell-free conditions were performed, and it was clearly demonstrated that artifacts occurred. They were due to the intrinsic absorbance of CNT on one hand and the adsorption of LDH at the CNT surface on the other hand. The adsorption of LDH on CNT was modeled and was found to fit the Langmuir model. The Kads and neq constants were defined, allowing the correction of results obtained from cellular experiments to get more accurate data and lead to proper conclusions on the cytotoxicity of CNT. PMID:25768724

  8. Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD+. The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) Km for L-lactate and a higher Vmax value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the Km of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the Km of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

  9. Direct electrochemistry of lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on silica sol-gel modified gold electrode and its application.

    PubMed

    Di, Junwei; Cheng, Jiongjia; Xu, Quan; Zheng, Huie; Zhuang, Jingyue; Sun, Yongbo; Wang, Keyu; Mo, Xiangyin; Bi, Shuping

    2007-12-15

    The direct electrochemistry of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilized in silica sol-gel film on gold electrode was investigated, and an obvious cathodic peak at about -200 mV (versus SCE) was found for the first time. The LDH-modified electrode showed a surface controlled irreversible electrode process involving a one electron transfer reaction with the charge-transfer coefficient (alpha) of 0.79 and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) of 3.2 s(-1). The activated voltammetric response and decreased charge-transfer resistance of Ru(NH(3))(6)(2+/3+) on the LDH-modified electrode provided further evidence. The surface morphologies of silica sol-gel and the LDH embedded in silica sol-gel film were characterized by SEM. A potential application of the LDH-modified electrode as a biosensor for determination of lactic acid was also investigated. The calibration range of lactic acid was from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 3.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) and the detection limit was 8.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Finally, the effect of environmental pollutant resorcinol on the direct electrochemical behavior of LDH was studied. The experimental results of voltammetry indicated that the conformation of LDH molecule was altered by the interaction between LDH and resorcinol. The modified electrode can be applied as a biomarker to study the pollution effect in the environment. PMID:17869089

  10. Source of catalysis in the lactate dehydrogenase system. Ground-state interactions in the enzyme-substrate complex.

    PubMed

    Deng, H; Zheng, J; Clarke, A; Holbrook, J J; Callender, R; Burgner, J W

    1994-03-01

    The Raman spectra of both the NAD-pyruvate and the pyridine aldehyde adenine dinucleotide (PAAD)-pyruvate bound to pig heart, pig muscle, and Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenases were measured and are nearly the same, which is consistent with the conserved shell of residues surrounding the active-site cavity in these enzymes. The symmetrical stretching mode of the pyruvate carboxylate group, found at 1398 cm-1, is shifted only slightly when complexed to these enzymes, which shows that the group remains ionized in the ion pair complex with Arg-171 on the enzyme. The vibrational mode for the carbonyl stretch of the bound pyruvate moiety is shifted about 35 cm-1 to a lower frequency than observed for the carbonyl of unliganded pyruvate in the bacterial enzyme because of polarization of the carbonyl bond. Thus, the bacterial enzyme shows the same substrate activation because of the C(+)-O- charge separation that was seen previously with the mammalian enzymes. On the basis of an empirical Badger-Bauer relationship between frequency shift and interaction enthalpy, this shift in frequency is equivalent to an approximately -14 to -17 kcal/mol interaction between the enzyme and the adduct C = O coordinate, a substantial part of which is an electrostatic interaction (hydrogen bond) between the C V O and the protonated His-195. Thus, while the C = O bond is polarized on the enzyme (which requires energy), the overall ground-state enthalpy of the carbonyl imidazolium part of the reaction coordinate is stability substantially relative to its value in solution, and this is the dominant enthalpic effect on the entire reaction coordinate since the other internal coordinates for the hydride transfer are not much affected during formation of the ternary complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8117687

  11. An alternative allosteric regulation mechanism of an acidophilic l-lactate dehydrogenase from Enterococcus mundtii 15-1A

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Yasuyuki; Miyasako, Masashi; Matsuo, Koichi; Oda, Kosuke; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    A plant-derived Enterococcus mundtii 15-1A, that has been previously isolated from Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Hanelt var. linearifolia by our group, possesses two kinds of l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH): LDH-1 and LDH-2. LDH-1 was activated under low concentration of fluctose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at both pH 5.5 and 7.5. Although LDH-2 was also activated under the low concentration of FBP at pH 5.5, a high concentration of FBP is necessary to activate it at pH 7.5. The present study shows the crystal structures of the acidophilic LDH-2 in a complex with and without FBP and NADH. Although the tertiary structure of the ligands-bound LDH-2 is similar to that of the active form of other bacterial l-LDHs, the structure without the ligands is different from that of any other previously determined l-LDHs. Major structural alterations between the two structures of LDH-2 were observed at two regions in one subunit. At the N-terminal parts of the two regions, the ligands-bound form takes an ?-helical structure, while the form without ligands displays more disordered and extended structures. A vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism analysis showed that the ?-helix content of LDH-2 in solution is approximately 30% at pH 7.5, which is close to that in the crystal structure of the form without ligands. A D241N mutant of LDH-2, which was created by us to easily form an ?-helix at one of the two parts, exhibited catalytic activity even in the absence of FBP at both pH 5.5 and 7.5. PMID:25379380

  12. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  13. Effect of high-pressure processing on activity and structure of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in buffer and milk.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Gilles K; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Knabel, Stephen J; Floros, John D

    2007-11-14

    Changes in the activity and structure of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated after high pressure processing (HPP). HPP treatments (206-620 MPa for 6 and 12 min) were applied to ALP and LDH prepared in buffer, fat-free milk, and 2% fat milk. Enzyme activities were measured using enzymatic assays, and changes in structure were investigated using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattetering (DLS). Kinetic data indicated that the activity of ALP was not affected after 6 min of pressure treatments (206-620 MPa), regardless of the medium in which the enzyme was prepared. Increasing the processing time to 12 min did significantly reduce the activity of ALP at 620 MPa (P < 0.001). However, even the lowest HPP treatment of 206 MPa induced a reduction in LDH activity, and the course of reduction increased with HPP treatment until complete inactivation at 482, 515, and 620 MPa. CD data demonstrated a partial change in the secondary structure of ALP at 620 MPa, whereas the structure of LDH showed gradual denaturation after exposure at 206 MPa for 6 min, leading to a random coil structure at both 515 and 620 MPa. DLS results indicated aggregation of ALP only at HPP treatment of 206 MPa and not above and enzyme precipitation as well as aggregation at 345, 415, 482, and 515 MPa. The loss of LDH activity with increasing pressure and time treatment was due to the combined effects of denaturation and aggregation. PMID:17944537

  14. Serum lactate dehydrogenase profile as a retrospective indicator of uterine preparedness for labor: a prospective, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes are required for adenosine triphosphate production, with each of five different isoenzymes having varying proficiencies in anaerobic versus aerobic environments. With advancing pregnancy, the isoenzyme profile in uterine muscle shifts toward a more anaerobic profile, speculatively to facilitate uterine efficiency during periods of low oxygen that accompany labor contractions. Profile shifting may even occur throughout labor. Maternal serum LDH levels between 24–48 hours following delivery predominantly originate from uterine muscle, reflecting the enzymatic state of the myometrium during labor. Our purpose was to describe serum LDH isoenzymes 24–30 hours post-delivery to determine if cervical dilation rates following labor admission were associated with a particular LDH profile. We also compared differences in post-delivery LDH isoenzyme profiles between women admitted in pre-active versus established active labor. Methods Low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset were sampled (n?=?91). Maternal serum LDH was measured at labor admission and 24–30 hours post-vaginal delivery. Rates of cervical dilation during the first four hours after admission were also measured. Spearman’s rho coefficients were used for association testing and t tests evaluated for group and paired-sample differences. Results More efficient dilation following admission was associated with decreased LDH1 (p?=?0.029) and increased LDH3 and LDH4 (p?=?0.017 and p?=?0.017, respectively) in the post-delivery period. Women admitted in established active labor had higher relative serum levels of LDH3 (t?=?2.373; p?=?0.023) and LDH4 (t?=?2.268; p?=?0.029) and lower levels of LDH1 (t?=?2.073; p?=?0.045) and LDH5 (t?=?2.041; p?=?0.048) when compared to women admitted in pre-active labor. Despite having similar dilatations at admission (3.4?±?0.5 and 3.7?±?0.6 cm, respectively), women admitted in pre-active labor had longer in-hospital labor durations (12.1?±?4.3 vs. 5.3?±?1.4 hours; p?

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Koukourakis, M I; Giatromanolaki, A; Sivridis, E; Bougioukas, G; Didilis, V; Gatter, K C; Harris, A L

    2003-09-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) catalyses the reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate, having a principal position in the anaerobic cellular metabolism. Induction of LDH-5 occurs during hypoxia and LDH-5 transcription is directly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Serum LDH levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various neoplastic diseases. The expression, however, of LDH in tumours has never been investigated in the past. In the present study, we established an immunohistochemical method to evaluate the LDH-5 overexpression in tumours, using two novel antibodies raised against the rat muscle LDH-5 and the human LDH-5 (Abcam, UK). The subcellular patterns of expression in cancer cells were mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic. In direct contrast to cancer cells, stromal fibroblasts were reactive for LDH-5 only in a minority of cases. Serum LDH, although positively correlated with, does not reliably reflect the intratumoral LDH-5 status. Lactate dehydrogenase-5 overexpression was directly related to HIF1alpha and 2alpha, but not with the carbonic anhydrase 9 expression. Patients with tumours bearing high LDH-5 expression had a poor prognosis. Tumours with simultaneous LDH-5 and HIF1alpha (or HIF2alpha) overexpression, indicative of a functional HIF pathway, had a particularly aggressive behaviour. It is concluded that overexpression of LDH-5 is a common event in non-small-cell lung cancer, can be easily assessed in paraffin-embedded material and provides important prognostic information, particularly when combined with other endogenous markers of hypoxia and acidity. PMID:12942121

  16. Neuroprotective effects of creatine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Flint Beal

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase genes of caiman and Chinese soft-shelled turtle, with emphasis on the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Liao, C H; Ho, W Z; Huang, H W; Kuo, C H; Lee, S C; Li, S S

    2001-11-14

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cDNAs encoding for LDH-A(4) (muscle) and LDH-B(4) (heart) isozymes from caiman (Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) belonging to the order Crocodilia and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) belonging to the order Chelonia were sequenced. The phylogenetic relationships of the newly determined cDNA and their deduced protein sequences, as well as the previously published sequences of vertebrate LDH isozymes, were analyzed by various phylogenetic tree construction methods. These results indicated that Chelonia is indeed more closely related to Crocodilia. The divergent times between caiman and alligator, turtle and soft-shelled turtle, and Chelonia and Crocodilia were estimated to be approximately 36, 100 and 177 million years, respectively. PMID:11722846

  18. Oxamate-mediated inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells: involvement of the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi; Han, Fanghai; Yang, Shibin; Wu, Jianhai; Zhan, Wenhua

    2015-03-01

    Cancer cells produce a substantial amount of energy through aerobic glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a key regulator of glycolysis, reversibly catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Recently, oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH, has been shown to be a promising anticancer agent. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oxamate inhibits the viability of human gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with oxamate induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited by chloroquine or Beclin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhances oxamate-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition. Further study has shown that oxamate treatment significantly augments reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, cells pretreated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor, display significantly reduced ROS production and attenuated oxamate-induced autophagy. Finally, functional studies reveal that the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, a major negative regulator of autophagy, is inhibited by oxamate. Together, our results provide new insights regarding the biological and anti-proliferative activities of oxamate against gastric cancer, and may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:25524555

  19. Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD+, which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in Vmax (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli (MSU)

    2012-08-31

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

  1. The lactate dehydrogenase–reduced nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide–pyruvate complex. Kinetics of pyruvate binding and quenching of coenzyme fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Südi, J.

    1974-01-01

    The stopped-flow kinetic studies described in this and the following paper (Südi, 1974) demonstrate that a Haldane-type description of the reversible lactate dehydrogenase reaction presents an experimentally feasible task. Combined results of these two papers yield numerical values for the six rate constants defined by the following equilibrium scheme, where E represents lactate dehydrogenase: [Formula: see text] The experiments were carried out at pH8.4 at a relatively low temperature (6.3°C) with the pig heart enzyme. Identification of the above two intermediates and determination of the corresponding rate constants actually involve four series of independent observations in these studies, since (a) the reaction can be followed in both directions, and (b) both the u.v. absorption and the fluorescence of the coenzymes are altered in the reaction, and it is shown that these two spectral changes do not occur simultaneously. Kinetic observations made in the reverse direction are reported in this paper. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence of NADH can no longer be observed in the ternary complex ENADHPyr. Even though the oxidation–reduction reaction rapidly follows the formation of this complex, the numerical values of k?4 (8.33×105m?1·s?1) and k+4 (222s?1) are easily obtained from a directly observed second-order reaction step in which fluorescent but not u.v.-absorbing material is disappearing. U.v.-absorption measurements do not clearly resolve the subsequent oxidation–reduction step from the dissociation of lactate. It is shown that this must be due partly to the instrumental dead time, and partly to a low transient concentration of ENAD+Lac in the two-step sequential reaction in which the detectable disappearance of u.v.-absorbing material takes place. It is estimated that about one-tenth of the total change in u.v. absorption is due to a `burst reaction' in which ENAD+Lac is produced, and this estimation yields, from kobs.=120s?1, k?2=1200s?1. PMID:4377095

  2. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  3. A population pharmacodynamic model for lactate dehydrogenase and neuron specific enolase to predict tumor progression in small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Buil-Bruna, Núria; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2014-05-01

    The development of individualized therapies poses a major challenge in oncology. Significant hurdles to overcome include better disease monitoring and early prediction of clinical outcome. Current clinical practice consists of using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) to categorize response to treatment. However, the utility of RECIST is restricted due to limitations on the frequency of measurement and its categorical rather than continuous nature. We propose a population modeling framework that relates circulating biomarkers in plasma, easily obtained from patients, to tumor progression levels assessed by imaging scans (i.e., RECIST categories). We successfully applied this framework to data regarding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). LDH and NSE have been proposed as independent prognostic factors for SCLC. However, their prognostic and predictive value has not been demonstrated in the context of standard clinical practice. Our model incorporates an underlying latent variable ("disease level") representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment; these assumptions are in agreement with the known physiology of SCLC and these biomarkers. Our model predictions of unobserved disease level are strongly correlated with disease progression measured by RECIST criteria. In conclusion, the proposed framework enables prediction of treatment outcome based on circulating biomarkers and therefore can be a powerful tool to help clinicians monitor disease in SCLC. PMID:24740245

  4. Incompatibility of silver nanoparticles with lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay for cellular viability test is attributed to protein binding and reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Hwa; Liu, Yingqiu; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Kwon, Kyenghee; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Younghun; Shim, Kyuhwan; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2014-03-21

    A growing number of studies report that conventional cytotoxicity assays are incompatible with certain nanoparticles (NPs) due to artifacts caused by the distinctive characteristics of NPs. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays have inadequately detected cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), leading to research into the underlying mechanism. When ECV304 endothelial-like umbilical cells were treated with citrate-capped AgNPs (cAgNPs) or bare AgNPs (bAgNPs), the plasma membrane was disrupted, but the LDH leakage assay failed to detect cytotoxicity, indicating interference with the assay by AgNPs. Both cAgNPs and bAgNPs inactivated LDH directly when treated to cell lysate as expected. AgNPs adsorbed LDH and thus LDH, together with AgNPs, was removed from assay reactants during sample preparation, with a resultant underestimation of LDH leakage from cells. cAgNPs, but not bAgNPs, generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were successfully scavenged by N-acetylcysteine or ascorbic acid. LDH inhibition by cAgNPs could be restored partially by simultaneous treatment with those antioxidants, suggesting the contribution of ROS to LDH inactivation. Additionally, the composition of the protein corona surrounding AgNPs was identified employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In sum, the LDH leakage assay, a conventional cell viability test method, should be employed with caution when assessing cytotoxicity of AgNPs. PMID:24463055

  5. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi; Li Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: drjunma@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  6. Duck lens epsilon-crystallin and lactate dehydrogenase B4 are identical: a single-copy gene product with two distinct functions.

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, W; Mulders, J W; Bibby, M A; Slingsby, C; Bloemendal, H; de Jong, W W

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether or not duck lens epsilon-crystallin and duck heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) B4 are the product of the same gene, we have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones of duck epsilon-crystallin. By using these clones we demonstrate that there is a single-copy Ldh-B gene in duck and in chicken. In the duck lens this gene is overexpressed, and its product is subject to posttranslational modification. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the LDH protein family reveals that the mammalian Ldh-C gene most probably originated from an ancestral Ldh-A gene and that the amino acid replacement rate in LDH-C is approximately 4 times the rate in LDH-A. Molecular modeling of LDH-B sequences shows that the increased thermostability of the avian tetramer might be explained by mutations that increase the number of ion pairs. Furthermore, the replacement of bulky side chains by glycines on the corners of the duck protein suggests an adaptation to facilitate close packing in the lens. Images PMID:3174623

  7. Immune evasion mediated by tumor-derived lactate dehydrogenase induction of NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Courtney A.; Austgen, Kathryn; Haberthur, Kristen; Hofmann, Carly; Moyes, Kara White; Avanesyan, Lia; Fong, Lawrence; Campbell, Michael J.; Cooper, Stewart; Oakes, Scott A.; Parsa, Andrew T.; Lanier, Lewis L.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment, governing local immune responses. Here we report that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and circulating monocytes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) express ligands for activating the Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, which cause down-regulation of NKG2D on natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-infiltrating NK cells isolated from GBM patients fail to lyse NKG2D ligand-expressing tumor cells. We demonstrate that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform 5 secreted by glioblastoma cells induces NKG2D ligands on monocytes isolated from healthy individuals. Furthermore, sera from GBM patients contain elevated amounts of LDH, which correlate with expression of NKG2D ligands on their autologous circulating monocytes. NKG2D ligands also are present on circulating monocytes isolated from patients with breast, prostate, and hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinomas. Together, these findings reveal a previously unidentified immune evasion strategy whereby tumors produce soluble factors that induce NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells, subverting antitumor immune responses. PMID:25136121

  8. Serum lactate dehydrogenase with a systemic inflammation score is useful for predicting response and survival in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level with systemic inflammation score and survival in 213 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy. The patients were classified into 3 groups based on LDH with the Glasgow Prognostic Score (L-GPS). A score of 2 was assigned to patients with elevated C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia and elevated LDH, a score of 1 to those with one or two abnormalities and a score of 0 to those with no abnormality. In multivariate analysis, independent poor prognostic factors for progression-free survival were L-GPS 2 [hazard ratio (HR) 5.415, p = 0.001], Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ?2 (HR 3.504, p = 0.001) and bulky lesion (HR 2.030, p = 0.039). Independent poor prognostic factors for overall survival were L-GPS 2 (HR 5.898, p = 0.001) and ECOG PS ?2 (HR 3.525, p = 0.001). The overall response rate for the R-CHOP chemotherapy decreased according to the L-GPS; it was 96.7% at L-GPS 0, 87% at L-GPS 1 and 75% at L-GPS 2 (p = 0.009). L-GPS based on systemic inflammatory indicators may be a useful clinical prognostic indicator for survival, and predicts the response for R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. PMID:24969101

  9. A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.

    PubMed

    Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

    1987-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family. PMID:3629217

  10. Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Richard C.; van Herwerden, Lynne; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Jerry, Dean R.

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) congeneric perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which exhibits temperature-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the North American killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Ldh-b was 5,004 and 3,527 bp in length in L. calcarifer and L. niloticus, respectively, with coding regions comprising 1,005 bp in both species. A high level of sequence homology existed between species for both coding and non-coding regions of ldh-b (> 97% homology), corresponding to a 98.5% amino acid sequence homology. All six known functional sites within the encoded protein sequence (LDH-B) were conserved between the two Lates species. Ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs (mono-, di-, tri- and tetranucleotide) and thirty putative microRNA elements (miRNAs) were identified within introns 1, 2, 5 and 6 of both Lates species. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified within miRNA containing intron regions. Such SNPs are implicated in several complex human conditions and/or diseases (as demonstrated by extensive genome-wide association studies). This novel characterization serves as a platform to further examine how non-model species may respond to changes in their native temperatures, which are expected to increase by up to 6°C over the next century. PMID:19787021

  11. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization. PMID:22297553

  12. Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Partl, Richard, E-mail: richard.partl@medunigraz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Richtig, Erika [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Kapp, Karin S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ?70 and LDH ?240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ?70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ?240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

  13. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  14. Metabolic engineering of Lactococcus lactis: influence of the overproduction of alpha-acetolactate synthase in strains deficient in lactate dehydrogenase as a function of culture conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Platteeuw, C; Hugenholtz, J; Starrenburg, M; van Alen-Boerrigter, I; de Vos, W M

    1995-01-01

    The als gene for alpha-acetolactate synthase of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was cloned on a multicopy plasmid under the control of the inducible L. lactis lacA promoter. More than a hundredfold overproduction of alpha-acetolactate synthase was obtained in L. lactis under inducing conditions as compared with that of the host strain, which contained a single chromosomal copy of the als gene. The effect of alpha-acetolactate synthase overproduction on the formation of end products in various L. lactis strains was studied under different fermentation conditions. Under aerobic conditions and with an initial pH of 6.0, overexpression of the als gene resulted in significant acetoin production that amounted to more than one-third of the pyruvate converted. However, the effect of the alpha-acetolactate synthase overproduction was even more pronounced in the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient strain L. lactis NZ2700. Anaerobic cultivation of this strain resulted in a doubling of the butanediol formation of up to 40% of the converted pyruvate. When cultivated aerobically at an initial pH of 6.8, overexpression of the als gene in L. lactis NZ2700 resulted in the conversion of more than 60% of the pyruvate into acetoin, while no butanediol was formed. Moreover, at an initial pH of 6.0, similar amounts of acetoin were obtained, but in addition approximately 20% of the pyruvate was converted into butanediol. These metabolic engineering studies indicate that more than 80% of the lactose can be converted via the activity of the overproduced alpha-acetolactate synthase in L. lactis. PMID:8526510

  15. (1-3)-beta-D-glucan in association with lactate dehydrogenase as biomarkers of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Esteves, F; Lee, C-H; de Sousa, B; Badura, R; Seringa, M; Fernandes, C; Gaspar, J F; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2014-07-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major HIV-related illness caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Definitive diagnosis of PcP requires microscopic detection of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of two serum markers in the diagnosis of PcP. Serum levels of (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (BG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated in 100 HIV-positive adult patients and 50 healthy blood donors. PcP cases were confirmed using indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal anti-Pneumocystis antibodies and nested-PCR to amplify the large subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. jirovecii in pulmonary specimens. BG and LDH levels in serum were measured using quantitative microplate-based assays. BG and LDH positive sera were statistically associated with PcP cases (P???0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV), and positive/negative likelihood ratios (PLR/NLR) were 91.3 %, 61.3 %, 85.1 %, 79.2 %, 2.359, and 0.142, respectively, for the BG kit assay, and 91.3 %, 35.5 %, 75.9 %, 64.7 %, 1.415 and 0.245, respectively, for the LDH test. Serologic markers levels combined with the clinical diagnostic criteria for PcP were evaluated for their usefulness in diagnosis of PcP. The most promising cutoff levels for diagnosis of PcP were determined to be 400 pg/ml of BG and 350 U/l of LDH, which combined with clinical data presented 92.8 % sensitivity, 83.9 % specificity, 92.8 % PPV, 83.9 % NPV, 5.764 PLR and 0.086 NLR (P?

  16. The risk of thrombo-embolic events is increased in patients with germ-cell tumours and can be predicted by serum lactate dehydrogenase and body surface area

    PubMed Central

    Piketty, A-C; Fléchon, A; Laplanche, A; Nouyrigat, E; Droz, J-P; Théodore, C; Fizazi, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of thrombo-embolic events (TEE) in patients with germ-cell tumours (GCT) who receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, to compare this risk to that of a matched control group of non-GCT cancer patients, and to identify risk factors of TEE. The rate of TEE during the 6 months following the initiation of chemotherapy was assessed in 100 consecutive patients with GCT and in 100 controls with various neoplasms who were matched on sex and age, and who received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy during the same period of time at Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. Data were subsequently tested on a validation group of 77 GCT patients treated in Lyon, France. A total of 19 patients (19%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 13–28) and six patients (6%) (95% CI: 3–13) had a TEE in the GCT group and the non-GCT control group, respectively (relative risk (RR): 3.4; P<0.01). Three patients from the GCT group died of pulmonary embolism. In multivariate analysis, two factors had independent predictive value for TEE: a high body surface area (>1.9?m2) (RR: 5 (1.8–13.9)) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RR: 6.4 (2.3–18.2)). Patients with no risk factor (n=26) and those with at least one risk factor (n=71) had a probability of having a TEE of 4% (95% CI: 1–19) and 26% (95% CI: 17–37), respectively. In the GCT validation set, 10 (13%) patients had a TEE; patients with no risk factor and those with at least one risk factor had a probability of having a TEE of 0 and 17% (95% CI: 10–29), respectively. Patients with GCT are at a higher risk for TEE than patients with non-GCT cancer while on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This risk can be accurately predicted by serum LDH and body surface area. This predictive index may help to study prospectively the impact of thromboprophylaxis in GCT patients. PMID:16205699

  17. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  18. Lactate Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Lactate Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... there anything I can do to decrease my lactate level? Generally, no. However, if your elevated lactate ...

  19. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... specialized knowledge and clinical expertise in breastfeeding and human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding ...

  20. Effect of leucine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on oxidative stress and enzymes activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.

