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1

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

2

Depressive symptoms of female nursing staff working in stressful environments and their association with serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase – a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background The activity of creatine kinase (CK) in serum has recently been reported to be potentially associated with several types of depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether serum enzymes, including CK, vary even in a healthy population with depressive symptoms caused by work-related stress. We gave questionnaires and blood examinations to 93 healthy female nursing home workers and did an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of CK isozyme muscle-type M chain (CK-MM) in serum. Findings Depressive symptoms were determined using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and compared with the results of the blood examination and serum CK-MM levels. The CES-D results showed significant negative correlations with total CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and CK-MM level (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0062; r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0065; r?=?-0.33, p?=?0.0016, respectively). Conclusions Total CK and LDH activities and serum CK-MM level appear to be associated with the depressive symptoms of healthy nurses working in stressful environments, although the significance level was relatively low. The simultaneous detection of serum CK and LDH activities or serum CK-MM level and LDH activity may be useful as an indicator of depressive symptoms, at least for female nursing staff with work-related stress. PMID:25243019

2014-01-01

3

Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

4

[Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians].  

PubMed

Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica. PMID:3962529

Vykhrestiuk, N P; Burenina, E A; Iarygina, G V

1986-01-01

5

IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase accord.  

PubMed

This paper is the seventh in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Procedures for the Measurement of Catalytic Activity Concentrations of Enzymes; Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. The certification of the catalytic activity concentrations as determined by the recently elaborated IFCC primary reference methods at 37 degrees C of four enzyme preparations, namely IRMM/IFCC 452 (gamma-glutamyltransferase), IRMM/IFCC 453 (lactate dehydrogenase 1), IRMM/IFCC 454 (alanine aminotransferase) and IRMM/IFCC 455 (creatine kinase) is described. Homogeneity data were derived from previous results. Stability was assessed using recently obtained data as well as data from previous stability studies. The collaborative study for value assignment was performed under a strict quality control scheme to ensure traceability to the primary reference method. Uncertainty of the materials was assessed in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The certified values obtained at 37 degrees C are 1.90 microkat/l +/- 0.04 microkat/l (114.1 U/l +/- 2.4 U/l), for gamma-glutamyltransferase, 8.37 microkat/l +/- 0.12 microkat/l (502 U/l +/- 7 U/l), for lactate dehydrogenase 1, 3.09 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat/l (186 U/l +/- 4 U/l), for alanine aminotransferase and 1.68 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat/l (101 U/l +/- 4 U/l), for creatine kinase. The materials are intended for internal quality control as well as for the evaluation of test systems as required by recent European Union legislation. Furthermore, the materials can be used to transfer accuracy from a reference method to a routine procedure provided the procedures exhibit the same analytical specificity and the certified materials are commutable. PMID:12241024

Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

2002-07-01

6

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

7

Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m) of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:19924225

Brown, Stacie A; Whiteley, Marvin

2009-01-01

8

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

9

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

10

Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to  

E-print Network

Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to Extreme Thermal LDHs adapted to function over a large temperature range. The enzymes were from Champsocephalus gunnari glycolysis. In the present study, we present a comparative biochemical and structural analysis of various

Glover, Mark

11

Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Patterns of Human Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human dental pulps from deciduous teeth and normal and impacted permanent teeth were studied by means of cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A dominance of the LDH-3 and LDH-4 isoenzymes was observed. This result is further evidence for the presence of a prominent anaerobic metabolism in this tissue.

Anders Linde; Anna Ljunggren

1970-01-01

12

Creatine supplementation increases glucose oxidation and AMPK phosphorylation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nm), creatine (0.5 mm) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by ?9.3- and ?5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake (?1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation (?1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen (?2.3-fold), lactate production (?1.5-fold) and 14CO2 production (?1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by ?42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by ?40% the basal rate of 14CO2 production. This is in agreement with the ?35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the ?2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both ?-1 and ?-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. PMID:14724211

Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary

2004-01-01

13

Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.

1988-12-01

14

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(?)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L-1 of optically pure D(?)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min-1 (mg protein)-1. By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(?) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2011-01-01

15

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-11-22

16

Phylogenetic Analysis of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Multigene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences\\u000a were found to be larger for a human–killifish pair than a human–lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence\\u000a may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions\\u000a separately for several species

Yi-Ju Li; Stephen C.-M. Tsoi

2002-01-01

17

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-X by imino-derivatives of gossypol:structure activity relationship.  

PubMed

Six imino-derivatives (II, III, IV, V, VI, VII) of gossypol (I) have been synthesized, and their effects were evaluated on the purified mouse lactate dehydrogenase-X. Three of these derivatives (V, VI, VII) with aldehyde groups substituted with hydrophobic functionalities showed equivalent or more inhibitory effects on lactate dehydrogenase-X than gossypol, whereas three other derivatives (II, III, IV) with aldehyde groups substituted with hydrophilic functional groups lost the ability to inhibit lactate dehydrogenase-X. It is suggested that two aldehyde groups of gossypol are not essential to inhibit lactate dehydrogenase-X. Furthermore, the hydrophobic property of the gossypol molecule seems to play a more important role in inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase-X. Therefore, lactate dehydrogenase-X inhibition by gossypol may not be associated with its antifertility mechanism, because the aldehyde group of gossypol is known to be required for its antifertility effect. PMID:3608484

Kim, I; Marcelle, G B; Waller, D P; Cordell, G A; Fong, H H

1987-03-01

18

Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis  

PubMed Central

Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD+/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis. PMID:24898534

Acharya, Abhinav P.; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C.; Gardner, Austin B.; Murthy, Niren

2014-01-01

19

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

20

Uncommon serum creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase increase during diosmin therapy: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Short-term administration of diosmin is usually considered safe, with only minor side effects (stomach and abdominal pain, diarrhea, dermatological disorders, and headache) occasionally observed. Within a 4-year period, a general practitioner noticed 17 cases of mild, diosmin-induced side effects, two of which showed particular interest. Cases presentation Case 1: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with chronic leg venous insufficiency. She was prescribed diosmin 450mg twice a day. After 5 days of therapy, she developed pain in the legs (myalgia), and diosmin therapy was suspended. She made a spontaneous attempt of drug rechallenge and her leg pain reappeared. Thus, she underwent blood analysis, which showed elevation of creatine phosphokinase levels. Creatine phosphokinase values normalized only after prolonged discontinuation of the therapy. Case 2: A 79-year-old Caucasian man, who was diagnosed with acute hemorrhoidal syndrome. After 21 days of continuous diosmin treatment, increased levels of serum lactic dehydrogenase were detected. In both cases a comprehensive analysis of all possible causes for enzyme elevation was made. Conclusions A feasible hypothesis to explain these rare effects could be that exaggerated adrenergic activity occurred on microcirculation, leading to an excessive peripheral vasoconstriction and subsequent ischemic damage. An individual predisposition is strongly suggested. A concurrence of events was probably responsible for the elevation of nonspecific tissue necrosis markers. Physicians and patients must be aware of these rare, but possible, adverse drug reactions. PMID:24934505

2014-01-01

21

Refolding of denatured lactate dehydrogenase by Escherichia coli ribosomes.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli ribosomes were used to refold denatured lactate dehydrogenase from porcine muscle. This activity of ribosomes, unlike most of the chaperons, did not require the presence of ATP. The molar concentration of ribosomes required for this refolding was comparable with that of the enzyme. Restoration of the enzyme activity was demonstrated using assays for both the forward and backward reactions. Binding of the denatured enzyme to ribosomes and its refolding were fairly rapid processes as revealed by the time course of the reaction and inhibition of folding when the denatured enzyme was allowed to refold spontaneously for short times before the addition of ribosomes. This protein-folding activity was detected in 70 S ribosomes as well as its RNA, in 50 S particles and in 23 S rRNA. However, 30 S particles failed to refold the enzyme. PMID:8010952

Chattopadhyay, S; Das, B; Bera, A K; Dasgupta, D; Dasgupta, C

1994-01-01

22

Conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

A series of isotope edited IR measurements, both static as well as temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy, are performed on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to determine the ensemble of structures available to its Michaelis complex. There clearly has been a substantial reduction in the number of states available to the pyruvate substrate (as modeled by the substrate mimic, oxamate) and NADH when bound to protein compared to dissolved in solution, as determined by the bandwidths and positions of the critical C2=O band of bound substrate mimic and the C4-H stretch of NADH reduced nicotinamide group. Moreover, it is found that a strong ionic bond (characterized by a signature IR band discovered in this study) is formed between the carboxyl group of bound pyruvate with (presumably) Arg171, forming a strong ‘anchor’ within the protein matrix. However, conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex is found that has an impact on both catalytic efficiency and thermodynamics of the enzyme. PMID:21568287

Deng, Hua; Vu, Dung V.; Clinch, Keith; Desamero, Ruel; Dyer, R. Brian; Callender, Robert

2011-01-01

23

D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(-)-lactate and D(+)-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by multiple events of gene duplication in both vertebrates and invertebrates, a shared evolutionary history of this gene in the two groups is apparent. Moreover, the high degree of sequence similarity among D-LDH amino acid sequences suggests that they share a common evolutionary history. PMID:18828920

2008-01-01

24

Production of L-lactate in Leuconostoc citreum via heterologous expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

D-form lactate is often found in fermented foods and excessive dietary intake of D-lactate may cause metabolic stress in both infants and patients. Leuconostoc citreum is a major lactic acid bacterium that produces D-lactate in fermented foods. The aim of this study was to change the pyruvate carbon flux in L. citreum from D-lactate into L-lactate by heterologous expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) gene. For this, ldhL from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and introduced into L. citreum using a shuttle vector pLeuCM. In the transformant, ldhL was successfully transcribed and L-lactate dehydrogenase was expressed. As a consequence of transformation, the ratio between D- and L-isomers was changed due to the increment of L-lactate and the decrement of D-lactate, but no significant differences were found in total lactate concentration between the host and transformant cells. This is the first report of metabolic engineering in Leuconostoc by modulating the central carbon flux into health-favored way. PMID:19699768

Jin, Qing; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Yu Jin; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Tae-Jip; Han, Nam Soo

2009-10-26

25

Critical role for lactate dehydrogenase A in aerobic glycolysis that sustains pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells possess both highly proliferative and angiogenic capacities, yet it is unclear how these cells sustain the metabolic requirements essential for such growth. Rapidly proliferating cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to sustain growth, which is characterized by glucose consumption, glucose fermentation to lactate, and lactic acidosis, all in the presence of sufficient oxygen concentrations. Lactate dehydrogenase A converts pyruvate to lactate necessary to sustain rapid flux through glycolysis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells express lactate dehydrogenase A necessary to utilize aerobic glycolysis and support their growth. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) growth curves were conducted over a 7-day period. PMVECs consumed glucose, converted glucose into lactate, and acidified the media. Restricting extracellular glucose abolished the lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth, as did replacing glucose with galactose. In contrast, slow-growing pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) minimally consumed glucose and did not develop a lactic acidosis throughout the growth curve. Oxygen consumption was twofold higher in PAECs than in PMVECs, yet total cellular ATP concentrations were twofold higher in PMVECs. Glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A were all upregulated in PMVECs compared with their macrovascular counterparts. Inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase A activity and expression prevented lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth. Thus PMVECs utilize aerobic glycolysis to sustain their rapid growth rates, which is dependent on lactate dehydrogenase A. PMID:20675437

Parra-Bonilla, Glenda; Alvarez, Diego F.; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr; Alexeyev, Mikhail

2010-01-01

26

Cytochemical localization of lactate dehydrogenase in muscular dystrophy of the mouse.  

PubMed

By use of phenazine methosulfate and the "ncubation mixture film method," lactate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the dystrophic muscle fibers of strain 129 mice. The results indicate that for demonstration of lactate dehydrogenase activity in dystrophic muscle fibers phenazine methosulfate is necessary. This finding is typical for the "white" muscle fibers in the normal muscle and suggests that the dystrophy affects primarily the "white" muscle fibers. PMID:4161197

Fahimi, H D; Troy, P

1966-06-24

27

Cloning and Polymorphisms of Yak Lactate Dehydrogenase b Gene  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1) gene in yak (Bos grunniens). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit) in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S) of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak. PMID:23739677

Wang, Guosheng; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhong, Juming; Cao, Meng; He, Qinghua; Liu, Zhengxin; Lin, Yaqiu; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai

2013-01-01

28

Modulation of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes by modified base queuine.  

PubMed

The modified base queuine is a nutrient factor for lower and higher eukaryotes except yeast. It is synthesized in eubacteria and inserted into the wobble position of specific tRNAs (tRNA(GUN)) in exchange of guanine at position 34. The tRNAs of Q family are completely modified in terminally differentiated somatic cells. However, mainly free queuine is present in embryonic and fast proliferating cells, tRNA remains Q deficient. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A mRNA and LDH A protein is known to increase when cells are grown in hypoxic conditions. In the present study, the level of LDH isozymes is analyzed in different tissues of normal and cancerous (DLA) mice and the effect of queuine treatment on LDH isozyme is observed. LDH A isozyme is shown to increase in serum and liver of DLA mice. The level and activity of LDH A decreases on queuine treatment. In skeletal muscle and heart, LDH A isozyme decreases while LDH B increases in DLA mice. Queuine administration leads to change back towards normal. In case of brain, LDH A increases but LDH B decreases in DLA mice. Queuine treatment leads to decrease in A4 anaerobic isozymes of LDH. The results suggest that queuine suppresses anaerobic glycolytic pathway, which leads to tumor suppression of DLA mice. PMID:16172920

Pathak, C; Vinayak, Manjula

2005-09-01

29

Functional characterization of an alternative [lactate dehydrogenase-like] malate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The catalysis of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in Plasmodium falciparum (pfMDH) which involves NAD/NADH coupling is crucial for the parasite's pathogenicity. Primers were designed based on the P. falciparum genome resource, and these facilitated the cloning of a gene coding for pfMDH from a local clinical isolate. The DNA sequence of the cloned gene revealed an open-reading frame that encodes a protein of 313 amino acids. After induction in Escherichia coli BL21, enzyme assays of the expressed pfMDH purified by affinity chromatography exhibited significant enzyme activity of about 50 U/mg, where one unit (U) of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme oxidising 1 microol NADH/min. Based on its phylogenetic status amongst MDHs and lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs), the cloned gene was clearly defined as belonging to the NADH-dependent [LDH-like] MDHs. It is noteworthy that pfMDH harbours unique structural characteristics potentially useful for screening drugs specific for disabling parasitic enzymes. PMID:14598170

Chan, M; Sim, T S

2004-01-01

30

Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.  

PubMed

The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis. PMID:25389710

Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

2014-12-01

31

Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene families.  

PubMed

In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences were found to be larger for a human-killifish pair than a human-lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions separately for several species pairs and found that the transitions tend to be saturated in the distantly related species pair, while transversions are increasing. We conclude that transversions maintain a conservative rate through the evolutionary time. Kimura's two-parameter model for multiple-hit correction on transversions only was used to derive a distance measure and then construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Three findings were revealed from the NJ tree: (i) the branching order of the tree is consistent with the common branch pattern of major vertebrates; (ii) Ldh-A and Ldh-B genes were duplicated near the origin of vertebrates; and (iii) Ldh-C and Ldh-A in mammals were produced by an independent gene duplication in early mammalian history. Furthermore, a relative rate test showed that mammalian Ldh-C evolved more rapidly than mammalian Ldh-A. Under a two-rate model, this duplication event was calibrated to be approximately 247 million years ago (mya), dating back to the Triassic period. Other gene duplication events were also discovered in Xenopus, the first duplication occurring approximately 60-70 mya in both Ldh-A and Ldh-B, followed by another recent gene duplication event, approximately 20 mya, in Ldh-B. PMID:11965434

Li, Yi-Ju; Tsoi, Stephen C-M; Mannen, Hideyuka; Shoei-lung Li, Steven

2002-05-01

32

Affinity isolation of a cold-adapted enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

A simple, economical and rapid affinity chromatography procedure with dyes as the ligand has been described for the one-step purification of a cold-adapted lactate dehydrogenase. Non-specific elution of Procion blue H-ERD-modified Sepharose yielded homogeneous preparations of lactate dehydrogenase both in column based procedures and in batch wise operations. Low operational temperatures resulted in the enhanced binding of the enzyme to the blue dye. The dissociation constants of the enzyme-dye complexes were 7.2 +/- 0.2 microM and 11.2 +/- 0.2 microM at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C respectively. PMID:10643641

Nandakumar, R; Mattiasson, B

1999-01-01

33

Catalytic Properties of Three L-Lactate Dehydrogenases From Saffron Corms ( Crocus Sativus L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three L-lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were detected in saffron corms, using potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor. Their pH optima were 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. All three dehydrogenases were substrate-inhibited by ferricyanide, but at different concentrations; maximum enzymatic activity was observed for 250, 100 and 600 µM ferricyanide, at pH 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. Catalytic efficiency, calculated per mg

Ezzatollah Keyhani; Naghmeh Sattarahmady

2002-01-01

34

D-Lactate dehydrogenase as a marker gene allows positive selection of transgenic plants.  

PubMed

D-Lactate negatively affects Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development in a concentration-dependent manner. At media D-lactate concentrations greater than 5-10mM the development of wild-type plants is arrested shortly after germination whereas plants overexpressing the endogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) detoxify D-lactate to pyruvate and survive. When the transgenic plants are further transferred to normal growth conditions they develop indistinguishably from the wild type. Thus, D-LDH was successfully established as a new marker in A. thaliana allowing selecting transgenic plants shortly after germination. The selection on D-lactate containing media adds a new optional marker system, which is especially useful if the simultaneous selection of multiple constructs is desired. PMID:22155004

Wienstroer, Judith; Engqvist, Martin K M; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Maurino, Veronica G

2012-01-01

35

Resting Oxygen Consumption Varies among Lactate Dehydrogenase Genotypes in the Sow Bug, Porcellio scaber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of

Jeffry B. Mitton; Patrick A. Carter; Adam Digiacomo

1997-01-01

36

Some Lactobacillus l-Lactate Dehydrogenases Exhibit Comparable Catalytic Activities for Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate  

PubMed Central

The nonallosteric and allosteric l-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. casei, respectively, exhibited broad substrate specificities, giving virtually the same maximal reaction velocity and substrate Km values for pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Replacement of Pro101 with Asn reduced the activity of the L. pentosus enzyme toward these alternative substrates to a greater extent than the activity toward pyruvate. PMID:11114942

Arai, Kazuhito; Kamata, Takeo; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2001-01-01

37

A role for lactate dehydrogenases in the survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cervical epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Lactate is an abundant metabolite, produced by host tissues and commensal organisms, and it represents an important potential carbon source for bacterial pathogens. In the case of Neisseria spp., the importance of the lactate permease in colonization of the host has been demonstrated, but there have been few studies of lactate metabolism in pathogenic Neisseria in the postgenomic era. We describe herein the characterization of genome-annotated, respiratory, and substrate-level lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) from the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biochemical assays using N. gonorrhoeae 1291 wild type and isogenic mutant strains showed that cytoplasmic LdhA (NAD(+)-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase) and the membrane-bound respiratory enzymes, LdhD (D-lactate dehydrogenase) and LldD (L-lactate dehydrogenase) are correctly annotated. Mutants lacking LdhA and LdhD showed greatly reduced survival in neutrophils compared with wild type cells, highlighting the importance of D-lactate metabolism in gonococcal survival. Furthermore, an assay of host colonization using the well-established human primary cervical epithelial cell model revealed that the two respiratory enzymes make a significant contribution to colonization of and survival within the microaerobic environment of the host. Taken together, these data suggest that host-derived lactate is critical for the growth and survival of N. gonorrhoeae in human cells. PMID:24737798

Atack, John M; Ibranovic, Ines; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; Chen, Nathan H; Vanden Hoven, Rachel; Jennings, Michael P; Edwards, Jennifer L; McEwan, Alastair G

2014-10-15

38

The preparation and kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase attached to water-insoluble particles and sheets  

PubMed Central

1. The preparation of lactate dehydrogenase covalently attached to anion-exchange cellulose particles and sheets by use of a dichloro-sym-triazinyl dyestuff, Procion brilliant orange MGS, is described. 2. The stability and kinetic properties of these preparations were investigated. 3. An equation is derived to describe the change in concentration of a substrate when passed through a uniform bed of a substrate-inhibited enzyme. A number of theoretical curves are shown to illustrate the system. 4. A titrimetric assay for lactate dehydrogenase is described, and shown to be stoicheiometric over the range pH5·0–9·2. 5. The results are discussed in relation to previous work, and the effects of charged groups on the support, and of the diffusion film surrounding any particle in suspension, are treated qualitatively. PMID:5673529

Wilson, R. J. H.; Kay, G.; Lilly, M. D.