    PubMed

    de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Vargas, Alessandra Pinto; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Campos, Aline Guimarães; Rech, Virginia Cielo; Feksa, Luciane Rosa; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

    2013-03-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by severe deficiency in the activity of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological disorder is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease. Although leucine is considered the main toxic metabolite, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by leucine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some oxidative stress parameters as well as the activities of some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Leucine administration induced oxidative stress and altered the activities of pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was partially effective in the prevention of some alterations provoked by leucine administration on the oxidative stress but not in the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network. These results suggest that non-treated maternal hyperleucinemia may be toxic to the brain of the offspring. PMID:23277415

  1. Molecular Model of Creatine Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules for this month come from the paper Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment by Andri Smith and Paula Tan on the synthesis of creatine in introductory organic chemistry. This synthesis is sufficiently straightforward to be used in non-majors and general chemistry courses. The structures illustrate some of the limitations associated with the computation of molecular structure. The two adenosine phosphates ADP and ATP exhibit a large number of conformations due to rotation of the adenine system around the bond to the ribose ring, multiple rotational conformations in the phosphate groups, the ionic state of the compound, and the interaction with the solvent or another species such as creatine. The structures that are given for ADP and ATP are derived from PM3MM calculations and are very similar to those derived using the UFF force field. Sarcosine, creatine, and creatine phosphate were treated using the model chemistry B3LYP/6-31+G(d). Perhaps the most interesting structural feature is found in the small molecule cyanamide. Observant students might notice in the Web-based structure that the NCN grouping in cyanamide is non-linear, with an angle of about 177°. This is found for essentially all levels of theory we examined up through the G2 combined model. For students who do notice this deviation from linearity it is useful to ask them whether they are surprised, ask them to defend their answer, send them to the literature to see whether such behavior is seen for cyanamide in other phases (it is), and finally to speculate on possible explanations for the observed non-linearity.

  2. Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2009-11-01

    Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179

  3. Assessment of the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory concentration.

    PubMed

    Kaddouri, Halima; Nakache, Serge; Houzé, Sandrine; Mentré, France; Le Bras, Jacques

    2006-10-01

    The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements. Until recently, schizont maturation and isotopic in vitro assays were the only methods available, but their use was limited by technical constraints. This explains the revived interest in the development of replacement methods, such as the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay. We evaluated a commercially controlled pLDH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ELISA-Malaria antigen test; DiaMed AG, Cressier s/Morat, Switzerland) to assess drug susceptibility in a standard in vitro assay using fairly basic laboratory equipment to study the in vitro resistance of malaria parasites to major antimalarials. Five Plasmodium falciparum clones and 121 clinical African isolates collected during 2003 and 2004 were studied by the pLDH ELISA and the [8-(3)H]hypoxanthine isotopic assay as a reference with four antimalarials. Nonlinear regression with a maximum effect model was used to estimate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and its confidence intervals. The two methods were observed to have similar reproducibilities, but the pLDH ELISA demonstrated a higher sensitivity. The high correlation (r = 0.98) and the high phenotypic agreement (kappa = 0.88) between the two methods allowed comparison by determination of the IC(50)s. Recently collected Plasmodium falciparum African isolates were tested by pLDH ELISA and showed drug resistance or decreased susceptibilities of 62% to chloroquine and 11.5% to the active metabolite of amodiaquine. No decreased susceptibility to lumefantrine or the active metabolite of artemisinin was detected. The availability of this simple and highly sensitive pLDH immunodetection assay will provide an easier method for drug susceptibility testing of malaria parasites. PMID:17005815

  4. Assessment of the Drug Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Isolates from Africa by Using a Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase Immunodetection Assay and an Inhibitory Maximum Effect Model for Precise Measurement of the 50-Percent Inhibitory Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Kaddouri, Halima; Nakache, Serge; Houzé, Sandrine; Mentré, France; Le Bras, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements. Until recently, schizont maturation and isotopic in vitro assays were the only methods available, but their use was limited by technical constraints. This explains the revived interest in the development of replacement methods, such as the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay. We evaluated a commercially controlled pLDH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ELISA-Malaria antigen test; DiaMed AG, Cressier s/Morat, Switzerland) to assess drug susceptibility in a standard in vitro assay using fairly basic laboratory equipment to study the in vitro resistance of malaria parasites to major antimalarials. Five Plasmodium falciparum clones and 121 clinical African isolates collected during 2003 and 2004 were studied by the pLDH ELISA and the [8-3H]hypoxanthine isotopic assay as a reference with four antimalarials. Nonlinear regression with a maximum effect model was used to estimate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and its confidence intervals. The two methods were observed to have similar reproducibilities, but the pLDH ELISA demonstrated a higher sensitivity. The high correlation (r = 0.98) and the high phenotypic agreement (? = 0.88) between the two methods allowed comparison by determination of the IC50s. Recently collected Plasmodium falciparum African isolates were tested by pLDH ELISA and showed drug resistance or decreased susceptibilities of 62% to chloroquine and 11.5% to the active metabolite of amodiaquine. No decreased susceptibility to lumefantrine or the active metabolite of artemisinin was detected. The availability of this simple and highly sensitive pLDH immunodetection assay will provide an easier method for drug susceptibility testing of malaria parasites. PMID:17005815

  5. Enzymes Related to Lactate Metabolism in Green Algae and Lower Land Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen; Tolbert, N. E.

    1974-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained two enzymes capable of oxidizing d-lactate; these were glycolate dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase. The two enzymes could be distinguished by differential centrifugation, glycolate dehydrogenase being largely particulate and NAD+-d-lactate dehydrogenase being soluble. The reduction of pyruvate by NADH proceeded more rapidly than the reverse reaction, and the apparent Michaelis constants for pyruvate and NADH were lower than for d-lactate and NAD+. These data indicated that under physiological conditions, the NAD+-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase probably functions to produce d-lactate from pyruvate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity dependent on NAD+ was found in a number of other green algae and in the green tissues of a few lower land plants. When present in species which contain glycolate oxidase rather than glycolate dehydrogenase, the enzyme was specific for l-lactate rather than d-lactate. A cyclic system revolving around the production and utilization of d-lactate in some species and l-lactate in certain others is proposed. PMID:16658670

  6. X-linked creatine transporter deficiency: clinical aspects and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Mancini, Grazia M; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-09-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency was discovered in 2001 as an X-linked cause of intellectual disability characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency. This review describes the current knowledge regarding creatine metabolism, the creatine transporter and the clinical aspects of creatine transporter deficiency. The condition mainly affects the brain while other creatine requiring organs, such as the muscles, are relatively spared. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that creatine synthesis also occurs in the brain, leading to the intriguing question of why cerebral creatine is deficient in creatine transporter deficiency. The possible mechanisms explaining the cerebral creatine deficiency are discussed. The creatine transporter knockout mouse provides a good model to study the disease. Over the past years several treatment options have been explored but no treatment has been proven effective. Understanding the pathogenesis of creatine transporter deficiency is of paramount importance in the development of an effective treatment. PMID:24789340

  7. Myofibrillar creatine kinase and cardiac contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reneé Ventura-Clapier; Vladimir Veksler; Jacqueline A. Hoerter

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review on the organization and function of myofibrillar creatine kinase in striated muscle. The first part describes myofibrillar creatine kinase as an integral structural part of the complex organization of myofibrils in striated muscle. The second part considers the intrinsic biochemical and mechanical properties of myofibrils and the functional coupling between myofibrillar CK and myosin ATPase.

  8. Creatine Doesn't Treat Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Study Says Research in mice had suggested this amino acid might help (*this news item will not be ... a new study finds. Creatine monohydrate is an amino acid believed to play an important role in energy ...

  9. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

  10. The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D. Schoch; Darryn Willoughby; Mike Greenwood

    2006-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize

  11. Creatine Supplementation in Strength-Power Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    The exogenous ingestion of creatine (Cr) is typically used as a performance enhancing (ergogenic) supplement because it is\\u000a known to improve performance in muscular strength and power activities, enhance short bursts of muscular endurance, and allow\\u000a for greater muscular overload in order to improve training effectiveness. Creatine has become one of the most popular ingested\\u000a nutritional supplements due to its

  12. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  13. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better clinical outcome. PMID:25904838

  14. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  15. Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Matthew T J; Faull, Richard L M; Christie, David L; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2015-04-01

    Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:25159005

  16. Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

  17. Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ? 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p < 0.001). CRF group showed a significant increase in bench press 1RM from T1-T2 (p < 0.001), and also increased from T2-T3 (p = 0.032). Leg press 1RM significantly increased at all time points for PL, CRD, and CRF groups (p < 0.05). No additional between or within group changes were observed for any performance variables and serum clinical safety profiles (p > 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

  18. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A creatine test system is a device intended to measure...treatment of muscle diseases and endocrine disorders including...

  3. The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Ryan D; Willoughby, Darryn; Greenwood, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine). There is much evidence indicating that creatine supplementation can improve athletic performance and cellular bioenergetics, although variability does exist. It is hypothesized that this variability is due to the process that controls both the influx and efflux of creatine across the cell membrane, and is likely due to a decrease in activity of the creatine transporter from various compounding factors. Furthermore, additional data suggests that an individual's initial biological profile may partially determine the efficacy of a creatine supplementation protocol. This brief review will examine both animal and human research in relation to the regulation and expression of the creatine transporter (CreaT). The current literature is very preliminary in regards to examining how creatine supplementation affects CreaT expression while concomitantly following a resistance training regimen. In conclusion, it is prudent that future research begin to examine CreaT expression due to creatine supplementation in humans in much the same way as in animal models. PMID:18500965

  4. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and serum. Measurements of creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Brancaccio; Nicola Maffulli; Francesco Mario Limongelli

    2007-01-01

    Areas of general agreement: Total creatine kinase (CK) levels depend on age, gender, race, muscle mass, physical activity and climatic condition. High levels of serum CK in apparently healthy subjects may be correlated with physical training status, as they depend on sarcomeric damage: strenuous exercise that damages skeletal muscle cells results in increased total serum CK. The highest post- exercise

  10. Modification of metabolic pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and deletion of pyruvate decarboxylase genes for the lactic acid fermentation at low pH value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eri Adachi; Mikiko Torigoe; Minetaka Sugiyama; Jun-Ichi Nikawa; Kazuyuki Shimizu

    1998-01-01

    Extractive lactic acid fermentation has recently been paid a great deal of attention. The problem with such a process is, however, that only undissociated lactate can be extracted. Therefore, lactic acid fermentation at low pH values is desirable. In the present study, we modified the metabolism of yeast (not lactic acid producing bacteria often cultivated at pH of 6–7) by

  11. The Effects of Low-Dose Creatine Supplementation Versus Creatine Loading in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Deivert, Richard G.; Hagerman, Frederick; Gilders, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of low doses of creatine and creatine loading on strength, urinary creatinine concentration, and percentage of body fat. Design and Setting: Division IA collegiate football players took creatine monohydrate for 10 weeks during a sport-specific, periodized, off-season strength and conditioning program. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, urinary creatinine concentrations, and percentage of body fat were analyzed. Subjects: Twenty-five highly trained, Division IA collegiate football players with at least 1 year of college playing experience. Measurements: We tested strength with a 1-RM squat exercise before, during, and after creatine supplementation. Percentage of body fat was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after supplementation. Urinary creatinine concentration was measured via light spectrophotometer at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 48, 56, and 63 days. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was computed to compare means for all variables. Results: Creatine supplementation had no significant group, time, or interaction effects on strength, urinary creatinine concentration, or percentage of body fat. However, significant time effects were found for 1-RM squat and fat-free mass in all groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that creatine monohydrate in any amount does not have any beneficial ergogenic effects in highly trained collegiate football players. However, a proper resistance training stimulus for 10 weeks can increase strength and fat-free mass in highly trained athletes. PMID:12937451

  12. Comprehensive review on lactate metabolism in human health.

    PubMed

    Adeva-Andany, M; López-Ojén, M; Funcasta-Calderón, R; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, E; Donapetry-García, C; Vila-Altesor, M; Rodríguez-Seijas, J

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Monocarboxylate transporters are being investigated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy of these and other disorders. Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption. Lactate removal takes place via its oxidation to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate may be either oxidized to carbon dioxide producing energy or transformed into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation requires oxygen supply and the cooperation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. Congenital or acquired deficiency on gluconeogenesis or pyruvate oxidation, including tissue hypoxia, may induce lactate accumulation. Both obese individuals and patients with diabetes show elevated plasma lactate concentration compared to healthy subjects, but there is no conclusive evidence of hyperlactatemia causing insulin resistance. Available evidence suggests an association between defective mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the pancreatic ?-cells and diminished insulin secretion that may trigger the development of diabetes in patients already affected with insulin resistance. Several mutations in the mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus, although the pathogenesis remains unsettled. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. d-lactate is a lactate enantiomer normally formed during glycolysis. Excess d-lactate is generated in diabetes, particularly during diabetic ketoacidosis. d-lactic acidosis is typically associated with small bowel resection. PMID:24929216

  13. Creatine as a therapeutic strategy for myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tarnopolsky

    2011-01-01

    Myopathies are genetic or acquired disorders of skeletal muscle that lead to varying degrees of weakness, atrophy, and exercise\\u000a intolerance. In theory, creatine supplementation could have a number of beneficial effects that could enhance function in\\u000a myopathy patients, including muscle mass, strength and endurance enhancement, lower calcium levels, anti-oxidant effects,\\u000a and reduced apoptosis. Patients with muscular dystrophy respond to several

  14. Lactate and succinate oxidoreductases in marine invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Hammen

    1969-01-01

    Nineteen species of littoral marine invertebrates, representing Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, and Arthropoda, were studied with respect to the ability of tissue extracts to catalyze the lactate and succinate dehydrogenase reactions in both directions. Pyruvate reductase (PR) activity varied tremendously with species, from 0.014 µmole\\/min\\/g of tissue in the etenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to 145 µ-moles\\/min in leg muscle of

  15. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure. PMID:21411845

  16. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF LACTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Meites

    1974-01-01

    Although other hormones influence the quantity of milk secretion, prolactin and adrenal corticosteroids are essential for initiating and maintaining lactation. During pregnancy high levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit lactation, and elevation of prolactin and ACTH-adrenal corticosteroid levels result in the initiation of lactation at the end of pregnancy. Suckling maintains lactation through release of prolactin, ACTH-adrenal glucocorticoid, and oxytocin.

  17. A Potential Role for Creatine in Drug Abuse?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen E. D’Anci; Patricia J. Allen; Robin B. Kanarek

    Supplemental creatine has been promoted for its positive health effects and is best known for its use by athletes to increase\\u000a muscle mass. In addition to its role in physical performance, creatine supplementation has protective effects on the brain\\u000a in models of neuronal damage and also alters mood state and cognitive performance. Creatine is found in high protein foods,\\u000a such

  18. Immunofluorescent localization of glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzyme proteins and of malate dehydrogenase isozymes in cross-striated skeletal muscle and heart of the rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Dölken; Elmi Leisner; Dirk Pette

    1975-01-01

    Specific antisera against glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle were obtained from sheep. The gammaglobulins were used for indirect immunofluorescent localization of the respective enzymes in rabbit skeletal muscle and heart. In stretched skeletal muscle a cross-striation like distribution was observed for all enzymes studied. In the case of

  19. A potential role for creatine in drug abuse?

    PubMed

    D'Anci, Kristen E; Allen, Patricia J; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Supplemental creatine has been promoted for its positive health effects and is best known for its use by athletes to increase muscle mass. In addition to its role in physical performance, creatine supplementation has protective effects on the brain in models of neuronal damage and also alters mood state and cognitive performance. Creatine is found in high protein foods, such as fish or meat, and is also produced endogenously from the biosynthesis of arginine, glycine, and methionine. Changes in brain creatine levels, as measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are seen in individuals exposed to drugs of abuse and depressed individuals. These changes in brain creatine indicate that energy metabolism differs in these populations relative to healthy individuals. Recent work shows that creatine supplementation has the ability to function in a manner similar to antidepressant drugs and can offset negative consequences of stress. These observations are important in relation to addictive behaviors as addiction is influenced by psychological factors such as psychosocial stress and depression. The significance of altered brain levels of creatine in drug-exposed individuals and the role of creatine supplementation in models of drug abuse have yet to be explored and represent gaps in the current understanding of brain energetics and addiction. PMID:21399936

  20. Does Reduced Creatine Synthesis Protect Against Statin Myopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Statins, widely used to lower cholesterol levels, cause myopathy in some patients. Mangravite et al. (2013) show that a single nucleotide polymorphism decreasing expression of glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), the enzyme regulating creatine biosynthesis, is associated with reduced statin myopathy. Whether reduced creatine production protects against statin myopathy remains to be determined. PMID:24315367

  1. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABINO PADILLA; MIKEL IZQUIERDO; ESTEBAN GOROSTIAGA

    2000-01-01

    MUJIKA, I., S. PADILLA, J. IBANEZ, M. IZQUIERDO, and E. GOROSTIAGA. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 518 -525, 2000. Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise activities specific to competitive soccer. Methods: On two occasions 7 d apart, 17 highly trained

  2. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Spillane; Ryan Schoch; Matt Cooke; Travis Harvey; Mike Greenwood; Richard Kreider; Darryn S Willoughby

    2009-01-01

    Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. In a double-blind manner, participants were

  3. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint swimming performance.Creatine supplementation does improve repeated interval swim set performance.Creatine supplementation does improve power development in swimmers when measured on a swim bench ergometer.As a result of the high energy demands of the butterfly and breaststroke competitive swimming styles, potentially, the benefits associated with creatine supplementation and swimming performance could be greater when swimming butterfly or breaststroke, compared to the commonly examined freestyle swimming stroke. PMID:24198677

  4. Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L-LDH can be effectively used as a factor to regulate a metabolic pathway and its metabolic flux for efficient L-lactate production. Highlights The enzymatic thermodynamics was used as a tool for metabolic regulation. ? minimizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase in growth phase improved biomass accumulation. ? maximizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase improved lactate productivity in production phase. PMID:24884499

  5. X-Linked Creatine-Transporter Gene (SLC6A8) Defect: A New Creatine-Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Gajja S.; van Dooren, Silvy J. M.; Verhoeven, Nanda M.; Cecil, Kim M.; Ball, William S.; Degrauw, Ton J.; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2001-01-01

    We report the first X-linked creatine-deficiency syndrome caused by a defective creatine transporter. The male index patient presented with developmental delay and hypotonia. Proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of his brain revealed absence of the creatine signal. However, creatine in urine and plasma was increased, and guanidinoacetate levels were normal. In three female relatives of the index patient, mild biochemical abnormalities and learning disabilities were present, to various extents. Fibroblasts from the index patient contained a hemizygous nonsense mutation in the gene SLC6A8 and were defective in creatine uptake. The three female relatives were heterozygous for this mutation in SLC6A8, which has been mapped to Xq28. PMID:11326334

  6. Comparison of Different Forms of Creatine on Creatine Availability, Retention, and Training Adaptations

    E-print Network

    Jagim, Andrew Ryan

    2013-03-25

    . Delimitations This study was conducted under the following guidelines: 1. Thirty-six (n = 36) resistance trained males age 18-40 were recruited for this study. 2. Subjects refrained from the consumption of dietary supplements, anabolic steroids, and... by stimulating certain anabolic pathways. After 5 days of creatine loading (21 g/d), Deldicque et al. found increases in collagen mRNA, glucose transporter 4 and myosin heavy chain IIa expression [83]. The authors suggested that the observed increases...

  7. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant malate dehydrogenase. However, when expressed in a strain of E. coli unable to ferment glucose, the mutant enzyme restored growth and produced lactic acid as the sole fermentation product.

  8. Sugar-glycerol cofermentations in lactobacilli: the fate of lactate.

    PubMed Central

    Veiga da Cunha, M; Foster, M A

    1992-01-01

    The simultaneous fermentation of glycerol and sugar by lactobacillus brevis B22 and Lactobacillus buchneri B190 increases both the growth rate and total growth. The reduction of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by the lactobacilli was found to influence the metabolism of the sugar cofermented by channelling some of the intermediate metabolites (e.g., pyruvate) towards NADH-producing (rather than NADH-consuming) reactions. Ultimately, the absolute requirement for NADH to prevent the accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde leads to a novel lactate-glycerol cofermentation. As a result, additional ATP can be made not only by (i) converting pyruvate to acetate via acetyl phosphate rather than to the ethanol usually found and (ii) oxidizing part of the intermediate pyruvate to acetate instead of the usual reduction to lactate but also by (iii) reoxidation of accumulated lactate to acetate via pyruvate. The conversion of lactate to pyruvate is probably catalyzed by NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases that are found only in the cultures oxidizing lactate and producing 1,3-propanediol, suggesting a correlation between the expression of these enzymes and a raised intracellular NAD/NADH ratio. The enzymes metabolizing glycerol (glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase) were expressed in concert without necessary induction by added glycerol, although their expression may also be influenced by the intracellular NAD/NADH ratio set by the different carbohydrates fermented. PMID:1732191

  9. Creatine metabolism in urea cycle defects.

    PubMed

    Boenzi, Sara; Pastore, Anna; Martinelli, Diego; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Boiani, Arianna; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-07-01

    Creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine play an essential role in energy storage and transmission. Maintenance of creatine pool is provided by the diet and by de novo synthesis, which utilizes arginine, glycine and s-adenosylmethionine as substrates. Three primary Cr deficiencies exists: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency and the defect of Cr transporter SLC6A8. Secondary Cr deficiency is characteristic of ornithine-aminotransferase deficiency, whereas non-uniform Cr abnormalities have anecdotally been reported in patients with urea cycle defects (UCDs), a disease category related to arginine metabolism in which Cr must be acquired by de novo synthesis because of low dietary intake. To evaluate the relationships between ureagenesis and Cr synthesis, we systematically measured plasma Cr in a large series of UCD patients (i.e., OTC, ASS, ASL deficiencies, HHH syndrome and lysinuric protein intolerance). Plasma Cr concentrations in UCDs followed two different trends: patients with OTC and ASS deficiencies and HHH syndrome presented a significant Cr decrease, whereas in ASL deficiency and lysinuric protein intolerance Cr levels were significantly increased (23.5 vs. 82.6 ?mol/L; p < 0.0001). This trend distribution appears to be regulated upon cellular arginine availability, highlighting its crucial role for both ureagenesis and Cr synthesis. Although decreased Cr contributes to the neurological symptoms in primary Cr deficiencies, still remains to be explored if an altered Cr metabolism may participate to CNS dysfunction also in patients with UCDs. Since arginine in most UCDs becomes a semi-essential aminoacid, measuring plasma Cr concentrations might be of help to optimize the dose of arginine substitution. PMID:22644604

  10. Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders. PMID:25192512

  11. Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Rosene; Tracey Matthews; Christine Ryan; Keith Belmore; Alisa Bergsten; Jill Blaisdell; James Gaylord; Rebecca Love; Michael Marrone; Kristine Ward; Eric Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo

  12. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Not used much today. Blood enzyme test 1. Lactate and pyruvate levels 2. Serum creatine kinase 1. ... transferase deficiency Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency Phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency Myopathies Due to ...

  13. Involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in product formation in pyruvate-limited anaerobic chemostat cultures of Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky L. Snoep; M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos; Pieter W. Postma; Oense M. Neijssel

    1990-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with pyruvate as the energy source. At low culture pH values, high in vivo and in vitro activities were found for both pyruvate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. At high culture pH values the carbon flux was shifted towards pyruvate formate lyase. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this metabolic switch are

  14. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  15. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  16. The control of the production of lactate and ethanol by higher plants.

    PubMed

    Davies, D D; Grego, S; Kenworthy, P

    1974-12-01

    Factors controlling the production of ethanol and lactate have been examined using cell free extracts prepared from pea seeds (Pisum sativum var Alaska) and parsnip roots (Pastinaca sativa). The result suggest that under aerobic conditions pyruvate decarboxylase is inactive. With the onset of anaerobiosis glycolysis leads to an accumulation of lactate with a corresponding fall in pH. The fall in pH activates pyruvate decarboxylase and initiates competition between lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase for pyruvate. The effect of pyruvate concentration on the partitioning has been analysed in terms of a modified Wegscheider rule and shows that the ratio lactate dehydrogenase activity/pyruvate decarboxylase activity bears an inverse relationship to the pyruvate concentration. The decrease in ratio which occurs when the pyruvate concentration rises is enhanced by the co-operativity which is exhibited by pyruvate decarboxylase. The pH optimum of lactate dehydrogenase is alkaline whilst the pH optimum of pyruvic decarboxylase is acid, thus the two enzymes function as a pH-stat. The possibility of excessive production of lactic acid is further controlled by the response of lactate dehydrogenase to ATP; the enzyme is inhibited by ATP and the inhibition increases as the pH decreases. It is suggested that this mechanism functions to protect the plant from excess production of acid. PMID:24442374

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affects the brain. People with this disorder have intellectual disability, which can range from mild to severe, and ... between 1 and 2 percent of males with intellectual disability. What genes are related to X-linked creatine ...

  18. Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ILENIA BAZZUCCHI; FRANCESCO FELICI; MASSIMO SACCHETTI

    2009-01-01

    BAZZUCCHI, I., F. FELICI, and M. SACCHETTI. Effect of Short-Term Creatine Supplementation on Neuromuscular Function. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1934-1941, 2009. Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether short-term creatine (Cr) supplementation would affect 1) muscle contractile properties assessed by evoked and voluntary contractions, 2) force-velocity relationship, and 3) mean muscle

  19. Fiber optic biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and L-lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Florian; Rinneberg, Herbert H.; Wang, Fang

    1995-02-01

    An optical fiber biosensor for the selective determination of hydrogen peroxide has been developed as the base sensor for the construction of multienzyme optodes involving lactate converting enzymes for the analysis of lactic acid. The optode uses the H2O2 dependent oxidation of homovanillic acid by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the sensing reaction. The fluorescence of the dimeric product formed is used as the measuring signal related to the concentration of H2O2. HRP was immobilized on a membrane and combined with a bifurcated fiber optic probe. Under optimized conditions the sensor responds linearly to hydrogen peroxide between 1 micrometers ol/l and 0.12 mmol/l and exhibits a half life of 90 days. Using a lactate oxidase-HRP membrane, the sensor is suitable for lactate measurement with a linear range of 3 micrometers ol/l-0.2 mmol/l. To increase the sensitivity for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase was coimmobilized on the sensor membrane. In the presence of NADH the signal for lactate is amplified fourfold through the internal analyte recycling accomplished by the lactate-converting enzymes.

  20. Identification of the Genes That Contribute to Lactate Utilization in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137–0139 (lldEFG), hp0140–0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137–0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140–0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137–0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140–0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

  1. Creatine and guanidinoacetate reference values in a French population.

    PubMed

    Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Cheillan, David; Briand, Gilbert; Salomons, Gajja S; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Lion-François, Laurence; Des Portes, Vincent; Chabli, Allel; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Benoist, Jean-François; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Simard, Gilles; Douay, Olivier; Deiva, Kumaran; Tardieu, Marc; Afenjar, Alexandra; Héron, Delphine; Rivier, François; Chabrol, Brigitte; Prieur, Fabienne; Cartault, François; Pitelet, Gaëlle; Goldenberg, Alice; Bekri, Soumeya; Gerard, Marion; Delorme, Richard; Porchet, Nicole; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vamecq, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference normal values are given within the age range. Despite the long known role of creatine for muscle physiology, muscle signs are not necessarily the major complaint expressed by PCDD patients. These disorders drastically affect brain function inducing, in patients, intellectual disability, autistic behavior and other neurological signs (delays in speech and language, epilepsy, ataxia, dystonia and choreoathetosis), being a common feature the drop in brain creatine content. For this reason, screening of PCDD patients has been repeatedly carried out in populations with neurological signs. This report is aimed at providing reference laboratory values and related age ranges found for a large scale population of patients with neurological signs (more than 6 thousand patients) previously serving as a background population for screening French patients with PCDD. These reference laboratory values and age ranges compare rather favorably with literature values for healthy populations. Some differences are also observed, and female participants are discriminated from male participants as regards to urine but not blood values including creatine on creatinine ratio and guanidinoacetate on creatinine ratio values. Such gender differences were previously observed in healthy populations; they might be explained by literature differential effects of testosterone and estrogen in adolescents and adults, and by estrogen effects in prepubertal age on SLC6A8 function. Finally, though they were acquired on a population with neurological signs, the present data might reasonably serve as reference laboratory values in any future medical study exploring abnormalities of creatine metabolism and transport. PMID:24090707

  2. Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.

    2000-09-12

    It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

  3. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

  4. The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Edward C.

    1988-01-01

    Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

  5. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  6. Water Recycling in Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Baverstock; B. Green

    1975-01-01

    During lactation, female rodents, dingoes, and kangaroos consume urine and feces excreted by the young. Studies with tritiated water as a tracer for native water showed that roughly one-third of the water secreted as milk was returned to the mother. The results are cogent to studies of water balance of lactation and to current methods used for estimating milk production.

  7. Evidences of Basal Lactate Production in the Main White Adipose Tissue Sites of Rats. Effects of Sex and a Cafeteria Diet

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Sabater, David; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Female and male adult Wistar rats were fed standard chow or a simplified cafeteria diet for one month. Then, the rats were killed and the white adipose tissue (WAT) in four sites: perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and subcutaneous (inguinal) were sampled and frozen. The complete WAT weight in each site was measured. Gene expression analysis of key lipid and glucose metabolism enzymes were analyzed, as well as tissue and plasma lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate gradients between WAT and plasma were estimated. The influence of sex and diet (and indirectly WAT mass) on lactate levels and their relationships with lactate dehydrogenase activity and gene expressions were also measured. A main conclusion is the high production of lactate by WAT, practically irrespective of site, diet or sex. Lactate production is a direct correlate of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the tissue. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activity is again directly correlated with the expression of the genes Ldha and Ldhb for this enzyme. In sum, the ability to produce lactate by WAT is not directly dependent of WAT metabolic state. We postulate that, in WAT, a main function of the lactate dehydrogenase path may be that of converting excess available glucose to 3C fragments, as a way to limit tissue self-utilization as substrate, to help control glycaemia and/or providing short chain substrates for use as energy source elsewhere. More information must be gathered before a conclusive role of WAT in the control of glycaemia, and the full existence of a renewed glucose-lactate-fatty acid cycle is definitely established. PMID:25741703

  8. Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

  9. Primary Structure and Phylogenetic Relationships of a Malate Dehydrogenase Gene from Giardia lamblia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Roger; Hilary G. Morrison; Mitchell L. Sogin

    1999-01-01

    .   The lactate and malate dehydrogenases comprise a complex protein superfamily with multiple enzyme homologues found in eubacteria,\\u000a archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. In this study we describe the sequence and phylogenetic relationships of a malate dehydrogenase\\u000a (MDH) gene from the amitochondriate diplomonad protist, Giardia lamblia. Parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses of the MDH protein family solidly position G. lamblia MDH within

  10. Role of creatine kinase and its substrates in the central nervous system in norm and in various pathologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Nersesova

    2011-01-01

    There is presented review of recent publications providing current understanding of role of creatine kinase-creatine phosphate\\u000a system and creatine, substrate of creatine kinase, in metabolism of cell and specifically of cells of the central nervous\\u000a system. Particularly noted are the protector role of creatine at mitochondrial and bioenergetic cell dysfunction and potential\\u000a significance of creatine bioadditions at treatment of neurodegenerative

  11. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression in non small cell lung cancer and tumor-associated stroma.

    PubMed

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L

    2005-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which enters into the Krebs cycle, providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the cell. PDH activity is under the control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Under hypoxic conditions, conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs, a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). In cancer cells, however pyruvate is transformed to lactate occurs, regardless of the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis/Warburg effect). Although, hypoxic intratumoral conditions account for HIF1alpha stabilization and induction of anaerobic metabolism, recent data suggest that high pyruvate concentrations also result in HIF1alpha stabilization independently of hypoxia. In the present immunohistochemical study, we provide evidence that the PDH/PDK pathway is repressed in 73% of non small cell lung carcinomas, which may be a key reason for HIF1alpha stabilization and "aerobic glycolysis." However, about half of PDH-HIF pathway, and patients harboring these tumors have an excellent postoperative outcome. A small subgroup of clinically aggressive tumors maintains a coherent PDH and HIF/LDH5 expression. In contrast to cancer cells, fibroblasts in the tumor supporting stroma exhibit an intense PDH but reduced PDK1 expression favoring maximum PDH activity. This means that stroma may use lactic acid produced by tumor cells, preventing the creation of an intolerable intratumoral acidic environment at the same time. PMID:15736311

  12. The use of molecular modelling in the understanding of configurational specificity (R or S) in asymmetric reactions catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or isolated dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo de Souza Pereira; Fernando Pavão; Glaucius Oliva

    1998-01-01

    This method gives a general ideal how to use crystallographic information of enzymes to understand reactions catalyzed by these biocatalysts, commonly used by biochemists to produce chiral products. The interactions of three acetoacetic esters with the enzymes L-lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were studied through molecular modelling computer program. These artificial substrates have been widely used to produce chiral synthons.

  13. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase bb in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1980-03-03

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure in two schizophrenic populations. The data would indicate that in the schizophrenic populations examined there is insufficient tissue disruption to cause abnormal build-up of brain creatine kinase levels. However the possibility of a rapid removal of creatine kinase BB from the circulation exists. The elevated creatine kinase reported in acute schizophrenics is most likely not of brain origin.

  14. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  15. The cataract and glucosuria associated monocarboxylate transporter MCT12 is a new creatine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J.; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M.R.; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis–Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822

  16. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women

    E-print Network

    Smith, Abbie E.; Walter, Ashley A.; Herda, Trent J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Moon, Jordan R.; Cramer, Joel T.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    to participate in this double-blind, placebocontrolled study and were randomly placed into either placebo (PL – 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 8) or creatine (Cr – 5 g di-creatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 7; Creatine Edge, FSI...

  17. Crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY

    E-print Network

    ; Rabbit muscle; Enzyme; Crystal structure 1. Introduction Creatine kinase [1^3] (CK; adenosine 5PCrystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase J.K. Mohana RaoY *, Grzegorz BujaczY , Alexander Abstract The crystal structure of rabbit muscle creatine kinase, solved at 2.35 Aî resolution by X

  18. Luminometric Assays of ATP, Phosphocreatine, and Creatine for Estimation of Free ADP and Free AMP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ronner; Edward Friel; Katharina Czerniawski; Stefanie Fränkle

    1999-01-01

    We present methods to measure ATP, phosphocreatine, and total creatine (the sum of creatine and phosphocreatine) in alkaline cell extracts. Knowledge of these parameters, together with the known equilibrium constants for the creatine kinase and adenylate kinase-catalyzed reactions, allows one to estimate the levels of free ADP and free AMP inside cells. The enzymatic assays for the above-mentioned metabolites all

  19. PHYLOGENY AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CREATINE IN INVERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GROVER C. STEPHENS; JOHN F. VAN PILSUM; DORRIS TAYLOR

    Most biologists are familiar with the phylogenetic implications drawn from the data of Needhani et al. (1932) and Baldwin and Needham (1937). These workers concluded that creatine occurred as a phosphagen in some echinoids and ophiuroids as well as in some hemichordates. This, taken together with the supposed diagnostic significance of this compound, was widely accepted as providing biochemical support

  20. Isoenzyme-specific thermostability of human cytosolic creatine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Song Gao; Tong-Jin Zhao; Zhe Chen; Chang Li; Yin Wang; Yong-Bin Yan; Hai-Meng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a key enzyme involved in intracellular energy homeostasis. The distinct tissue distribution of muscle CK (MMCK) and brain CK (BBCK) implies that they function under conditions facing dissimilar environmental stresses. We found that MMCK and BBCK were significantly different in their stability and reversibility against heat stress. MMCK was more stable than BBCK, and BBCK was

  1. [A clinical trial of creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophy patients].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yokoe, Masaru; Nakamori, Masayuki; Hattori, Noriaki; Saito, Toshio; Nozaki, Sonoko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate on muscle performance and cognitive functions in muscular dystrophy patients, we made an open trial. Twenty-nine individuals, including 14 myotonic dystrophy (DM), seven facioscapurohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), two limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and six healthy volunteers, were enrolled in this study and 27 participants completed it. All participants took creatine 20g/day for an initial week and 5g/day for successive eight weeks. Somatotonic measurements, global subjective assessment, muscle performance, cardiopulmonary function, cognitive function, laboratory studies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were evaluated at both pre and post examination. Subjective improvements were reported from twelve individuals. Contrary adverse effects were also complained from ten individuals, although all these problems were not serious. Quantitative muscle power was slightly but significantly increased in the patients and the number of the patients who failed to complete cycle ergometer test was decreased. Phosphocreatine concentrations of left calf muscle were not different between pre and post trial examination. No obvious changes were detected in cardiopulmonary assessment, cognitive function and laboratory date. Creatine has certain expectance for muscular dystrophy patients in motor performance. The effect may be achieved not only by increase of energy buffer, because clinical improvements were observed in our study nevertheless no increase was detected in phosphocreatine concentration. The usage of creatine should be managed under medical monitoring since ideal protocol has not yet been established and adverse effects can not be ignored. PMID:15568480

  2. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  3. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  4. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Mike; Schoch, Ryan; Cooke, Matt; Harvey, Travis; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2009-01-01

    Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. In a double-blind manner, participants were randomly assigned to a maltodextrose placebo (PLA), creatine monohydrate (CRT), or creatine ethyl ester (CEE) group. The supplements were orally ingested at a dose of 0.30 g/kg fat-free body mass (approximately 20 g/day) for five days followed by ingestion at 0.075 g/kg fat free mass (approximately 5 g/day) for 42 days. Results showed significantly higher serum creatine concentrations in PLA (p = 0.007) and CRT (p = 0.005) compared to CEE. Serum creatinine was greater in CEE compared to the PLA (p = 0.001) and CRT (p = 0.001) and increased at days 6, 27, and 48. Total muscle creatine content was significantly higher in CRT (p = 0.026) and CEE (p = 0.041) compared to PLA, with no differences between CRT and CEE. Significant changes over time were observed for body composition, body water, muscle strength and power variables, but no significant differences were observed between groups. In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen. PMID:19228401

  5. Simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate, creatine and 12 nucleotides in rat heart by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-mei; Chu, Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiang-yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Yan, Lu-lu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying-li; Yin, Qi-hui; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2014-05-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate (CP), creatine (Cr) and 12 nucleotides in rat heart. The analytes, ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, CTP, CDP, CMP, UTP, UDP, UMP, CP, Cr, were extracted from heart tissue with pre-cooled (0°C) methanol/water (1:1, v/v) and separated on a Hypersil Gold AQ C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3?m) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 2mmol/L ammonium acetate in water (pH 10.0, adjusted with ammonia). The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in selective reaction monitoring mode (SRM). In the assay, all the analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.99). The accuracy was between 80.7% and 120.6% and the precision expressed in RSD was less than 15.6%. This method was successfully applied to measure the concentrations of the 12 nucleotides, creatine phosphate and creatine in rat heart for the first time. PMID:24705537

  6. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  7. Synthesis of guanidinoacetate and creatine from amino acids by rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Robin P; Clow, Kathy; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2014-02-01

    Creatine is an important molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism. Creatine is spontaneously converted to creatinine at a rate of 1·7% per d; creatinine is lost in the urine. Creatine can be obtained from the diet or synthesised from endogenous amino acids via the enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT). The liver has high GAMT activity and the kidney has high AGAT activity. Although the pancreas has both AGAT and GAMT activities, its possible role in creatine synthesis has not been characterised. In the present study, we examined the enzymes involved in creatine synthesis in the pancreas as well as the synthesis of guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine by isolated pancreatic acini. We found significant AGAT activity and somewhat lower GAMT activity in the pancreas and that pancreatic acini had measurable activities of both AGAT and GAMT and the capacity to synthesise GAA and creatine from amino acids. Creatine supplementation led to a decrease in AGAT activity in the pancreas, though it did not affect its mRNA or protein abundance. This was in contrast with the reduction of AGAT activity and mRNA and protein abundance in the kidney, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of this enzyme in the pancreas are different from those in the kidney. Dietary creatine increased the concentrations of GAA, creatine and phosphocreatine in the pancreas. Unexpectedly, creatine supplementation decreased the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine, while those of S-adenosylhomocysteine were not altered significantly. PMID:24103317

  8. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1975-04-19

    1. Lipoyl dehydrogenase (NADH: lipoamide oxidoreductase, ED 1.6.4.3) and two asparagusate dehydrogenases from asparagus mitochondria were purified by a series of steps, freezing and thawing, sodium dodecylsulfate extraction, and chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose. 2. Lipoyl dehydrogenase was highly specific for alpha-lipoic acid, which could not be replaced at all by asparagusic acid. Each of the asparagusate dehydrogenases was capable of reducing both asparagusic and alpha-lipoic acids by using NADH as hydrogen donor. 3. Reduction of alpha-lipoic cid with NADH by lipoyl dehydrogenase was activated by NAD, but that of asparagusic acid by asparagusate dehydrogenase was inactivated by NAD. 4. Lipoyl dehydrogenase and two asparagusate dehydrogenases differed in electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gels. PMID:1125255

  9. Assignment of the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8) to human chromosome Xq28 telomeric to G6PD

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, P. [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nash, S.R.; Caron, M.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); and others

    1995-01-01

    The creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle has important functions in the temporal and spatial maintenance of the energy supply to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Muscle cells do not synthesize creatine, but take it up via a specific sodium-dependent transporter - the creatine transporter. Thus, the creatine transporter has an important role in muscular physiology. Furthermore, inhibition of creatine transport in experimental animals causes muscle weakness. Recently, creatine transporter cDNAs have been isolated and characterized from rabbit and human. In this communication we report mapping of the creatine transporter gene to human chromosome Xq28. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings...chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings...chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings...chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings...chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings...chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets...

  15. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  16. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  17. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  18. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  19. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  20. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2?±?2?years, 181?±?7?cm, 82.1?±?12?kg, and 14.7?±?5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5?g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean?±?SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4?±?20.7 and 11.9?±?24.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L ?7.9?±?22.3, 4.7?±?27.0; KA-H 1.0?±?12.8, 9.1?±?23.2; CrM 11.3?±?23.9, 22.3?±?21.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.46). However, while no overall group differences were observed (p?=?0.14), pairwise comparison between the KA-L and CrM groups revealed that changes in muscle creatine content tended to be greater in the CrM group (KA-L ?1.1?±?4.3, CrM 11.2?±?4.3?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.053 [mean?±?SEM]). Although some significant time effects were observed, no significant group x time interactions (p?>?0.05) were observed in changes in body mass, fat free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, or total body water; bench press and leg press 1RM strength; WAC mean power, peak power, or total work; serum blood lipids, markers of catabolism and bone status, and serum electrolyte status; or, whole blood makers of lymphocytes and red cells. Serum creatinine levels increased in all groups (p?creatine promoting greater increases in serum creatinine (p?=?0.03) but the increases observed (0.1 – 0.2?mg/dl) were well within normal values for active individuals (i.e., <1.28?±?0.2?mg/dl). Serum LDL was decreased to a greater degree following ingesting loading doses in the CrM group but returned to baseline during the maintenance phase. No side effects were reported. Conclusions Neither manufacturers recommended doses of KA (1.5?g/d) or KA with equivalent loading (20?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance doses (5?g/d for 21-days) of CrM promoted greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM (20?g/d for 7-days, 5?g/d for 21-days). There was no evidence that supplementing the diet w

  1. Dissimilarity in the Folding of Human Cytosolic Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yin Wang; Sha Wang; Yan-Song Gao; Zhe Chen; Hai-Meng Zhou; Yong-Bin Yan

    2011-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) plays a key role in the energy homeostasis of excitable cells. The cytosolic human CK isoenzymes exist as homodimers (HMCK and HBCK) or a heterodimer (MBCK) formed by the muscle CK subunit (M) and\\/or brain CK subunit (B) with highly conserved three-dimensional structures composed of a small N-terminal domain (NTD) and a large C-terminal domain

  2. Clinical Use of Creatine in Neuromuscular and Neurometabolic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Tarnopolsky

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share\\u000a similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation.\\u000a Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium\\u000a and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients

  3. Affinity chromatography of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenases on immobilized derivatives of the dinucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Standish; O'Carra, Pádraig

    1973-01-01

    1. Three established methods for immobilization of ligands through primary amino groups promoted little or no attachment of NAD+ through the 6-amino group of the adenine residue. Two of these methods (coupling to CNBr-activated agarose and to carbodi-imide-activated carboxylated agarose derivatives) resulted instead in attachment predominantly through the ribosyl residues. Other immobilized derivatives were prepared by azolinkage of NAD+ (probably through the 8 position of the adenine residue) to a number of different spacer-arm–agarose derivatives. 2. The effectiveness of these derivatives in the affinity chromatography of a variety of NAD-linked dehydrogenases was investigated, applying rigorous criteria to distinguish general or non-specific adsorption effects from truly NAD-specific affinity (bio-affinity). The ribosyl-attached NAD+ derivatives displayed negligible bio-affinity for any of the NAD-linked dehydrogenases tested. The most effective azo-linked derivative displayed strong bio-affinity for glycer-aldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, weaker bio-affinity for lactate dehydrogenase and none at all for malate dehydrogenase, although these three enzymes have very similar affinities for soluble NAD+. Alcohol dehydrogenase and xanthine dehydrogenase were subject to such strong non-specific interactions with the hydrocarbon spacer-arm assembly that any specific affinity was completely eclipsed. 3. It is concluded that, in practice, the general effectiveness of a general ligand may be considerably distorted and attenuated by the nature of the immobilization linkage. However, this attenuation can result in an increase in specific effectiveness, allowing dehydrogenases to be separated from one another in a manner unlikely to be feasible if the general effectiveness of the ligand remained intact. 4. The bio-affinity of the various derivatives for lactate dehydrogenase is correlated with the known structure of the NAD+-binding site of this enzyme. Problems associated with the use of immobilized derivatives for enzyme binding and mechanistic studies are briefly discussed. PMID:4360246

  4. Functional aspects of creatine kinase isoenzymes in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Decking, U K; Alves, C; Wallimann, T; Wyss, M; Schrader, J

    2001-07-01

    To characterize the isoenzyme distribution of creatine kinase (CK) in endothelial cells (ECs) and its functional role during substrate depletion, ECs from aorta (AECs) and microvasculature (MVECs) of pig and rat were studied. In addition, high- energy phosphates were continuously monitored by (31)P NMR spectroscopy in pig AECs attached to microcarrier beads. CK activity per milligram of protein in rat AECs and MVECs (0.08 +/- 0.01 and 0.15 +/- 0.08 U/mg, respectively) was <3% of that of cardiomyocytes (6.46 +/- 1.02 U/mg). Rat and pig AECs and MVECs displayed cytosolic BB-CK, but no MM-CK. Gel electrophoresis of mitochondrial fractions of rat and pig ECs indicated the presence of mitochondrial Mi-CK, mostly in dimeric form. The presence of Mi(a)-CK was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence staining using Mi(a)-CK antibodies. When perifused with creatine-supplemented medium, phosphocreatine (PCr) continuously increased with time (1.2 +/- 0.6 nmol x h(-1) x mg x protein(-1)), indicating creatine uptake and CK activity. Glucose withdrawal from the medium induced a rapid decrease in PCr, which was fully reversible on glucose addition, demonstrating temporal buffering of an energy deficit. Because both cytosolic and mitochondrial CK isoforms are present in ECs, the CK system may also contribute to energy transduction ("shuttle hypothesis"). PMID:11401855

  5. Structural changes of creatine kinase upon substrate binding.

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, M; Kriechbaum, M; Laggner, P; Wallimann, T

    1998-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analog complex (TSAC; Mg-ADP, creatine, and KNO3) to creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes (dimeric muscle-type (M)-CK and octameric mitochondrial (Mi)-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-nucleotide or TSAC. The radius of gyration of Mi-CK was reduced from 55.6 A (free enzyme) to 48.9 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 48.2 A (enzyme plus TSAC). M-CK showed similar changes from 28.0 A (free enzyme) to 25.6 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 25.5 A (enzyme plus TSAC). Creatine alone did not lead to significant changes in the radii of gyration, nor did free ATP or ADP. AK also showed a change of the radius of gyration from 21.5 A (free enzyme) to 19.7 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP), whereas with arginine alone only a minor change could be observed. The primary change in structure as seen with monomeric AK seems to be a Mg-nucleotide-induced domain movement relative to each other, whereas the effect of substrate may be of local order only. In CK, however, additional movements have to be involved. PMID:9675202

  6. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  7. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Smith, A E; Fukuda, D H; Ryan, E D; Kendall, K L; Cramer, J T; Stout, J

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill. 4 high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of peak velocity to determine critical velocity (CV). Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance. PMID:22131203

  8. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly). PMID:22817979

  9. Measurement of lactate formation from glucose using (6- sup 3 H)- and (6- sup 14 C)glucose in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Virkamaeki, A.P.; Puhakainen, I.; Nurjhan, N.; Gerich, J.E.; Yki-Jaervinen, H. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland))

    1990-09-01

    To assess the validity of determining the origin of plasma lactate from the ratio of lactate and glucose specific activities (SA) during infusion of labeled glucose, normal subjects received infusions of (6-3H)- and (6-14C)glucose for 4 h after a 12 h fast, and, on another day, cold glucose labeled with both tracers during 4-6 h of hyperinsulinemia (approximately 650 microU/ml). Basally, less lactate was derived from plasma glucose when measured with (6-3H)glucose (27 +/- 2%) than with (6-14C)glucose (40 +/- 2%, P less than 0.001). Insulin did not increase the percent of lactate derived from plasma glucose when measured with (6-3H)glucose (29 +/- 2%) but did increase when measured with (6-14C)glucose (60 +/- 4%). The arterialized blood (A) (3H)lactate SA was 30-40% higher (P less than 0.01) than deep venous blood (V) (3H)lactate SA, whereas A and V (14C)lactate SA were similar. During conversion of alanine to lactate with glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, 32 +/- 2% of 3H in (3-3H)alanine was found in water and 68 +/- 2% in lactate. During infusion of (6-3H)- and (6-14C)glucose, the ratio of (14C)alanine to lactate SA (0.88 +/- 0.05) was less than the ratio of (3H)alanine to lactate SA (0.31 +/- 0.03, P less than 0.001). In conclusion (1) loss of 3H relative to 14C from position 6 in glucose occurs during lactate formation in extrahepatic tissues possibly due to the GPT reaction (alanine conversion to pyruvate), and (2) even under supraphysiologic hyperinsulinemic conditions not all of plasma lactate originates from plasma glucose.