1968-01-01

39

Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating  

E-print Network

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

Collins, Sharen Sue

1987-01-01

40

A Kinetic Analysis of the Endogenous Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity of Duck Lens ?-Crystallin in Reverse Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Crystallin is a structural protein in duck lenses with endogenous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. When entrapped in an aerosol-OT (AOT)\\/isooctane\\/H2O reverse micellar system, ?-crystallin preserves this endogenous enzymatic activity. The catalytic constant (kcat) of ?-crystallin exhibited multiple peaks at varying degrees of system hydration ([H2O]\\/[AOT]), thereby suggesting that ?-crystallin exists as various oligomers in reverse micelles and that each oligomer

Hwei-Jen Lee; Gu-Gang Chang

1998-01-01

41

A testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase in the pipid frog, Hymenochirus boettgeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactate dehydrogenase zymograms of mature testes ofHymenochirus boettgeri show in addition to the five isozymes composed of LDH-A and LDH-B subunits, a second 5-band system which is due to isozymes formed between LDH-A and a third subunit, LDH-C. These testis-specific LDH-C isozymes appear around 6 months after metamorphosis indicating that their expression is correlated with sexual maturity as is

J. Wolff; H. R. Kobel

1985-01-01

42

Regulation of the ldhA gene, encoding the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentative lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Escherichia coli is induced by low pH under anaerobic conditions. Both translational and transcriptional gene fusions to ldhA, which encodes the fermentative LDH, have now been made. Both types of ldhA-lacZ fusion were induced by low pH, but only in the absence of air. However, the translational fusions were consistently expressed at a five-

Gene Ruijun Jiang; Sonia Nikolova; David P. Clark

2001-01-01

43

L-mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: comparisons with the L-lactate dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome b2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L-mandelate dehydrogenase (L-MDH) from Rhodotorula graminis are both flavocytochromes b2. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been compared using steady-state kinetic methods. The most striking difference between the two enzymes is found by comparing their substrate specificities. L-LDH and L-MDH have mutually exclusive primary substrates, i.e. the substrate for one enzyme is a potent competitive inhibitor for the other. Molecular-modelling studies on the known three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae L-LDH suggest that this enzyme is unable to catalyse the oxidation of L-mandelate because productive binding is impeded by steric interference, particularly between the side chain of Leu-230 and the phenyl ring of mandelate. Another major difference between L-LDH and L-MDH lies in the rate-determining step. For S. cerevisiae L-LDH, the major rate-determining step is proton abstraction at C-2 of lactate, as previously shown by the 2H kinetic-isotope effect. However, in R. graminis L-MDH the kinetic-isotope effect seen with DL-[2-2H]mandelate is only 1.1 +/- 0.1, clearly showing that proton abstraction at C-2 of mandelate is not rate-limiting. The fact that the rate-determining step is different indicates that the transition states in each of these enzymes must also be different. PMID:8439280

Smékal, O; Yasin, M; Fewson, C A; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1993-02-15

44

Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

1995-01-01

45

Induction of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes by Oxygen Deficit in Barley Root Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in attached roots of barley and other cereals increased up to 20-fold during several days of severe hypoxia, reaching a maximum of about 2 micromoles per minute per gram fresh weight. In barley, induction of LDH activity was significant at 2.6% O2 and greatest at 0.06%, the lowest O2 concentration tested. Upon return to aerobic conditions, induced LDH activity declined with an apparent half-life of 2 days. The isozyme profile of barley LDH comprised 5 bands, consistent with a tetrameric enzyme with subunits encoded by two different Ldh genes. Changes in staining intensity of the isozymes as a function of O2 level suggested that one Ldh gene was preferentially expressed in severe hypoxia. When tracer [U-14C]glucose was supplied to induced roots under hypoxic conditions, lactate acquired label, but much less than either ethanol or alanine. Most of the [14C] lactate was secreted into the medium, whereas most other labeled anionic products were retained in the root. Neither hypoxic induction of LDH, nor lactate secretion by induced roots, is predicted from the Davies-Roberts hypothesis, which holds that lactate glycolysis ceases soon after the onset of hypoxia due to acidosis brought about by lactate accumulation in the cytoplasm. These results imply a functional significance for LDH beyond that assigned it in this hypothesis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665087

Hoffman, Neil E.; Bent, Andrew F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

1986-01-01

46

Lactate dehydrogenase ontogeny, paternal gene activation, and tetramer assembly in embryos of brook trout, lake trout, and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of lactate dehydrogenase in reciprocal hybrids of trout during development revealed that a maternal effect was involved in the regulation of enzyme levels until resorption of the yolk sac was completed. Malate dehydrogenase specific activities were the same in these embryos and larvae. The more negatively charged B subunits of LDH predominated during early stages of embryogenesis in lake

Erwin Goldberg; J. P. Cuerrier; J. C. Ward

1969-01-01

47

Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 ?M, while at 2.5 ?M, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

2014-01-01

48

Lactate dehydrogenase 5: An old friend and a new hope in the war on cancer.  

PubMed

A hallmark of most cancer cells is an altered metabolism involving a shift to aerobic glycolysis with lactate production coupled with a higher uptake of glucose as the main source of energy. Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate by NADH to form lactate, thus determining the availability of NAD(+) to maintain the continuity of glycolysis. It is therefore an important control point in the system of cellular energy release. Its upregulation is common in many malignant tumors. Inhibiting LDH-5 activity has an anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. It may reverse their resistance to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent research has renewed interest in LDH-5 as an anticancer drug target. This review summarizes recent studies exploring the role of LDH-5 in cancer growth, its utility as a tumor marker, and developments made in identifying and designing anti-LDH-5 therapeutic agents. PMID:25528630

Augoff, Katarzyna; Hryniewicz-Jankowska, Anita; Tabola, Renata

2015-03-01

49

Warburg effect in chemosensitivity: Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A re-sensitizes Taxol-resistant cancer cells to Taxol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taxol is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Despite impressive clinical responses initially, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to Taxol. Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is one of the predominant isoforms of LDH expressed in breast tissue, which controls the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and plays an important role

Ming Zhou; Yuhua Zhao; Yan Ding; Hao Liu; Zixing Liu; Oystein Fodstad; Adam I Riker; Sushama Kamarajugadda; Jianrong Lu; Laurie B Owen; Susan P Ledoux; Ming Tan

2010-01-01

50

Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

2005-01-01

51

Binding ligands and cofactor to L-lactate dehydrogenase from human skeletal and heart muscles.  

PubMed

Binding affinities of cofactor and ligands to the active site of two different isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), heart and skeletal muscles (H4 and M4, respectively), can be used for medical and biological applications. Herein, a hybrid QM/MM computational approach based on free energy perturbation methods has been carried out to estimate binding affinities and binding isotope effects (BIEs) for NADH/NAD(+) and oxamate, pyruvate, L-lactate, and D-lactate ligands to the M4 and H4 isoforms of L-LDH. Here, we show that determining how cofactor and ligands interact with the active site of LDH isoforms advanced the still open discussion on the intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis. In our discussion we deny the key concept of this hypothesis showing, based on interaction energy values, that there is no evidence that the M4 type of LDH in the skeletal muscles cells served as a catalyst of the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Additionally, theoretical determination of BIEs for H4 and M4 types of LDH shows that there is a way of using the BIEs as a tool capable to distinguish these isoforms, and for this purpose D-lactate labeled with deuterium in positions 11 or 7, 8, 9 ([11-2H]-BIE and [7,8,9-2H3]-BIE) or L-lactate labeled only in position 11 ([11-2H]-BIE) could be used. We propose the BIEs as a useful tool which can be applied in order to experimentally determine the types of LDH. PMID:21526780

?widerek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

2011-05-19

52

L-mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: comparisons with the L-lactate dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome b2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L-mandelate dehydrogenase (L-MDH) from Rhodotorula graminis are both flavocytochromes b2. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been compared using steady-state kinetic methods. The most striking difference between the two enzymes is found by comparing their substrate specificities. L-LDH and L-MDH have mutually exclusive primary substrates, i.e. the substrate for one enzyme is a potent competitive inhibitor for the other. Molecular-modelling studies on the known three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae L-LDH suggest that this enzyme is unable to catalyse the oxidation of L-mandelate because productive binding is impeded by steric interference, particularly between the side chain of Leu-230 and the phenyl ring of mandelate. Another major difference between L-LDH and L-MDH lies in the rate-determining step. For S. cerevisiae L-LDH, the major rate-determining step is proton abstraction at C-2 of lactate, as previously shown by the 2H kinetic-isotope effect. However, in R. graminis L-MDH the kinetic-isotope effect seen with DL-[2-2H]mandelate is only 1.1 +/- 0.1, clearly showing that proton abstraction at C-2 of mandelate is not rate-limiting. The fact that the rate-determining step is different indicates that the transition states in each of these enzymes must also be different. Images Figure 1 PMID:8439280

Smékal, O; Yasin, M; Fewson, C A; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1993-01-01

53

Identification of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A series of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones were identified as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Structure activity relationships were explored and a series of 6,6-spiro analogs led to improvements in LDHA potency (IC50 <350nM). An X-ray crystal structure of an improved compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and it illustrated additional opportunities to enhance the potency of these compounds, resulting in the identification of 51 (IC50=30nM). PMID:25467161

Fauber, Benjamin P; Dragovich, Peter S; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Labadie, Sharada; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhou, Aihe

2014-12-15

54

Resting oxygen consumption varies among lactate dehydrogenase genotypes in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of the common Ldh homozygote exceeded the respiration rate of the heterozygote by more than 50 per cent. The differences in respiration rates are consistent with previously reported viability differentials at the Ldh polymorphism.

Mitton, J. B.; Carter, P. A.; DiGiacomo, A.

1997-01-01

55

Dual Targeting of the Warburg Effect with a Glucose-Conjugated Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Glucose transporters and the glycolysis enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) are both overexpressed in cancer cells, two proliferation tactics that underlie the phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Herein we report the development and activity of a glucose-conjugated LDH-A inhibitor designed to target both of these tumor-promoting facets. In addition to the promise of this conjugate, dual targeting of the Warburg effect using glycoconjugation as an anticancer strategy could be applied to inhibitors of many of the enzymes involved in glycolysis or tumor metabolism. PMID:24174263

Calvaresi, Emilia C.; Granchi, Carlotta; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Huigens, Robert W.; Lee, Hyang Yeon; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Macchia, Marco; Martinelli, Adriano

2014-01-01

56

Characterization of D-lactate dehydrogenase producing D-3-phenyllactic acid from Pediococcus pentosaceus.  

PubMed

D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25745 was found to produce D-3-phenyllactic acid from phenylpyruvate. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)), turnover number (k(cat)), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) values for the substrate phenylpyruvate were estimated to be 1.73 mmol/L, 173 s(-1), and 100 (mmol/L)(-1) s(-1) respectively. PMID:22484960

Yu, Shuhuai; Jiang, Houyi; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

2012-01-01

57

Characterization of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Pediococcus acidilactici that converts phenylpyruvic acid into phenyllactic acid.  

PubMed

The gene coding for D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. It converted phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) to 3-phenyllactic acid maximally at 30°C and pH 5.5 with a specific activity of 140 and 422 U/mg for PPA and pyruvate, respectively. The K(m), turnover number (k(cat)), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for PPA were 2.9 mM, 305 s(-1), and 105 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. PMID:22261863

Mu, Wanmeng; Yu, Shuhuai; Jiang, Bo; Li, Xingfeng

2012-05-01

58

Purification and kinetic properties of skeletal muscle lactate dehydrogenase from the lizard Agama stellio stellio.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-5 (M4) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of lizard Agama stellio stellio as a poikilothermic animal, using colchicine-Sepharose chromatography and heat inactivation. The purified enzyme showed a single band after SDS-PAGE, corresponding to a molecular weight of 36 kD. The Km values for pyruvate, NADH, lactate, and NAD+ were 0.020, 0.040, 8.1, and 0.02 mM, respectively. Pyruvate showed maximum activity at about 180 microM, with a decline at higher concentrations. The enzyme was stable at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was rapidly inactivated at 90 degrees C. The optimum pH for the forward reaction (pyruvate to lactate) was 7.5, and for the reverse reaction (lactate to pyruvate) was 9.2. Oxalate, glutamate, Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ were inhibitory in both forward and reverse reactions. PMID:12139477

Al-Jassabi, S

2002-07-01

59

Label-free high-throughput assays to screen and characterize novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Catalytic turnover of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is critical in maintaining an intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD?) pool for continuous fueling of the glycolytic pathway. In this article, we describe two label-free high-throughput assays (a kinetic assay detecting the intrinsic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence and a mass spectrometric assay monitoring the conversion of pyruvate to lactate) that were designed to effectively identify LDH inhibitors, characterize their different mechanisms of action, and minimize potential false positives from a small molecule compound library screen. Using a fluorescence kinetic image-based reader capable of detecting NADH fluorescence in the ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) work flow, the enzyme activity was measured as the rate of NADH conversion to NAD?. Interference with NADH fluorescence by library compounds was readily identified during the primary screen. The mass spectrometric assay quantitated the lactate and pyruvate levels simultaneously. The multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometric method accurately detected each of the two small organic acid molecules in the reaction mixture. With robust Z' scores of more than 0.7, these two high-throughput assays for LDH are both label free and complementary to each other in the HTS workflow by monitoring the activities of the compounds on each half of the LDH redox reaction. PMID:23871998

Vanderporten, Erica; Frick, Lauren; Turincio, Rebecca; Thana, Peter; Lamarr, William; Liu, Yichin

2013-10-15

60

Prostate cancer cells metabolize d-lactate inside mitochondria via a D-lactate dehydrogenase which is more active and highly expressed than in normal cells.  

PubMed

Although D-lactate metabolism has been shown to occur in a variety of mitochondria, the metabolic fate of D-lactate in cancer cells has never been investigated, as it is believed to be exported to the extracellular phase. We show that mitochondria from both cancer (PC-3) and normal (PNT1A) prostate cells can metabolize D-lactate in an energy competent manner. This is due to the mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase, a membrane flavoprotein, the activity and protein level of which are higher in PC-3 than in PNT1A cells, as detected by both kinetic and immunological analysis. D-Lactate can enter prostate mitochondria and cause the export of newly synthesized malate in a carrier-mediated manner, with the rate of malate efflux from mitochondria twofold higher in cancer. PMID:23333299

de Bari, Lidia; Moro, Loredana; Passarella, Salvatore

2013-03-01

61

The distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (Lactate tetrazolium reductase) in the hippocamal region of the rat. A reinvestigation with the polyvinyl alcohol method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histochemical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the hippocampal region of the rat was studied using a viscous incubation medium with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to reduce diffusion from fresh frozen sections. A relatively high concentration of Nitro blue tetrazolium was used, and the sections were incubated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS) to render the LDH demonstration independent of endogenous diaphorase

Svein Ivar Mellgren

1971-01-01

62

Characterization of Enterobacter cloacae and E. sakazakii by electrophoretic polymorphism of acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 34 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 22 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by isoelectrofocusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. The two species could be separated on the basis of distinct electrophoretic patterns of all enzymes analysed. Glutamate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase were detected exclusively in E. cloacae, whereas esterase bands were more intensively stained in E. sakazakii. For each species, two zymotypes could be distinguished, on the basis of electrophoretic mobilities of malate dehydrogenase and banding patterns of esterase for E. cloacae, and by both isoelectric point and electrophoretic mobilities of an esterase and of lactate and malate dehydrogenases for E. sakazakii. The high degree of enzyme polymorphism within the two species permitted precise identification of strains. The variations in electrophoretic patterns might therefore provide useful epidemiological markers. PMID:3625169

Goullet, P; Picard, B

1986-11-01

63

Multiplex Fluorescent Immunoassay for Detection of Mice Infected with Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating Virus  

PubMed Central

Commercially available diagnostic tools for the detection of lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) infection have been restricted to measurement of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity levels and detection of the viral genome by RT-PCR assays. Serologic diagnosis of LDV infection has not been widely adopted due to the belief that the formation of antigen–antibody complexes and B-cell polyclonal activation may confound interpretation of results. In the current study, we inoculated BALB/c, C57BL/6, and Swiss Webster mice with LDV to compare the diagnostic reliability of a commercially available multiplex fluorescent immunoassay for the detection of antiLDV antibodies with that of the LDH enzyme assay. The serologic assay was vastly more sensitive and specific than was the LDH enzyme assay. Moreover, the serologic assay detected antiviral antibodies throughout the 3-mo time course of this study. These results suggest that antigen–antibody complex formation and polyclonal B-cell activation had little effect on assay performance. PMID:23849407

Adams, Veronica; Myles, Matthew H

2013-01-01

64

The primary structure of the psychrophilic lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

L-lactate dehydrogenase of the psychrophilic bacterium B. psychrosaccharolyticus was isolated by a three-step procedure and its total amino-acid sequence determined by automated Edman degradation. The protein consists of 318 amino-acid residues and its calculated molecular mass is 35,254 Da. Most of the primary structure could be established by sequencing large peptide fragments obtained by chemical cleavages, namely with BNPS-skatole and with CNBr. Further fragmentations of two tryptophan peptides with the endoproteinase Lys-C and with diluted HCl resulted in shorter overlapping peptides, the analysis of which completed the sequence. The C-terminal sequence Glu-Gln was established by carboxypeptidase A experiments and was then verified by the analysis of short C-terminal tryptic and chymotryptic peptides. The first lactate dehydrogenase sequenced so far of a psychrophilic bacillus shows sequence homologies between 60% and 75% to the enzymes from the mesophilic B. megaterium and B. subtilis and the thermophilic B. stearothermophilus, B. caldolyticus and B. caldotenax. Within the 50 N-terminal residues, three additional sequences could be included in our comparisons. In this part of the molecule, sequence homologies between 56% and 74% were calculated. PMID:3435642