  10. EFFECTS OF CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION AND TRAINING ON ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN JUDO ATHLETES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragan Radovanovic; Milovan Bratic; Dragana Milovanovi

    SUMMARY The investigation aimed to determine the effects of the two-week creatine monohydrate supplementation and specially designed training program on anaerobic power and body composition in judo athletes.Atotal of 12 athletes was divided into the creatine (C) and placebo (P) groups. During the first week, the C group subjects (n=6) were given a prepared aqueous solution of creatine monohydrate and

  11. Creatine supplementation enhances corticomotor excitability and cognitive performance during oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-01-28

    Impairment or interruption of oxygen supply compromises brain function and plays a role in neurological and neurodegenerative conditions. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound involved in the buffering, transport, and regulation of cellular energy, with the potential to replenish cellular adenosine triphosphate without oxygen. Creatine is also neuroprotective in vitro against anoxic/hypoxic damage. Dietary creatine supplementation has been associated with improved symptoms in neurological disorders defined by impaired neural energy provision. Here we investigate, for the first time in humans, the utility of creatine as a dietary supplement to protect against energetic insult. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of oral creatine supplementation on the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of healthy young adults during acute oxygen deprivation. Fifteen healthy adults were supplemented with creatine and placebo treatments for 7 d, which increased brain creatine on average by 9.2%. A hypoxic gas mixture (10% oxygen) was administered for 90 min, causing global oxygen deficit and impairing a range of neuropsychological processes. Hypoxia-induced decrements in cognitive performance, specifically attentional capacity, were restored when participants were creatine supplemented, and corticomotor excitability increased. A neuromodulatory effect of creatine via increased energy availability is presumed to be a contributing factor of the restoration, perhaps by supporting the maintenance of appropriate neuronal membrane potentials. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation augments neural creatine, increases corticomotor excitability, and prevents the decline in attention that occurs during severe oxygen deficit. This is the first demonstration of creatine's utility as a neuroprotective supplement when cellular energy provision is compromised. PMID:25632150

  12. Elevated plasma citrulline: look for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Haviv, Ruby; Zeharia, Avraham; Belaiche, Corinne; Haimi Cohen, Yishai; Saada, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The E3 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/DLD/lipoamide dehydrogenase/LAD), is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme and also a part of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. DLD deficiency (MIM #246900), is relatively frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population but occurs in other populations as well. Early diagnosis is important to prevent episodes of metabolic decompensation, liver failure, and encephalopathy. The clinical presentations are varied and may include Reye-like syndrome, hepatic failure, myopathy, and myoglobinuria. Laboratory markers, such as elevated urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, blood pyruvate, lactate, and ammonia, are mostly nonspecific and not always present, making the diagnosis difficult. Since we observed elevated plasma citrulline levels in a number of confirmed cases, we retrospectively examined the value of citrulline as a biochemical marker for DLD deficiency. Data was gathered from the files of 17 pediatric patients with DLD deficiency, confirmed by enzymatic and genetic analysis. The control group included 19 patients in whom urea cycle defects were ruled out but DLD deficiency was suspected. Seven of the DLD-deficient patients presented with elevated plasma citrulline levels (median value 205 ?M, range 59-282 ?M) (normal range 1-45 ?M) while none in the control patient group. In five patients, elevated citrulline was associated with elevated plasma glutamine and metabolic acidosis. Interestingly, elevated plasma citrulline was associated with the common G229C mutation. In conclusion, we suggest that elevated plasma citrulline in the absence of urea cycle defects warrants an investigation for DLD deficiency. PMID:23995961

  13. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Donohoe, Rachel

    2011-04-01

    Creatine when combined with P forms phosphocreatine that acts as a reserve of high-energy phosphate. Creatine is found mostly in meat, fish and other animal products, and the levels of muscle creatine are known to be lower in vegetarians. Creatine supplementation influences brain functioning as indicated by imaging studies and the measurement of oxygenated Hb. Given the key role played by creatine in the provision of energy, the influence of its supplementation on cognitive functioning was examined, contrasting the effect in omnivores and vegetarians. Young adult females (n 128) were separated into those who were and were not vegetarian. Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task. PMID:21118604

  14. Creatine inhibits adipogenesis by downregulating insulin-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nayeon; Kim, Inhee; Park, Soojeong; Han, Dasol; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Kim, Juwan; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Oh, Wonil; Jeon, Hong Bae; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Cho, Jae Youl; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-04-15

    Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid known to function in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that creatine regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in processes such as osteogenesis and myogenesis. In this study, we show that creatine also has a negative regulatory effect on fat cell formation. Creatine inhibits the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of the adipogenic cell models used, including a C3H10T1/2 MSC line, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and primary human MSCs. Consistently, a dramatic reduction in mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), glucose transporters, 1 and 4 (Glut1, Glut4), and adipocyte markers, aP2 and adipsin, was observed in the presence of creatine. Creatine appears to exert its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis during early differentiation, but not late differentiation, or proliferation stages through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-PPAR? signaling pathway. In an in vivo model, administration of creatine into mice resulted in body mass increase without fat accumulation. In summary, our results indicate that creatine downregulates adipogenesis through inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation and imply the potent therapeutic value of creatine in treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:25428599

  15. Creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiration in hearts of trout, cod and freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Birkedal, R; Gesser, H

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the creatine kinase system in the cardiac muscle of ectothermic vertebrates is unclear. Mammalian cardiac muscle seems to be structurally organized in a manner that compartmentalizes the intracellular environment as evidenced by the substantially higher mitochondrial apparent Km for ADP in skinned fibres compared to isolated mitochondria. A mitochondrial fraction of creatine kinase is functionally coupled to the mitochondrial respiration, and the transport of phosphocreatine and creatine as energy equivalents of ATP and ADP, respectively, increases the mitochondrial apparent ADP affinity, i.e. lowers the Km. This function of creatine kinase seems to be absent in hearts of frog species. To find out whether this applies to hearts of ectothermic vertebrate species in general, we investigated the effect of creatine on the mitochondrial respiration of saponin-skinned fibres from the ventricle of rainbow trout, Atlantic cod and freshwater turtle. For all three species, the apparent Km for ADP appeared to be substantially higher than for isolated mitochondria. Creatine lowered this Km in trout and turtle, thus indicating a functional coupling between mitochondrial creatine kinase and respiration. However, creatine had no effect on Km in cod ventricle. In conclusion, the creatine kinase-system in trout and turtle hearts seems to fulfil the same functions as in the mammalian heart, i.e. facilitating energy transport and communication between cellular compartments. In cod heart, however, this does not seem to be the case. PMID:12856133

  16. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A {sup 13}C-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel [Metabolomique et Maladies Metaboliques, Institut National de la Sante et de la recherche Medicale, Unit 820, Faculte de Medecine R.T.H. Laennec, Universite de Lyon, 7-11 rue G. Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Conjard-Duplany, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.duplany@recherche.univ-lyon1.f [Metabolomique et Maladies Metaboliques, Institut National de la Sante et de la recherche Medicale, Unit 820, Faculte de Medecine R.T.H. Laennec, Universite de Lyon, 7-11 rue G. Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[2-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[3-{sup 13}C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  17. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: a 13C-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-13C]-, or L-[2-13C]-, or L-[3-13C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice. PMID:19747499

  18. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (?0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276). Conclusion We conclude that Cr monohydrate supplementation associated with a specific resistance program promoted a meaningful increase in muscle strength without inducing changes in body composition. The observed significant increase in uric acid and the decrease in TAS suggest that creatine supplementation, despite promoting acute effects on muscle strength improvement, might induce oxidative stress and decreases total antioxidant status of subjects. PMID:23259853

  19. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    PubMed Central

    Aksentijevi?, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKC? expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  20. In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: qle@stanford.edu; Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Narasimhan, Balasubramanian [Department of Health Research and Policy, Division of Biostatistics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Graves, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Pinto, Harlan [Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Brown, J. Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Spielman, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

  1. Lactating Mother and Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, B. M.; Majumder, Pradipta

    2010-01-01

    Usage of psychotropics during pregnancy and lactation has always been a topic of debate and controversy. The debate stems from the potential adverse effects on the growing fetus or infants due to the transfer of psychotropic drugs through placenta or breast milk of mothers receiving them; and the problem of discontinuing psychotropics in lactating mother considering chances of relapse. However, most of the psychotropics are found to be relatively safe when used cautiously during the lactation phase. This article describes available data on the use of psychotropics in lactating mothers, in particular, in relation to the safety profile of infants. PMID:21327172

  2. Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 ?M as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

  3. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baroncelli, Laura; Alessandrì, Maria Grazia; Tola, Jonida; Putignano, Elena; Migliore, Martina; Amendola, Elena; Gross, Cornelius; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT) gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1), an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352). CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT ?/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease. PMID:25485098

  4. Creatine therapy provides neuroprotection after onset of clinical symptoms in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpaslan Dedeoglu; James K. Kubilus; Lichuan Yang; Kimberly L. Ferrante; Steven M. Hersch; M. Flint Beal; Robert J. Ferrante

    2003-01-01

    While there have been enormous strides in the understanding of Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, treatment to slow or prevent disease progression remains elusive. We previ- ously reported that dietary creatine supplementation signifi- cantly improves the clinical and neuropathological phenotype in transgenic HD mice lines starting at weaning, before clinical symptoms appear. We now report that creatine administration started after onset

  5. Functional coupling of creatine kinases in muscles: Species and tissue specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ventura-Clapier; A. Kuznetsov; V. Veksler; E. Boehm; K Anflous

    1998-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are present in all vertebrates. An important property of the creatine kinase system is that its total activity, its isoform distribution, and the concentration of guanidino substrates are highly variable among species and tissues. In the highly organized structure of adult muscles, it has been shown that specific CK isoenzymes are bound to intracellular compartments, and

  6. Detection of duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers: quantitative echography and creatine kinasemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Schapira I; Pascal Laugier; Jacques Rochette; Geneviève Berger; Pierre Katz; Jean Perrin

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained from simultaneous determinations of serum creatine-kinase levels and estimation of ultrasound attenuation values in muscles greatly improved the detection of obligate carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy than when only one of these methods was employed alone. Eleven carriers out of 19 had a high creatine-kinasemia level and nine carriers out of 19 had a high (abnormal) attenuation value.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Creatine in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Ferrante; Ole A. Andreassen; Bruce G. Jenkins; Alpaslan Dedeoglu; Stefan Kuemmerle; James K. Kubilus; Rima Kaddurah-Daouk; Steven M. Hersch; M. Flint Beal

    2000-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness for which there is no effective therapy. We examined whether creatine, which may exert neuroprotective effects by increasing phosphocreatine levels or by stabilizing the mito- chondrial permeability transition, has beneficial effects in a transgenic mouse model of HD (line 6\\/2). Dietary creatine sup- plementation significantly improved survival, slowed the devel- opment of

  8. THE CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES IN ORGANIZED METABOLIC NETWORKS AND REGULATION OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 REVIEW THE CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES IN ORGANIZED METABOLIC NETWORKS AND REGULATION OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION : A NEW ROLE FOR MAXWELL'S DEMON by Saks V 1,2 , Guerrero K.1 , Vendelin M.1,3 , Engelbrecht J.3 on the cellular mechanisms of functioning of the creatine kinases and their role in the regulation

  9. Detection of G6PD and pyruvate kinase deficiencies in reticulocytosis by reference to erythrocyte creatine.

    PubMed

    Brewster, M A; Berry, D H

    1981-06-01

    Erythrocyte activities of G6PD and PK, referenced to creatine content, are presented as a means to detect enzyme deficiencies despite the presence of variable proportions of young erythrocytes in the assayed cell population. Lysate enzyme activities, creatine and hemoglobin concentrations, and whole blood reticulocyte counts were determined on 110 samples from 87 patients with a variety of anemias, including two pyruvate kinase deficient, three G6PD deficient, and four proven G6PD heterozygotes. Highest correlations were obtained between log of G6PD activity/g hemoglobin and lysate creatine, and between PK activity/g hemoglobin and lysate creatine. Ninety-five percent limits for this population are presented for creatine concentrations to 28 mg/dl, corresponding to 20% reticulocyte count. In addition to providing reference intervals appropriate to the suspect patient population, the data afford greater confidence in detecting partial enzyme deficiencies concomitant with other hemolytic processes, such as hemoglobinopathies. PMID:7296823

  10. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  11. Measurement of serum troponin T, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme, and total creatine kinase following arduous physical training.

    PubMed

    Collinson, P O; Chandler, H A; Stubbs, P J; Moseley, D S; Lewis, D; Simmons, M D

    1995-09-01

    We have compared measurement of cardiac troponin T by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) concentration measurement in 219 Royal Marine commandos with no evidence of cardiovascular disease who have elevated creatine kinase (CK) produced by arduous physical training. CK was elevated up to 22.6 times and CK-MB mass up to 6.6 times the upper reference limit. Only two commandos had detectable cardiac troponin T, with neither exceeding the upper reference limit of 0.2 micrograms/L. At decision thresholds optimized for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in previous published work, 58.3% of the total CK activity, 13.8% of the CK-MB concentration/CK activity ratio and 1.6% of CK-MB concentration measurements showed elevated values but no elevations in cardiac troponin T occurred. Cardiac troponin T is currently the investigation of choice for the differential diagnosis of patients with an elevated CK due to skeletal muscle trauma to exclude myocardial damage. PMID:8830618

  12. Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B; Melton, Charlie; Rasmussen, Christopher; Lancaster, Stacy; Cantler, Edward; Milnor, Purvis; Almada, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on the incidence of injury observed during 3-years of NCAA Division IA college football training and competition. In an open label manner, athletes participating in the 1998-2000 football seasons elected to take creatine or non-creatine containing supplements following workouts/practices. Subjects who decided to take creatine were administered 15.75 g of creatine for 5 days followed by ingesting an average of 5 g/day thereafter administered in 5-10 g doses. Creatine intake was monitored and recorded by research assistants throughout the study and ranged between 34-56% of players during the course of the study. Subjects practiced or played in environmental conditions ranging from 8-40 degrees C (mean 24.7 +/- 9 degrees C) and 19-98% relative humidity (49.3 +/- 17%). Injuries treated by the athletic training staff were recorded and categorized as cramping, heat/dehydration, muscle tightness, muscle strains/pulls, noncontact joint injuries, contact injuries, and illness. The number of missed practices due to injury/illness was also recorded. Data are presented as the total number of treated injuries for creatine users/total injuries observed and percentage occurrence rate of injuries for creatine users for all seasons. The incidence of cramping (37/96, 39%), heat/dehydration (8/28, 36%), muscle tightness (18/42, 43%), muscle pulls/strains (25/51, 49%), non-contact joint injuries (44/132, 33%), contact injuries (39/104, 44%), illness (12/27, 44%), number of missed practices due to injury (19/41, 46%), players lost for the season (3/8, 38%), and total injuries/missed practices (205/529, 39%) were generally lower or proportional to the creatine use rate among players. Creatine supplementation does not appear to increase the incidence of injury or cramping in Division IA college football players. PMID:12701814

  13. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  14. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  15. The effects of age on skeletal muscle and the phosphocreatine energy system: can creatine supplementation help older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent J Dalbo; Michael D Roberts; Chris M Lockwood; Patrick S Tucker; Richard B Kreider; Chad M Kerksick

    2009-01-01

    Creatine supplementation has been found to significantly increase muscle strength and hypertrophy in young adults (? 35 yr) particularly when consumed in conjunction with a resistance training regime. Literature examining the efficacy of creatine supplementation in older adults (55-82 yr) suggests creatine to promote muscle strength and hypertrophy to a greater extent than resistance training alone. The following is a

  16. Modulation of susceptibility to weight gain and insulin resistance in low birthweight rats by treatment of their mothers with leptin during pregnancy and lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Stocker; J O'Dowd; N M Morton; E Wargent; M V Sennitt; D Hislop; S Glund; J R Seckl; J R S Arch; M A Cawthorne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether administration of leptin to rats during pregnancy and lactation affects placental 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD2) activity and the susceptibility of their offspring to weight gain and insulin resistance.DESIGN: Pregnant rats fed on a low-protein diet were administered leptin or saline by subcutaneous minipump from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. A further group was fed a

  17. Development of carboxypeptidase K (creatine kinase conversion factor) in man.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R J; Watts, D C

    1987-01-15

    The developmental appearance of carboxypeptidase K in human plasma was determined by quantifying the creatine kinase (CK) isoforms present and by measuring the conversion of tetrathionate-blocked CK in vitro. Analysis of plasmas from second and third trimester fetuses, newborns and adults showed that isoforms were absent from second trimester fetuses, were present in similar amounts in third trimester fetuses and newborns, and had increased to about twice this amount in adults. Carboxypeptidase K activity was correspondingly absent from second trimester fetuses but present in the other three groups in statistically indistinguishable amounts. Carboxypeptidase N was present in all groups although activity was low in second trimester fetuses. Addition of cobalt ions activated both carboxypeptidases K and N in all samples and unmasked carboxypeptidase K in second trimester samples. PMID:3802548

  18. Increased plasma creatine kinase activities triggered by edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kirsi, Markku

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of wild mushrooms is mostly based on tradition and not scientific evidence. Recently the widely consumed Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis in humans. In this study, 42 mice and 4 humans consumed T. flavovirens mixed with regular food items. In mice, the plasma creatine kinase activity increased at 9 g kg(-1)day(-1). However, the same was observed with the well-known and commercially important Boletus edulis. The observed effect is probably not species-specific but represents an unspecific response and requires individual sensitivity and a great amount of ingested mushroom to manifest itself. A screening program of wild mushrooms is recommended to clarify how widespread this effect is. PMID:15582205

  19. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency with lipoate responsive lactic acidaemia and hyperammonaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Byrd; H.-P. Krohn; L. Winkler; C. Steinborn; M. Hadam; J. Brodehl; D. H. Hunneman

    1989-01-01

    A 2-day-old girl developed a severe lactic acidosis with a normal lactate\\/pyruvate ratio and hyperammonaemia. Plasma arginine and citrulline levels were below the limit of detection. In muscle total pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) activities were reduced to a fraction of lower control values. The acute neonatal period was bridged with peritoneal dialysis, dichloroacetate therapy, supplements of

  20. Creatine and Phosphocreatine: A Review of Their Use in Exercise and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joseph F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) are important compounds in the normal energy metabolism of muscle. Recently, it has been shown that dietary creatine (5 to 20 g/day) can increase muscle creatine and PCr, with enhancement in anaerobic exercise performance after two weeks of administration caused by an increase in anaerobic capacity. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched from 1983 to 1996 using key word “creatine” along with “humans,” “muscle,” “exercise,” and “transport.” Also, APStracts, the American Physiology Society search engine for abstracts, was searched from 1994 to 1996. Data Synthesis: Creatine is transported into the muscle cell by a specific transporter, resulting in increased intracellular creatine and PCr. The PCr is capable of acting as an energy buffer, protecting the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. Maintaining muscle nucleotides therefore enhances exercise performance and recovery. There have been reports that PCr protects the cells from ischemic damage and decreases the loss of nucleotides by stabilizing cell membranes. Indeed, intravenous PCr (2-4 g/day) has been administered to cyclists, resulting in a faster recovery time between training sessions. Conclusions/Recommendations: It is becoming evident that oral creatine supplementation may yield certain benefits to enhance the athlete's performance during maximal anaerobic exercise and interval training. PMID:16558432

  1. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Creatine and Minocycline in Early Parkinson Disease: 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report an 18-month follow-up on creatine and minocycline futility study, the Neuroprotective Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease, Futility Study 1 (NET-PD FS-1). Background The NET-PD FS-1 futility study on creatine and minocycline found neither agent futile in slowing down the progression of disability in Parkinson disease (PD) at 12 months using the prespecified futility threshold. An additional 6 months of follow-up aimed to assess safety and potential interactions of the study interventions with anti-parkinsonian therapy. Methods Additional 6 months of follow-up in randomized, blinded phase II trial of creatine (dosage, 10 g/d) and minocycline (dosage, 200 mg/d) in subjects with early PD. Results By 18 months, symptomatic treatment of PD symptoms was required in 61% of creatine, 62% of minocycline, and 60% of placebo-treated subjects. Study treatment was prematurely discontinued in 9%, 23%, and 6% of subjects in the creatine, minocycline, and placebo arms, respectively. Creatine and minocycline did not seem to adversely influence the response to symptomatic therapy nor increase adverse events. Conclusions Data from this small, 18-month phase II trial of creatine and minocycline do not demonstrate safety concerns that would preclude a large, phase III efficacy trial, although the decreased tolerability of minocycline is a concern. PMID:18520981

  2. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Kerksick, Chad M; Wilborn, Colin D; Campbell, William I; Harvey, Travis M; Marcello, Brandon M; Roberts, Mike D; Parker, Adam G; Byars, Allyn G; Greenwood, Lori D; Almada, Anthony L; Kreider, Richard B; Greenwood, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Coingestion of D-pinitol with creatine (CR) has been reported to enhance creatine uptake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding D-pinitol to CR affects training adaptations, body composition, whole-body creatine retention, and/or blood safety markers when compared to CR ingestion alone after 4 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-four resistance trained males were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to creatine + pinitol (CRP) or creatine monohydrate (CR) prior to beginning a supervised 4-week resistance training program. Subjects ingested a typical loading phase (i.e., 20 g/d-1 for 5 days) before ingesting 5 g/d-1 the remaining 23 days. Performance measures were assessed at baseline (T0), week 1 (T1), and week 4 (T2) and included 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP), 1RM leg press (LP), isokinetic knee extension, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity test. Fasting blood and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were determined at T1 and T3. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Creatine retention increased (p < 0.001) in both groups as a result of supplementation but was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Significant improvements in upper- and lower-body strength and body composition occurred in both groups. However, significantly greater increases in lean mass and fat-free mass occurred in the CR group when compared to CRP (p <0.05). Adding D-pinitol to creatine monohydrate does not appear to facilitate further physiological adaptations while resistance training. Creatine monohydrate supplementation helps to improve strength and body composition while resistance training. Data from this study assist in determining the potential role the addition of D-pinitol to creatine may aid in facilitating training adaptations to exercise. PMID:19858753

  3. Lactate is always the end product of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Ferguson, Brian S.; Goodwin, Matthew L.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Through much of the history of metabolism, lactate (La?) has been considered merely a dead-end waste product during periods of dysoxia. Congruently, the end product of glycolysis has been viewed dichotomously: pyruvate in the presence of adequate oxygenation, La? in the absence of adequate oxygenation. In contrast, given the near-equilibrium nature of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction and that LDH has a much higher activity than the putative regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic and oxidative pathways, we contend that La? is always the end product of glycolysis. Cellular La? accumulation, as opposed to flux, is dependent on (1) the rate of glycolysis, (2) oxidative enzyme activity, (3) cellular O2 level, and (4) the net rate of La? transport into (influx) or out of (efflux) the cell. For intracellular metabolism, we reintroduce the Cytosol-to-Mitochondria Lactate Shuttle. Our proposition, analogous to the phosphocreatine shuttle, purports that pyruvate, NAD+, NADH, and La? are held uniformly near equilibrium throughout the cell cytosol due to the high activity of LDH. La? is always the end product of glycolysis and represents the primary diffusing species capable of spatially linking glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:25774123

  4. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Zhang, Xian-Man; Braddock, Demetrios T; Albright, Ronald A; Prigaro, Brett J; Wood, John L; Bhanot, Sanjay; MacDonald, Michael J; Jurczak, Michael J; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cline, Gary W; Samuel, Varman T; Kibbey, Richard G; Shulman, Gerald I

    2014-06-26

    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24847880

  5. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  6. Mechanism of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate and other halogenated carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Sue; Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate, 2,2?-dichloropropionate and 3-chloropropionate were inhibitors of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Dichloroacetate was also shown to inhibit rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The inhibition was mainly non-competitive with respect to ATP. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was approx. 100?m for the three chloroacetates, difluoroacetate and 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate. Dichloroacetamide was not inhibitory. 2. Dichloroacetate had no significant effect on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase when this was maximally activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. 3. Dichloroacetate did not increase the catalytic activity of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase. 4. Dichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate increased the proportion of the active (dephosphorylated) form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria with 2-oxoglutarate and malate as respiratory substrates. Similar effects of dichloroacetate were shown with kidney and fat-cell mitochondria. Glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetamide were inactive. 5. Dichloroacetate increased the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in the perfused rat heart, isolated rat diaphragm and rat epididymal fat-pads. Difluoroacetate and dichloroacetamide were also active in the perfused heart, but glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and trichloroacetate were inactive. 6. Injection of dichloroacetate into rats starved overnight led within 60 min to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts from heart, psoas muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and liver. The blood concentration of lactate fell within 15 min to reach a minimum after 60 min. The blood concentration of glucose fell after 90 min and reached a minimum after 120 min. There was no significant change in plasma glycerol concentration. 7. In epididymal fatpads dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]fructose and from [U-14C]lactate into CO2 and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound. PMID:4478069

  7. Arginine supplementation in four patients with X-linked creatine transporter defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fons; A. Sempere; A. Arias; A. López-Sala; P. Póo; M. Pineda; A. Mas; M. A. Vilaseca; G. S. Salomons; A. Ribes; R. Artuch; J. Campistol

    2008-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Background  Treatment with oral creatine monohydrate has not shown efficacy in patients with creatine transporter deficiency (CRTR-D).\\u000a Another therapeutic option proposed is l-arginine, the substrate for the enzyme l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). We evaluate clinical characteristics and cerebral creatine replenishment after\\u000a l-arginine therapy in four patients with CRTR-D.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Four boys with genetically confirmed diagnosis of CRTR-D (ages 9–16 years) were

  8. The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats J. GRIZARD in the adaptation of metabolism to lactation (Gill and Hart, 1980 ; Burnol et al., 1985) but the mechanisms and their action on blood glucose in lactating and non-lactating goats. Material and methods. Nine Alpine goats 4

  9. Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Van Pilsum, John F.; Stephens, Grover C.; Taylor, Dorris

    1972-01-01

    1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine–glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish), buffalo fish (bony fish) or the snapping turtle. Transamidinase or guanidinoacetate methylpherase activity could not be found in the salamander or garter snake, respectively. 3. The results obtained with the lamprey are in direct contrast with those obtained with the hagfish (both subphylum Agnatha, class Cyclostomata). The lamprey had the ability to synthesize creatine and did not abstract creatine from lake water. The hagfish did not have any apparent ability to synthesize creatine and did abstract creatine from sea water. The present report thus supports the theory that the myxinoid (hagfish) and petromyzoid (lamprey) agnathans are only distantly related. 4. The lack of creatine-synthesizing enzyme activities in the cartilaginous fishes may have phylogenetic significance, but may also be explained by the availability of creatine in the diet of these animals. The lack of one or both enzyme activities in vertebrates other than the hagfish and the cartilaginous fish is suggested to be the result of creatine in the diet. PMID:5010856

  10. Lactate Utilization Is Regulated by the FadR-Type Regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min

    2012-01-01

    NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an l-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a d-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses d-iLDH and l-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldRM, lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. l-Lactate and d-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, l-iLDH and d-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of l-lactate or d-lactate. PMID:22408166

  11. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n?=?14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p?=?0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change?=?- 0.7%; ES?=?- 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change?=?+ 2.4%; ES?=?+ 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p?=?0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

  12. Role of myofibrillar creatine kinase in the relaxation of rigor tension in skinned cardiac muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée Ventura-Clapier; Guy Vassort

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of creatine phosphate, MgATP produced relaxation of rigor tension in chemically-skinned right papillary muscles of the rat, the half maximal effect being obtained at 1.8 mM MgATP. In the presence of 12 mM creatine phosphate and 250 µM ADP, a decrease in MgATP concentration even to 10-9 M never induced rigor tension. At a very low MgATP

  13. Measurement of interstitial lactate during hypoxia-induced dilatation in isolated pressurised porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Frøbert, Ole; Mikkelsen, Erich O; Bagger, Jens P; Gravholt, Claus H

    2002-01-01

    Lactate is formed in the coronary arterial wall and in the myocardium as a consequence of ischaemia and infarction. We combined direct measurement of coronary artery diameter and interstitial arterial wall lactate concentration ex vivo in order to ascertain the possible role of lactate in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The wall of porcine coronary arteries, precontracted during an intraluminal pressure of 40 mmHg by addition of prostaglandin F2?, was cannulated using a microdialysis catheter, and exposed to hypoxia for 60 min, followed by 45 min of reoxygenation. The exchange fraction of [14C]lactate over the microdialysis membrane increased from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.52 ± 0.05 (P < 0.001) during the study period. Coronary artery diameter increased by 15.5 ± 2.0 % (n = 20) during hypoxia (P < 0.001, compared to normoxic controls) and interstitial lactate concentration rose from 1.07 ± 0.21 to 2.50 ± 0.40 mmol l?1 during hypoxia (P < 0.01) and was unchanged in controls. The increase in coronary artery diameter correlated with the increase in interstitial lactate concentration in the period between 30 and 60 min of hypoxia (r = 0.62; P = 0.02). Dichloroacetate (10?5m), an agent that reduces lactate generation by activating pyruvate dehydrogenase, abolished hypoxia-induced lactate production, but caused a further increase in coronary arterial diameter (30.2 ± 4.4 %, n = 9; P < 0.001 vs. hypoxia and no dichloroacetate). Under control conditions, the addition of l-lactate (10?3-10?2m) increased dose-dependently coronary arterial diameter by 22.0 ± 4.2 % (n = 5) and interstitial lactate concentration from 0.52 ± 0.04 to 5.70 ± 0.66 mmol l?1 (P < 0.001). There was a correlation between the increase in coronary artery diameter and interstitial lactate concentration (r = 0.60; P = 0.02). The present observations represent the first direct measurements of metabolites by microdialysis in a blood vessel wall. The lactate concentration may affect, but is not essential for, hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in porcine coronary arteries. PMID:11850519

  14. Development of an enzymatic chromatography strip with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium coupling reactions for quantitative l-lactate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lan, Min-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lai, Wei-Shiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsiung, Kuang-Pin; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2015-02-15

    In this study, a dry assay of l-lactate via the enzymatic chromatographic test (ECT) was developed. An l-lactate dehydrogenase plus a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration reaction were applied simultaneously. Various tetrazolium salts were screened to reveal visible color intensities capable of determining the lactate concentrations in the sample. The optimal analysis conditions were as follows. The diaphorase (0.5?l, 2(-6)U/?l) was immobilized in the test line of the ECT strip. Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (5?l, 12mM), l-lactate dehydrogenase (1?l, 0.25U/?l), and NAD(+) (2?l, 1.5×10(-5)M) were added into the mobile phase (100?l) composed of 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20 in 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), and the process was left to run for 10min. This detection had a linear range of 0.039 to 5mM with a detection limit of 0.047mM. This quantitative analysis process for l-lactate was easy to operate with good stability and was proper for the point-of-care testing applications. PMID:25454507

  15. Boosting D-lactate production in engineered cyanobacteria using sterilized anaerobic digestion effluents.

    PubMed

    Hollinshead, Whitney D; Varman, Arul M; You, Le; Hembree, Zachary; Tang, Yinjie J

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an environmentally friendly approach to waste treatment, which can generate N and P-rich effluents that can be used as nutrient sources for microalgal cultivations. Modifications of AD processes to inhibit methanogenesis leads to the accumulation of acetic acid, a carbon source that can promote microalgal biosynthesis. This study tested different AD effluents from municipal wastes on their effect on D-lactate production by an engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (carrying a novel lactate dehydrogenase). The results indicate that: (1) AD effluents can be supplemented into the modified BG-11 culture medium (up to 1:4 volume ratio) to reduce N and P cost; (2) acetate-rich AD effluents enhance D-lactate synthesis by ? 40% (1.2g/L of D-lactate in 20 days); and (3) neutral or acidic medium had a deleterious effect on lactate secretion and biomass growth by the engineered strain. This study demonstrates the advantages and guidelines in employing wastewater for photomixotrophic biosynthesis using engineered microalgae. PMID:25084044

  16. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-15

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1). This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  17. Hearts of some Antarctic fishes lack mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K M; Mueller, I A; Orczewska, J I; Dullen, K R; Ortego, M

    2014-12-01

    Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) functions as a spatial and temporal energy buffer, dampening fluctuations in ATP levels as ATP supply and demand change. There are four CK isoforms in mammals, two cytosolic isoforms (muscle [M-CK] and brain [B-CK]), and two mitochondrial isoforms (ubiquitous [uMtCK] and sarcomeric [sMtCK]). Mammalian oxidative muscle couples expression of sMtCK with M-CK, creating an energy shuttle between mitochondria and myofibrils. We hypothesized that the expression pattern and activity of CK would differ between hearts of red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes due to their striking differences in cardiac ultrastructure. Hearts of white-blooded icefishes (family Channichthyidae) have significantly higher mitochondrial densities compared to red-blooded species, decreasing the diffusion distance for ATP between mitochondria and myofibrils and potentially minimizing the need for CK. The distribution of CK isoforms was evaluated using western blotting and maximal activity of CK was measured in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions and tissue homogenates of heart ventricles of red- and white-blooded notothenioids. Transcript abundance of sMtCK and M-CK was also quantified. Overall, CK activity is similar between hearts of red- and white-blooded notothenioids but hearts of icefishes lack MtCK and have higher activities of M-CK in the cytosol compared to red-blooded fishes. The absence of MtCK may compromise cardiac function under stressful conditions when ATP supply becomes limiting. PMID:25151023

  18. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non?athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non?athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non?athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non?parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083?U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513?U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non?athletes in the literature or calculated in the non?athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523?U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport?specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

  19. Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. RawsonAndrew; Andrew C. Venezia

    2011-01-01

    The ingestion of the dietary supplement creatine (about 20 g\\/day for 5 days or about 2 g\\/day for 30 days) results in increased\\u000a skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine. Subsequently, the performance of high-intensity exercise tasks, which rely heavily\\u000a on the creatine-phosphocreatine energy system, is enhanced. The well documented benefits of creatine supplementation in young\\u000a adults, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and enhanced

  20. Dependence of myosin-ATPase on structure bound creatine kinase in cardiac myofibrils from rainbow trout and freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, L; Jensen, D H; Gesser, H

    2008-08-01

    The influence of myofibrillar creatine kinase on the myosin-ATPase activity was examined in cardiac ventricular myofibrils isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). The ATPase rate was assessed by recording the rephosphorylation of ADP by the pyruvate kinase reaction alone or together with the amount of creatine formed, when myofibrillar bound creatine kinase was activated with phosphocreatine. The steady-state concentration of ADP in the solution was varied through the activity of pyruvate kinase added to the solution. For rainbow trout myofibrils at a high pyruvate kinase activity, creatine kinase competed for ADP but did not influence the total ATPase activity. When the ADP concentration was elevated within the physiological range by lowering the pyruvate kinase activity, creatine kinase competed efficiently and increased the ATPase activity twice or more for both trout and turtle. As examined for trout myofibrils, the ATPase activity was reduced about four times by inhibiting the activity of myofibril-bound creatine kinase with iodoacetamide and this reduction was only partially counteracted, when the creatine kinase activity was restored by adding creatine kinase to the solution. Hence, the results suggest that myofibril-bound creatine kinase is needed to fully activate the myosin-ATPase activity in hearts from ectothermic vertebrates despite their low energy turn-over relative to endothermic species. PMID:18515165

  1. Deficiency of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (a component of the pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes): a cause of congenital chronic lactic acidosis in infancy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B H; Taylor, J; Sherwood, W G

    1977-12-01

    A male child died at 7 months of age with progressive neurologic deterioration and persistent metabolic acidosis. Investigations during life showed this child to have elevated blood pyruvate, lactate, and alpha-ketoglutarate as well as elevation of branched chain amino acids and occasional hypoglycemia. Cofactor therapy using either thiamine-HCl (2 g/kg/24 hr) or thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide had no measurable effect on the clinical or biochemical status of the patient. Tissue taken postmortem showed normal levels of key gluconeogenic enzymes but a deficiency in the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in all tissues tested (liver, brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart). Examination of the individual activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex showed pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) to be normal in liver and other tissues. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3), on the other hand, was deficient in all tissues tested. alpha-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which depends of E3 for its total activity, was also deficient in all tissues tested. The absence of this enzyme id discussed in relation to the clinical and biochemical status of the patient. PMID:413089

  2. EXPRESSION ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDK catalyzes phosphorylation of Ser residues in the alpha subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1alpha). Phosphorylation of E1alpha inactivates the PDC. In mamm...

  3. High-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Woo Cho; Jungin Shin; Moon Sam Shin; Won Bae; Hwayong Kim

    Lactate esters synthesized with lactic acid and ester are used as solvents and reactants in various industries, including agricultural chemistry, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and fine chemicals. Among lactate esters, high purity propyl lactate and butyl lactate are used to produce fine chemicals and in the synthesis of chiral intermediates for use in pesticides and drugs. However, distillation for the removal of

  4. DV Office/Lactation Sub-Committee 11/19/12 Workplace Lactation Policy

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    DV Office/Lactation Sub-Committee 11/19/12 Workplace Lactation Policy Effective January 1, 2013 Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC FOR ITS EMPLOYEES AT Brookhaven National Laboratory #12;DV Office/Lactation Sub-Committee 11/19/12 Workplace Lactation Policy Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) provides

  5. Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation S. J. Mabjeesh lysine and protein metabolism in goats (n = 4) at two stages of lactation (80 ± 17 vs. 233 ± 14 DIM) in response to an i.v. infusion of lysine (Lys) plus methionine (Met). At each stage of lactation [2-15 N

  6. Lactation performance of mid-Lactation Dairy Cows Fed ruminally Degradable protein at Concentrations Lower

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    Lactation performance of mid-Lactation Dairy Cows Fed ruminally Degradable protein, and the apparent efficiency of N utilization by mid-lactation dairy cows. During the covariate period (d 1 to 28), 40 mid-lactation cows (36 Holstein and 4 Jersey Ã? Holstein cross-breds) were fed a common diet

  7. Lactation/Quiet Rooms Physical Specifications

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Daniel

    Lactation/Quiet Rooms Physical Specifications L/QR in New Construction New construction on the University of Texas at Austin campus will provide for multipurpose private rooms, called Lactation condition. Ideally, Lactation/Quiet rooms will be located around campus so that no user has more than a five

  8. The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase revisited.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J T; Henderson, A R

    1984-11-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  10. CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF TWO GLYCOLYTIC DEHYDROGENASES IN WHITE SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    1966-01-01

    The cytochemical localization, by conventional methods, of lactate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases is limited, firstly, by the solubility of these enzymes in aqueous media and, secondly, by the dependence of the final electron flow from reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to the tetrazolium on tissue diaphorase activity: localization is therefore that of the diaphorase, which in rabbit adductor magnus is mitochondrial. NADH has been found to have great affinity to bind in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and, therefore, if it is generated freely in the incubation media containing 2,2',5,5'-tetra-p-nitrophenyl-3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-phenylene)-ditetrazolium chloride (TNBT) and N-methyl phenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS), it can bind there and cause a false staining. Since such a production of NADH can readily occur in the incubation media for glycolytic dehydrogenases due to diffusion of these soluble enzymes from tissue sections, the prevention of enzyme solubilization is extremely important. Fixation in formaldehyde prevented such enzyme diffusion, while at the same time sufficient activity persisted to allow for adequate staining. The incubation media contained PMS, so that the staining system was largely independent of tissue diaphorase activity. Application of these methods to adductor magnus of rabbit revealed by light microscopy, for both enzymes, a fine network which was shown by electron microscopy to represent staining of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria also reacted. These findings add further support for the notion that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is probably involved in glycolytic activity. PMID:4288329

  11. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Predictive markers for long-term outcome in carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with late encephalopathy are desired. Here we present the first data demonstrating a full reversibility pattern of specific brain substances measured by cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a carbon monoxide-intoxicated victim. This may provide clinicians with important information when estimating patient outcome. Case presentation We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with severe carbon monoxide poisoning who was treated with five repetitive sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a multiplace chamber (100 percent oxygen with a ventilator, 90 minutes exposure to 2.8 atmospheres absolute). Initially, our patient recovered completely after three days of hospitalization, but became encephalopathic after a lucid interval of four weeks. An examination of the brain with cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a dramatically decrease in N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios and elevated lactate levels in the gray matter. Subsequently, our patient received six additional sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with only minimal recovery. At six-month follow-up our patient showed significant improvement in cognition and neuromuscular coordination. Extraordinarily, the cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements at relapse compared to measurements at follow-up (217 days post insult) revealed full reversal of the severe abnormalities in mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. Conclusions The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full reversal of N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios in gray matter has, to our knowledge, never been described before and shows that severe, initial measurements may not predict poor long-term patient outcome. PMID:24947173

  12. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; Mills, C; Sadler, P J; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases, and for establishing correlations of structure and function with other important zinc-containing proteins. PMID:6370679

  13. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures and body composition.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Traylor, Daniel A; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28 days of polyethylene glycosylated creatine (PEG-creatine) supplementation (1.25 and 2.50 g·d) on anaerobic performance measures (vertical and broad jumps, 40-yard dash, 20-yard shuttle run, and 3-cone drill), upper- and lower-body muscular strength and endurance (bench press and leg extension), and body composition. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Seventy-seven adult men (mean age ± SD, 22.1 ± 2.5 years; body mass, 81.7 ± 10.8 kg) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to a placebo (n = 23), 1.25 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27), or 2.50 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27) group. The subjects performed anaerobic performance measures, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]), and endurance (80% 1RM) tests for bench press and leg extension, and underwater weighing for the determination of body composition at day 0 (baseline), day 14, and day 28. The results indicated that there were improvements (p < 0.0167) in vertical jump, 20-yard shuttle run, 3-cone drill, muscular endurance for bench press, and body mass for at least one of the PEG-creatine groups without changes for the placebo group. Thus, the present results demonstrated that PEG-creatine supplementation at 1.25 or 2.50 g·d had an ergogenic effect on lower-body vertical power, agility, change-of-direction ability, upper-body muscular endurance, and body mass. PMID:23897021

  14. Tyrosine inhibits creatine kinase activity in cerebral cortex of young rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2011-09-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II, where tyrosine levels are highly elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of affected patients. Tyrosinemia type II is a disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by neurological symptoms similar to those observed in patients with creatine deficiency syndromes. Considering that the mechanisms of brain damage in these disorders are poorly known, in the present study our main objective was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of different concentrations and preincubation times of tyrosine on cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities of the cerebral cortex from 14-day-old Wistar rats. The cytosolic CK was reduced by 15% at 1 mM and 32% at 2 mM tyrosine. Similarly, the mitochondrial CK was inhibited by 15% at 1 mM and 22% at 2 mM tyrosine. We observed that the inhibition caused by tyrosine was concentration-dependent and was prevented by reduced glutathione. Results also indicated that mitochondrial, but not cytosolic creatine kinase activity was inhibited by tyrosine in a time-dependent way. Finally, a single injection of L-Tyrosine methyl ester administered i.p. decreased cytosolic (31%) and mitochondrial (18%) creatine kinase activities of brain cortex from rats. Considering that creatine kinase is an enzyme dependent of thiol residues for its function and tyrosine induces oxidative stress, the results suggest that the inhibition caused by tyrosine might occur by oxidation of essential sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme. In case this also occurs in patients with tyrosinemia, it is possible that creatine kinase inhibition may contribute to the neurological dysfunction characteristic of tyrosinemia. PMID:21789565

  15. Effects of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on oxidative stress in different tissues of rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation is known to exert an effect by increasing strength in high intensity and short duration exercises. There is a hypothesis which suggests that creatine supplementation may provide antioxidant activity by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species. However, the antioxidant effect of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training has not yet been described in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation associated with resistance training over maximum strength gain and oxidative stress in rats. Methods Forty male Wistar rats (250-300 g, 90 days old) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Sedentary (SED, n?=?10), Sedentary?+?Creatine (SED-Cr, n?=?10), Resistance Training (RT, n?=?10) and Resistance Training?+?Creatine (RT-Cr, n?=?10). Trained animals were submitted to the RT protocol (4 series of 10–12 repetitions, 90 second interval, 4 times per week, 65% to 75% of 1MR, for 8 weeks). Results In this study, greater strength gain was observed in the SED-Cr, RT and RT-Cr groups compared to the SED group (P?Creatine supplementation associated with resistance training was able to reduce lipoperoxidation in the plasma (P?Creatine was shown to be an effective non-enzymatic antioxidant with supplementation alone and also when it was associated with resistance training in rats. PMID:24655435

  16. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine ? creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine ? creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ?240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  17. Mouse p53 represses the rat brain creatine kinase gene but activates the rat muscle creatine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Schmieg, F I; Simmons, D T; Molloy, G R

    1994-01-01

    The creatine kinases (CK) regenerate ATP for cellular reactions with a high energy expenditure. While muscle CK (CKM) is expressed almost exclusively in adult skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain CK (CKB) expression is more widespread and is highest in brain glial cells. CKB expression is also high in human lung tumor cells, many of which contain mutations in p53 alleles. We have recently detected high levels of CKB mRNA in HeLa cells and, in this study, have tested whether this may be due to the extremely low amounts of p53 protein present in HeLa cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that wild-type mouse p53 severely repressed the rat CKB promoter in HeLa but not CV-1 monkey kidney cells, suggesting that, in HeLa but not CV-1 cells, p53 either associates with a required corepressor or undergoes a posttranslational modification necessary for CKB repression. Conversely, mouse wild-type p53 strongly activated the rat CKM promoter in CV-1 cells but not in HeLa cells, suggesting that, in CV-1 cells, p53 may associate with a required coactivator or is modified in a manner necessary for CKM activation. The DNA sequences required for p53-mediated modulations were found to be within bp -195 to +5 of the CKB promoter and within bp -168 to -97 of the CKM promoter. Moreover, a 112-bp fragment from the proximal rat CKM promoter (bp -168 to -57), which contained five degenerate p53-binding elements, was capable of conferring p53-mediated activation on a heterologous promoter in CV-1 cells. Also, this novel p53 sequence, when situated in the native 168-bp rat CKM promoter, conferred p53-mediated activation equal to or greater than that of the originally characterized far-upstream (bp -3160) mouse CKM p53 element. Therefore, CKB and CKM may be among the few cellular genes which could be targets of p53 in vivo. In addition, we analyzed a series of missense mutants with alterations in conserved region II of p53. Mutations affected p53 transrepression and transactivation activities differently, indicating that these activities in p53 are separable. The ability of p53 mutants to transactivate correlated well with their ability to inhibit transformation of rat embryonic fibroblasts by adenovirus E1a and activated Ras. Images PMID:7969181

  18. Effect of creatine supplementation on phosphocreatine resynthesis, inorganic phosphate accumulation and pH during intermittent maximal exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Yquel; L. M. Arsac; E. Thiaudiere; P. Canioni; G. Manier

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of creatine ingestion on muscle power output, muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis, inorganic phosphate and pH during repeated brief bouts of maximal exercise. Nine healthy males performed maximal plantar flexion before and after creatine ingestion (20 g ·day -1 for 6 days). The experimental protocol consisted of five 8 s bouts (bouts 1-5) interspersed with

  19. Oligomeric state and membrane binding behaviour of creatine kinase isoenzymes: Implications for cellular function and mitochondrial structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Stachowiak; Uwe Schlattner; Max Dolder; Theo Wallimann

    1998-01-01

    The membrane binding properties of cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes are reviewed in this article. Differences between both dimeric and octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) attached to membranes and the unbound form are elaborated with respect to possible biological function. The formation of crystalline mitochondrial inclusions under pathological conditions and its possible origin in the membrane attachment capabilities of

  20. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Rae; Alison L. Digney; Sally R. McEwan; Timothy C. Bates

    2003-01-01

    Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports- fitness performance, and has been tri- alled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease. Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate. In this

  1. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on a 4Week Linear Periodization Resistance Training Program Among Hope College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Kraakevik; Zak Vossen

    2012-01-01

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to improve muscular strength and performance due to an increased rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis. This study examined the effectiveness of creatine supplementation (CRE, n=5) during a 4-week training regimen of 4 days of lifting on anaerobic power, muscular strength, and lean body mass compared to a placebo group (PLA, n=6). There were no effects seen

  2. Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

  3. Creatine monohydrate supplemented in swine finishing diets and fresh pork quality: III. Evaluating the cumulative effect of creatine monohydrate and alpha-lipoic acid1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Berg; K. R. Maddock; M. L. Linville

    The objectiveof this study wasto evalu- ate short-duration supplementation of ?-lipoic acid (ALA) and creatine monohydrate (CMH) to improve fresh pork quality. Forty-eight commercial hybrid bar- rows were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to one of four treatments: 1) no CMH or ALA; 2) supplementa- tion of 24 g of CMH?1pig?1d?1; 3) supplementation of 600 mg ALA?1pig?1d?1; or 4)

  4. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  5. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of gestation, dams received either no treatment or 20 g creatine daily until farrowing. At farrowing in November 2008, pigs were monitored by video camera to determine individual piglet birth intervals. On d 1, piglets were weighed, euthanized, and the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were collected from the largest and smallest piglets in each litter to measure myelin basic proteins, myelin cholesterol, glucocerebrosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Preweaning mortality of the remaining piglets was recorded, including whether a piglet had been overlayed by the dam. A second experiment was performed using gilts (n = 90), farrowing in July 2010, to test differential effects of creatine supplementation during hot, humid weather when dams typically have more difficulty farrowing. Once again, gilts were provided either no supplementation or 20 g creatine daily from d 110 to the day of farrowing. Gilts were video recorded during farrowing, piglets were weighed on d 1, and preweaning mortality (including overlays) was recorded. In Exp. 1, creatine supplementation had no effect on birth intervals or stillbirth rate. Creatine supplementation improved the amount of myelin lipids in brain regions of piglets, particularly the brain stem. Creatine supplementation also reduced overlays of low birth weight piglets from gilts but not second parity sows. Data from Exp. 2 were combined with gilt data from Exp. 1 to examine the effect of creatine, season, and their interaction. There were no effects of treatment or season on birth intervals, stillbirth rates, or overall preweaning mortality. Creatine treatment reduced the incidence of overlays in low birth weight piglets in the combined data set. These results suggest that creatine supplementation improved myelination and may reduce the incidence of low birth weight piglets being crushed by the dam. PMID:23463559

  6. Stability of Blood Biochemistry Levels in Animal Model Research: Effects of Storage Condition and Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Chu Peng; Bang-Gee Hsu; Fwu-Lin Yang; Yann Fen C. Chao; Horng-Jyh Harn; Ru-Ping Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole blood and plasma in terms of the subsequent accuracy of blood lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measurement. Blood samples were drawn from 8 male Wistar-Kyoto rats. The rats were homologous, weighed 300— 380 g, were housed in the same environment, and

  7. Structure of liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 2.9-angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Brändén, C I; Eklund, H; Nordström, B; Boiwe, T; Söderlund, G; Zeppezauer, E; Ohlsson, I; Akeson, A

    1973-08-01

    The conformation of the polypeptide chain in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1), as well as the binding sites for some inhibitor molecules, have been determined from x-ray crystallographic data to a resolution of 2.9 A. Each subunit of the dimeric molecule is organized into two parts unequal in size and separated by a wide and deep active-site cleft. The adenosine moiety of the coenzyme is bound within the smaller region. Interactions between these coenzyme-binding substructures define the subunit contact area of the molecule. The "catalytic" zinc atoms are bound at the bottom of the clefts about 20 A from the surface of the molecule. The coenzyme binding region has a main-chain conformation very similar to a corresponding region in lactate and malate dehydrogenase. It is suggested that this substructure is a general one for binding of nucleotides and, in particular, the coenzyme NAD(+). PMID:4365379

  8. Polymorphisms of Human Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilis Vasiliou; Aglaia Pappa

    2000-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes with similar primary structures, catalyze the oxidation of a wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Thus far, 16 ALDH genes with distinct chromosomal locations have been identified in the human genome. Polymorphism in ALDH2 is associated with altered acetaldehyde metabolism, decreased risk of alcoholism and increased risk of

  9. Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Lin, Hozong Robert

    1973-01-01

    . Freshly ejaculated semen usually appears as a creamy, slightly yellowish or greyish fluid. The volume of the ejaculate, and the concentration I of the spermatozoa in ejaculated semen, vary widely from one species to another. So far as the nutrition... an improved method for demonstra- tion of dehydrogenase after starch gel electrophoresis based on the use of the more sensitive tetrazolium, NBT, I and substitution of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) for exo- genous diaphorase. The reaction sequence...