Schlatter, D; Kriech, O; Suter, F; Zuber, H

1987-11-01

65

Structures of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in apo, ternary and inhibitor-bound forms.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an essential metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate using NADH/NAD(+) as a co-substrate. Many cancer cells exhibit a glycolytic phenotype known as the Warburg effect, in which elevated LDH levels enhance the conversion of glucose to lactate, making LDH an attractive therapeutic target for oncology. Two known inhibitors of the human muscle LDH isoform, LDHA, designated 1 and 2, were selected, and their IC50 values were determined to be 14.4 ± 3.77 and 2.20 ± 0.15?µM, respectively. The X-ray crystal structures of LDHA in complex with each inhibitor were determined; both inhibitors bind to a site overlapping with the NADH-binding site. Further, an apo LDHA crystal structure solved in a new space group is reported, as well as a complex with both NADH and the substrate analogue oxalate bound in seven of the eight molecules and an oxalate only bound in the eighth molecule in the asymmetric unit. In this latter structure, a kanamycin molecule is located in the inhibitor-binding site, thereby blocking NADH binding. These structures provide insights into LDHA enzyme mechanism and inhibition and a framework for structure-assisted drug design that may contribute to new cancer therapies. PMID:25664730

Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Shen, David L; Mosi, Renee; Sun, Jianyu; McEachern, Ernest J; Vocadlo, David J; Craig, Lisa

2015-02-01

66

Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

Abboud, Jean

2013-01-01

67

Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The gene defect in Huntington's disease (HD) may result in an impairment of energy metabolism. Malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) are inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase that produce energy depletion and lesions that closely resemble those of HD. Oral supplementation with creatine or cyclocreatine, which are substrates for the enzyme creatine kinase, may increase phosphocreatine (PCr) or phosphocyclocreatine (PCCr) levels and ATP generation and thereby may exert neuroprotective effects. We found that oral supplementation with either creatine or cyclocreatine produced significant protection against malonate lesions, and that creatine but not cyclocreatine supplementation significantly protected against 3-NP neurotoxicity. Creatine and cyclocreatine increased brain concentrations of PCr and PCCr, respectively, and creatine protected against depletions of PCr and ATP produced by 3-NP. Creatine supplementation protected against 3-NP induced increases in striatal lactate concentrations in vivo as assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Creatine and cyclocreatine protected against malonate-induced increases in the conversion of salicylate to 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, biochemical markers of hydroxyl radical generation. Creatine administration protected against 3-NP-induced increases in 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative injury. Oral supplementation with creatine or cyclocreatine results in neuroprotective effects in vivo, which may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for HD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:9412496

Matthews, R T; Yang, L; Jenkins, B G; Ferrante, R J; Rosen, B R; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Beal, M F

1998-01-01

68

Probing lactate dehydrogenase activity in tumors by measuring hydrogen/deuterium exchange in hyperpolarized l-[1-(13)C,U-(2)H]lactate.  

PubMed

(13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging measurements of hyperpolarized (13)C label exchange between exogenously administered [1-(13)C]pyruvate and endogenous lactate, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), has proved to be a powerful approach for probing tissue metabolism in vivo. This experiment has clinical potential, particularly in oncology, where it could be used to assess tumor grade and response to treatment. A limitation of the method is that pyruvate must be administered in vivo at supra-physiological concentrations. This problem can be avoided by using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate, which can be used at physiological concentrations. However, sensitivity is limited in this case by the relatively small pyruvate pool size, which would result in only low levels of labeled pyruvate being observed even if there was complete label equilibration between the lactate and pyruvate pools. We demonstrate here a more sensitive method in which a doubly labeled lactate species can be used to measure LDH-catalyzed exchange in vivo. In this experiment exchange of the C2 deuterium label between injected hyperpolarized l-[1-(13)C,U-(2)H]lactate and endogenous unlabeled lactate is observed indirectly by monitoring phase modulation of the spin-coupled hyperpolarized (13)C signal in a heteronuclear (1)H/(13)C spin-echo experiment. PMID:22316419

Kennedy, Brett W C; Kettunen, Mikko I; Hu, De-En; Brindle, Kevin M

2012-03-14

69

Comparative electrophoretic profiles of esterases, and of glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases, from Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria.  

PubMed

Esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 64 Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria strains, were analysed by polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by thin layer isoelectrofocusing. On the basis of the isoelectric points of malate dehydrogenase from the three species and the mobility of lactate dehydrogenase from A. sobria, 8 species specific zymotypes were defined: three for A. hydrophila strains, three for A. caviae strains and two for A. sobria strains. These zymotypes correlated with previously established DNA hybridization groups. The other electrophoretic data were found to be less useful for distinction between A. hydrophila and A. sobria strains, but supported differentiation into zymotypes for A. caviae strains. The two-dimensional electrophoretic profile established by plotting isoelectric point against electrophoretic mobility of the major esterase illustrated the degree of enzyme polymorphism among the strains of the three species. Variation in electrophoretic patterns within A. hydrophila and A. caviae might provide useful epidemiological markers. PMID:3831235

Picard, B; Goullet, P

1985-12-01

70

Structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with NAD(+) and lactic acid (or pyruvate).  

PubMed

The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus (aq_727) was determined to 2.12 A resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.94, b = 94.43, c = 188.85 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the coenzyme-binding domain of Lactobacillus helveticus D-lactate dehydrogenase and contained two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Each subunit of the homodimer was found to be in a ;closed' conformation with the NADH cofactor bound to the coenzyme-binding domain and with a lactate (or pyruvate) molecule bound at the interdomain active-site cleft. PMID:20054113

Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Strange, Richard W; Ellis, Mark J; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Inoue, Yumiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hasnain, S Samar

2009-12-01

71

Administration of tomato juice ameliorates lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase responses to anaerobic training.  

PubMed

Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are important biological markers of various myocardial disorders and exercise-induced muscle damage. Lycopene, on the other side, is a natural anti-oxidant with protective action against cardiovascular risk. Fifteen anaerobically trained athletes with elevated LDH and CPK baseline levels were enrolled in this study after undergoing thorough biochemical and cardiovascular evaluation with echocardiocraphy. In nine athletes tomato juice, a lycopene plain juice, was administered during and after exercise, replacing the carbohydrate supplementation beverages commonly used during training for over a 2-month period. Tomato juice administration significantly reduced LDH and CPK levels, which returned back to almost normal levels. At the same time homocysteine and C-reactive protein were also attenuated. No changes were observed in the control group, where the usual carbohydrate supplementation had been followed. PMID:23291317

Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Rentoukas, Elias; Koudounakos, Aris; Papalexis, Peter; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Jamurtas, Athanasios

2013-11-01

72

Difference spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes.  

PubMed

Difference spectroscopy and enzyme kinetics were employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle with the azo-dye Procion Red HE-3B and two of its structural variants in order to follow the significance of the sulphonated terminal rings for the strength and specificity of binding. Procion Red HE-3B possesses a significantly higher affinity to LDH compared to the dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A, a well characterized pseudo-biospecific ligand of dehydrogenases. Moreover, Procion Red HE-3B showed competition towards the cofactor NAD+/NADH. The enzyme-dye complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, but other binding forces cannot be excluded. LDH possesses one dye-binding site per subunit. As a binding region the active center of LDH, preferentially the hydrophobic nicotinamide pocket is involved. Removal of the negatively charged sulphonic acid group from the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B decreases the affinity to LDH significantly but does not change the type of binding. Addition of an anilino group to the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B does not affect the affinity to the active site significantly but enables the binding on other sites with lower affinity in dependence on the dye concentration. PMID:1824535

Cadelis, F; Kirchberger, J; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Kopperschläger, G

1991-01-01

73

Addressable self-immobilization of lactate dehydrogenase across multiple length scales.  

PubMed

Successful nanobiotechnology implementation largely depends on control over the interfaces between inorganic materials and biological molecules. Controlling the orientations of biomolecules and their spatial arrangements on the surface may transform many technologies including sensors, to energy. Here, we demonstrate the self-organization of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which exhibits enhanced enzymatic activity and stability on a variety of gold surfaces ranging from nanoparticles to electrodes, by incorporating a gold-binding peptide tag (AuBP2) as the fusion partner for Bacillus stearothermophilus LDH (bsLDH). Binding kinetics and enzymatic assays verified orientation control of the enzyme on the gold surface through the genetically incorporated peptide tag. Finally, redox catalysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy systems as the anodic counterpart. Our results demonstrate that the LDH enzyme can be self-immobilized onto different gold substrates using the short peptide tag under a biologically friendly environment. Depending on the desired inorganic surface, the proposed peptide-mediated path could be extended to any surface to achieve single-step oriented enzyme immobilization for a wide range of applications. PMID:23386458

Cetinel, Sibel; Caliskan, H Burak; Yucesoy, Deniz T; Donatan, A Senem; Yuca, Esra; Urgen, Mustafa; Karaguler, Nevin G; Tamerler, Candan

2013-02-01

74

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-05-01

75

Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization.  

PubMed

Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface. PMID:25108848

Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras

2015-05-15

76

Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm?1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

Reddish, Michael; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S.; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R. Brian

2014-01-01

77

Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

Fenglei Li

2006-08-09

78

Pressure-adaptive differences in lactate dehydrogenases of three hagfishes: Eptatretus burgeri, Paramyxine atami and Eptatretus okinoseanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of abyssal pressures likely depends on adaptive modifications of fish proteins. However, structural modifications\\u000a of proteins which allow functioning at high pressure remain unclear. We compared the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),\\u000a an important enzyme in glycolytic reaction, in three hagfishes inhabiting different depths under increased pressure. LDH in\\u000a Eptatretus okinoseanus, found at a depth of 1,000 m, was

Yoshikazu Nishiguchi; Tetsuya Miwa; Fumiyoshi Abe

2008-01-01

79

Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.  

PubMed

Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3. PMID:24841241

Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

2014-09-01

80

Interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes using affinity partitioning and affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of dextran and dye-liganded polyethylene glycol was employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle (E.C. 1.1.1.27) with Procion Red HE-3B and four structurally related derivatives of this dye in order to follow the significance of the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B for the strength of interaction. The study revealed that the arrangement of the two 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid rings seems to be a prerequisite for the interaction of azonaphthol dyes with LDH. The negatively charged sulfonic acid group at the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B enhances the affinity of the ligand for LDH significantly. The removal of this sulphonic acid group or splitting off the complete terminal rings decreases the affinity to LDH and improves the competitive effect of NAD+. The results of affinity partitioning are compared with those of affinity chromatography and kinetic data. The usefulness and the choice of parameters of affinity partitioning as an analytical tool to predict the chromatographic behaviour of dye ligands are discussed. PMID:2625437

Kirchberger, J; Cadelis, F; Kopperschläger, G; Vijayalakshmi, M A

1989-12-01

81

An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

2014-01-01

82

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

83

Gene Expression Variation in Duplicate Lactate dehydrogenase Genes: Do Ecological Species Show Distinct Responses?  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been shown to play an important role in adaptation of several aquatic species to different habitats. The genomes of Daphnia pulex, a pond species, and Daphnia pulicaria, a lake inhabitant, encode two L-LDH enzymes, LDHA and LDHB. We estimated relative levels of Ldh gene expression in these two closely related species and their hybrids in four environmental settings, each characterized by one of two temperatures (10°C or 20°C), and one of two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 6.5–7 mg/l or 2–3 mg/l). We found that levels of LdhA expression were 4 to 48 times higher than LdhB expression (p<0.005) in all three groups (the two parental species and hybrids). Moreover, levels of LdhB expression differed significantly (p<0.05) between D. pulex and D. pulicaria, but neither species differed from the hybrid. Consistently higher expression of LdhA relative to LdhB in both species and the hybrid suggests that the two isozymes could be performing different functions. No significant differences in levels of gene expression were observed among the four combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (p>0.1). Given that Daphnia dwell in environments characterized by fluctuating conditions with long periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration, we suggest that these species could employ regulated metabolic depression to survive in such environments. PMID:25080082

Cristescu, Melania E.; Demiri, Bora; Altshuler, Ianina; Crease, Teresa J.

2014-01-01

84

The promoting vibration in human heart lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred vibrational channel  

PubMed Central

We examine if the rate promoting vibration of lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred axis of thermal energy transfer. While it seems plausible that such a mechanistically important motion is also a favored direction of energy transfer, none of the previous studies of rate promoting vibrations in enzymatic catalysis have addressed this question. It is equally likely that the promoting vibration, though catalytically important, has no different properties than any other axis in the protein. Resolution of this issue is important for two reasons: First, if energy is transferred along this axis in a preferred fashion, it shows that the protein is engineered in a way that transfers thermal energy into a motion that is coupled to the chemical step. Second, the discovery of a preferred direction of thermal transfer provides a potential route to experimental verification of the promoting vibration concept. Our computational experiments are specifically designed to mimic potential laser experiment with the deposition of thermal energy in an active site chromophore with subsequent measurement of temperature at various points in the protein. Our results indicate that the promoting vibration is indeed a preferred channel of energy transfer. In addition, we study the vibrational structure of the protein via the dynamical structure factor to show preferred vibrational motion along the promoting vibration axis is an inherent property of the protein structure via thermal fluctuations. PMID:22077414

Davarifar, Ardy; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

2011-01-01

85

Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Marker in Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aims at analyzing the changes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity during orthodontic movement. Methods: Twenty patients all requiring first premolar extractions were selected and treated with conventional straight wire mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 125 g Nitinol closed coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side served as the experimental site while the contralateral canine served as the control. GCF was collected from the canines before initiation of retraction, then 1 hour after initiating canine retraction, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. GCF LDH levels were estimated and compared with the control site. Results The results revealed significantly higher LDH levels on the 7th, 14th and 21st day at the sites where orthodontic force had been applied. The levels also showed a significant increase from 0 hour to the 21st day. Peak levels were seen on 14th and 21st day following initiation of retraction. Conclusions: The study showed that LDH could be successfully estimated in the GCF and its increased levels could indicate active tooth movement, which could aid the clinician in monitoring active orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:21760863

Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

2011-01-01

86

Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Organisms inhabiting submarine canyons can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW Mediterranean canyon (i.e. Blanes canyon) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the canyon (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside canyon (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the canyon. PMID:24296242

Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat

2014-03-01

87

Estrogen-Related Receptor Alpha Modulates Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Thyroid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Metabolic modifications of tumor cells are hallmarks of cancer. They exhibit an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates in hostile environment outside the cell. In thyroid tumors, the expression of the estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?), a major factor of metabolic adaptation, is closely related to the oxidative metabolism and the proliferative status of the cells. To elucidate the role played by ERR? in the glycolytic adaptation of tumor cells, we focused on the regulation of lactate dehydrogenases A and B (LDHA, LDHB) and the LDHA/LDHB ratio. Our study included tissue samples from 10 classical and 10 oncocytic variants of follicular thyroid tumors and 10 normal thyroid tissues, as well as samples from three human thyroid tumor cell lines: FTC-133, XTC.UC1 and RO82W-1. We identified multiple cis-acting promoter elements for ERR?, in both the LDHA and LDHB genes. The interaction between ERR? and LDH promoters was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and in vitro analysis for LDHB. Using knock-in and knock-out cellular models, we found an inverse correlation between ERR? expression and LDH activity. This suggests that thyroid tumor cells may reprogram their metabolic pathways through the up-regulation of ERR? by a process distinct from that proposed by the recently revisited Warburg hypothesis. PMID:23516535

Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine; Le Pennec, Soazig; Jacques, Caroline; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Gueguen, Naig; Boutet-Bouzamondo, Nathalie; Donnart, Audrey; Malthièry, Yves; Savagner, Frédérique

2013-01-01

88

The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

2014-10-01

89

[C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase as single prognostic factors of severity in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Ranson and Glasgow scores are routinely used for prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis. We undertook a prospective study to investigate the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential single predictors of severity in acute pancreatitis. In our study we included 100 patients with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis admitted to our hospital during last two years. The inclusion criteria consisted of a combination of clinical features, a typical case history, elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes and diagnosis confirmed by imaging studies (ultrasound or computerised tomography). We used Ranson score for assesment of severity and compared it with single parameters as LDH and CRP on the first and the third day after admission. Cut off values for predicting local and systemic complications were > or =3 for Ranson score, 320 IU for LDH and 5 mg/L for CRP. Ranson score showed highest sensitivity in the prediction of local and systemic complication of acute pancreatitis. Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were highest for LDH on the first day (67.74; 57%). Diagnostic accuracy for Ranson score and CRP on the third day after admission was around 50%. We can conclude that LDH and CRP are available, simple and economical biochemical parameters that can help us predict complications of acute pancreatitis in the early phase of the disease. They showed similar diagnostic accuracy as the far more clinically used Ranson score. PMID:17489509

Zrni?, Irena Krznari?; Mili?, Sandra; Fisi?, Elizabeta; Radi?, Mladen; Stimac, Davor

2007-01-01

90

Enzymatic production of D-3-phenyllactic acid by Pediococcus pentosaceus D-lactate dehydrogenase with NADH regeneration by Ogataea parapolymorpha formate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Enzymatic production of PLA can be carried out from phenylpyruvic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); however, the enzymatic reaction is accompanied by NADH oxidation that inhibits PLA biotransformation. Here, NADH regeneration was achieved using the formate dehydrogenase from Ogataea parapolymorpha and introduced into the D-PLA production process using the D-LDH from Pediococcus pentosaceus. Optimum PLA production by dual enzyme treatment was at pH 6.0 and 50 °C with both enzymes at 0.4 ?M. Using 0.2 mM NADH, D-PLA production by NADH regeneration system reached 5.5 mM, which was significantly higher than that by a single-enzyme reaction. PMID:24249102

Yu, Shuhuai; Zhu, Lanjun; Zhou, Chen; An, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

2014-03-01

91

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.  