  10. Lactate formation in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is regulated by the energy carriers pyrophosphate and ATP.

    PubMed

    Willquist, Karin; van Niel, Ed W J

    2010-05-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus displays superior H(2) yields on a wide range of carbon sources provided that lactate formation is avoided. Nevertheless, a low lactate flux is initiated as the growth rate declined in the transition to the stationary phase, which coincides with a drastic decrease in the glucose consumption and acetate production fluxes. In addition, the decrease in growth rate was accompanied by a sudden increase and then decrease in NADH levels. The V'(MAX) of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) doubled when the cells entered the stationary phase. Kinetic analysis revealed that at the metabolic level LDH activity is regulated through (i) competitive inhibition by pyrophosphate (PPi, k(i)=1.7 mM) and NAD (k(i)=0.43 mM) and (ii) allosteric activation by FBP (300%), ATP (160%) and ADP (140%). From these data a MWC-based model was derived. Simulations with this model could explain the observed lactate shift by displaying how the sensitivity of LDH activity to NADH/NAD ratio varied with different PP(i) concentrations. Moreover, the activation of LDH by ATP indicates that C. saccharolyticus uses LDH as a means to adjusts its flux of ATP and NADH production. To our knowledge, this is the first time PPi is observed as an effector of LDH. PMID:20060925

  11. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andrews; P. Greenhaff; S. Curtis; A. Perry; A. J. Cowley

    1998-01-01

    Aims To assess the eVects of dietary creatine supplementa- tion on skeletal muscle metabolism and endurance in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods A forearm model of muscle metabolism was used, with a cannula inserted retrogradely into an antecu- bital vein of the dominant forearm. Maximum voluntary contraction was measured using handgrip dynanometry. Subjects performed handgrip exercise, 5 s contraction

  12. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  13. Four-Angle Saturation Transfer (FAST) Method for Measuring Creatine Kinase Reaction Rates In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Four-Angle Saturation Transfer (FAST) Method for Measuring Creatine Kinase Reaction Rates In Vivo of measuring kinetic reaction rates for two-site chemical exchange is described. The method employs saturation different flip angles, and the equilibrium magnetization, relaxation times, and reaction rates

  14. The effects of acrylamide on brain creatine kinase: Inhibition kinetics and computational docking simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Rong Lü; He-Chang Zou; Seong Jin Park; Long Shi; Sang Ho Oh; Yong-Doo Park; Jong Bhak; Fei Zou

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of acrylamide is frequently observed in processed foods. Therefore, the harmful effects of acrylamide on metabolic enzymes are important to understand. We studied the inhibitory effects of acrylamide on the brain creatine kinase (CK-BB). We found that CK-BB was kinetically inactivated by acrylamide accompanied by the disruption of the hydrophobic surface. Acrylamide mainly interacted with the thiol (–SH)

  15. Oxidative Modification of Creatine Kinase BB in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Aksenov; Marina Aksenova; D. Allan Butterfield; William R. Markesbery

    2002-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) BB, a member of the CK gene family, is a predominantly cytosolic CK isoform in the brain and plays a key role in regulation of the ATP level in neural cells. CK BB levels are reduced in brain regions affected by neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, and Lewy body dementia, and this reduction is not

  16. Creatine Phosphate Consumption and the Actomyosin Crossbridge Cycle in Cardiac Muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozgur Ogut; Frank V. Brozovich

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of the actomyosin crossbridge cycle in cardiac muscles, the effects of ATP, ADP, Pi, and creatine phosphate (CP) on the rate of force redevelopment (ktr) were measured. We report that CP is a primary determinant in controlling the actomyosin crossbridge cycling kinetics of cardiac muscles, because a reduction of CP from 25 to 2.5 mmol\\/L decreased

  17. Serum creatine kinase as an indicator of local muscular strain in experimental and occupational work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Hagberg; Gunnar Michaelson; Anders Örtelius

    1982-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase (SCK) was measured in ten subjects in the laboratory before and after the performance of bicycle ergometry and a lifting task. SCK was significantly increased 24 h and 48 h after the lifting work but not after the bicycle ergometry, although the work performed on the latter was four-times as great as on the former. The lifting

  18. Compartmentation of ATP synthesis and utilization in smooth muscle: roles of aerobic glycolysis and creatine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ishida; I. Riesinger; T. Wallimann; R. J. Paul

    1994-01-01

    The phosphocreatine content of smooth muscle is of similar magnitude to ATP. Thus the function of the creatine kinase system in this tissue cannot simply be regarded as an energy buffer. Thus an understanding of its role in smooth muscle behavior can point to CK function in other systems. From our perspective CK function in smooth muscle is one example

  19. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B Cooke; Emma Rybalka; Andrew D Williams; Paul J Cribb; Alan Hayes

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr) ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. METHODS:

  20. Anilides of (R)-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Bebernitz, G R; Aicher, T D; Stanton, J L; Gao, J; Shetty, S S; Knorr, D C; Strohschein, R J; Tan, J; Brand, L J; Liu, C; Wang, W H; Vinluan, C C; Kaplan, E L; Dragland, C J; DelGrande, D; Islam, A; Lozito, R J; Liu, X; Maniara, W M; Mann, W R

    2000-06-01

    The optimization of a series of anilide derivatives of (R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK) is described that started from N-phenyl-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide 1 (IC(50) = 35 +/- 1.4 microM). It was found that small electron-withdrawing groups on the ortho position of the anilide, i.e., chloro, acetyl, or bromo, increased potency 20-40-fold. The oral bioavailability of the compounds in this series is optimal (as measured by AUC) when the anilide is substituted at the 4-position with an electron-withdrawing group (i.e., carboxyl, carboxyamide, and sulfoxyamide). N-(2-Chloro-4-isobutylsulfamoylphenyl)-(R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionamide (10a) inhibits PDHK in the primary enzymatic assay with an IC(50) of 13 +/- 1.5 nM, enhances the oxidation of [(14)C]lactate into (14)CO(2) in human fibroblasts, lowers blood lactate levels significantly 2.5 and 5 h after oral doses as low as 30 micromol/kg, and increases the ex vivo activity of PDH in muscle, kidney, liver, and heart tissues. However, in contrast to sodium dichloroacetate (DCA), these PDHK inhibitors did not lower blood glucose levels. Nevertheless, they are effective at increasing the utilization and disposal of lactate and could be of utility to ameliorate conditions of inappropriate blood lactate elevation. PMID:10841803

  1. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength. Methods Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders (mean ± SD; age: 23.1?±?2.9; height: 166.0?±?23.2 cm; weight: 80.18?±?10.43 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP workout supplementation of creatine (5 grams). The PRE-SUPP group consumed 5 grams of creatine immediately before exercise. On the other hand, the POST-SUPP group consumed 5 grams immediately after exercise. Subjects trained on average five days per week for four weeks. Subjects consumed the supplement on the two non-training days at their convenience. Subjects performed a periodized, split-routine, bodybuilding workout five days per week (Chest-shoulders-triceps; Back-biceps, Legs, etc.). Body composition (Bod Pod®) and 1-RM bench press (BP) were determined. Diet logs were collected and analyzed (one random day per week; four total days analyzed). Results 2x2 ANOVA results - There was a significant time effect for fat-free mass (FFM) (F?=?19.9; p?=?0.001) and BP (F?=?18.9; p?creatine post workout is possibly more beneficial in comparison to pre workout supplementation with regards to FFM, FM and 1-RM BP. The mean change in the PRE-SUPP and POST-SUPP groups for body weight (BW kg), FFM (kg), FM (kg) and 1-RM bench press (kg) were as follows, respectively: Mean ± SD; BW: 0.4?±?2.2 vs. 0.8?±?0.9; FFM: 0.9?±?1.8 vs. 2.0?±?1.2; FM: -0.1?±?2.0 vs. ?1.2?±?1.6; Bench Press 1-RM: 6.6?±?8.2 vs. 7.6?±?6.1. Qualitative inference represents the likelihood that the true value will have the observed magnitude. Furthermore, there were no differences in caloric or macronutrient intake between the groups. Conclusions Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength. Based on the magnitude inferences it appears that consuming creatine immediately post-workout is superior to pre-workout vis a vis body composition and strength. PMID:23919405

  2. Dehydrogenase activity measurement in yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Ghaly; R. M. Ben-Hassan

    1993-01-01

    The dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of active biomass in preference to other biochemical parameters because of\\u000a the simple, but accurate nature of the dehydrogenase test. After a consierable amount of experimental work on the dehydrogenase\\u000a activity measurement technique and the consideration of utilization of the technique as a measure of the active biomass in\\u000a yeast fermentation systems,

  3. Bacterial 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanni Höhn-Bentz; F. Radler

    1978-01-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus possessing L(+)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced mainly meso-butanediol and small amounts of optically active butanediol; Acetobacter suboxydans, Bacillus polymyxa and Erwinia carotovora containing D(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced more optically active butanediol than meso-butanediol. Resting and growing cells of these organisms oxidized only one enantiomer of racemic butanediol. The D(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus polymyxa was

  4. PRECREST: A phase II prevention and biomarker trial of creatine in at-risk Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Doros, Gheorghe; Gevorkian, Sona; Malarick, Keith; Reuter, Martin; Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Triggs, Tyler D.; Wilkens, Paul J.; Matson, Wayne; Salat, David H.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and tolerability of high-dose creatine, the feasibility of enrolling premanifest and 50% at-risk subjects in a prevention trial, and the potential of cognitive, imaging, and blood markers. Methods: Sixty-four eligible consenting participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to 15 g twice daily of creatine monohydrate or placebo for a 6-month double-blind phase followed by a 12-month open-label extension. Subjects included premanifest (tested) and at-risk (not tested) individuals without clinical symptoms or signs of Huntington disease (HD). Primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Exploratory endpoints included fine motor, visuospatial, and memory performance; structural and diffusion MRI; and selected blood markers. Results: Forty-seven HD carriers and 17 non-HD controls were enrolled. Fifteen discontinued treatment (2 assigned to placebo); all were followed for the entire study period. Primary analysis was by intent to treat. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal. Neuroimaging demonstrated treatment-related slowing of cortical and striatal atrophy at 6 and 18 months. Conclusion: We describe a design that preserves the autonomy of subjects not wanting genetic testing while including controls for assessing the specificity of treatment effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of prevention trials for HD and the safety of high-dose creatine, provide possible evidence of disease modification, support future studies of creatine, and illustrate the value of prodromal biomarkers. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that high-dose creatine is safe and tolerable. PMID:24510496

  5. Lactate infusions in patients with bulimia.

    PubMed

    Lindy, D C; Walsh, B T; Gorman, J M; Roose, S P; Gladis, M; Devlin, M J; Glassman, A H

    1988-12-01

    We performed lactate infusions in 18 bulimic patients and 11 normal controls. On the basis of blind ratings, bulimic patients appeared to react to the infusion with greater anxiety than controls. The frequency of lactate-induced panic, per se, was lower in bulimic patients than rates reported for panic disorder patients. However, it would be premature to conclude that bulimia is not a heterogeneous syndrome which includes a group of patients who panic with lactate. PMID:3222393

  6. Amperometric lactate oxidase catheter for real-time lactate monitoring based on thin film technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvio Fischer

    1997-01-01

    An amperometric lactate oxidase catheter has been developed for in vivo application to real-time lactate monitoring. The electrochemical behaviour of the 1 × 3 mm Pt-Ag\\/AgCl thin film electrode is not significantly influenced by lactate oxidase-polyurethane covering. Gamma-irradiation (25 kGy) is suitable for the sterilization procedure. The final lactate catheter is characterized by a linear concentration range between 0·5 and

  7. Field energetics of free-living, lactating and non-lactating echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Schmid; Niels A. Andersen; John R. Speakman; Stewart C. Nicol

    2003-01-01

    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water turnover rates in lactating and non-lactating short beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) using the doubly labelled water technique during the lactation period in spring. Reproductively inactive echidnas were on average significantly heavier (median: 3354 g; range: 2929–3780 g; N=4) than lactating females (median: 2695 g; range: 2690–2715 g; N=3) during the equivalent time

  8. [Pharmaceutical treatment of lactation deficiency lacks evidence.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Paul Bryde; Bjerrum, Flemming; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2014-02-24

    In this review we have looked at the evidence for the pharmacological treatment of lactation deficiency. Five RCTs (n = 166) of metoclopramide found no effect on lactation and two RCTs (n = 26) of older date and lesser quality found significant effect. One RCT (n = 51) of syntocinon found no effect on lactation and two older RCTs (n = 60) of lesser quality found significant effect. Three RCTs (n = 105) found significant effect of domperidone on lactation. Education on breastfeeding is important to avoid the need for pharmacological treatment. PMID:25350407

  9. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  10. Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

    2014-06-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  11. Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms. PMID:24098433

  12. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  13. Reducing lactate secretion by ldhA Deletion in L-glutamate- producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Guan, Dan; Liang, Jingbo; Guo, Chunqian; Xie, Xixian; Zhang, Chenglin; Xu, Qingyang; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is one of main byproducts excreted in to the fermentation medium. To improve L-glutamate production and reduce L-lactate accumulation, L-lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene ldhA was knocked out from L-glutamate producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9, designated GDK-9?ldhA. GDK-9?ldhA produced approximately 10.1% more L-glutamate than the GDK-9, and yielded lower levels of such by-products as ?-ketoglutarate, L-lactate and L-alanine. Since dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of main factors affecting L-lactate formation during L-glutamate fermentation, we investigated the effect of ldhA deletion from GDK-9 under different DO conditions. Under both oxygen-deficient and high oxygen conditions, L-glutamate production by GDK-9?ldhA was not higher than that of the GDK-9. However, under micro-aerobic conditions, GDK-9?ldhA exhibited 11.61% higher L-glutamate and 58.50% lower L-alanine production than GDK-9. Taken together, it is demonstrated that deletion of ldhA can enhance L-glutamate production and lower the unwanted by-products concentration, especially under micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25763057

  14. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Pentazocine lactate injection. 522.1698 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1698 Pentazocine lactate injection. (a) Specifications...sterile aqueous solution contains pentazocine lactate equivalent to 30 milligrams of...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Pentazocine lactate injection. 522.1698 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1698 Pentazocine lactate injection. (a) Specifications...sterile aqueous solution contains pentazocine lactate equivalent to 30 milligrams of...

  16. Empirical and Theoretical Constraints on the Evolution of Lactation

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    Empirical and Theoretical Constraints on the Evolution of Lactation V. HAYSSEN Department, length of gestation, basal metabolism, and neona- tal development. The primary influence on lactation length is female mass, but phylogenetic constraints are important. Thus, lactation can be characterized

  17. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Pentazocine lactate injection. 522.1698 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1698 Pentazocine lactate injection. (a) Specifications...sterile aqueous solution contains pentazocine lactate equivalent to 30 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Pentazocine lactate injection. 522.1698 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1698 Pentazocine lactate injection. (a) Specifications...sterile aqueous solution contains pentazocine lactate equivalent to 30 milligrams of...

  19. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Ebert, T R; Withers, R T; Carey, M F; Mackay, M; Phillips, J W; Febbraio, M A

    2001-03-01

    This double blind study investigated the effect of oral creatine supplementation (CrS) on 4 x 20 s of maximal sprinting on an air-braked cycle ergometer. Each sprint was separated by 20 s of recovery. A group of 16 triathletes [mean age 26.6 (SD 5.1) years. mean body mass 77.0 (SD 5.8) kg, mean body fat 12.9 (SD 4.6)%, maximal oxygen uptake 4.86 (SD 0.7) l.min-1] performed an initial 4 x 20 s trial after a muscle biopsy sample had been taken at rest. The subjects were then matched on their total intramuscular creatine content (TCr) before being randomly assigned to groups to take by mouth either a creatine supplement (CRE) or a placebo (CON) before a second 4 x 20 s trial. A muscle biopsy sample was also taken immediately before this second trial. The CrS of 100 g comprised 4 x 5 g for 5 days. The initial mean TCr were 112.5 (SD 8.7) and 112.5 (SD 10.7) mmol.kg-1 dry mass for CRE and CON, respectively. After creatine loading and placebo ingestion respectively, CRE [128.7 (SD 11.8) mmol.kg-1 dry mass] had a greater (P = 0.01) TCr than CON [112.0 (SD 10.0) mmol.kg-1 dry mass]. While the increase in free creatine for CRE was statistically significant (P = 0.034), this was not so for the changes in phosphocreatine content [trial 1: 75.7 (SD 6.9), trial 2: 84.7 (SD 11.0) mmol.kg-1 dry mass, P = 0.091]. There were no significant differences between CRE and CON for citrate synthase activity (P = 0.163). There was a tendency towards improved performance in terms of 1 s peak power (in watts P = 0.07; in watts per kilogram P = 0.05), 5 s peak power (in watts P = 0.08) and fatigue index (P = 0.08) after CrS for sprint 1 of the second trial. However, there was no improvement for mean power (in watts P = 0.15; in watts per kilogram P = 0.1) in sprint 1 or for any performance values in subsequent sprints. Our results suggest that, while CrS elevates the intramuscular stores of free creatine, this does not have an ergogenic effect on 4 x 20 s all-out cycle sprints with intervening 20-s rest periods. PMID:11320642

  20. Recovery of renal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern after obstruction relief in experimental hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Emanuelli, G; Anfossi, G; Camussi, G; Calcamuggi, G; Cestonaro, G; Gatti, G

    1979-06-15

    The release of ureteral occlusion leads to a progressive recovery in LDH isoenzyme pattern with gradual increase of anodic fractions and decrease of middle and cathodic ones. Our findings demonstrate that the recovery is accomplished on the 10-14th day, in agreement with morphological and metabolic observation. PMID:467572

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: Protective effect of bacoside A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kothandapani Anbarasi; Kuruvimalai Ekambaram Sabitha; Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala Devi

    2005-01-01

    Despite a strong association between cigarette smoking and alarming increase in mortality rate from smoking-related diseases, around 35–40% of the world's population continues to smoke and many more are being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Since the role of free radicals and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases has been suggested, bacoside A, a potent antioxidant was tested

  2. Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alexander J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

  3. Maintenance of Quaternary Structure in the Frozen State Stabilizes Lactate Dehydrogenase during Freeze–Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Anchordoquy; Ken-Ichi Izutsu; Theodore W. Randolph; John F. Carpenter

    2001-01-01

    Sugars inhibit protein unfolding during the drying step of lyophilization by replacing hydrogen bonds to the protein lost upon removal of water. In many cases, polymers fail to inhibit dehydration-induced damage to proteins because steric hindrance prevents effective hydrogen bonding of the polymer to the protein's surface. However, in certain cases, polymers have been shown to stabilize multimeric enzymes during

  4. Hybridizability of gamma-irradiated lactic dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The hybridizabilities of the gamma-irradiated chicken heart and pig muscle lactic dehydrogenases were estimated by hybridizing the irradiated enzymes with the unirradiated pig heart lactic dehydrogenase. The disc gel electrophoretic patterns of the inter- and intraspecific hybrids showed that the LDH activity of the pig heart isozyme band increased as a function of dose. This observation was analyzed upon the

  5. Calcium deficiency, pregnancy, and lactation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rasmussen

    1977-01-01

    Summary The calcium homeostatic mechanism was challenged in adult female rats by feeding them a calcium-deficient diet containing oxalate, and by subjecting them to pregnancy and lactation. The regimen caused a substantial weight loss, especially in those animals which reared their young well. Severe hypocalcaemia was observed in the lactating rats. Serum-P was slightly elevated. The content of hydroxyproline in

  6. Net Energy Value of Feeds for Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Moe; W. P. Flatt; H. F. TYRRELL

    1972-01-01

    Results of 543 energy balance trials with lactating cows were summarized to partition the energy required by lac- tating cows into maintenance and pro- duction components and to determine the irtfluence of energy source on the efficiency with which dietary energy is used for milk production. The-total energy requirement for lactating cows was expressed in net energy for milk production

  7. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  11. Is brain lactate increased in Huntington's disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Wayne Martin; Marguerite Wieler; Christopher C. Hanstock

    2007-01-01

    Impaired brain energy metabolism with increased regional brain lactate may play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease (HD). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has provided conflicting evidence, however, regarding metabolic changes. Our objective was to evaluate the potential contribution of CSF lactate to the changes observed with MRS in HD. We performed single voxel MRS at 3 T in 23

  12. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  13. In situ Regeneration of NADH via Lipoamide Dehydrogenase-catalyzed Electron Transfer Reaction Evidenced by Spectroelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    NAD/NADH is a coenzyme found in all living cells, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. We report on characterizations of in situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase (LD)-catalyzed electron transfer reaction to regenerate NADH using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of NADH regeneration were measured as 0.80 {+-} 0.15 mM and 1.91 {+-} 0.09 {micro}M s-1 in a 1-mm thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell using gold gauze as the working electrode at the applied potential -0.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The electrocatalytic reduction of the NAD system was further coupled with the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase to examine the coenzymatic activity of the regenerated NADH. Although the reproducible electrocatalytic reduction of NAD into NADH is known to be difficult compared to the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH, our spectroelectrochemical results indicate that the in situ regeneration of NADH via LD-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is fast and sustainable and can be potentially applied to many NAD/NADH-dependent enzyme systems.

  14. An Evaluation of the Possible Association of Malignant Hyperpyrexia with the Noonan Syndrome Using Serum Creatine Phosphokinase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Alasdair; Pinsky, Leonard

    1975-01-01

    Examined for malignant hyperpyrexia (extremely high fever) were serum creatine phosphokinase (enzyme) levels of 27 children from 1-to 17-years-old with Noonan syndrome which is characterized by webbed neck, short stature and low set ears. (CL)

  15. In silico investigation of molecular effects caused by missense mutations in creatine transporter protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Schwatz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2011-03-01

    Creatine transporter (CT) protein, which is encoded by SLC6A8 gene, is essential for taking up the creatine in the cell, which in turn plays a key role in the spatial and temporal maintenance of energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. It was shown that some missense mutations in CT cause mental retardation, while others are harmless non-synonymous single nucleoside polymorphism (nsSNP). Currently fifteen missense mutations in CT are known, among which twelve are disease-causing. Sequence analysis reveals that there is no clear trend distinguishing disease-causing from harmless missense mutations. Because of that, we built 3D model of the CT using highly homologous template and use the model to investigate the effects of mutations of CT stability and hydrogen bond network. It is demonstrated that disease-causing mutations affect the folding free energy and ionization states of titratable group in much greater extend as compared with harmless mutations.

  16. Energy substrate metabolism in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stenlid, Maria Halldin; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Forslund, Anders; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is an inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction. In order to provide energy for the brain, a ketogenic diet has been tried. Both the disorder and the ketogenic therapy may influence energy production. The aim of the study was to assess hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and resting energy expenditure (REE) in an infant, given a ketogenic diet due to neonatal onset of the disease. Lipolysis and glucose production were determined for two consecutive time periods by constant-rate infusions of [1,1,2,3,3-²H?]-glycerol and [6,6-²H²]-glucose. The boy had been fasting for 2.5 h at the start of the sampling periods. REE was estimated by indirect calorimetry. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were increased compared with those of term neonates. REE corresponded to 60% of normal values. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was increased, indicating a predominance of glucose oxidation. Blood lactate was within the normal range. Several mechanisms may underlie the increased rates of glucose production and lipolysis. A ketogenic diet will result in a low insulin secretion and reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, leading to increased production of glucose and decreased peripheral glucose uptake. Surprisingly, RQ was high, indicating active glucose oxidation, which may reflect a residual enzyme activity, sufficient during rest. Considering this, a strict ketogenic diet might not be the optimal choice for patients with PDH deficiency. We propose an individualised diet for this group of patients aiming at the highest glucose intake that each patient will tolerate without elevated lactate levels. PMID:24914713

  17. Growth Parameters and Carcass Quality of Broilers Fed a Corn-Soybean Diet Supplemented with Creatine Monohydrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    A six-week study was conducted to determine the feed efficiency and carcass quality of broilers supplemented creatine monohydrate. Day-old (unsexed) broiler chicks (n = 288) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments (12 chicks\\/pen, eight replications\\/treatment) using a completely randomized design. The control diet (diet A) contained 0% creatine throughout the entirety of the six week study. Diet B

  18. Effect of creatine supplementation as a potential adjuvant therapy to exercise training in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Cornelissen; JGM Defoor; A. Stevens; D. Schepers; P. Hespel; M. Decramer; L. Mortelmans; F. Dobbels; J. Vanhaecke; RH Fagard; L. Vanhees

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of oral creatine supplementation in conjunction with an exercise programme on physical fitness in patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure.Design: Single centre double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial.Setting: Cardiac rehabilitation centre.Subjects and intervention: 70 (4 women) cardiac patients (age 57.5 (8.4) years) were randomized to a placebo (n = 37) or creatine (n

  19. The effect of Zn on Pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: unfolding and aggregation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Fang Wang; Jinhyuk Lee; Wei Wang; Yue-Xiu Si; Caiyan Li; Tae-Rae Kim; Jun-Mo Yang; Shang-Jun Yin; Guo-Ying Qian

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of Zn on creatine kinase from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis (PSCK). Zn inactivated the activity of PSCK (IC50?=?.079?±?.004?mM) following first-order kinetics consistent with multiple phases. The spectrofluorimetry results showed that Zn induced significant tertiary structural changes of PSCK with exposure to hydrophobic surfaces and that Zn directly induced PSCK aggregation. The addition of osmolytes

  20. Serum Creatine Kinase Activity Varies with Ovulatory Status in Regularly Exercising, Premenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather S. Thompson; Stylianos P. Scordilis; Mary Jane De Souza

    2006-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The clinical complications associated with an unopposed estrogen environment and luteal phase defects observed in exercising women prompted the examination of the relationship of exercise and endogenous ovarian steroids with serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Methods: Subjects (n = 34) were classified into three groups according to their exercise and menstrual status, sedentary and exercising ovulatory groups (SedOvul, ExOvul),

  1. Creatine kinase increases the solubility and enzymatic activity of pyruvate kinase by means of diazymatic coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Dillon; M. K. Weberling; S. M. Letarte; J. F. Clark; P. R. Sears; R. S. Root-Bernstein

    1995-01-01

    Five separate methods, paper chromatography, ethanol solubility, pH dependence, enzymatic activity, and NMR saturation transfer, were used to study the coupling of pyruvate kinase (PK) and creatine kinase (CK). Each method demonstrated specific coupling of the two proteins. The coupling with CK showed that PK had increased ethanol solubility, enzymatic activity, pH-dependent aqueous solubility, and ability to receive ATP directly

  2. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA division I athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim N Ziegenfuss; Michael Rogers; Lonnie Lowery; Nicole Mullins; Ronald Mendel; Jose Antonio; Peter Lemon

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We measured the effect of 3 d of creatine (Cr) supplementation on repeated sprint performance and thigh muscle volume in elite power athletes.METHODS: Ten male (mean ± standard deviation of body mass and percentage of fat (81.1 ± 10.5 kg and 9.8 ± 3.5) and ten female (58.4 ± 5.3 kg and 15.0 ± 3.4) athletes were matched for

  3. The effect of an electronic control device on muscle injury as determined by creatine kinase enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald M. Dawes; Jeffrey D. Ho; James D. Sweeney; Erik J. Lundin; Sebastian N. Kunz; James R. Miner

    2011-01-01

    The medical literature on the effect of electronic control devices (ECD) on muscle injury is sparse. In this paper, we examine\\u000a pooled data from five human studies that used creatine kinase (CK) as a marker for muscle injury. CK was measured in five\\u000a separate studies involving four TASER ECDs with different exposure durations and number of circuits or contact points.