PubMed

Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. PMID:24835193

Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

2014-09-01

92

Regulation of liver lactate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in response to anoxia in a freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis and key to hypoxia/anoxia survival by most animals. In this study, the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 7°C in nitrogen-bubbled water) were assessed on LDH from liver of an anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Liver LDH from aerobic and anoxic turtles was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The kinetic properties and thermal stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing significant differences between the two enzyme forms in V(max), K(m) pyruvate, and I(50) pyruvate as well as melting temperature determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms of LDH was visualized by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining, the results indicating that the anoxic form had a higher phosphorylation state. Incubation studies that promoted protein kinase versus protein phosphatase actions showed that changes in the phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms mimicked the anoxia-responsive changes in K(m) pyruvate and I(50) pyruvate. The high phosphate form of liver LDH that occurs in anoxic turtles appears to be a less active form. Turtle liver LDH was also subject to another form of posttranslational modification, protein acetylation, with a 70% higher content of acetylated lysine residues on anoxic versus aerobic LDH. This is the first study to show that LDH function in an anoxia-tolerant animal can be differentially modified between aerobic and anoxic states via the mechanism of posttranslational modification. PMID:22735190

Xiong, Zi Jian; Storey, Kenneth B

2012-10-01

93

The application and mechanisms of polyethylene glycol 8000 on stabilizing lactate dehydrogenase during lyophilization.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application and mechanisms of polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000) on stabilizing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during lyophilization. In earlier freeze-thawing experiments, different molecular weights and concentrations of PEGs were formulated with LDH, and ultraviolet (UV) enzymatic activity and circular dichroism (CD) wavelength scanning studies were conducted. In lyophilization studies, different molecular weights of saccharides, e.g., glucose, sucrose, dextran 37,000 (D 37K), and dextran 160,000 (D 160K), with or without PEG 8000, were formulated with LDH at various molar ratios. UV assays, size exclusion chromatography -high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), CD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted for LDH. Upon lyophilization, enzymatic activity and tetrameric structure recoveries of LDH-saccharide formulations reached over 90% with PEG 8000 vs. 60-80% without PEG 8000. LDH-PEG 8000-saccharide formulations shifted the melting temperature (Tm) to higher temperatures than did LDH-saccharide formulations. Most LDH-PEG 8000-saccharide formulations at 1:100:1000 molar ratio showed better preservation of LDH secondary structures than did LDH-saccharide formulations at 1:1000 molar ratio. Since PEG 8000 was confirmed an effective cryoprotectant, saccharides were assumed to be protecting LDH from destabilization during drying. However, LDH-PEG 8000-dextran formulations preserved more LDH secondary structure than did LDH-dextran formulations, but preserved less LDH secondary structures than did LDH-PEG 8000 formulations. This indicated that dextrans not only did not stabilize LDH during drying, but they disrupted the stabilization effect of PEG 8000 on LDH during freezing. After reconstitution, CD wavelength scanning showed that some of the unfolded or denatured structures of LDH were refolded. Based on the steric hindrance of the bulky dextrans and the "water replacement mechanism", sucrose with PEG 8000 had synergistic protective effects, and dextrans with PEG 8000 had antagonistic effects, on stabilization of LDH during lyophilization. PMID:15368989

Mi, Yanli; Wood, George

2004-01-01

94

Management of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: utility of measuring serum lactate dehydrogenase level.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that cytokines are associated with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, and steroid administration is reported to be effective in this situation. In order to elucidate the characteristics of refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia, we analyzed five pediatric patients with refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia, which was defined as showing prolonged fever and deterioration of clinical and radiological findings despite administration of appropriate antibiotics, compared with 15 pediatric patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia who responded to treatment promptly (control group). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and interleukin (IL)-18 levels were significantly higher in the refractory group than in the control group at the initiation of corticosteroid use (LDH: 571 vs 292 IU/L, p = 0.0129; ALT: 25 vs 11 IU/L, p = 0.0143; AST: 41 vs 26 IU/L, p = 0.0404; IL-18: 579 vs 365 pg/mL, p = 0.0402). Significant correlation was found between serum values of IL-18 and LDH (r(2) = 0.504, p = 0.0433). The administration of corticosteroids to patients in the refractory group resulted in the rapid improvement of symptoms and decrease in serum LDH levels in all patients. A serum LDH level of ?410 IU/L, which was calculated from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, seemed to be an appropriate criterion for the initiation of steroid therapy. In conclusion, serum IL-18 and LDH levels can be used as parameters to determine which patients are candidates for corticosteroid therapy. In addition, serum LDH levels seem to be a useful marker for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID:24486173

Inamura, Norikazu; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Kato, Atsushi; Fukuda, Yoko; Saitoh, Aki; Kondo, Eisuke; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Akaike, Hiroto; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ogita, Satoko; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

2014-04-01

95

Effects of rigid lens extended wear on lactate dehydrogenase activity and isozymes in rabbit tears.  

PubMed

Effects of and recovery from continuous wear of four rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses was assessed by noninvasive measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and isozyme pattern in rabbit tears. Oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) of lenses used was 27, 44, 84, and 97 x 10(-9) (cm/s)(ml O2/ml mm Hg); lens thickness (0.15 mm) and diameter (14.0 mm) were standardized. Lenses were worn continuously for 90 days; recovery was assessed 30 days after cessation of lens wear. LDH activity was measured by UV rate assay; isozyme subtypes were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Light and scanning electron microscopy (LM, SEM) were used with the determination of total protein as additional measures of lens effects. LDH levels were inversely correlated with lens Dk/L values; low Dk/L values increased the anaerobic (LDH4,5)/aerobic (LDH1,2,3) subtypen ratio indicating in vivo metabolic shift. SEM observations were consistent with these results. There was no significant difference in the total cell content of tears or total tear protein levels between control and RGP test-wear groups. Measurement of tear LDH activity and isozyme ratios appears to provide a sensitive, noninvasive assessment of the effects of RGP lens-induced hypoxia over time on the corneal surface. A level of Dk/L of > or = 84 appears best for maintaining corneal physiology during extended wear. Recovery from chronic lens-induced hypoxia is characterized by a return to normal tear LDH levels and isozyme subtypes. PMID:7995067

Ichijima, H; Cavanagh, H D

1994-09-01

96

The Contribution of Electrostatic and van der Waals Interactions to the Stereospecificity of the Reaction Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Continuum electrostatic calculations in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the source of the stereospecificity in the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These studies show that favorable electrostatic interactions between the carboxamide group of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and protein residues of the active site of LDH can account for much if not all of the stereospecificity of the LDH-catalyzed reaction, with A-side hydride transfer more than 107 times greater than B-side transfer. Unfavorable steric interactions within the binding complex for B-side transfer are not found. ImagesFIGURE 2 PMID:9017191

van Beek, Jeroen; Callender, Robert; Gunner, M. R.

1997-01-01

97

Identification of substituted 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidines as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A novel 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-containing inhibitor of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was identified by high-throughput screening (IC50=8.1 ?M). Biochemical, surface plasmon resonance, and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments indicated that the compound specifically associated with human LDHA in a manner that required simultaneous binding of the NADH co-factor. Structural variation of the screening hit resulted in significant improvements in LDHA biochemical inhibition activity (best IC50=0.48 ?M). A crystal structure of an optimized compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and explained many of the observed structure-activity relationships. PMID:23628333

Dragovich, Peter S; Fauber, Benjamin P; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ge, HongXiu; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hunsaker, Thomas; Labadie, Sharada; Liu, Yichin; Malek, Shiva; Pan, Borlan; Peterson, David; Pitts, Keith; Purkey, Hans E; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; VanderPorten, Erica; Wei, BinQing; Xu, Qing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Xuying

2013-06-01

98

Effects of temperature acclimation on lactate dehydrogenase of cod (Gadus morhua): genetic, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of seasonal temperature variation on the functional properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from white muscle and liver of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) and the possible relevance of LDH allelic variability for thermal acclimation. Two groups of fishes were acclimated to 4 degrees C or 12 degrees C for one year. Polymorphism was observed in only one (Ldh-B) of the three Ldh loci expressed in cod liver and/or muscle. Isozyme expression remained unchanged regardless of acclimation temperature (T(A)). The products of locus Ldh-B comprise only 14-19% (depending on the tissue) of total LDH activities and, consequently, differences between phenotypes are negligible in terms of their effect on LDH total performance. No kinetic (, V(max)) or thermodynamic (E(a), DeltaG) differences were found among Ldh-B phenotypes. Clear kinetic differences were observed between LDH isoforms in the two tissues. However, the Arrhenius activation energy (E(a)) for pyruvate reduction was the same for both tissues (E(a)=47 kJ mol(-1)) at T(A)=12 degrees C. Factors T(A), tissue and phenotype did not reveal a significant effect on the Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG) of the reaction (55.5 kJ mol(-1)). However, at T(A)=4 degrees C, the E(a) was increased (E(a)=53-56 kJ mol(-1)) and the temperature dependence of the constant of substrate inhibition for pyruvate () decreased in both muscle and liver. In conclusion, the strategies of LDH adjustment to seasonal temperature variations in cod involve changes in LDH concentration (quantitative), adjustment of thermodynamic (E(a)) and kinetic () properties of the LDH (modulative) but not the expression of alternative isoforms (qualitative). We assume that the observed increase in E(a) and the decrease of temperature dependence of at low T(A) is the result of structural changes of the LDH molecule (temperature-driven protein folding). We propose a new mechanism of metabolic compensation of seasonal temperature variations - cold acclimation results in changes in the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of LDH in a way that favours aerobic metabolism through reduction of the competition of LDH for pyruvate in normoxic conditions. PMID:14638837

Zakhartsev, Maxim; Johansen, Torild; Pörtner, Hans O; Blust, Ronny

2004-01-01

99

Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain  

PubMed Central

Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification. Results In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation. Knock out of ldhA had little influence on the yield of 2,3-BD, whereas knock out of adhE or pta significantly improved the formation of 2,3-BD. The accumulation of the intermediate of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, acetoin, was decreased in all the mutants. The mutants were then tested in five different carbon sources and increased 2,3-BD was observed. Also a double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA was constructed which resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. In fed-batch culture this strain achieved more than 100 g/L 2,3-BD from glucose with a relatively high yield of 0.49 g/g. Conclusion 2,3-BD production was dramatically improved with the inactivation of adhE and pta. The inactivation of ldhA could advance faster cell growth and shorter fermentation time. The double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. These results provide new insights for industrial production of 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae. PMID:24669952

2014-01-01

100

Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Important for NADH/NAD+ Redox Homeostasis in Cancer Cells ?  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes an increase in aerobic glycolysis and enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) regulates the last step of glycolysis that generates lactate and permits the regeneration of NAD+. LDH-A gene expression is believed to be upregulated by both HIF and Myc in cancer cells to achieve increased lactate production. However, how oncogenic signals activate LDH-A to regulate cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 directly phosphorylates LDH-A. Phosphorylation at Y10 and Y83 enhances LDH-A activity by enhancing the formation of active, tetrameric LDH-A and the binding of LDH-A substrate NADH, respectively. Moreover, Y10 phosphorylation of LDH-A is common in diverse human cancer cells, which correlates with activation of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, cancer cells with stable knockdown of endogenous LDH-A and rescue expression of a catalytic hypomorph LDH-A mutant, Y10F, demonstrate increased respiration through mitochondrial complex I to sustain glycolysis by providing NAD+. However, such a compensatory increase in mitochondrial respiration in Y10F cells is insufficient to fully sustain glycolysis. Y10 rescue cells show decreased cell proliferation and ATP levels under hypoxia and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances LDH-A enzyme activity to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth by regulating the NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis, representing an acute molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. PMID:21969607

Fan, Jun; Hitosugi, Taro; Chung, Tae-Wook; Xie, Jianxin; Ge, Qingyuan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Boggon, Titus J.; Lonial, Sagar; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

2011-01-01

101

Efficient Production of (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-Phenylbutyric Acid by Using a Coupled Reconstructed d-Lactate Dehydrogenase and Formate Dehydrogenase System  

PubMed Central

Background (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. Methodology/Principal Findings The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA). The mutant d-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R)-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized. Conclusions/Significance Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R)-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99%) and productivity (47.9 mM h?1), the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R)-HPBA production. PMID:25089519

Sheng, Binbin; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lv, Min; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

102

Selective oxidation and reduction reactions with cofactor regeneration mediated by galactitol-, lactate-, and formate dehydrogenases immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Rapid immobilization with the one-pot purification of galactitol dehydrogenase (GatDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is achieved by using iminodiacetic acid (IDA) with chelated Co(2+) modified magnetic nanoparticles as a carrier. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from recombinant Escherichia coli and FDH commencing Candida methylica were used as an auxiliary enzyme for the regeneration of NADH/NAD(+) with a representative synthesis of (S)-1,2-propanediol and l-tagatose starting from hydroxyacetone and galactitol. The affinity magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the purity of GatDH and FDH was assayed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The immobilized two-enzyme system, reflecting the pH dependence of its constituent enzymes, showed optimal activity at pH 7 and 8 for (S)-1,2-propanediol and l-tagatose production, respectively. The immobilized enzyme system retained up to 70% of its activity after one week of repeated use. The use of affinity magnetic nanoparticles offers the advantage of a one-pot purification of His(6)-tagged GatDH and FDH followed by the production of rare sugar and chiral diol. PMID:21392547

Demir, Ayhan S; Talpur, Farah N; Betul Sopaci, S; Kohring, Gert-W; Celik, Ayhan

2011-04-10

103

Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in serum and cerebral cortex of immature and mature rats after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

In our previous studies we have found both an increase of lipid peroxidation damage (expressed as levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) in brain and plasma lactate concentration in 21-day-old rats after a 30-min exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Pretreatment of rats with L-carnitine decreased both parameters. The aim of our present study was to determine if the L-carnitine-dependent decrease of plasma lactate could be due to a modification of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. We followed brain and blood serum LDH activity of 14-, 21- and 90-day-old Wistar rats. We found an increase of brain LDH activity with age. However, we did not observe any significant differences in LDH activity after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or L-carnitine pretreatment. In contrast to brain, serum LDH activity did not show any clear age-dependence. The hypoxia exposure increased LDH activity of 21-day-old rats only. Pretreatment of rats with L-carnitine decreased serum LDH activity of 21- and 90-day-old rats probably due to membrane stabilizing role of L-carnitine. In conclusions, acute hypobaric hypoxia and/or L-carnitine pretreatment modified serum but not brain LDH activity. PMID:16804754

Koudelová, Jitka; Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina

2006-07-01

104

Changes in milk L-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin, and IgG during milk ejection and their association with somatic cell count.  

PubMed

In both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS), sensitive and reliable mastitis detection is important for profitable milk production. Mastitis detection parameters must be able to detect mastitis when the somatic cell count (SCC) is only slightly elevated. Owing to the pre-milking teat cleaning process in AMS, sampling cannot take place before the occurrence of alveolar milk ejection and importantly, this can affect the ability of parameters to detect mastitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of alveolar milk ejection on l-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin (SA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with SCC, a commonly used indicator of mastitis. In this experiment, milk samples were collected every 20 s from one quarter during a 120-s manual teat stimulation in ten cows. Samples were analysed for SCC, l-lactate, LDH, SA and IgG. Quarters were grouped by low (<5·0 log10 cells/ml), mid (5·0-5·7 log10 cells/ml), and high (>5·7 log10 cells/ml) SCC using the sample at t=0 s. Neither l-lactate nor LDH could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC quarters, but there were a significant difference in levels between the high-SCC quarters and low and mid-SCC quarters. SA could not differentiate between the low and mid-SCC quarters, but the SA levels for the high SCC quarters remained statistically different compared with low and mid-SCC quarters throughout the experiment. IgG could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC, although the high-SCC quarters were not statistically different from the mid-SCC quarters after 60 s. In the high-SCC quarters, a decrease was shown in all parameters during milk ejection, after t=60 s. In conclusion, alveolar milk ejection reduces the effectiveness of detection parameters when compared with SCC. With the exception of IgG, the ability of other tested parameters was not satisfactory to differentiate between quarters with low to mid-SCC levels. PMID:25467384

Lehmann, Mirjam; Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-12-01

105

Importance of lactate dehydrogenase for the regulation of glycolytic flux and insulin secretion in insulin-producing cells.  

PubMed Central

The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the generation of the metabolic signal for insulin secretion was studied after stable overexpression in INS-1 and RINm5F insulin-producing cells. INS-1 cells with a 25-fold overexpression of LDH-A, the highest level achieved, showed a 20-30% decrease in the glucose oxidation rate at glucose concentrations above 5 mM when compared with control cells, whereas values were unchanged at lower glucose concentrations. Lactate release increased in parallel with a decrease in the glucose oxidation rate. However, the INS-1 cell glucose-induced insulin secretory response, together with the rate of glucose utilization, were not significantly affected by LDH-A overexpression. Despite 3-fold overexpression of LDH-A in glucose-unresponsive RINm5F cells, there was no change in insulin secretion, glucose metabolism or lactate production in these cells. Exogenously added pyruvate and lactate potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, an effect that was abolished after LDH-A overexpression. Both compounds significantly decreased glucose oxidation rates in control cells. After overexpression of LDH-A in INS-1 cells, the effects of pyruvate and lactate on glucose oxidation were diminished. On the other hand, after LDH-A overexpression, both glycolytic metabolites decreased the glucose utilization rate at 5 mM glucose. The present data suggest that the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is critical for correct channelling of pyruvate towards mitochondrial metabolism. Interestingly, glucokinase-mediated glycolytic flux was decreased after LDH-A overexpression. Thus preferential channelling of glucose towards aerobic metabolism by glucokinase may be determined, at least in part, by the low level of constitutive expression of LDH-A in pancreatic beta-cells. In conclusion, the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is an important determinant of the physiological insulin-secretory capacity, and also determines how pyruvate and lactate affect insulin secretion. PMID:11085930

Alcazar, O; Tiedge, M; Lenzen, S

2000-01-01

106

Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers. PMID:24916961

Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

2014-08-01

107

Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

2014-01-01

108

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2012-01-01

109

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell  

E-print Network

with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers Philippe Connes1,2,3* , Yann Lamarre1,2 , Marie-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe Abstract Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79680. doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

[Electrophoretic polymorphism of lactate, malate and glutamate dehydrogenases, acid phosphatase and esterases of Providencia alcalifaciens, P. stuartii and P. rustigianii].  

PubMed

The polymorphism of glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases, of acid phosphatase and of esterases of 27 strains of Providencia alcalifaciens, 35 strains of P. stuartii and 17 strains of P. rustigianii was investigated by conventional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide agarose gel and by isoelectric focusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. For each enzyme analysed, the three species were characterized by a distinct electrophoretic pattern. The number of allozymes detected by conventional electrophoresis was greater than that detected by isoelectric focusing. The use of these two techniques in parallel led to improved detection of polymorphism of esterase alpha beta from P. alcalifaciens. A two-dimensional profile obtained by plotting isoelectric points against electrophoretic mobilities for malate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and beta-A esterase showed a molecular relationship between the diverse allozymes and demonstrated their taxonomic values. Polymorphism varied considerably according to the enzyme and species analysed and was correlated with DNA heterogeneity. The strains of P. alcalifaciens exhibited the greatest enzyme polymorphism and were classified into two main zymotypes reflecting genetic divergence within this species, whereas the strains of P. stuartii were electrophoretically less variable. PMID:4051454

Goullet, P; Picard, B

1985-01-01

111

Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

112

Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of D-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

An NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type D-nLDH, the Y52L mutant D-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

113

Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

2013-01-01

114

Lactation  

PubMed Central

Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic. PMID:20604468

1989-01-01

115

Comparative structural analysis and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenases from the four species of human malarial parasites.  

PubMed

Parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a potential drug target for new antimalarials owing to parasite dependence on glycolysis for ATP production. The pLDH from all four species of human malarial parasites were cloned, expressed, and analyzed for structural and kinetic properties that might be exploited for drug development. pLDH from Plasmodium vivax, malariae, and ovale exhibit 90-92% identity to pLDH from Plasmodium falciparum. Catalytic residues are identical. Resides I250 and T246, conserved in most LDH, are replaced by proline in all pLDH. The pLDH contain the same five-amino acid insert (DKEWN) in the substrate specificity loops. Within the cofactor site, pLDH from P. falciparum and P. malariae are identical, while pLDH from P. vivax and P. ovale have one substitution. Homology modeling of pLDH from P. vivax, ovale, and malariae with the crystal structure of pLDH from P. falciparum gave nearly identical structures. Nevertheless, the kinetic properties and sensitivities to inhibitors targeted to the cofactor binding site differ significantly. Michaelis constants for pyruvate and lactate differ 8-9-fold; Michaelis constants for NADH, NAD(+), and the NAD(+) analogue 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide differ up to 4-fold. Dissociation constants for the inhibitors differ up to 21-fold. Molecular docking studies of the binding of the inhibitors to the cofactor sites of all four pLDH predict similar orientations, with the docked ligands positioned at the nicotinamide end of the cofactor site. pH studies indicate that inhibitor binding is independent of pH in the pH 6-8 range, suggesting that differences in dissociation constants for a specific inhibitor are not due to altered active site pK values among the four pLDH. PMID:15147206

Brown, W Michael; Yowell, Charles A; Hoard, Anna; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Deck, Lorraine M; Royer, Robert E; Piper, Robert C; Dame, John B; Makler, Michael T; Vander Jagt, David L

2004-05-25

116

Diverse allosteric and catalytic functions of tetrameric d-lactate dehydrogenases from three Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases (d-LDHs) reduce pyruvate into d-lactate with oxidation of NADH into NAD(+). Although non-allosteric d-LDHs from Lactobacilli have been extensively studied, the catalytic properties of allosteric d-LDHs from Gram-negative bacteria except for Escherichia coli remain unknown. We characterized the catalytic properties of d-LDHs from three Gram-negative bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum (FNLDH), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PALDH), and E. coli (ECLDH) to gain an insight into allosteric mechanism of d-LDHs. While PALDH and ECLDH exhibited narrow substrate specificities toward pyruvate like usual d-LDHs, FNLDH exhibited a broad substrate specificity toward hydrophobic 2-ketoacids such as 2-ketobutyrate and 2-ketovalerate, the former of which gave a 2-fold higher k cat/S0.5 value than pyruvate. Whereas the three enzymes consistently showed hyperbolic shaped pyruvate saturation curves below pH 6.5, FNLDH and ECLDH, and PALDH showed marked positive and negative cooperativity, respectively, in the pyruvate saturation curves above pH 7.5. Oxamate inhibited the catalytic reactions of FNLDH competitively with pyruvate, and the PALDH reaction in a mixed manner at pH 7.0, but markedly enhanced the reactions of the two enzymes at low concentration through canceling of the apparent homotropic cooperativity at pH 8.0, although it constantly inhibited the ECLDH reaction. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and certain divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) also markedly enhanced the reactions of FNLDH and PALDH, but none of them enhanced the reaction of ECLDH. Thus, our study demonstrates that bacterial d-LDHs have highly divergent allosteric and catalytic properties. PMID:25401076

Furukawa, Nayuta; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Togawa, Misato; Nakajima, Masahiro; Taguchi, Hayao

2014-01-01

117

Structure and function of L-lactate dehydrogenases from thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, IX. Identification, isolation and nucleotide sequence of two L-lactate dehydrogenase genes of the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

Two genes encoding for L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus (DSM 6) were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined using a pEMBL vector and gene hybridization probes. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the gene from clone pLDH(X), which is located on a 5.87-kb HindIII-fragment, shows an identity of 86% as compared with the sequence of the wildtype LDH(P) from B. psychrosaccharolyticus and consists of 319 amino acids. Clone pLDH(P) contained a gene on a 4-kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment, of which the amino-acid sequence is identical with the enzyme isolated from B. psychrosaccharolyticus. The nucleotide sequences of LDH(P) and LDH(X) show 77% identity. Both genes are expressed in E. coli and the proteins could be isolated as shown by enzyme activity tests and determination of the N-terminal amino-acid sequence. However no expression of LDH(X) could be detected in B. psychrosaccharolyticus itself under the conditions chosen for oxygen induction of LDH. The function of the additional, non-expressed enzyme is not known. PMID:2334516

Vckovski, V; Schlatter, D; Zuber, H

1990-02-01

118

The interaction of solutes and temperature on A4-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of temperature and stabilizing solutes on A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) from warm- and cold-adapted fishes, to determine how extrinsic stabilizers affect orthologs with different intrinsic stabilities. Conformational changes during substrate binding are rate- limiting for A4-LDH, thus stabilization due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors leads to decreased activity. A4-LDH from a warm-temperate goby (Gillichthys mirabilis ), which

Peter A. Fields; Benjamin D. Wahlstrand; George N. Somero

119

Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) con- generic perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which exhibits tempera- ture-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the

Richard C. Edmunds; Lynne van Herwerden; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

120

Lactate dehydrogenase genes of caiman and Chinese soft-shelled turtle, with emphasis on the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cDNAs encoding for LDH-A4 (muscle) and LDH-B4 (heart) isozymes from caiman (Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) belonging to the order Crocodilia and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) belonging to the order Chelonia were sequenced. The phylogenetic relationships of the newly determined cDNA and their deduced protein sequences, as well as the previously published sequences of vertebrate LDH isozymes, were

Chen-Hua Liao; Wan-Zo Ho; Hung-Wen Huang; Chien-Hsien Kuo; Sin-Che Lee; Steven S.-L Li

2001-01-01

121

Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed in terms of redox balance. PMID:2661531

Gupta, S; Clark, D P

1989-01-01

122

Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients. PMID:24789077

Hua, Guojun; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Xiangyong; Xu, Peirong; Luo, Yuchun

2014-06-01

123

Transcriptome, Proteome, and Metabolite Analyses of a Lactate Dehydrogenase-Negative Mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583 ? †  

PubMed Central

A constructed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-negative mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583 grows at the same rate as the wild type but ferments glucose to ethanol, formate, and acetoin. Microarray analysis showed that LDH deficiency had profound transcriptional effects: 43 genes in the mutant were found to be upregulated, and 45 were found to be downregulated. Most of the upregulated genes encode enzymes of energy metabolism or transport. By two-dimensional (2D) gel analysis, 45 differentially expressed proteins were identified. A comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data suggested that for several proteins the level of expression is regulated beyond the level of transcription. Pyruvate catabolic genes, including the truncated ldh gene, showed highly increased transcription in the mutant. These genes, along with a number of other differentially expressed genes, are preceded by sequences with homology to binding sites for the global redox-sensing repressor, Rex, of Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate that the genes are transcriptionally regulated by the NADH/NAD ratio and that this ratio plays an important role in the regulatory network controlling energy metabolism in E. faecalis. PMID:21296946

Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Jönsson, Maria; Fergestad, Ellen M.; Mathiesen, Geir; Nes, Ingolf F.; Holo, Helge

2011-01-01

124

Galloflavin prevents the binding of lactate dehydrogenase A to single stranded DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis in cultured cells.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) binds single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and stimulates cell transcription. Binding is prevented by NADH, suggesting that the coenzyme site is involved in the interaction LDH-A/ssDNA. We recently identified an inhibitor of LDH-A enzymatic activity (Galloflavin, GF) which occupies the NADH site. In the experiments reported here we studied whether GF can also hinder the binding of LDH-A to ssDNA and investigated its effects on RNA synthesis in cultured cells. Using a filter binding assay we observed that 4 ?M GF inhibited the binding of human LDH-A to a single stranded [(3)H]DNA sample by 50%. After only 0.5-1h, 50-100 ?M GF inhibited RNA synthesis in SW620 cells maintained in a medium in which galactose substituted glucose. In these culture conditions, SW620 cells did not produce lactic acid and effects caused by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of LDH-A could be excluded. Novel LDH-A inhibitors which hinder aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells are at present actively searched. Our results suggest that: (i) inhibitors which bind the NADH site can exert their antiproliferative activity not only by blocking aerobic glycolysis but also by causing an inhibition of RNA synthesis independent from the effect on glycolysis; (ii) GF can be a useful tool to study the biological role of LDH-A binding to ssDNA. PMID:23237800

Fiume, Luigi; Vettraino, Marina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Arfilli, Valentina; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Brigotti, Maurizio

2013-01-11

125

Purification of a recombinant histidine-tagged lactate dehydrogenase from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, and characterization of its properties.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), serves as a drug target and immunodiagnostic marker. The LDH cDNA generated from total RNA of a clinical isolate of the parasite was cloned into pRSETA plasmid. Recombinant his-tagged PvLDH was over-expressed in E. coli Rosetta2DE3pLysS and purified using Ni(2+)-NTA resin giving a yield of 25-30 mg/litre bacterial culture. The recombinant protein was enzymatically active and its catalytic efficiency for pyruvate was 5.4 × 10(8) min(-1) M(-1), 14.5 fold higher than a low yield preparation reported earlier to obtain PvLDH crystal structure. The enzyme activity was inhibited by gossypol and sodium oxamate. The recombinant PvLDH was reactive in lateral flow immunochromatographic assays detecting pan- and vivax-specific LDH. The soluble recombinant PvLDH purified using heterologous expression system can facilitate the generation of vivax LDH-specific monoclonals and the screening of chemical compound libraries for PvLDH inhibitors. PMID:25048245

Sundaram, Balamurugan; Varadarajan, Nandan Mysore; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun

2014-12-01

126

Differences in Rat Tissue Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Caused by Giberellic Acid and Homobrassinolide (Giberellik Asit ve Homobrassinolit Uygulamasi ile Siçan Doku Laktat Dehidrogenaz Aktivitesinde Gözlenen De?i?iklikler) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, a tissue marker for cardiac disorders, reversibly forms pyruvate from lactate in all animal tissues. Low-dose effect of dietary plant hormones homobrassinolide and gibberellic acid on this enzyme ac- tivity was therefore investigated in normal rat tissues. Methods: Hormones were administered intradermally to male albino wistar rat groups (100-120 g) at 10, 50 and 250 µg,

Jeyaraman Vikramathithan; Gopalarau Gautami; Irissappan Ganesh; Kotteazeth Srikumar

127

Effect of proline on lactate dehydrogenase activity: testing the generality and scope of the compatibility paradigm.  

PubMed

The k(cat) and K(m) kinetic parameters of the labile enzyme rabbit muscle lactic dehydrogenase were determined as a function of the concentration of proline, a solute (osmolyte) accumulated in the cells of many organisms to protect them against environmental stresses. Proline is believed to protect against the stress(es) without altering the functional activity of cellular macromolecules, a property defining it as a "compatible osmolyte." In the range of 0-2 M proline, K(cat) and K(m) values for both substrates are essentially unchanged, but between 2 M and 4 M proline, k(cat) decreases by a factor of 3 to 4, whereas K(m) values are only modestly changed, if at all. These results are consistent with the proposal that compatible osmolytes do not affect functional activity, that the property of compatibility expressed by such osmolytes is generic without regard to the evolutionary history of the protein, and that the organic osmolyte concentration range over which compatibility is exhibited is extensive. In short, the results are in full accord with the principal hypothesis of "compatible osmolytes" in detail and scope. PMID:8889186

Wang, A; Bolen, D W

1996-10-01

128

Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD(+). The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) K m for L-lactate and a higher V max value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the K m of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the K m of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

129

Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD+. The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) Km for L-lactate and a higher Vmax value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the Km of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the Km of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

130

Renal Cortical Lactate Dehydrogenase: A Useful, Accurate, Quantitative Marker of In Vivo Tubular Injury and Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Studies of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) are critically dependent on having precise methods for assessing the extent of tubular cell death. However, the most widely used techniques either provide indirect assessments (e.g., BUN, creatinine), suffer from the need for semi-quantitative grading (renal histology), or reflect the status of residual viable, not the number of lost, renal tubular cells (e.g., NGAL content). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release is a highly reliable test for assessing degrees of in vitro cell death. However, its utility as an in vivo AKI marker has not been defined. Towards this end, CD-1 mice were subjected to graded renal ischemia (0, 15, 22, 30, 40, or 60 min) or to nephrotoxic (glycerol; maleate) AKI. Sham operated mice, or mice with AKI in the absence of acute tubular necrosis (ureteral obstruction; endotoxemia), served as negative controls. Renal cortical LDH or NGAL levels were assayed 2 or 24 hrs later. Ischemic, glycerol, and maleate-induced AKI were each associated with striking, steep, inverse correlations (r, ?0.89) between renal injury severity and renal LDH content. With severe AKI, >65% LDH declines were observed. Corresponding prompt plasma and urinary LDH increases were observed. These observations, coupled with the maintenance of normal cortical LDH mRNA levels, indicated the renal LDH efflux, not decreased LDH synthesis, caused the falling cortical LDH levels. Renal LDH content was well maintained with sham surgery, ureteral obstruction or endotoxemic AKI. In contrast to LDH, renal cortical NGAL levels did not correlate with AKI severity. In sum, the above results indicate that renal cortical LDH assay is a highly accurate quantitative technique for gauging the extent of experimental acute ischemic and toxic renal injury. That it avoids the limitations of more traditional AKI markers implies great potential utility in experimental studies that require precise quantitation of tubule cell death. PMID:23825563

Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali C. M.; Becker, Kirsten

2013-01-01

131

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

132

Changes of cytokines and IgG antibody in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of cytokines and specific serum IgG in chickens following vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding either Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigen or LDH and chicken IL-2 or IFN-?. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental group of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccines while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or sterile water. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The LDH-specific IgG antibody response was measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunization. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization (P<0.05) and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. The systemic and local cytokine mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR 7 days post-second immunization. The specific IgG antibody levels against LDH of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines were increased compared to those of sterile water (H(2)O) and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of IFN-?, IL-2, TNFSF15, IL-17D as well as TGF-?4 in both spleen and cecal tonsil were also increased in experimental chickens. In contrast, the only significant change of IL-4 mRNA level was observed in spleen of chickens immunized with pVAX-LDH-IL-2 compared with pVAX-LDH and control groups (P<0.05). These results suggested that DNA vaccines could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. PMID:20650568

Song, Hongyan; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Li, Xiangrui

2010-10-29

133

Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase at posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome onset in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is incompletely understood; however, an underlying state of immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction has been proposed. We examined alterations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, relative to the development of PRES in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective Institutional Review Board approved database of 88 PRES patients was examined. PRES diagnosis was confirmed by congruent clinical diagnosis and MRI. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Serum LDH values were collected at three time points: prior to, at the time of, and following PRES diagnosis. Student's t-test was employed. LDH values were available during the course of treatment in 12 patients (nine women; mean age 57.8 years [range 33-75 years]). Chemotherapy-associated PRES patients were more likely to be normotensive (25%) versus the non-chemotherapy group (9%). LDH levels at the time of PRES diagnosis were higher than those before and after (p=0.0263), with a mean difference of 114.8 international units/L. Mean time intervals between LDH measurement prior to and following PRES diagnosis were 44.8 days and 51.4 days, respectively. Mean elapsed time between last chemotherapy administration and PRES onset was 11.1days. In conclusion, serum LDH, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, shows statistically significant elevation at the onset of PRES toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Our findings support a systemic process characterized by endothelial injury/dysfunction as a factor, if not the prime event, in the pathophysiology of PRES. PMID:24780237

Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Wright, Steven M; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Van Hemert, Rudy; Brown, Aliza T; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

2014-09-01

134

Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C) is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR) and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001), although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients. PMID:24453390

Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Zarei, Mohmmad-Reza; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Aliabadi, Elham; Hosseini, Ahmad; Jaberipour, Mansooreh

2014-01-01

135

Exposing local adaptation: synergistic stressors elicit population-specific lactate dehydrogenase-B ( ldh - b ) expression profiles in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular response of fish to independently and\\/or concurrently applied ecological stressors (e.g. thermal and\\/or aerobic\\u000a stress) can be quantified at the level of transcript abundance (i.e. gene expression). In temperate fish, the expression of\\u000a the metabolic candidate gene lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b) responds to both aerobic swimming challenge and extended acclimation to various ecologically relevant temperatures. We examined\\u000a hepatic ldh-b

Richard C. Edmunds; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Lynne van Herwerden; Christopher J. Fulton; Dean R. Jerry

136

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix.  

PubMed

A dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 119.4, c = 70.2 Å, ? = 112.0°, and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution on the BL26B1 beamline at SPring-8. The overall R(merge) was 4.5% and the completeness was 99.8%. PMID:22102248

Shibahara, Takenori; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

2011-11-01

137

Cloning of the Staphylococcus aureus ddh gene encoding NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase and insertional inactivation in a glycopeptide-resistant isolate.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of low-level glycopeptide resistance among staphylococci is not known. A cytoplasmic protein, provisionally called Ddh (W. M. Milewski, S. Boyle-Vavra, B. Moreira, C. C. Ebert, and R. S. Daum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:166-172, 1996), and the RNA transcript that contains the ddh gene, which encodes Ddh, are present in increased amounts in a vancomycin-resistant isolate, 523k, compared with the susceptible parent isolate, 523. Sequence analysis had previously revealed that Ddh is related to NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) and VanH. This latter protein is essential for high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis by synthesizing the D-lactate needed for biosynthesis of D-lactate-terminating peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity for vancomycin. We now provide the direct evidence that the ddh gene product is Staphylococcus aureus D-nLDH and hereafter refer to the protein as D-nLDH. However, overproduction of this protein in isolate 523k did not result in production of D-lactate-containing peptidoglycan precursors, and susceptibility testing of ddh mutants of 523k demonstrated that S. aureus D-nLDH is not necessary for glycopeptide resistance in this isolate. We conclude that the mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in this isolate is distinct from that in enterococci. PMID:9352927

Boyle-Vavra, S; de Jonge, B L; Ebert, C C; Daum, R S

1997-01-01

138

A novel polyclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for detection of Plasmodium vivax developed from two lactate dehydrogenase protein segments  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays for Plasmodium detection are, presently, most frequently based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), which are cheaper to develop and manufacture, are much less frequently used. In the present study we describe a sandwich ELISA assay which is capable of detecting P. vivax Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in clinical blood samples, without cross reacting with those infected with P. falciparum. Methods Two recombinant proteins were produced from different regions of the P. vivax LDH gene. Two sandwich ELISA assay were then designed: One which uses mouse anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs as primary antibodies (“Test 1”) and another which uses anti-LDH 35-305aa PAbs (“Test 2”) as the primary antibodies. Rabbit anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs were used as capture antibodies in both ELISA assays. Blood samples taken from P. vivax and P. falciparum infected patients (confirmed by light microscopy) were analysed using both tests. Results “Test 2” performed better at detecting microscopy-positive blood samples when compared to “Test 1”, identifying 131 of 154 positive samples (85%); 85 positives (55%) were identified using “test 1”. “Test 1” produced one false positive sample (from the 20 malaria-free control) blood samples; “test 2” produced none. Kappa coefficient analysis of the results produced a value of 0.267 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with “test 1”, but 0.734 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with the results from “test 2”. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were observed to be 98% and 22% respectively, for “Test 1”, and 99% and 45%, for “test 2”. No cross reactivity was detected with P. falciparum positive blood samples (n?=?15) with either test assay. Conclusion Both tests detected P. vivax infected blood and showed no evidence of cross-reacting with P. falciparum. Further studies will need to be conducted to establish the full potential of this technique for malaria diagnostics. As well as representing a promising new cost-effective novel technique for P. vivax diagnosis and research, the method for developing this assay also highlights the potential for PAb-based strategies for diagnostics in general. PMID:24475751