  4. Analyzing the Functional Properties of the Creatine Kinase System with Multiscale ‘Sloppy’ Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannes Hettling; Johannes HGM van Beek

    2011-01-01

    In this study the function of the two isoforms of creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in myocardium is investigated. The ‘phosphocreatine shuttle’ hypothesis states that mitochondrial and cytosolic CK plays a pivotal role in the transport of high-energy phosphate (HEP) groups from mitochondria to myofibrils in contracting muscle. Temporal buffering of changes in ATP and ADP is another potential role

  5. Control of creatine metabolism by HIF is an endogenous mechanism of barrier regulation in colitis

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Louise E.; Bowers, Brittelle E.; Saeedi, Bejan; Ehrentraut, Stefan F.; Campbell, Eric L.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kendrick, Agnieszka A.; Kelly, Caleb J.; Burgess, Adrianne; Miller, Lauren; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Jedlicka, Paul; Colgan, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces of the lower gastrointestinal tract are subject to frequent, pronounced fluctuations in oxygen tension, particularly during inflammation. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are orchestrated largely by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). As HIF-1? and HIF-2? are coexpressed in mucosal epithelia that constitute the barrier between the lumen and the underlying immune milieu, we sought to define the discrete contribution of HIF-1 and HIF-2 transactivation pathways to intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis. The present study identifies creatine kinases (CKs), key metabolic enzymes for rapid ATP generation via the phosphocreatine–creatine kinase (PCr/CK) system, as a unique gene family that is coordinately regulated by HIF. Cytosolic CKs are expressed in a HIF-2–dependent manner in vitro and localize to apical intestinal epithelial cell adherens junctions, where they are critical for junction assembly and epithelial integrity. Supplementation with dietary creatine markedly ameliorated both disease severity and inflammatory responses in colitis models. Further, enzymes of the PCr/CK metabolic shuttle demonstrate dysregulated mucosal expression in a subset of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease patients. These findings establish a role for HIF-regulated CK in epithelial homeostasis and reveal a fundamental link between cellular bioenergetics and mucosal barrier. PMID:24248342

  6. Is Long Term Creatine and Glutamine Supplementation Effective in Enhancing Physical Performance of Military Police Officers?

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers. PMID:25713653

  7. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria. Physical, chemical, and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1976-06-25

    Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have been obtained in homogeneous state from asparagus mitochondria. They are flavin enzymes with 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have s20,w of 6.22 S, 6.39 S, and 5.91 S, respectively, and molecular weights of 111,000, 110,000, and 95,000 (sedimentation equilibrium) or 112,000, 112,000, and 92,000 (gel filtration). They are slightly acidic proteins with isoelectric points of 6.75, 5.75, and 6.80. Both asparagusate dehydrogenases catalyzed the reaction Asg(SH)2 + NAD+ equilibrium AsgS2 + NADH + H+ and exhibit lipoyl dehydrogenase and diaphorase activities. Lipoyl dehydrogenase is specific for lipoate and has no asparagusate dehydrogenase activity. NADP cannot replace NAD in any case. Optimum pH for substrate reduction of the three enzymes are near 5.9. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II have Km values of 21.5 mM and 20.0 mM for asparagusate and 3.0 mM and 3.3 mM for lipoate, respectively. Lipoyl dehydrogenase activity of asparagusate dehydrogenases is enhanced by NAD and surfactants such as lecithin and Tween 80, but asparagusate dehydrogenase activity is not enhanced. Asparagusate dehydrogenases are strongly inhibited by mercuric ion, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. Amino acid composition of the three enzymes is presented and discussed. PMID:180003

  8. Environmental pollutants and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Leping; Guo, Jingjing; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) are a group of steroidogenic enzymes that are involved in the steroid biosynthesis and metabolism. Four classes of HSDs, namely, 3?-, 11?-, 17?-, and 20?-HSDs, are discussed. 3?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of pregnenolone, 17?-hydroxypregnenolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione, respectively. 11?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between active cortisol and inactive cortisone. 17?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between 17?-hydroxyl steroids and 17-ketoandrogens and estrogens. 20?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of progesterone into 20?-hydroxyprogesterone. Many environmental pollutants directly inhibit one or more enzymes of these HSDs, thus interfering with endogenous active steroid hormone levels. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A, and benzophenone), pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and prochloraz), and plant constituents (genistein, gossypol, and licorice). This chapter reviews these inhibitors targeting on HSDs. PMID:24388197

  9. In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

    1996-02-01

    The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

  10. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  11. Effect of Creatine Monohydrate on Clinical Progression in Patients With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established to promote discovery of potential therapies. OBJECTIVE To determine whether creatine monohydrate was more effective than placebo in slowing long-term clinical decline in participants with Parkinson disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Long-term Study 1, a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 1:1 randomized efficacy trial. Participants were recruited from 45 investigative sites in the United States and Canada and included 1741 men and women with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) Parkinson disease. Participants were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to placebo or creatine (10 g/d) monohydrate for a minimum of 5 years (maximum follow-up, 8 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was a difference in clinical decline from baseline to 5-year follow-up, compared between the 2 treatment groups using a global statistical test. Clinical status was defined by 5 outcome measures: Modified Rankin Scale, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, PDQ-39 Summary Index, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and ambulatory capacity. All outcomes were coded such that higher scores indicated worse outcomes and were analyzed by a global statistical test. Higher summed ranks (range, 5–4775) indicate worse outcomes. RESULTS The trial was terminated early for futility based on results of a planned interim analysis of participants enrolled at least 5 years prior to the date of the analysis (n = 955). The median follow-up time was 4 years. Of the 955 participants, the mean of the summed ranks for placebo was 2360 (95% CI, 2249–2470) and for creatine was 2414 (95% CI, 2304–2524). The global statistical test yielded t1865.8 = ?0.75 (2-sided P = .45). There were no detectable differences (P < .01 to partially adjust for multiple comparisons) in adverse and serious adverse events by body system. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with early and treated Parkinson disease, treatment with creatine monohydrate for at least 5 years, compared with placebo did not improve clinical outcomes. These findings do not support the use of creatine monohydrate in patients with Parkinson disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449865 PMID:25668262

  12. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity controls metabolic and malignant phenotype in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McFate, Thomas; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Lu, Huasheng; Thakar, Jay; Henriques, Jeremy; Halim, Nader D; Wu, Hong; Schell, Michael J; Tsang, Tsz Mon; Teahan, Orla; Zhou, Shaoyu; Califano, Joseph A; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Harris, Robert A; Verma, Ajay

    2008-08-15

    High lactate generation and low glucose oxidation, despite normal oxygen conditions, are commonly seen in cancer cells and tumors. Historically known as the Warburg effect, this altered metabolic phenotype has long been correlated with malignant progression and poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanistic relationship between altered glucose metabolism and malignancy remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity contributes to the Warburg metabolic and malignant phenotype in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PDC inhibition occurs via enhanced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1), which results in inhibitory phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha (PDHalpha) subunit. We also demonstrate that PDC inhibition in cancer cells is associated with normoxic stabilization of the malignancy-promoting transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) by glycolytic metabolites. Knockdown of PDK-1 via short hairpin RNA lowers PDHalpha phosphorylation, restores PDC activity, reverts the Warburg metabolic phenotype, decreases normoxic HIF-1alpha expression, lowers hypoxic cell survival, decreases invasiveness, and inhibits tumor growth. PDK-1 is an HIF-1-regulated gene, and these data suggest that the buildup of glycolytic metabolites, resulting from high PDK-1 expression, may in turn promote HIF-1 activation, thus sustaining a feed-forward loop for malignant progression. In addition to providing anabolic support for cancer cells, altered fuel metabolism thus supports a malignant phenotype. Correction of metabolic abnormalities offers unique opportunities for cancer treatment and may potentially synergize with other cancer therapies. PMID:18541534

  13. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    PubMed

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies. PMID:24037614

  14. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Madiraju, Anila K.; Erion, Derek M.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Zhang, Xian-Man; Braddock, Demetrios; Albright, Ronald A.; Prigaro, Brett J.; Wood, John L.; Bhanot, Sanjay; MacDonald, Michael J.; Jurczak, Michael; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cline, Gary W.; Samuel, Varman T.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain, or posing a risk of hypoglycemia1,2. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to T2D patients worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production (EGP), while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown of hepatic mGPD in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decrease in plasma glucose concentrations and inhibition of EGP. These findings were replicated in whole-body mGPD knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin’s blood glucose lowering effects and provide a novel therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:24847880

  15. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Valérie; Rioux, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion. PMID:21098391

  16. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Pierre Rioux (Universite du Quebec a Rimouski Dept de Biologie Chimie et des Sciences de la Sante)

    2010-10-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  17. Original article Insulin and/or dexamethasone regulation of lactate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Insulin and/or dexamethasone regulation of lactate production and its relationship the hormonal regulation of lactate production and the lactate production/glucose utilization ratio in sheepM) were measured in perirenal AT of adult non- lactating non-pregnant cows (n = 5) or ewes (n = 5) given

  18. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Parameters of Enzyme Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John H. Williamson (Davidson College; )

    1999-01-01

    One of four biology laboratories where students research the properties of a model enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, by using scientifitic method, molecular biology enzyme assay techniques and data analysis using a computer graphing program.

  19. The aerobic CO dehydrogenase from Oligotropha carboxidovorans.

    PubMed

    Hille, Russ; Dingwall, Stephanie; Wilcoxen, Jarett

    2015-03-01

    We review here the recent literature dealing with the molybdenum- and copper-dependent CO dehydrogenase, with particular emphasis on the structure of the enzyme and recent advances in our understanding of the reaction mechanism of the enzyme. PMID:25156151

  20. Lactate shuttling and lactate use as fuel after traumatic brain injury: metabolic considerations.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2014-11-01

    Lactate is proposed to be generated by astrocytes during glutamatergic neurotransmission and shuttled to neurons as 'preferred' oxidative fuel. However, a large body of evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes during activation of living brain disprove essential components of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model. For example, some glutamate is oxidized to generate ATP after its uptake into astrocytes and neuronal glucose phosphorylation rises during activation and provides pyruvate for oxidation. Extension of the notion that lactate is a preferential fuel into the traumatic brain injury (TBI) field has important clinical implications, and the concept must, therefore, be carefully evaluated before implementation into patient care. Microdialysis studies in TBI patients demonstrate that lactate and pyruvate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios, along with other data, have important diagnostic value to distinguish between ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results show that lactate release from human brain to blood predominates over its uptake after TBI, and strong evidence for lactate metabolism is lacking; mitochondrial dysfunction may inhibit lactate oxidation. Claims that exogenous lactate infusion is energetically beneficial for TBI patients are not based on metabolic assays and data are incorrectly interpreted. PMID:25204393

  1. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Article Body A growing number ... a breastfeeding relationship while further stimulating milk production. Nursing Supplement While there is no way to predict ...

  2. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  3. Effects of 28 Days of Beta-Alanine and Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Muscle Carnosine, Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active Females

    E-print Network

    Kresta, Julie Yong

    2012-07-16

    creatine monohydrate on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, and muscle carnosine and phosphagen levels in college-aged recreationally active females. Thirty-two females were randomized in a double-blind placebo controlled... manner into one of four supplementation groups including ?-ALA only, creatine only, ?- ALA and creatine combined and placebo. Participants supplemented for four weeks and iv reported for testing at baseline, day 7 and day 28. Testing sessions...

  4. Glutamic Dehydrogenase of Mung Bean Mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Bone

    1959-01-01

    GLUTAMIC dehydrogenase has been demonstrated in several higher plants1 and is associated with mitochondria of pea2 and oat3. Mitochondria isolated from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings4 were found capable of oxidizing glutamic acid (90 &µl. oxygen\\/hr.\\/mgm. (nitrogen). The assay of glutamic dehydrogenase in intact mitochondria is limited by a permeability barrier to pyridine nucleotides. Reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide was oxidized by

  5. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and alcoholism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly R. Thomasson; David W. Crabb; Howard J. Edenberg; Ting-Kai Li

    1993-01-01

    The alcohol-flush reaction occurs in Asians who inherit the mutantALDH2*2 allele that produces an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. In these individuals, high blood acetaldehyde levels are believed to be the cause of the unpleasant symptoms that follow drinking. We measured the alcohol elimination rates and intensity of flushing in Chinese subjects in whom the alcohol dehydrogenaseADH2 andALDH2 genotypes were determined.

  6. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the /sup 32/P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation.

  7. Creatine supplementation during pregnancy: summary of experimental studies suggesting a treatment to improve fetal and neonatal morbidity and reduce mortality in high-risk human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the use of creatine in human pregnancy is yet to be fully evaluated, its long-term use in healthy adults appears to be safe, and its well documented neuroprotective properties have recently been extended by demonstrations that creatine improves cognitive function in normal and elderly people, and motor skills in sleep-deprived subjects. Creatine has many actions likely to benefit the fetus and newborn, because pregnancy is a state of heightened metabolic activity, and the placenta is a key source of free radicals of oxygen and nitrogen. The multiple benefits of supplementary creatine arise from the fact that the creatine-phosphocreatine [PCr] system has physiologically important roles that include maintenance of intracellular ATP and acid–base balance, post-ischaemic recovery of protein synthesis, cerebral vasodilation, antioxidant actions, and stabilisation of lipid membranes. In the brain, creatine not only reduces lipid peroxidation and improves cerebral perfusion, its interaction with the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor is likely to counteract the effects of glutamate excitotoxicity – actions that may protect the preterm and term fetal brain from the effects of birth hypoxia. In this review we discuss the development of creatine synthesis during fetal life, the transfer of creatine from mother to fetus, and propose that creatine supplementation during pregnancy may have benefits for the fetus and neonate whenever oxidative stress or feto-placental hypoxia arise, as in cases of fetal growth restriction, premature birth, or when parturition is delayed or complicated by oxygen deprivation of the newborn. PMID:24766646

  8. Intracellular Shuttle: The Lactate Aerobic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; Penteado Dos Santos, Rafael; Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira, Mariana; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that can be used as a fuel by several cells of the human body, particularly during physical exercise. Traditionally, it has been believed that the first step of lactate oxidation occurs in cytosol; however, this idea was recently challenged. A new hypothesis has been presented based on the fact that lactate-to-pyruvate conversion cannot occur in cytosol, because the LDH enzyme characteristics and cytosolic environment do not allow the reaction in this way. Instead, the Intracellular Lactate Shuttle hypothesis states that lactate first enters in mitochondria and only then is metabolized. In several tissues of the human body this idea is well accepted but is quite resistant in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we will present not only the studies which are protagonists in this discussion, but the potential mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and also a link between lactate and mitochondrial proliferation. This new perspective brings some implications and comes to change our understanding of the interaction between the energy systems, because the product of one serves as a substrate for the other. PMID:22593684

  9. RNA sequencing of creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficient fibroblasts reveals impairment of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Nota, Benjamin; Ndika, Joseph D T; van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Kanhai, Warsha A; van Dooren, Silvy J M; van de Wiel, Mark A; Pals, Gerard; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-09-01

    Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency is the most common cause of cerebral creatine syndromes, and is characterized by depletion of creatine in the brain. Manifestations of this X-linked disorder include intellectual disability, speech/language impairment, behavior abnormalities, and seizures. At the moment, no effective treatment is available. In order to investigate the molecular pathophysiology of this disorder, we performed RNA sequencing on fibroblasts derived from patients. The transcriptomes of fibroblast cells from eight unrelated individuals with SLC6A8 deficiency and three wild-type controls were sequenced. SLC6A8 mutations with different effects on the protein product resulted in different gene expression profiles. Differential gene expression analysis followed by gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that especially the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton are altered in SLC6A8 deficiency, such as collagens, keratins, integrins, and cadherins. This suggests an important novel role for creatine in the structural development and maintenance of cells. It is likely that the (extracellular) structure of brain cells is also impaired in SLC6A8-deficient patients, and future studies are necessary to confirm this and to reveal the true functions of creatine in the brain. PMID:24962355

  10. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  11. Creatine kinase and endocrine responses of elite players pre, during, and post rugby league match play.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine player-movement patterns to determine total distance covered during competitive Rugby League match play using global positioning systems (GPSs) and (b) examine pre, during, and postmatch creatine kinase (CK) and endocrine responses to competitive Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite rugby league players were monitored for a single game. Player movement patterns were recorded using portable GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 5 days postmatch to determine plasma CK and salivary testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C). The change in the dependent variables at each sample collection time was compared to 24-hour prematch measures. Backs and forwards traveled distances 5,747 ± 1,095 and 4,774 ± 1,186 m, respectively, throughout the match. Cortisol and CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 30 minutes prematch to 30 minutes postmatch. Creatine kinase increased significantly (p < 0.05) postmatch, with peak CK concentration measured 24 hours postmatch (889.25 ± 238.27 U·L). Cortisol displayed a clear pattern of response with significant (p < 0.05) elevations up to 24 hours postmatch, compared with 24 hours prematch. The GPS was able to successfully provide data on player-movement patterns during competitive rugby league match play. The CK and endocrine profile identified acute muscle damage and a catabolic state associated with Rugby League match play. A return to normal T:C within 48 hours postmatch indicates that a minimum period of 48 hours is required for endocrine homeostasis postcompetition. Creatine kinase remained elevated despite 120 hours of recovery postmatch identifying that a prolonged period of at least 5 days modified activity is required to achieve full recovery after muscle damage during competitive Rugby League match play. PMID:20703171

  12. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance.

    PubMed

    Warber, John P; Tharion, William J; Patton, John F; Champagne, Catherine M; Mitotti, Peter; Lieberman, Harris R

    2002-11-01

    Dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation has been shown to enhance muscular strength and endurance. This study determined the effects of Cr supplementation on performance of military training tasks. Two groups (Cr and placebo [Pl]) of 13 male soldiers each performed 3 consecutive military obstacle course runs ( approximately 3 minutes over 7 obstacles with a 2-minute rest between runs) followed by a rifle marksmanship task on 3 occasions (T(1), T(2), and T(3)), each separated by 5 days. They also completed a bench press protocol (5 sets to failure at 70% of 1 repetition maximum) and answered the Profile of Mood States questionnaire during each test session. Testing was done 3 times. No supplementation was given before T(1). Supplementation was provided using sports bars, with both groups receiving Pl bars between T(1) and T(2), whereas from T(2) to T(3) the Cr group consumed 24 g per day of Cr monohydrate in sports bars and the Pl group consumed an equal amount (kilocalories) of Pl sports bars. Creatine usage resulted in a significant (14%) increase in total bench press repetitions (p Creatine supplementation over 5 days improved performance during a controlled strength test but did not significantly improve military obstacle course performance. PMID:12423177

  13. Kinetics of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lupo, M.A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1990-04-01

    Lactate clearance by liver plays an important role in lactate homeostasis and in the development of lactic acidosis. The role of lactate delivery to liver as a limiting factor in hepatic uptake of lactate is unclear. Lactate delivery of mechanisms could be important if rates of lactate transport approximate rates of lactate metabolism by liver. The rates of lactate transport into liver have been determined in vitro with isolated liver cells and the results have been conflicting. Therefore, the present studies measure the rate of transport of (14C)-L-lactate, and its poorly metabolizeable stereoisomer, (14C)-D-lactate, into rat liver in vivo using a portal vein injection technique. The transport of (3H)-water and of (14C)-sucrose, an extracellular reference compound, were also studied. Portal blood flow was determined from the kinetics of (3H)-water efflux in liver and was 1.93 +/- 0.22 mL/min/g. The volumes of distribution of (14C)-L-lactate, and (14C)-sucrose were 1.31 +/- 0.22, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.22 +/- 0.07 mL/g, respectively. The extraction of unidirectional influx of (14C)-L-lactate and (14C)-D-lactate by rat liver was 93% +/- 10% and 91% +/- 9%, respectively. The rate of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo, 1.8 mumols.min-1.g-1, is approximately twofold greater than the rate of lactate metabolism by rat liver reported in the literature. Therefore, lactate uptake by liver may not be limited by transport under normal conditions. However, conditions such as decreased portal blood flow, which slow lactate delivery to liver by 50% or more, could cause lactate uptake by liver to be limited by transport of circulating lactate.

  14. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Finn; T. R. Ebert; R. T. Withers; M. F. Carey; M. Mackay; J. W. Phillips; M. A. Febbraio

    2001-01-01

    This double blind study investigated the effect of oral creatine supplementation (CrS) on 4?×?20?s of maximal sprinting on\\u000a an air-braked cycle ergometer. Each sprint was separated by 20?s of recovery. A group of 16 triathletes [mean age 26.6?(SD?5.1)?years.\\u000a mean body mass 77.0?(SD?5.8)?kg, mean body fat 12.9?(SD?4.6)%, maximal oxygen uptake 4.86 (SD?0.7)?l?·?min?1] performed an initial 4?×?20?s trial after a muscle biopsy

  15. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Walter, M C; Lochmüller, H; Reilich, P; Klopstock, T; Huber, R; Hartard, M; Hennig, M; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W

    2000-05-01

    The authors assessed the safety and efficacy of creatine monohydrate (Cr) in various types of muscular dystrophies in a double-blind, crossover trial. Thirty-six patients (12 patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, 10 patients with Becker dystrophy, 8 patients with Duchenne dystrophy, and 6 patients with sarcoglycan-deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy) were randomized to receive Cr or placebo for 8 weeks. There was mild but significant improvement in muscle strength and daily-life activities by Medical Research Council scales and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score. Cr was well tolerated throughout the study period. PMID:10802796

  16. PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS AND LONGER LACTATIONS WITH DIMINISHING CREDITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures of productive life (PL) were compared and life expectancy factors were updated to replace estimates from 1993. Alternatives were proposed with extra credits for lactations longer than 10 mo and beyond 84 mo of age, and for each calf produced so that an extremely long lactation w...

  17. Canine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: erythrocytic defects--osmotic fragility, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, P J; Forsyth, G W; Olexson, D W; Thatte, H S; Addis, P B

    1984-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed as malignant hyperthermia susceptible based on increased susceptibility (P less than 0.001) of biopsied muscle to caffeine-induced contracture. Erythrocytes from malignant hyperthermia and normal dogs were then examined for an antioxidant system deficiency. Values for serum muscle enzymes, reticulocytes and corpuscular hemoglobin were mildly elevated. Osmotic fragility was increased: hemolysis occurred at a NaCl concentration 10 mM higher than for normal dogs (P less than 0.001). A 35% glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (P less than 0.001) with a 40% compensatory increase (P less than 0.01) in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity was found. The membrane Ca2+-activated ATPase activity was abnormal: 100% increased with a 40% decreased Arrhenius activation energy (P less than 0.005) and increased thermostability. A 40% increased intracellular accumulation of total Ca2+ occurred in response to in vitro energy depletion in erythrocytes from one malignant hyperthermia dog (P less than 0.01). The multifactorial pattern of inheritance and the broad spectrum of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility are proposed to result from an antioxidant system deficit unmasking or aggravating an intrinsic muscle membrane anomaly. An individual from a family with a history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained anesthetic death should be considered malignant hyperthermia susceptible if erythrocyte osmotic fragility is abnormal and there is a mild, unexplained elevation in serum creatine kinase. PMID:6150753

  18. Effect of major hepatectomy on glucose and lactate metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Chioléro, R; Tappy, L; Gillet, M; Revelly, J P; Roth, H; Cayeux, C; Schneiter, P; Leverve, X

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liver plays an important role in glucose and lactate metabolism. Major hepatectomy may therefore be suspected to cause alterations of glucose and lactate homeostasis. METHODS: Thirteen subjects were studied: six patients after major hepatectomy and seven healthy subjects who had fasted overnight. Glucose turnover was measured with 6,6(2)H glucose. Lactate metabolism was assessed using two complementary approaches: 13C-glucose synthesis and 13CO2 production from an exogenous 13C-labeled lactate load infused over 15 minutes were measured, then the plasma lactate concentrations observed over 185 minutes after lactate load were fitted using a biexponential model to calculate lactate clearance, endogenous production, and half-lives. RESULTS: Three to five liver segments were excised. Compared to healthy controls, the following results were observed in the patients: 1) normal endogenous glucose production; 2) unchanged 13C-lactate oxidation and transformation into glucose; 3) similar basal plasma lactate concentration, lactate clearance, and lactate endogenous production; 4) decreased plasma lactate half-life 1 and increased half-life 2. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose and lactate metabolism are well maintained in patients after major hepatectomy, demonstrating a large liver functional reserve. Reduction in the size of normal liver parenchyma does not lead to hyperlactatemia. The use of a pharmacokinetic model, however, allows the detection of subtle alterations of lactate metabolism. PMID:10203083

  19. The active site histidines of creatine kinase. A critical role of His 61 situated on a flexible loop.

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, M.; Müller, A.; Stolz, M.; Wallimann, T.