2014-01-01

139

The creatine kinase response to resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Resistance exercise can result in localized damage to muscle tissue. This damage may be observed in sarcolemma, basal lamina, as well as, in the contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Usually the damage is accompanied by release of enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and other proteins into the blood. Serum CK has been proposed as one of the best indirect indicators of muscle damage due to its ease of identification and the relatively low cost of assays to quantify it. Thus, CK has been used as an indicator of the training intensity and a diagnostic marker of overtraining. However, some issues complicate CK's use in this manner. There is great interindividual variability in serum CK, which complicates the assignment of reliable reference values for athletes. Furthermore, factors such as training level, muscle groups involved, and gender can influence CK levels to a greater extent than differences in exercise volume completed. This review will detail the process by which resistance exercise induces a rise in circulating CK, illuminate the various factors that affect the CK response to resistance exercise, and discuss the relative usefulness of CK as a marker of training status, in light of these factors. PMID:24583542

Koch, A J; Pereira, R; Machado, M

2014-03-01

140

Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria  

PubMed Central

Background In areas where non-falciparum malaria is common rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) capable of distinguishing malaria species reliably are needed. Such tests are often based on the detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods In Dawei, southern Myanmar, three pLDH based RDTs (CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan), CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, Pf) and OptiMAL-IT®)were evaluated in patients presenting with clinically suspected malaria. Each RDT was read independently by two readers. A subset of patients with microscopically confirmed malaria had their RDTs repeated on days 2, 7 and then weekly until negative. At the end of the study, samples of study batches were sent for heat stability testing. Results Between August and November 2007, 1004 patients aged between 1 and 93 years were enrolled in the study. Slide microscopy (the reference standard) diagnosed 213 Plasmodium vivax (Pv) monoinfections, 98 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) mono-infections and no malaria in 650 cases. The sensitivities (sens) and specificities (spec), of the RDTs for the detection of malaria were- CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan) test: sens 89.1% [CI95 84.2-92.6], spec 97.6% [CI95 96.5-98.4] OptiMal-IT®: Pf+/- other species detection: sens 95.2% [CI95 87.5-98.2], spec 94.7% [CI95 93.3-95.8]; non-Pf detection alone: sens 89.6% [CI95 83.6-93.6], spec 96.5% [CI95 94.8-97.7] CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan, Pf): Pf+/- other species: sens 93.5% [CI9585.4-97.3], spec 97.4% [95.9-98.3]; non-Pf: sens 78.5% [CI9571.1-84.4], spec 97.8% [CI95 96.3-98.7] Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all tests (kappa > 0.9). The median time for the RDTs to become negative was two days for the CareStart™ Malaria tests and seven days for OptiMAL-IT®. Tests were heat stable up to 90 days except for OptiMAL-IT® (Pf specific pLDH stable to day 20 at 35°C). Conclusion None of the pLDH-based RDTs evaluated was able to detect non-falciparum malaria with high sensitivity, particularly at low parasitaemias. OptiMAL-IT® performed best overall and would perform best in an area of high malaria prevalence among screened fever cases. However, heat stability was unacceptable and the number of steps to perform this test is a significant drawback in the field. A reliable, heat-stable, highly sensitive RDT, capable of diagnosing all Plasmodium species has yet to be identified. PMID:19860920

Ashley, Elizabeth A; Touabi, Malek; Ahrer, Margareta; Hutagalung, Robert; Htun, Khayae; Luchavez, Jennifer; Dureza, Christine; Proux, Stephane; Leimanis, Mara; Lwin, Myo Min; Koscalova, Alena; Comte, Eric; Hamade, Prudence; Page, Anne-Laure; Nosten, François; Guerin, Philippe J

2009-01-01

141

Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.  

PubMed

The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. PMID:23932744

Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

2013-10-01

142

Modulation in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and level of c-Myc and c-Fos by modified base queuine in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, which results from unlimited proliferation and disturbs various cellular activities. Queuine is a highly modified base analogue of guanine found at first anti-codon position of specific tRNAs i.e. tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). These tRNAs are known as Q-family of tRNA. The tRNAs of Q-family are completely modified to Q-tRNAs in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNA is closely associated with cell proliferation and malignancy. Queuosine modification of tRNAs may be essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Physiological role of queuine remains ill defined but direct or indirect evidences suggest that queuine or Q-tRNA participates in many cellular functions such as regulation of cell proliferation, control of glycolytic metabolism, alteration in expression of proto-oncogenes, modulation of signal transduction pathways but the mechanism is not well known. Increase in LDH-A expression regulated by c-myc is well documented in a variety of tumor cells. Overexpression of proto-oncogenes cause deregulated cellular responses which may lead to development of cancer. The cellular proto-oncogenes like c-myc and c-fos have important role in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. The present study is aimed to investigate queuine mediated modulation in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and expression of proto-oncogenes like c-myc and c-fos in T-cell lymphoma (DLAT) induced cancerous mouse. The results indicate that elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity is brought down by queuine treatments and the elevated levels of c-Myc and c-Fos in DLAT cancerous mouse are down-regulated, suggesting that queuine inhibits anaerobic metabolism and cell proliferation. PMID:18347422

Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

2008-01-01

143

Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD+, which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in Vmax (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

144

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of l-­lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD+ and the crystal diffracted to 2.38?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27?Å. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD+, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49?Å resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34?Å and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09?Å, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals. PMID:22232174

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

145

Oxamate-mediated inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells: Involvement of the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Cancer cells produce a substantial amount of energy through aerobic glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a key regulator of glycolysis, reversibly catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Recently, oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH, has been shown to be a promising anticancer agent. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oxamate inhibits the viability of human gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with oxamate induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited by chloroquine or Beclin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhances oxamate-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition. Further study has shown that oxamate treatment significantly augments reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, cells pretreated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor, display significantly reduced ROS production and attenuated oxamate-induced autophagy. Finally, functional studies reveal that the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, a major negative regulator of autophagy, is inhibited by oxamate. Together, our results provide new insights regarding the biological and anti-proliferative activities of oxamate against gastric cancer, and may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:25524555

Zhao, Zhi; Han, Fanghai; Yang, Shibin; Wu, Jianhai; Zhan, Wenhua

2015-03-01

146

Efficient Production of l-Lactic Acid by Metabolically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a Genome-Integrated l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene  

PubMed Central

We developed a metabolically engineered yeast which produces lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant strain, the coding region for pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) on chromosome XII is substituted for that of the l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) through homologous recombination. The expression of mRNA for the genome-integrated LDH is regulated under the control of the native PDC1 promoter, while PDC1 is completely disrupted. Using this method, we constructed a diploid yeast transformant, with each haploid genome having a single insertion of bovine LDH. Yeast cells expressing LDH were observed to convert glucose to both lactate (55.6 g/liter) and ethanol (16.9 g/liter), with up to 62.2% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid under neutralizing conditions. This transgenic strain, which expresses bovine LDH under the control of the PDC1 promoter, also showed high lactic acid production (50.2 g/liter) under nonneutralizing conditions. The differences in lactic acid production were compared among four different recombinants expressing a heterologous LDH gene (i.e., either the bovine LDH gene or the Bifidobacterium longum LDH gene): two transgenic strains with 2?m plasmid-based vectors and two genome-integrated strains. PMID:15812027

Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Matsuyama, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

2005-01-01

147

Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism.  

PubMed

The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD(+), which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in V max (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

148

Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

2014-01-01

149

Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid. PMID:24731822

Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

2014-05-10

150

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

151

Pharmacokinetics of Creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that creatine supplementation has some therapeutic benefit with respect to muscle function and more\\u000a recently neurological function. Despite the growing body of literature on the pharmacologic effect of creatine, very little\\u000a is known about the disposition of creatine after supraphysiologic doses. The movement of creatine throughout the body is governed\\u000a by transport processes which impact the absorption

Wesley Mccall; Adam M. Persky

152

Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.  

PubMed

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+)--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

153

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+) - but with no leg ulcers at the time of the study – were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

154

A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124. PMID:24861375

Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

2014-07-01

155

A study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma by gel electrophoresis method  

PubMed Central

Context: The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is found in almost all the cells of body tissues, can be separated into five fractions and the isoenzyme pattern is believed to vary according to the metabolic requirement of each tissue. LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be considered to be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate salivary LDH isoenzyme pattern in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate between LDH isoenzyme levels and histopathologic grading in selected cases of OL and OSCC. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed 30 cases each of OL and OSCC were selected for the study and 30 healthy individuals of comparable age served as control. Unstimulated whole saliva was aseptically collected and was processed immediately for LDH isoenzymes measurement by agarose gel electrophoresis. Biopsy specimen obtained was processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Sections of OL and OSCC cases were scrutinized histopathologically and appropriately graded for epithelial dysplasia and differentiation of carcinoma respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two sample t test for testing the significance of difference between two group means was used. Results and Conclusion: The present salivary analysis for LDH isoenzyme reveals an overall increased salivary LDH isoenzyme level in OL and OSCC cases and a significant correlation between levels of salivary LDH isoenzymes and histopathologic grades of dysplasia in OL and OSCC. Salivary analysis of LDH will definitely provide the clinician and/or the patient himself with an efficient, non invasive and friendly new tool for diagnosis and monitoring of oral precancer and cancer. PMID:25364177

Joshi, Priya Shirish; Golgire, Someshwar

2014-01-01

156

Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antigens in the proven malaria cases. Methods: The antibodies were raised against two epitopes of PfHRP2 protein and three unique and unexplored epitopes of PfLDH protein. These antibodies were able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens in culture supernatant and parasitized RBC lysate of P. falciparum, respectively up to 50 parasites/?l. The in-house reagents were tested in 200 P. falciparum positive patients residing in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Results: Microsphere (PLGA) with CpG ODN were used to generate high titre and high affinity antibodies against selected peptides of PfHRP-2 and pLDH antigen in mice and rabbit. The peptide specific peak titre varied from 12,800 - 102,400 with an affinity ranging 0.73 - 3.0 mM. The indigenously developed reagents are able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens as low as 75 parasites/?l of blood with a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (100%). Interpretation & conclusions: The study highlight the identification of unique epitopes of PfHRP2 and PfLDH, and the generated antibodies against these antigens were used for quantitative estimation of these two antigens using sandwich ELISA. No corresreactivity with P. vivax infected patients was observed with the sera. PMID:24521645

Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D.N.

2013-01-01

157

Production of natural antimicrobial compound D-phenyllactic acid using Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 whole cells involving highly active D-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound naturally synthesized in various fermented foods and its D-form of PLA is known to be more active than the L-isomer. In this study, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 cells, elaborating D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-ldh) were used to produce D-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). When cultured in the presence of PPA (?50 mmol l(-1)), growing cells produced a maximum yield of 35 mmol l(-1) of D-PLA, and the yields were between 75·2 and 83·3%. Higher conversion yields were obtained at pH 6·0-7·0 when growing cells were used, while the optimum pH range was broader for resting cells. The time required for the complete conversion of PPA into PLA could be shortened to 3 h using resting cells. D-ldh, an enzyme encoded by the LEUM_1756 gene of Leuc. mesenteroides ATCC 8293, was found to be responsible for the conversion of PPA into PLA. The Km and kcat values of the enzyme for PPA were found to be 15·4 mmol l(-1) and 5645 s(-1), respectively. The conditions required for the efficient production of D-PLA were optimized for both growing and resting cells of Leuc. mesenteroides, with special emphasis on achieving high stereoselectivity and conversion yield. Significance and impact of the study: This is the first study on the production of D-phenyllactic acid, which is a natural antimicrobial compound, from phenylpyruvate using Leuconostoc mesenteroides cells. The strain, ATCC 8293, that was used in the study, possesses high stereoselectivity and delivers a high yield. Therefore, it might be a promising candidate for use in large-scale production facilities and in fermented foods. PMID:24888766

Li, L; Shin, S-Y; Lee, K W; Han, N S

2014-10-01

158

Bioactivity-Guided Identification and Cell Signaling Technology to Delineate the Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibition Effects of Spatholobus suberectus on Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1? and subsequent accelerated HIF-1? proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1?/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

2013-01-01

159

Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.  

PubMed Central

The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

Savijoki, K; Palva, A

1997-01-01

160

Regression of Dalton’s lymphoma in vivo via decline in lactate dehydrogenase and induction of apoptosis by a ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N -ethylbenzamide as ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A novel ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide (Ru(II)-CNEB) was found to interact with and inhibit M4-lactate dehydrogenase (M4-LDH), a tumor growth supportive\\u000a enzyme, at the tissue level. The present article describes modulation of M4-LDH by this compound in a T-cell lymphoma (Dalton’s\\u000a Lymphoma: DL) vis a vis regression of the tumor in vivo. The compound showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity to

Raj K. Koiri; Surendra K. Trigun; Lallan Mishra; Kiran Pandey; Deobrat Dixit; Santosh K. Dubey

2009-01-01

161

Creatine Use Among Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Creatine is a nutritional sup- plement that is purported to be a safe ergogenic aid in adults. Although as many as 28% of collegiate athletes admit taking creatine, there is little information about creatine use or potential health risk in children and ad- olescents. Although the use of creatine is not recom- mended in people less than 18 years

Jordan D. Metzl; Eric Small; Steven R. Levine; Jeffrey C. Gershel

162

Inactivation of creatine kinase induced by stilbene derivatives.  

PubMed

Compounds acting as antioxidants to lipids often have a prooxidant effect on DNA or protein. In this study, inactivation of creatine kinase was examined as an indicator of protein damage induced by antioxidative stilbene derivatives, including diethylstilboestrol, resveratrol and tamoxifen, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (horseradish peroxidase-H2O2). Diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol, but not tamoxifen, rapidly inactivated creatine kinase. Also, creatine kinase in heart homogenate was inactivated by diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol. Tamoxifen, which has no phenolic hydroxyl groups in its structure, was about 10 times less active in protecting lipids and creatine kinase than diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol, suggesting that phenolic hydroxyl groups in diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol of stilbene derivatives are anti- and pro-oxidative. Absorption spectra of these stilbene derivatives rapidly changed during the reaction with horseradish peroxidase-H202. Diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol free radicals emitted electron spin resonance signals and creatine kinase effectively diminished the electron spin resonance signals. These results suggest that free radicals of diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol formed through reaction with horseradish peroxidase-H202 inactivated creatine kinase. Presumably, oxidation of essential cysteine and tryptophan residues lead to inactivation of creatine kinase. Other enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase and cholinesterase, were also sharply inhibited by diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol with horseradish peroxidase-H202. Free radicals of diethylstilboestrol and resveratrol seem to mediate between anti- and prooxidative actions. PMID:12071428

Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio

2002-02-01

163

Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A sup 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance study  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The {sup 19}F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes.

Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Rule, G.S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1990-04-03

164

Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase; and supplemented-trained (TCr) rats were given a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine and subjected to intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase. At the end of the experimental period, concentrations of creatine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx) and catalase (CAT). Liver tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were also determined. Results Hepatic creatine levels were highest in the CCr and TCr groups with increased concentration of H2O2 observed in the T and TCr animal groups. SOD activity was decreased in the TCr group. GSH-GPx activity was increased in the T and TCr groups while CAT was elevated in the CCr and TCr groups. GSH, GGS and the GSH/GSSG ratio did not differ between all animal subsets. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that creatine supplementation acts in an additive manner to physical training to raise antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. However, because markers of liver oxidative stress were unchanged, this finding may also indicate that training-induced oxidative stress cannot be ameliorated by creatine supplementation. PMID:24325803

2013-01-01

165

Novel employment of lactate dehydrogenase release from porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as a quantitative marker of cytotoxic activity in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from human faecal isolates, poultry and environmental sources.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to employ a novel cytotoxicity assay based on primary porcine aortic endothelial cells in combination with a lactate dehydrogenase release assay to quantitatively determine differences in cytotoxin production between Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC), isolated from human faeces, animals and environmental sources. Campylobacter isolates totalling 34 and comprising of C. jejuni (n = 24) C. coli (n = 5) and UPTC (n = 4) and C. lari (n = 1) were analysed. The cytotoxic response ranged from 32.15 to 64.47% and 33.08 to 59.41%, for C. jejuni from chicken and human isolates, respectively and there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in cytotoxic response between C. jejuni isolated from humans and chicken isolates (50.78% versus 50.55% cytotoxicity, respectively). However, there was a difference in response between C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from chickens (50.78% versus 33.22% cytotoxicity, respectively). The greatest cytotoxic response was obtained with the UPTC group of organisms examined (n = 4 isolates) (mean cytotoxic response = 57.11% cytotoxicity. Employment of this cytotoxin assay may help identify virulent strains in poultry that could potentially proceed to cause clinical problems for humans and thus intervention measures targeted at the reduction or elimination of such specific strains, may be sought. PMID:14628998

Millar, B C; McCarron, M; Murphy, P G; Moore, J E

2003-08-01

166

The Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Some Specific Proteins in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Before and After Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to measure serum C reactive protein, ?2 microglobulin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and transferrin levels in patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma before and after treatment, and to determine whether any differences occur with treatment, investigate relationship between these parameters and systemic symptoms, and to determine whether they could be used as tumor markers. Materials and Methods: The parameters listed above were studied before and after treatment in sera of 27 patients with the diagnosis of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma who admitted to our department. Of the patients, 10 (37%) were females and 17 (63%) were males. Mean age was 57.7 ± 16.5 (19–82) years. The subjects were newly diagnosed and treatment. Results: Post-treatment serum ferritin and CRP levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with NHL compared to pre-treatment levels (p=0.009 and p=0.015, respectively). In addition, ferritin levels measured before treatment were significantly lower in subjects with B symptoms than those without B symptoms (p=0.02). IgA levels of patients with B symptom were significantly increased compared to those without B symptoms following treatment (p=0.03). Conclusions: We are in the opinion that serum ferritin and CRP parameters may be used as tumor markers and may be indicators in the efficacy evaluation of treatment in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

Yildirim, Rahsan; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Erdem, Fuat; Kiki, lhami; Bilici, Mehmet

2009-01-01

167

Creatine and creatinine metabolism.  

PubMed

The goal of this review is to present a comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology. Very recently, a series of new discoveries have been made that are bound to have distinguished implications for bioenergetics, physiology, human pathology, and clinical diagnosis and that suggest that deregulation of the creatine kinase (CK) system is associated with a variety of diseases. Disturbances of the CK system have been observed in muscle, brain, cardiac, and renal diseases as well as in cancer. On the other hand, Cr and Cr analogs such as cyclocreatine were found to have antitumor, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects and to protect tissues from hypoxic, ischemic, neurodegenerative, or muscle damage. Oral Cr ingestion is used in sports as an ergogenic aid, and some data suggest that Cr and creatinine may be precursors of food mutagens and uremic toxins. These findings are discussed in depth, the interrelationships are outlined, and all is put into a broader context to provide a more detailed understanding of the biological functions of Cr and of the CK system. PMID:10893433

Wyss, M; Kaddurah-Daouk, R

2000-07-01

168

Creatine Supplementation in Wisconsin High School Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Creatine is a nutritional supplement used to enhance athletic performance in collegiate and pro- fessional athletes. There is increasing evidence that high school athletes are using creatine as well. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of creatine sup- plementation as well as the behaviors and beliefs asso- ciated with creatine use in high school athletes. Methods:

Timothy A. McGuine; Jude C. Sullivan; David A. Bernhardt

2002-01-01

169

Effects of cadmium exposure on the ultrastructural pathology of different pulmonary cells, leukocyte count, and activity of glutathione peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase in relation to free radical production in Uromastyx aegyptius.  