    1997-01-01

    A histidine residue with a pKa of 7 has been inferred to act as a general acid-base catalyst for the reaction of creatine kinase (CK), catalyzing the reversible phosphorylation of creatine by ATP. The chicken sarcomeric muscle mitochondrial isoenzyme Mib-CK contains several histidine residues that are conserved throughout the family of creatine kinases. By X-ray crystal structure analysis, three of them (His 61, His 92, and His 186) were recently shown to be located close to the active site of the enzyme. These residues were exchanged against alanine or aspartate by in vitro mutagenesis, and the six mutant proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified. Structural integrity of the mutant proteins was checked by small-angle X-ray scattering. Kinetic analysis showed the mutant His 61 Asp to be completely inactive in the direction of ATP consumption while exhibiting a residual activity of 1.7% of the wild-type (wt) activity in the reverse direction. The respective His to Ala mutant of residue 61 showed approximately 1% wt activity in the forward and 10% wt activity in the reverse reaction. All other mutants showed near wt activities. Changes in the kinetic parameters K(m) or Vmax, as well as a significant loss of synergism in substrate binding, could be observed with all active mutants. These effects were most pronounced for the binding of creatine and phosphocreatine, whereas ATP or ADP binding were less severely affected. Based on our results, we assume that His 92 and His 186 are involved in the binding of creatine and ATP in the active site, whereas His 61 is of importance for the catalytic reaction but does not serve as an acid-base catalyst in the transphosphorylation of creatine and ATP. In addition, our data support the idea that the flexible loop bearing His 61 is able to move towards the active site and to participate in catalysis. PMID:9041634

  20. Flexible graphene bio-nanosensor for lactate.

    PubMed

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue

    2013-03-15

    The development of a flexible nanosensor for detecting lactate could expand opportunities for using graphene, both in fundamental studies for a variety of device platforms and in practical applications. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with ultrasensitive sensing capabilities. Lactic acid is important for clinical analysis, sports medicine, and the food industry. Recently, wearable and flexible bioelectronics on plastics have attracted great interest for healthcare, sports and defense applications due to their advantages of being light-weight, bendable, or stretchable. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the development of a flexible graphene-based bio-nanosensor to detect lactate. Our results show that flexible lactate biosensors can be fabricated on a variety of plastic substrates. The sensor can detect lactate sensitively from 0.08 ?M to 20 ?M with a fast steady-state measuring time of 2s. The sensor can also detect lactate under different mechanical bending conditions, the sensor response decreased as the bending angle and number of bending repetitions increased. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for fundamental studies of flexible graphene bioelectronics by using other bioreceptors, as well as a variety of wearable, implantable, real-time, or on-site applications in fields ranging from clinical analysis to defense. PMID:22954527

  1. Creatine Kinase Brain Overexpression Protects Colorectal Cells From Various Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M.; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Williams, Brenten H.; Zeng, Yu; Christudass, Christhunesa S.; Li, Youqiang; Yin, Bo; Kulkarni, Prakash; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine kinase brain (CKB) is one of three cytosolic isoforms of creatine kinase that is predominantly expressed in the brain. The enzyme is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, with the exception of colon cancer, where it is downregulated. The significance of this downregulation remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of CKB-C283S, a dominant-negative construct that lacks the kinase function but retains its ability to dimerize, causes remarkable changes in cell shape, adhesion, and invasion. Furthermore, it results in increased expression of stromal cell markers such as PAGE4 and SNAIL, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. In cells transfected with a CKB-expressing construct, CKB localizes not only to the cytosol but also to the nucleus, indicating a structural or kinase role unrelated to ATP storage. Furthermore, overexpression of CFP-tagged wild-type (WT) CKB in Caco-2 colon cancer cells dramatically increased the number of cells in G2/M but had little effect on cell proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the downregulation of CKB may play an important role in colon cancer progression by promoting. PMID:21308735

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography of proteins on deformed nonporous agarose beads. Affinity chromatography of dehydrogenases based on cibacron blue-derivatized agarose.

    PubMed

    Li, J P; Eriksson, K O; Hjertén, S

    1990-01-01

    Nonporous agarose beads, prepared by shrinkage and cross-linking in organic solvents, were derivatized with Cibacron Blue F3G-A. A compressed bed of these beads was used for purification of dehydrogenases (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase). The chromatographic conditions for the purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were optimized by varying the pH of the buffer; the concentrations of eluting agents, i.e. NADP (specific elution) and sodium chloride (nonspecific elution); flow rate; residence time of the protein on the column bed; and protein load. Specific elution with NADP (2 mM in 0.025 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0) gave the highest recovery (140%) and highest purification factor (200-fold) of the enzyme. The ability of the compressed bed of nonporous agarose beads to tolerate high flow rates was essential, since the recovery of the enzyme activity increased with an increase in flow rate. PMID:2235911

  3. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N. (Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with (U-14C)glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 {plus minus} 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood {sup 14}Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to {approximately} 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 {plus minus} 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 {plus minus} 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and {sup 14}Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral {sup 14}Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no {sup 14}Cglucose, and (U-14C)lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of {sup 14}Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the {sup 14}Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 {plus minus} 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion.

  4. The lactose synthetase particles of lactating bovine mammary gland. Preparation of particles with intact lactose synthetase.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R G; Reithel, F J

    1968-09-01

    1. The particulate form of lactating bovine mammary lactose synthetase activity is shown to be more highly organized than previously reported. 2. A novel method of shattering frozen mammary tissue with effective cell disruption is described. 3. The apparent subcellular distribution of lactose synthetase was shown to reflect the method of homogenization. 4. After mild homogenization particles associated with a high content of intact lactose synthetase activity sedimented in the lysosome size range between 5x10(4) and 3x10(5)g-min. 5. Lactose synthetase was dissociated and solubilized by VirTis homogenization and ultrasonic treatment. The activities and behaviour of UDP-galactose hydrolase, succinate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase and phosphodiesterase I were compared. 6. Inhibition of UDP-galactose hydrolase by UTP and alpha-lactalbumin was observed. PMID:4300506

  5. Rhabdomyolysis as a Presenting Manifestation of Very Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Sara Freitas; Pinho, Liliana; Rocha, Hugo; Nogueira, Célia; Vilarinho, Laura; Dinis, Maria José; Silva, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (MIM 201475) is a rare inherited disorder with three forms of clinical presentation: a severe early-onset form; an intermediate form with childhood onset; and an adult-onset form, of mild severity. During adolescence and adulthood, exercise intolerance, myalgia and recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis are the main clinical features. The authors present a case of a 13-year old female, with severe myalgia and dark urine after prolonged exercise. Analytical evaluation showed marked elevation plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin. The increased levels of tetradecenoyl carnitine in patient’s dried blood spot suggested a VLCAD deficiency, which was confirmed by molecular study. Family history is remarkable for first grade consanguinity of parents and a 19-year old brother with records of repeated similar episodes after moderate intensity physical efforts which was subsequently also diagnosed with VLCAD deficiency. This is one of the first cases of late-onset of disease diagnosed in Portugal. PMID:24765510

  6. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  7. Comparison of selected lactate threshold parameters with maximal lactate steady state in cycling.

    PubMed

    Hauser, T; Adam, J; Schulz, H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare power at "onset of blood lactate accumulation" (OBLA), "individual anaerobic threshold" (IAT) and "+1.5?mmol???l(-1) lactate model" with power in maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in cycling. However, there is a lack of studies concerning the absolute individual differences between different lactate parameters and MLSS.A total of 57 male participants performed several 30-min constant-load tests to determine MLSS by measuring blood lactate concentration (BLC). Depending on BLC, power was increased or decreased by 10?W in the following 30-min test. For detecting power at different threshold parameters, an incremental test was performed that began at 40?W and increased by 40?W every 4?min.Highly significant correlations were found between OBLA and MLSS: r=0.89 (mean difference -7.4?W); IAT and MLSS: r=0.83 (mean difference 12.4W), "+1.5?mmol???l(-1) lactate model" and MLSS: r=0.88 (mean difference -37.4W). On average, the parameters of OBLA and IAT approximate MLSS with no significant differences. The "+1.5?mmol???l(-1) lactate model" underestimates MLSS significantly.Based on Bland-and-Altman, the comparison of power of all threshold parameters with power in MLSS shows great individual differences despite the high regression coefficients and low mean differences between these methods. PMID:24227122

  8. Neural pathways underlying lactate-induced panic.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Truitt, William A; Fitz, Stephanie D; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2008-08-01

    Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by susceptibility to induction of panic attacks by subthreshold interoceptive stimuli such as 0.5 M sodium lactate infusions. Although studied for four decades, the mechanism of lactate sensitivity in panic disorder has not been understood. The dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical region (DMH/PeF) coordinates rapid mobilization of behavioral, autonomic, respiratory and endocrine responses to stress, and rats with disrupted GABA inhibition in the DMH/PeF exhibit panic-like responses to lactate, similar to panic disorder patients. Utilizing a variety of anatomical and pharmacological methods, we provide evidence that lactate, via osmosensitive periventricular pathways, activates neurons in the compromised DMH/PeF, which relays this signal to forebrain limbic structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to mediate anxiety responses, and specific brainstem sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to mediate the respiratory and cardiovascular components of the panic-like response. Acutely restoring local GABAergic tone in the DMH/PeF blocked lactate-induced panic-like responses. Autonomic panic-like responses appear to be a result of DMH/PeF-mediated mobilization of sympathetic responses (verified with atenolol) and resetting of the parasympathetically mediated baroreflex. Based on our findings, DMH/PeF efferent targets such as the C1 adrenergic neurons, paraventricular hypothalamus, and the central amygdala are implicated in sympathetic mobilization; the nucleus of the solitary tract is implicated in baroreflex resetting; and the parabrachial nucleus is implicated in respiratory responses. These results elucidate neural circuits underlying lactate-induced panic-like responses and the involvement of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. PMID:18059441

  9. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL...dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum. Measurements...

  10. Breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Hyonil; Liu, Hyun Ju; Han, Sei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Breast is a typical female sexual physiologic organ that is influenced by steroid hormone from menarche until menopause. Therefore various diseases can be developed by continuous action of estrogen and progesterone. Breast diseases are mainly categorized as benign and malignant. It is very important to distinguish the malignancy from breast diseases. However, it is very difficult to diagnose malignancy in pregnant and lactating women even though the same breast diseases took place. Therefore, we will review breast diseases such as breast carcinoma during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24327995

  11. D-Lactate altered mitochondrial energy production in rat brain and heart but not liver

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantially elevated blood D-lactate (DLA) concentrations are associated with neurocardiac toxicity in humans and animals. The neurological symptoms are similar to inherited or acquired abnormalities of pyruvate metabolism. We hypothesized that DLA interferes with mitochondrial utilization of L-lactate and pyruvate in brain and heart. Methods Respiration rates in rat brain, heart and liver mitochondria were measured using DLA, LLA and pyruvate independently and in combination. Results In brain mitochondria, state 3 respiration was 53% and 75% lower with DLA as substrate when compared with LLA and pyruvate, respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly in heart mitochondria, state 3 respiration was 39% and 86% lower with DLA as substrate when compared with LLA or pyruvate, respectively (p < 0.05). However, state 3 respiration rates were similar between DLA, LLA and pyruvate in liver mitochondria. Combined incubation of DLA with LLA or pyruvate markedly impaired state 3 respiration rates in brain and heart mitochondria (p < 0.05) but not in liver mitochondria. DLA dehydrogenase activities were 61% and 51% lower in brain and heart mitochondria compared to liver, respectively, whereas LLA dehydrogenase activities were similar across all three tissues. An LDH inhibitor blocked state 3 respiration with LLA as substrate in all three tissues. A monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor blocked respiration with all three substrates. Conclusions DLA was a poor respiratory substrate in brain and heart mitochondria and inhibited LLA and pyruvate usage in these tissues. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether these findings support, in part, the possible neurological and cardiac toxicity caused by high DLA levels. PMID:22296683

  12. Alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (insoluble) and lactic dehydrogenase activities in the skeletal muscles of two insects.

    PubMed

    Kallapur, V L; George, C J

    1975-05-01

    The flight muscle preparations of the dragonfly Pantala flavescens and the aquatic beetle Cybister confusus showed extremely low levels of lactic dehydrogenase activity and high levels of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (insoluble) activity. The activities of these two enzymes in the leg muscle of the beetle were approximately the same (1:1), but lactic dehydrogenase activity was several times higher than that in the flight muscles of both Insects. These results have been interpreted as indicating the high energy-yielding demands of the flight muscles during continuous sustained activity, while the leg muscles of the beetle which are involved in swimming activity derive their energy predominantly through anaerobic glycolysis. PMID:54055

  13. Application of isotopes to the study of lactate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.

    1986-06-01

    The use of /sup 14/C as tracer to measure lactate turnover and oxidation and its role in gluconeogenesis are discussed. Lactate is formed as well as utilized in many cells, and most of it in the body is present within cells so that interpretation of /sup 14/C data from labelled lactate is more complex and more difficult than that of compounds present largely extracellularly, such as glucose. Apparent uptake of (/sup 14/C)lactate may occur in the absence of net lactate utilization, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production does not provide a measure of true lactate oxidation. In vivo sites of tracer administration and sampling of blood are of critical significance for evaluation of lactate turnover, lactate space, its incorporation into glucose, and oxidation.

  14. Calculations of hydrogen tunnelling and enzyme catalysis: a comparison of liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresadern, Gary; McNamara, Jonathan P.; Mohr, Matthias; Wang, Hong; Burton, Neil A.; Hillier, Ian H.

    2002-06-01

    Although the potential energy barrier for hydrogen transfer is similar for the enzymes liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase, the degree of tunnelling is predicted to differ greatly, and is reflected by their primary kinetic isotope effects.

  15. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD patients and compile their clinical, 1H-MRS, biochemical and molecular data. Six GAMT [N-guanidinoacetatemethyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.2)] and 10 X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) but no AGAT (GATM) [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1)] deficient patients were identified in this manner. Three additional affected sibs were further identified after familial inquiry (1 brother with GAMT deficiency and 2 brothers with SLC6A8 deficiency in two different families). The prevalence of PCD in this population was 0.25% (0.09% and 0.16% for GAMT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, respectively). Seven new PCD-causing mutations were discovered (2 nonsense [c.577C?>?T and c.289C?>?T] and 1 splicing [c.391?+?15G?>?T] mutations for the GAMT gene and, 2 missense [c.1208C?>?A and c.926C?>?A], 1 frameshift [c.930delG] and 1 splicing [c.1393-1G?>?A] mutations for the SLC6A8 gene). No hot spot mutations were observed in these genes, as all the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene sequences and were essentially patient/family specific. Approximately one fifth of the mutations of SLC6A8, but not GAMT, were attributed to neo-mutation, germinal or somatic mosaicism events. The only SLC6A8-deficient female patient in our series presented with the severe phenotype usually characterizing affected male patients, an observation in agreement with recent evidence that is in support of the fact that this X-linked disorder might be more frequent than expected in the female population with intellectual disability. PMID:23234264

  16. Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree.

    PubMed

    Battini, Roberta; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Carducci, Carla; Tosetti, Michela; Bianchi, Maria C; Item, Chike B; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Cioni, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC 2.1.4.1) deficiency is a recently recognized autosomal recessive inborn error of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by mental retardation and severe language impairment. We extensively investigated a third 5-year-old patient with AGAT deficiency, discovered in the pedigree of the same Italian family as the two index cases. At the age of 2 years he presented with psychomotor and language delay, and autistic-like behavior. Brain MRI was normal, but brain 1H-MRS disclosed brain creatine depletion, which almost completely normalized following creatine monohydrate supplementation. A remarkable clinical improvement paralleled the restoration of brain creatine concentration. AGAT and GAMT (guanidinoacetate:methyltransferase) genes were analyzed in the proband and in 26 relatives, including the two cousins with AGAT deficiency. Sequencing of the proband's AGAT gene disclosed the same homozygous mutation at nt position 9093 converting a tryptophan (TGG) to a stop codon (TAG) at residue 149 (W149X), as already described in the two previously reported cases. The proband's parents and 10 additional subjects of the pedigree were carriers for this mutation. AGAT deficiency was further confirmed by undetectable AGAT activity in the patient's lymphoblasts. Mutation analysis of the GAMT gene revealed a sequence variation in exon 6 (T209M), not in the proband, but in 15 additional subjects from the pedigree. The silent nature of this sequence variation is supported by its homozygosity in one AGAT deficient cousin and in one asymptomatic adult, both with normal GAMT activity. PMID:12468279

  17. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2 * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1 1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  18. The impact of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on muscular strength, muscle soreness and creatine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L L Smith; M G Fulmer; D Holbert; M R McCammon; J A Houmard; D D Frazer; E Nsien; R G Israel

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any beneficial or detrimental effects regarding delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), serum creatine kinase (CK), and maximum concentric strength at 80% of 1-RMconc, if a bout of eccentric exercise was repeated at 48 h after an initial bout. A secondary purpose was to determine whether unaccustomed eccentrics might affect

  19. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of ges...

  20. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  1. Administration of Harmine and Imipramine Alters Creatine Kinase and Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activities in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Réus, Gislaine Z.; Stringari, Roberto B.; Gonçalves, Cinara L.; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Jeremias, Gabriela C.; Jeremias, Isabela C.; Ferreira, Gabriela K.; Streck, Emílio L.; Hallak, Jaime E.; Zuardi, Antônio W.; Crippa, José A.; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities after administration of harmine (5, 10, and 15?mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20, and 30?mg/kg) in rat brain. After acute treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine in all doses, in the striatum with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg); harmine (15?mg/kg) decreased creatine kinase. In the chronic treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase with imipramine (20?mg/kg), harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the acute treatment, the complex I increased in the prefrontal with harmine (15?mg/kg) and in the striatum with harmine (10?mg/kg); the complex II decreased with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) in the striatum; the complex IV increased with imipramine (30?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the chronic treatment, the complex I increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex II increased with imipramine (20?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex IV increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the striatum. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that harmine and imipramine could be involved in mitochondrial function. PMID:21969912

  2. Theoretical modelling of some spatial and temporal aspects of the mitochondrion\\/creatine kinase\\/ myofibril system in muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham J. Kemp; David N. Manners; Joseph F. Clark; Mark E. Bastin; George K. Radda

    1998-01-01

    After discussing approaches to the modelling of mitochondrial regulation in muscle, we describe a model that takes account, in a simplified way, of some aspects of the metabolic and physical structure of the energy production\\/usage system. In this model, high-energy phosphates (ATP and phosphocreatine) and low energy metabolites (ADP and creatine) diffuse between the mitochondrion and the myofibrillar ATPase, and

  3. Proximal tubular lactate transport in rat kidney: A micropuncture study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Höhmann; Peter P Frohnert; Rolf Kinne; Karl Baumann; F Papavassiliou; M Wagner

    1974-01-01

    Proximal tubular lactate transport in rat kidney: A micropuncture study. Micropuncture studies of renal lactate behavior in the rat showed free filtration across the glomerular membrane. Under free-flow conditions, 95% of the filtered load was reabsorbed by the proximal tubule, thus generating a transtubular concentration gradient. In the absence of volume changes, an intratubular steady-state concentration of lactate was established

  4. LACTATION PERSISTENCY: INSIGHTS FROM MAMMARY CELL PROLIFERATION STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A persistent lactation is dependent upon maintaining number and activity of milk secreting cells with advancing lactation. When dairy cows are milked twice daily, the increase in milk yield from parturition to peak lactation is due to increased secretory activity per cell, rather than to accretion ...

  5. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  6. EFFECTS OF LACTATE, PYRUVATE, BUTYRATE AND AMMONIA ON GLUCONEOGENESIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS OF LACTATE, PYRUVATE, BUTYRATE AND AMMONIA ON GLUCONEOGENESIS FROM PROPIONATE BY ISOLATED cedex, France Résumé EFFET DU LACTATE, DU PYRUVATE, DU BUTYRATE ET DES IONS AMMONIUM SUR LA à partir du propionate, du lactate, du pyruvate utilisés à différentes concentrations, seuls ou en

  7. Shaking up glycolysis: Sustained, high lactate flux during aerobic rattling

    E-print Network

    Lindstedt, Stan

    Shaking up glycolysis: Sustained, high lactate flux during aerobic rattling William F. Kemper in vertebrate muscle. An alternative hypothesis is that the lactate generated during contraction reflects by comparing intracellular glycolysis during anoxia to lactate efflux from muscle during sustained, aerobic

  8. Original article Influence of feed restriction in primiparous lactating

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Influence of feed restriction in primiparous lactating sows on body condition 2.3 mm) during lactation than H sows. On day W-1, L sows had higher mean concentrations of NEFA (P sows (P lactating primiparous sows alter secretion of metabolic hormones

  9. Original article Effects of simultaneous gestation and lactation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effects of simultaneous gestation and lactation in rabbit does on muscular the influence of concurrent gestation and lactation in rabbit does on the post-natal growth and muscular simultaneously pregnant and lactating does (PL group) or from only pregnant does (P group). There were

  10. Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition M. DOREAU, Sylviane BOULOT W. MARTIN-ROSSET H. DUBROEUCQ Station des Productions bovines et chevalines, Laboratoire de la Lactation, (*) Unité Elevage et Alimentation du Cheval, l. N. R. A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Ten lactating

  11. Technical Note Temporal Dynamics of Lactate Concentration in the

    E-print Network

    Mitsis, Georgios

    Technical Note Temporal Dynamics of Lactate Concentration in the Human Brain During Acute the feasibility of measuring the temporal dynamics of cerebral lactate concentration and examine these dynamics with 10-minute normoxic recovery was used, throughout which lactate-edited MRS was per- formed

  12. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  13. The origin and evolution of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, Anthony V; Akers, R Michael

    2009-01-01

    The presence of mammary glands is the defining morphological feature of mammals. The recent assembly of the bovine genome and a report in Genome Biology that links the milk and lactation data of bovine and other mammalian genomes will help biologists investigate this economically and medically important feature. PMID:19439024

  14. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  15. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  16. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. Design: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured...

  17. Alternaria alternata mannitol dehydrogenase, a fungal allergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Schneider; U. Denk; C. Ebner; M. Breitenbach; B. Simon-Nobbe

    2004-01-01

    RationaleMannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) has previously been shown to be the major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum. Since cross-reactivity has been demonstrated for several fungal allergens we have cloned the homolog protein of Alternaria alternata and tested it in respect to its IgE-reactivity.

  18. Serum Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Is a Labile Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liang-Jun; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) is a multifunctional oxidoreductase and is well known as an essential component of four mammalian mitochondrial multienzyme complexes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase, and the glycine cleavage system. However, existence of extracellular DLDH in mammals, if any, has not been clearly defined. The present article reports identification and biochemical characterization of serum DLDH. Proteomic analysis of rat serum using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and mass spectrometry peptide sequencing led to generation of 6 tryptic peptides in one band that matched to mitochondrial DLDH, indicating the existence of DLDH in rat serum. Measurement of enzymatic activity also indicated the existence of DLDH in human and mouse serum. Further biochemical analysis of rat serum DLDH revealed that this enzyme lacked diaphorase activity and could not be detected on Western blots probed with antibodies that recognized mitochondrial DLDH. Moreover, both ammonium sulfate fractioning and gel filtration of serum samples rendered a great loss in DLDH activity, indicating that the enzyme activity of this serum protein, unlike that of mitochondrial DLDH, is very labile. When DTT was supplemented in the buffer used for gel filtration, DLDH activity was found to be largely preserved; indicating that serum DLDH is susceptible to air-implicated inactivation. Results of the present study indicate that serum DLDH differs from mitochondrial DLDH in that it is a very labile enzyme. PMID:23646291

  19. Modification of aldehyde dehydrogenase with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: Separation of dehydrogenase from esterase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl P. Abriola; Regina Pietruszko

    1992-01-01

    Dehydrogenase activity of the cytoplasmic (E1) isozyme of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) was almost totally abolished (3% activity remaining) by preincubation with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), while esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate remained intact. The esterase reaction of the modified enzyme exhibited a hysteretic burst prior to achieving steady-state velocity; addition of NAD+ abolished the burst. TheKm for

  20. Creatine, L-Carnitine, and ?3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation from Healthy to Diseased Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Micheletti, Piero; Aquilani, Roberto; Nisoli, Enzo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Daglia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Myopathies are chronic degenerative pathologies that induce the deterioration of the structure and function of skeletal muscle. So far a definitive therapy has not yet been developed and the main aim of myopathy treatment is to slow the progression of the disease. Current nonpharmacological therapies include rehabilitation, ventilator assistance, and nutritional supplements, all of which aim to delay the onset of the disease and relieve its symptoms. Besides an adequate diet, nutritional supplements could play an important role in the treatment of myopathic patients. Here we review the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the role supplementation with creatine, L-carnitine, and ?3 PUFAs plays in myopathy treatment. Our results suggest that these dietary supplements could have beneficial effects; nevertheless continued studies are required before they could be recommended as a routine treatment in muscle diseases. PMID:25243159