PubMed

Animal studies on the toxicity of heavy metals have been widely used as model to simulate the impacts of environmental pollution on the human health. In the present study the authors hypothesized that cadmium exposure inducts changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. The pathological changes of different pulmonary cells of ROS-cadmium-dependent effects were investigated in relation to the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Twelve animals were randomly assigned to two groups, control and experimental. The experimental group underwent ingestion of cadmium mixed with diet (200 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. Following the treatment conditions for each group, blood samples were collected and animals were sacrificed and the lung was isolated. Ultrastructure examination showed that cadmium resulted in desquamated pneumocyte type II with degenerated surfactant materials, thickened alveolar wall, and thickening of alveolar septum due to proliferation of endothelial cells lining the pulmonary capillaries as a result of an active transmigration. t-test results showed that cadmium caused a significant (p < .05) rise in leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes, which was a sign for chemotactic activity that enhanced transmigration from pulmonary microcirculation into inflammated tissue. In addition, lung tissue FR production, LDH, and GPx activities increased significantly (p < .05) from the baseline control of 88.17+/-17.70, 183.49+/-29.50, and 4466.79+/-1190.32 to 129.67+/-14.49.14 (Carr U), 339.17+/-75.28 (U/L), and 5943.08+/-695 (U/L) respectively, in the cadmium-treated group. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that long-term cadmium exposure (ingestion mixed with food) results in cadmium deposition in the tissue of the vasculature of the lungs, such as pulmonary capillary endothelial, which induced the buildup of ROS, a possible proposed new mechanism that explains lung inflammation. PMID:19274579

Al-Johany, A M; Haffor, A S

2009-01-01

170

Regression of Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via decline in lactate dehydrogenase and induction of apoptosis by a ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide as ligand.  

PubMed

A novel ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide (Ru(II)-CNEB) was found to interact with and inhibit M4-lactate dehydrogenase (M4-LDH), a tumor growth supportive enzyme, at the tissue level. The present article describes modulation of M4-LDH by this compound in a T-cell lymphoma (Dalton's Lymphoma: DL) vis a vis regression of the tumor in vivo. The compound showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity to DL cells in vitro. When a non toxic dose (10 mg/kg bw i.p.) of Ru(II)-CNEB was administered to DL bearing mice, it also produced a significant decline in DL cell viability in vivo. The DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice showed a significant decline in the level of M4-LDH with a concomitant release of this protein in the cell free ascitic fluid. A significant increase of nuclear DNA fragmentation in DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice also coincided with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in those DL cells. Importantly, neither blood based biochemical markers of liver damage nor the normal patterns of LDH isozymes in other tissues were affected due to the treatment of DL mice with the compound. These results were also comparable with the effects of cisplatin (an anticancer drug) observed simultaneously on DL mice. The findings suggest that Ru(II)-CNEB is able to regress Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via declining M4-LDH and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction-apoptosis pathway without producing any toxicity to the normal tissues. PMID:19043664

Koiri, Raj K; Trigun, Surendra K; Mishra, Lallan; Pandey, Kiran; Dixit, Deobrat; Dubey, Santosh K

2009-12-01

171

Enzymes Related to Lactate Metabolism in Green Algae and Lower Land Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained two enzymes capable of oxidizing d-lactate; these were glycolate dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase. The two enzymes could be distinguished by differential centrifugation, glycolate dehydrogenase being largely particulate and NAD+-d-lactate dehydrogenase being soluble. The reduction of pyruvate by NADH proceeded more rapidly than the reverse reaction, and the apparent Michaelis constants for pyruvate and NADH were lower than for d-lactate and NAD+. These data indicated that under physiological conditions, the NAD+-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase probably functions to produce d-lactate from pyruvate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity dependent on NAD+ was found in a number of other green algae and in the green tissues of a few lower land plants. When present in species which contain glycolate oxidase rather than glycolate dehydrogenase, the enzyme was specific for l-lactate rather than d-lactate. A cyclic system revolving around the production and utilization of d-lactate in some species and l-lactate in certain others is proposed. PMID:16658670

Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen; Tolbert, N. E.

1974-01-01

172

Combining Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase-Based and Histidine-Rich Protein 2-Based Rapid Tests To Improve Specificity for Diagnosis of Malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and Other Plasmodium Species in Sabah, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with “species-specific” parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P. falciparum because of P. knowlesi cross-reactivity and cautions against their use alone in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. Sensitive P. knowlesi-specific RDTs and/or alternative molecular diagnostic tools are needed in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. PMID:24696029

William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E.; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2014-01-01

173

Comparison of new forms of creatine in raising plasma creatine levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that plasma creatine levels are influenced by extracellular concentrations of insulin and glucose as well as by the intracellular creatine concentration. However, the form of creatine administered does not appear to have any effect although specific data on this is lacking. This study examined whether the administration of three different forms of creatine had different

Ralf Jäger; Roger C Harris; Martin Purpura; Marc Francaux

2007-01-01

174

Creatine kinase overexpression improves ATP kinetics and contractile function in postischemic myocardium  

PubMed Central

Reduced myofibrillar ATP availability during prolonged myocardial ischemia may limit post-ischemic mechanical function. Because creatine kinase (CK) is the prime energy reserve reaction of the heart and because it has been difficult to augment ATP synthesis during and after ischemia, we used mice that overexpress the myofibrillar isoform of creatine kinase (CKM) in cardiac-specific, conditional fashion to test the hypothesis that CKM overexpression increases ATP delivery in ischemic-reperfused hearts and improves functional recovery. Isolated, retrograde-perfused hearts from control and CKM mice were subjected to 25 min of global, no-flow ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion while cardiac function [rate pressure product (RPP)] was monitored. A combination of 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments at 11.7T and biochemical assays was used to measure the myocardial rate of ATP synthesis via CK (CK flux) and intracellular pH (pHi). Baseline CK flux was severalfold higher in CKM hearts (8.1 ± 1.0 vs. 32.9 ± 3.8, mM/s, control vs. CKM; P < 0.001) with no differences in phosphocreatine concentration [PCr] and RPP. End-ischemic pHi was higher in CKM hearts than in control hearts (6.04 ± 0.12 vs. 6.37 ± 0.04, control vs. CKM; P < 0.05) with no differences in [PCr] and [ATP] between the two groups. Post-ischemic PCr (66.2 ± 1.3 vs. 99.1 ± 8.0, %preischemic levels; P < 0.01), CK flux (3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 14.0 ± 1.2 mM/s; P < 0.001) and functional recovery (13.7 ± 3.4 vs. 64.9 ± 13.2%preischemic RPP; P < 0.01) were significantly higher and lactate dehydrogenase release was lower in CKM than in control hearts. Thus augmenting cardiac CKM expression attenuates ischemic acidosis, reduces injury, and improves not only high-energy phosphate content and the rate of CK ATP synthesis in postischemic myocardium but also recovery of contractile function. PMID:22886411

Akki, Ashwin; Su, Jason; Yano, Toshiyuki; Gupta, Ashish; Wang, Yibin; Leppo, Michelle K.; Chacko, Vadappuram P.; Steenbergen, Charles

2012-01-01

175

Mechanisms of muscular adaptations to creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation is a widely used and heavily studied ergogenic aid. Athletes use creatine to increase muscle mass, strength, and muscle endurance. While the performance and muscle- building effects of creatine supplementation have been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for these muscular adaptations have been less studied. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine studies of the mechanisms

Eric S Rawson; Adam M Persky

2007-01-01

176

Lactate and acetate production in Listeria innocua.  

PubMed

Listeria innocua NCTC 11289 was grown aerobically in continuous culture in defined media at 30 degrees C. Both acetate and lactate were produced, the proportion of acetate decreased with increasing dilution rate. Enzymatic analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase was activated 10-fold by fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate. The presence of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase but not pyruvate oxidase was detected, suggesting the sequential action of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase to produce acetate from acetyl CoA via acetylphosphate. PMID:8987454

Kelly, A F; Patchett, R A

1996-08-01

177

The Physiological Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Hydration: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, Harris and colleagues demonstrated that oral creatine supplementation can enhance muscle creatine stores. Since then, creatine has become an important and popular ergogenic aid for improving athletic performance with reports of up to 74% of athletes supplementing with creatine. Although many recent studies have addressed the safety concerns of creatine supplementation on hydration status in hot and humid

Eric J. Sobolewski; Brennan J. Thompson; Abbie E. Smith; Eric D. Ryan

2011-01-01

178

Functional Insights into the Creatine Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine and phosphocreatine provide an intracellular, high-energy phosphate buffering system, essential to maintain ATP levels\\u000a in tissues with high energy demands. A specific plasma membrane creatine transporter (CRT) is required for the cellular uptake\\u000a of creatine. This transporter is related to the \\\\UPgamma -aminobutyric acid (GAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and\\u000a is part of a large gene family of Na+-

David L. Christie

179

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked creatine deficiency On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed June 2011 What is X-linked creatine deficiency? X-linked creatine deficiency is ...

180

Pyruvate into lactate and back: From the Warburg effect to symbiotic energy fuel exchange in cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells fuel their metabolism with glucose and glutamine to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferation. Hypoxia and oncogenic mutations drive glycolysis, with the pyruvate to lactate conversion being promoted by increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The NAD+ pool is consecutively regenerated and supports the high glycolytic flux required to produce anabolic

Olivier Feron

2009-01-01

181

Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

2012-03-20

182

Caffeine and Creatine Use in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Caffeine and creatine are 2 of the most widely available and used compounds in sport. Although the use of either is not considered a doping infraction, the evidence does suggest ergogenic potential in certain sports. The purpose of this paper is to review the pharmacology and potential mechanism(s) of action of caffeine and creatine as they pertain to possible

Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2010-01-01

183

Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces parkinsonism in experimental animals by a mechanism involving impaired energy production. MPTP is converted by monoamine oxidase B to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which blocks complex I of the electron transport chain. Oral supplementation with creatine or cyclocreatine, which are substrates for creatine kinase, may increase phosphocreatine (PCr) or cyclophosphocreatine (PCCr) and buffer against ATP depletion and thereby exert neuroprotective effects. In the present study we found that oral supplementation with either creatine or cyclocreatine produced significant protection against MPTP-induced dopamine depletions in mice. Creatine protected against MPTP-induced loss of Nissl and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostained neurons in the substantia nigra. Creatine and cyclocreatine had no effects on the conversion of MPTP to MPP+ in vivo. These results further implicate metabolic dysfunction in MPTP neurotoxicity and suggest a novel therapeutic approach, which may have applicability for Parkinson's disease. PMID:10222117

Matthews, R T; Ferrante, R J; Klivenyi, P; Yang, L; Klein, A M; Mueller, G; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Beal, M F

1999-05-01

184

Does supplemental creatine prevent herpes recurrences?  

PubMed

While functioning as a general practitioner at the Camp Pendleton Marine Base, the first author treated numerous patients with recurrent genital herpes. Beginning in 1998, a number of these patients failed to return for periodic acyclovir therapy. Inquiries revealed that these patients had all commenced supplemental creatine after their last outbreak, and had experienced no further outbreaks. A literature search uncovered a report that cyclocreatine, a synthetic compound structurally and functionally homologous to creatine, inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster, and herpes simplex types 1 and 2, in low millimolar concentrations; furthermore, dietary cyclocreatine reduces morbidity and mortality in mice infected with HSV-2. The fact that both creatine and cyclocreatine exert neuroprotective and cancer-retardant effects in rodents, encourages the speculation that creatine shares the anti-viral activity of cyclocreatine. Pilot studies to assess the impact of creatine loading on recurrence of oral and genital herpes appear warranted; the impact of creatine on shingles occurrence in high-risk patients could also be explored. Although initially conceived as an aid to athletic performance, creatine loading may prove to have broad preventive and therapeutic applications. PMID:11516222

Ness, S R; McCarty, M F

2001-09-01

185

Separation methods applicable to urinary creatine and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary creatinine has been analyzed for many years as an indicator of glomerular filtration rate. More recently, interest in studying the uptake of creatine as a result of creatine supplementation, a practice increasingly common among bodybuilders and athletes, has lead to a need to measure urinary creatine concentrations. Creatine levels are of the same order of magnitude as creatinine levels

Truis Smith-Palmer

2002-01-01

186

Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the lct locus at min 80 on the chromosome map is associated with ability to grow on L-lactate and to synthesize a substrate-inducible flavin-linked dehydrogenase. Similar to that of the glpD-encoded aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of induced enzyme activity is elevated by aerobiosis. Both of these controls are mediated by the two-component signal transduction system ArcB/ArcA, although sensitivity to the control is much more striking for L-lactate dehydrogenase. This study disclosed that the lct locus contained three overlapping genes in the clockwise order of lctD (encoding a flavin mononucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase), lctR (encoding a putative regulator), and lctP (encoding a permease) on the chromosomal map. These genes, however, are transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. No homology in amino acid sequence was found between aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. A phi (lctD-lac) mutant was inducible by L-lactate but not D-lactate. Although the mutant lost the ability to grow on L-lactate, growth on D-lactate, known to depend on a different enzyme, remained normal. Images PMID:8407843

Dong, J M; Taylor, J S; Latour, D J; Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

1993-01-01

187

The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize

Ryan D. Schoch; Darryn Willoughby; Mike Greenwood

2006-01-01

188

Creatine Doesn't Treat Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Study Says Research in mice had suggested this amino acid might help (*this news item will not be ... a new study finds. Creatine monohydrate is an amino acid believed to play an important role in energy ...

189

Comprehensive review on lactate metabolism in human health.  

PubMed

Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Monocarboxylate transporters are being investigated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy of these and other disorders. Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption. Lactate removal takes place via its oxidation to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate may be either oxidized to carbon dioxide producing energy or transformed into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation requires oxygen supply and the cooperation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. Congenital or acquired deficiency on gluconeogenesis or pyruvate oxidation, including tissue hypoxia, may induce lactate accumulation. Both obese individuals and patients with diabetes show elevated plasma lactate concentration compared to healthy subjects, but there is no conclusive evidence of hyperlactatemia causing insulin resistance. Available evidence suggests an association between defective mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the pancreatic ?-cells and diminished insulin secretion that may trigger the development of diabetes in patients already affected with insulin resistance. Several mutations in the mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus, although the pathogenesis remains unsettled. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. d-lactate is a lactate enantiomer normally formed during glycolysis. Excess d-lactate is generated in diabetes, particularly during diabetic ketoacidosis. d-lactic acidosis is typically associated with small bowel resection. PMID:24929216

Adeva-Andany, M; López-Ojén, M; Funcasta-Calderón, R; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, E; Donapetry-García, C; Vila-Altesor, M; Rodríguez-Seijas, J

2014-07-01

190

Lactate and succinate oxidoreductases in marine invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen species of littoral marine invertebrates, representing Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, and Arthropoda, were studied with respect to the ability of tissue extracts to catalyze the lactate and succinate dehydrogenase reactions in both directions. Pyruvate reductase (PR) activity varied tremendously with species, from 0.014 µmole\\/min\\/g of tissue in the etenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to 145 µ-moles\\/min in leg muscle of

C. S. Hammen

1969-01-01

191

Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20–100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts were protected against I/R injury in vivo in a dose-dependent manner (average 27% less myocardial necrosis) and exhibited greatly improved functional recovery following ex vivo I/R (59% of baseline vs. 29%). Mechanisms contributing to ischaemic protection in CrT-OE hearts include elevated PCr and glycogen levels and improved energy reserve. Furthermore, creatine loading in HL-1 cells did not alter antioxidant defences, but delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in response to oxidative stress, suggesting an additional mechanism to prevent reperfusion injury. Conclusion Elevation of myocardial creatine by 20–100% reduced myocardial stunning and I/R injury via pleiotropic mechanisms, suggesting CrT activation as a novel, potentially translatable target for cardiac protection from ischaemia. PMID:22915766

Lygate, Craig A.; Bohl, Steffen; ten Hove, Michiel; Faller, Kiterie M.E.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Zervou, Sevasti; Medway, Debra J.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan

2012-01-01

192

Blood chemistry in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation reveals no effect of handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum clinical chemistry parameters were examined in lactating southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina mothers and their pups from the declining Macquarie Island population. There were significant changes in serum values from 2 to 21 days postpartum in both nursing mothers (increase: inorganic phosphate; decrease: creatinine, potassium, chloride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase) and suckling pups (increase:

Georg H Engelhard; Ailsa J Hall; Sophie M. J. M Brasseur; Peter J. H Reijnders

2002-01-01

193

Control of lactate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a bacterial LDH gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential industrial applications for lactate, such as the production of chemicals, has led to interest in producing this organic acid by metabolically engineered yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Such microorganisms are more acid tolerant than lactic acid bacteria. This paper deals with the potential of the genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain K1-LDH (the lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum has

S Dequin; J. M Sablayrolles

2003-01-01

194

Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.  

PubMed

Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:699-725, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25159005

Lowe, Matthew T J; Faull, Richard L M; Christie, David L; Waldvogel, Henry J

2015-04-01

195

Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  

PubMed Central

Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

Allen, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

196

Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  

PubMed

Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

Allen, Patricia J

2012-05-01

197

Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ? 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p < 0.001). CRF group showed a significant increase in bench press 1RM from T1-T2 (p < 0.001), and also increased from T2-T3 (p = 0.032). Leg press 1RM significantly increased at all time points for PL, CRD, and CRF groups (p < 0.05). No additional between or within group changes were observed for any performance variables and serum clinical safety profiles (p > 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

2011-01-01

198

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated

Richard B. Kreider

2003-01-01

199

Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of studies have been published on creatine supplementation over the last decade. Many studies show that creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training augments gains in muscle strength and size. The underlying physiological mechanism(s) to explain this ergogenic effect remain unclear. Increases in muscle fiber hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain expression have been observed with creatine supplementation.

Jeff S. Volek; Eric S. Rawson

2004-01-01

200

[High-efficiency L-lactate production from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

High-efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate is beneficial for the development of both oil hydrolysis industry and biodegradable materials manufacturing industry. In order to construct an L-lactate producer, we first cloned a coding region of gene BcoaLDH encoding an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans CICIM B1821 and the promoter sequence (P(ldhA)) of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhA) from Escherichia coli CICIM B0013. Then we assembled these two DNA fragments in vitro and yielded an expression cassette, P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH. Then, the cassette was chromosomally integrated into an ldhA mutant strain, Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-080C, by replacing lldD encoding an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. An L-lactate higher-producer strain, designated as E. coli B0013-090B, possessing genotype of lldD::P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH, deltaack-pta deltapps deltapflB deltadld deltapoxB deltaadhE deltafrdA and deltaldhA, was generated. Under the optimal condition, 132.4 g/L L-lactate was accumulated by B0013-090B with the lactate productivity of 4.90 g/Lh and the yield of 93.7% in 27 h from glycerol. The optical purity of L-lactate in broth is above 99.95%. PMID:24409690

Tian, Kangming; Shi, Guiyang; Lu, Fuping; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-09-01

201

Biochemical characterization of proline dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis mitochondria.  

PubMed

Proline has multiple functions in plants. Besides being a building block for protein biosynthesis proline plays a central role in the plant stress response and in further cellular processes. Here, we report an analysis on the integration of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) into mitochondrial metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. An experimental system to induce ProDH activity was established using cell cultures. Induction of ProDH was measured by novel photometric activity assays and by a ProDH in gel activity assay. Effects of increased ProDH activity on other mitochondrial enzymes were systematically investigated. Activities of the protein complexes of the respiratory chain were not significantly altered. In contrast, some mitochondrial dehydrogenases had markedly changed activities. Activity of glutamate dehydrogenase substantially increased, indicating upregulation of the entire proline catabolic pathway, which was confirmed by co-expression analyses of the corresponding genes. Furthermore, activity of d-lactate dehydrogenase was increased. d-lactate was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of ProDH in plants. We suggest that induction of d-lactate dehydrogenase activity allows rapid upregulation of ProDH activity during the short-term stress response in plants. PMID:24751239

Schertl, Peter; Cabassa, Cécile; Saadallah, Kaouthar; Bordenave, Marianne; Savouré, Arnould; Braun, Hans-Peter

2014-06-01

202

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

2012-04-01

204

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

205

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

...creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

206

21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...creatine phosphokinase and its isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction and muscle diseases such as progressive, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

207

Creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB in endurance runners and in patients with myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Following a 100 km race creatine kinase (CK) creatine kinase MB (CKMB) activities were serially measured in well trained athletes and compared with enzyme activities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The half-time of disappearance of CK (CKt\\u000a1\\/2) was 1.75±0.70 days in runners who trained within the 1st week after the race, and was 0.81±0.18 days in patients

M. StÄubli; B. Roessler; H. P. KiJchli; E. Peheim; P. W. Straub

1985-01-01

208

The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr) and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit) supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. METHODS: Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest) and after (posttest) 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g\\/d, n = 16), Cr-Cit (5 g\\/d, n = 16)

Ralf Jäger; Jan Metzger; Karin Lautmann; Vladimir Shushakov; Martin Purpura; Kurt-Reiner Geiss; Norbert Maassen

2008-01-01

209

Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth  

PubMed Central

L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L-LDH can be effectively used as a factor to regulate a metabolic pathway and its metabolic flux for efficient L-lactate production. Highlights The enzymatic thermodynamics was used as a tool for metabolic regulation. ? minimizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase in growth phase improved biomass accumulation. ? maximizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase improved lactate productivity in production phase. PMID:24884499

2014-01-01

210

A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.  

PubMed

The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress. PMID:25214213

Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

2014-12-01

211

Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host’s well-being, in particular the host’s ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements – creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN - largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. PMID:21575742

Leland, Korey M.; McDonald, Thomas L.; Drescher, Kristen M.

2011-01-01

212

Production of optically pure d-lactate from glycerol by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.  

PubMed

In this study, glycerol was used to produce optically pure d-lactate by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. In the recombinant strain, d-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA was overexpressed, and two genes, dhaT and yqhD for biosynthesis of main byproduct 1,3-propanediol, were knocked out. To further improve d-lactate production, the culture condition was optimized and the results demonstrated that aeration rate played an important role in d-lactate production. In microaerobic fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain accumulated 142.1g/L optically pure d-lactate with a yield of 0.82g/g glycerol, which represented the highest d-lactate production from glycerol so far. This study showed that K. pneumoniae strain has high efficiency to convert glycerol into d-lactate and high potentiality in utilization of crude glycerol from biodiesel industry. PMID:25270041

Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Xian, Mo; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Rubing; Zhao, Guang

2014-11-01

213

Involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in product formation in pyruvate-limited anaerobic chemostat cultures of Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with pyruvate as the energy source. At low culture pH values, high in vivo and in vitro activities were found for both pyruvate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. At high culture pH values the carbon flux was shifted towards pyruvate formate lyase. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this metabolic switch are

Jacky L. Snoep; M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos; Pieter W. Postma; Oense M. Neijssel

1990-01-01

214

Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

215

Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

216

Creatine phosphokinase elevation exacerbated by levetiracetam therapy  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old muscular male with a history of epilepsy presented following two convulsive events. Levetiracetam (LEV) was given as an additional therapy, resulting in a marked boost in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) that could not easily be explained by renal dysfunction or rhabdomyolysis alone. Levetiracetam discontinuation caused CPK levels to quickly normalize and should be considered in patients with persisting CPK elevations postconvulsive seizure.

Isaacson, Julia E.; Choe, Dongwhoon J.; Doherty, Michael J.

2014-01-01

217

Creatine as a therapeutic strategy for myopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myopathies are genetic or acquired disorders of skeletal muscle that lead to varying degrees of weakness, atrophy, and exercise\\u000a intolerance. In theory, creatine supplementation could have a number of beneficial effects that could enhance function in\\u000a myopathy patients, including muscle mass, strength and endurance enhancement, lower calcium levels, anti-oxidant effects,\\u000a and reduced apoptosis. Patients with muscular dystrophy respond to several

M. A. Tarnopolsky

2011-01-01

218

Homofermentative lactate production cannot sustain anaerobic growth of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: possible consequence of energy-dependent lactate export.  

PubMed

Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

van Maris, Antonius J A; Winkler, Aaron A; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

2004-05-01

219

Creatine supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic creatine ingestion in vivo: Down-regulation of the expression of creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in creatine (Cr) as a nutritional supplement and ergogenic aid for athletes has surged over recent years. After cellular uptake, Cr is phosphorylated to phosphocreatine (PCr) by the creatine kinase (CK) reaction using ATP. At subcellular sites with high energy requirements, e.g. at the myofibrillar apparatus during muscle contraction, CK catalyzes the transphosphorylation of PCr to ADP to regenerate

Maria Lourdes Guerrero-Ontiveros; Theo Wallimann

1998-01-01

220

Creatine supplementation decreases homocysteine in an animal model of uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation decreases homocysteine in an animal model of uremia.BackgroundHyperhomocysteinemia is prevalent in more than 85% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is thought to contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Creatine is synthesized by methylation of guanidinoacetate with formation of S-adenosylhomocysteine and subsequently, homocysteine (Hcy). Creatine supplementation down-regulates its endogenous synthesis and, thus, may reduce

Youri E. C. Taes; Joris R. Delanghe; An S. De Vriese; Roeland Rombaut; John Van Camp; Norbert H. Lameire

2003-01-01

221

Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

l-lactate formation occurs via the reduction of pyruvate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase. l-lactate removal takes place via its oxidation into pyruvate, which may be oxidized or converted into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation involves the cooperative effort of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. In addition, pyruvate may undergo reversible transamination to alanine by alanine aminotransferase. Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism are crucial to diabetes pathophysiology and therapy. Elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase concentration has been associated with insulin resistance. Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene have been associated with fasting glucose concentration and insulin secretion. In diabetes patients, pyruvate dehydrogenase is down-regulated and the activity of pyruvate carboxylase is diminished in the pancreatic islets. Inhibitors of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase are being investigated as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In addition, enzymes implicated in l-lactate metabolism have revealed to be important in cancer cell homeostasis. Many human tumors have higher LDH5 levels than normal tissues. The LDHC gene is expressed in a broad range of tumors. The activation of PDH is a potential mediator in the body response that protects against cancer and PDH activation has been observed to reduce glioblastoma growth. The expression of PDK1 may serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. Genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase have tumor suppressor functions and consequently mutations in these genes may cause a variety of tumors. PMID:24029012

Adeva, M; González-Lucán, M; Seco, M; Donapetry, C

2013-11-01

222

Effects of amide creatine derivatives in brain hippocampal slices, and their possible usefulness for curing creatine transporter deficiency.  

PubMed

The creatine/phosphocreatine system carries ATP from production to consumption sites and buffers the intracellular content of ATP at times of energy deprivation. The creatine transporter deficiency syndrome is an X-linked disease caused by a defective creatine transporter into the central nervous system. This disease is presently untreatable because creatine lacking its carrier cannot cross neither the blood-brain barrier nor the cell plasma membranes. Possible strategies to cure this condition are to couple creatine to molecules which have their own carrier, to exploit the latter to cross biological membranes or to modify the creatine molecule to make it more lipophilic, in such a way that it may more easily cross lipid-rich biological membranes. Such molecules could moreover be useful for treatment of stroke or other ischemic brain syndromes of normal (transporter working) tissue. In this paper we tested four molecules in in vitro hippocampal slices experiments to investigate whether or not they had a neuroprotective effect similar to that of creatine. On two of them we also performed biochemical measurements to investigate whether or not they were able to increase the creatine and phosphocreatine content of the hippocampal slices with and without block of the transporter. We found that these molecules increase levels of creatine after block of the transporter, and significantly increased the levels of phosphocreatine. Both significantly increased the total creatine content in both conditions of active and blocked transporter. This shows that these molecules are capable of entering cells through biological membranes without using the creatine transporter. By contrast, neither of them was able to delay synaptic block during anoxia of normal (transporter functioning) tissue. We conclude that these compounds might possibly be useful for therapy of creatine transporter deficiency, but further research is needed to understand their possible role in anoxia/ischemia of normal tissue. PMID:24213972

Garbati, Patrizia; Adriano, Enrico; Salis, Annalisa; Ravera, Silvia; Damonte, Gianluca; Millo, Enrico; Balestrino, Maurizio

2014-01-01

223

Identification of the genes that contribute to lactate utilization in Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137-0139 (lldEFG), hp0140-0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137-0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140-0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137-0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140-0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

224

Identification of the Genes That Contribute to Lactate Utilization in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137–0139 (lldEFG), hp0140–0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137–0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140–0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137–0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140–0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

225

Fiber optic biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and L-lactate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical fiber biosensor for the selective determination of hydrogen peroxide has been developed as the base sensor for the construction of multienzyme optodes involving lactate converting enzymes for the analysis of lactic acid. The optode uses the H2O2 dependent oxidation of homovanillic acid by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the sensing reaction. The fluorescence of the dimeric product formed is used as the measuring signal related to the concentration of H2O2. HRP was immobilized on a membrane and combined with a bifurcated fiber optic probe. Under optimized conditions the sensor responds linearly to hydrogen peroxide between 1 micrometers ol/l and 0.12 mmol/l and exhibits a half life of 90 days. Using a lactate oxidase-HRP membrane, the sensor is suitable for lactate measurement with a linear range of 3 micrometers ol/l-0.2 mmol/l. To increase the sensitivity for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase was coimmobilized on the sensor membrane. In the presence of NADH the signal for lactate is amplified fourfold through the internal analyte recycling accomplished by the lactate-converting enzymes.

Schubert, Florian; Rinneberg, Herbert H.; Wang, Fang

1995-02-01

226

Direct determination of creatine kinase equilibrium constants with creatine or cyclocreatine substrate.  

PubMed

The equilibrium constants of two reactions catalyzed by rabbit muscle creatine kinase with creatine or cyclocreatine as substrate were determined by 31P-NMR. The value of the equilibrium constant with creatine as substrate was 172.10(7) M(-1) in agreement with previous work (Veech, R.L., Lawson, J.W.R., Cornell, W. and Krebs, H.A. (1979) J. Biol. Chem 254, 6538-6547). The value with cyclocreatine was 5.62.10(7) M(-1) and the ratio of the two constants is 30.6. It was possible to determine the ratio of the two equilibrium constants in a reaction mixture containing both substrates since it was found that the 31P resonances of P-creatine and P-cyclocreatine were well resolved. The ratio of K1/K2 determined in such experiments was 34.6, of the same order as previously reported by Annesley and Walker (Annesley, T.M. and Walker, J.B. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 74, 185-190). PMID:2804134

LoPresti, P; Cohn, M

1989-10-19

227

The utilisation of creatine and its analogues by cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase.  

PubMed

We have investigated the utilisation of four analogues of creatine by cytosolic Creatine Kinase (CK), using 31P-NMR in the porcine carotid artery, and by mitochondrial CK (Mt-CK), using oxygen consumption studies in isolated heart mitochondria and skinned fibers. Porcine carotid arteries were superfused for 12 h with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 22 degrees C, containing 11 mM glucose as substrate, and supplemented with either 20 mM beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA), methyl-guanidinopropionic acid (m-GPA), guanidinoacetic acid (GA) or cyclocreatine (cCr). All four analogues entered the tissue and became phosphorylated by CK as seen by 31 P-NMR, Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by 1 mM cyanide after accumulation of the phosphorylated analogue resulted in the utilisation of PCr, beta-GPA-P, GA-P and GA-P over a similar time course (approximately 2 h), despite very different kinetic properties of these analogues in vitro. cCr-P was utilised at a significantly slower rate, but was rapidly dephosphorylated in the presence of both 1 mM iodoacetate and cyanide (to inhibit both glycolysis and oxidative metabolism respectively). The technique of creatine stimulated respiration was used to investigate the phosphorylation of the analogues by Mt-CK, Isolated mitochondria were subjected to increasing [ATP], whereas skinned fibres received a similar protocol with increasing [ADP]. There was a significant stimulation of respiration by creatine and cCr in isolated mitochondria (decreased K(m) and increased Vmax vs control), but none by GA, mGPA or beta-GPA (also in skinned fibres), indicating that these latter analogues were not utilised by Mt-CK. These results demonstrate differences in the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of creatine and its analogues by cytosolic CK and Mt-CK in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8664304

Boehm, E A; Radda, G K; Tomlin, H; Clark, J F

1996-06-13

228

A Novel Relationship Between Creatine Transport at the Blood-Brain and Blood-Retinal Barriers, Creatine Biosynthesis, And its Use for Brain and Retinal Energy Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is increasing that the creatine\\/phosphocreatine shuttle system plays an essential role in energy homeostasis in the\\u000a brain and retina to ensure proper development and function. Thus, our understanding of the mechanism of creatine supply and\\u000a creatine usage in the brain and retina and of creatine supplementation in patients with creatine deficiency syndromes is an\\u000a important step towards improved therapeutic

Masanori Tachikawa; Ken-Ichi Hosoya; Sumio Ohtsuki; Tetsuya Terasaki

229

The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. In a double-blind manner, participants were

Mike Spillane; Ryan Schoch; Matt Cooke; Travis Harvey; Mike Greenwood; Richard Kreider; Darryn S Willoughby

2009-01-01

230

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2011-04-01

231

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2014-04-01

233

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2012-04-01

234

Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

Meany, J. E.

2007-01-01

235

Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

Ma, L.

2000-09-12

236

The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

Wolf, Edward C.

1988-01-01

237

Homofermentative Production of d- or l-Lactate in Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli RR1  

PubMed Central

We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure d- or l-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to d-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce d-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of d-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of d-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous l-lactate pathway, an l-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and d-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to l-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of l-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of d-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of l-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product. PMID:10103226

Chang, Dong-Eun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Pan, Jae-Gu

1999-01-01

238

Creatine Supplementation Reduces Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyocellular Injury.  

PubMed

Heart failure is a common complication of doxorubicin (DOX) therapy. Previous studies have shown that DOX adversely impacts cardiac energy metabolism, and the ensuing energy deficiencies antedate clinical manifestations of cardiac toxicity. Brief exposure of cultured cardiomyocytes to DOX significantly decreases creatine transport, which is the cell's sole source of creatine. We present the results of a study performed to determine if physiological creatine supplementation (5 mmol/L) could protect cardiomyocytes in culture from cellular injury resulting from exposure to therapeutic levels of DOX. Creatine supplementation significantly decreased cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production caused by DOX. The protective effect was specific to creatine and depended on its transport into the cell. PMID:25253560

Santacruz, Lucia; Darrabie, Marcus D; Mantilla, Jose Gabriel; Mishra, Rajashree; Feger, Bryan J; Jacobs, Danny O

2014-09-25

239

Physiology of lactation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

240

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations.  

PubMed

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle physiology and/or exercise capacity in healthy, trained, and various diseased populations. Short-term creatine supplementation (e.g. 20 g/day for 5-7 days) has typically been reported to increase total creatine content by 10-30% and phosphocreatine stores by 10-40%. Of the approximately 300 studies that have evaluated the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation, about 70% of these studies report statistically significant results while remaining studies generally report non-significant gains in performance. No study reports a statistically significant ergolytic effect. For example, short-term creatine supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5-15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5-15%), single-effort sprint performance (1-5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5-15%). Moreover, creatine supplementation during training has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and performance primarily of high intensity exercise tasks. Although not all studies report significant results, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that creatine supplementation appears to be a generally effective nutritional ergogenic aid for a variety of exercise tasks in a number of athletic and clinical populations. PMID:12701815

Kreider, Richard B

2003-02-01

241

Effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance are related to the AMPD1 and PPARG genes polymorphisms in football players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term creatine supplementation on exercise performance in male athletes depending on the studied genotypes. The present study was limited as long as to two common polymorphisms, such as C34T AMPD1 and Pro12Ala PPARG, selected because previously reported these associations with various aspects of metabolic abnormalities. Athletes had significantly higher frequency of T allele compared to controls AMPD1 34T (7.9 vs. 15.6 %, p < 0.0001) and PPARG 12Ala allele compared to controls (20.7 vs. 15.8%, p < 0.0001). During the experimental period, 21 football players were randomly assigned to either creatine (n = 11) or a dextrose (placebo) (n = 10) supplementation groups. The best response to creatine was presented by AMPD1 CC genotype. Increases in relative VO2(max) values were a significantly (p = 0.052) higher in AMPD1 CT genotype carriers (n = 3; 2.94 ± 0.59 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) than AMPD1 CC genotype carriers (n = 8; 0.03 ± 0.01 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). We found decrease blood lactate accumulation (La(max)) in AMPD1 CT genotype by 0.84 ± 0.05 mmol x L(-1), and increase by 0.63 ± 0.17 mmol x L(-1) (p = 0.034) in AMPD1 CC genotype. PMID:25665401

Lifanov, D; Khadyeva, M N; Rahmatullina, L Sh; Demenev, S V; Ibragimov, R R

2014-06-01

242

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

243

Cyclocreatine inhibits stimulated motility in tumor cells possessing creatine kinase.  

PubMed

Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine), an analog of creatine and a substrate for creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2), inhibits the stimulated motility of tumor cells which possess creatine kinase. A2058-055 human melanoma cells, transfected with a creatine kinase gene, showed an 80-90% reduction in chemotactic response to type IV collagen when incubated overnight in the presence of 10 mM cyclocreatine (p < 0.0001 for n = 8 experiments). This inhibitory effect of cyclocreatine can be partially reversed by addition of creatine to the overnight cell treatment. Non-transfected cells, with very low levels of creatine kinase, were not significantly inhibited. Further experiments utilizing type IV collagen as attractant demonstrated that cyclocreatine inhibited the chemokinetic (91%) and the haptotactic (73%) responses and the in vitro invasion of A2058-055 cells through Matrigel-coated membranes (88%). In addition, motility stimulation of A2058-055 cells by either autotaxin or fibronectin was markedly inhibited by cyclocreatine. DU-145 prostatic tumor cells, which express endogenous creatine kinase, also have a reduced motility response to either autotaxin or epidermal growth factor induced motility in the presence of cyclocreatine. PMID:9724093

Mulvaney, P T; Stracke, M L; Nam, S W; Woodhouse, E; O'Keefe, M; Clair, T; Liotta, L A; Khaddurah-Daouk, R; Schiffmann, E

1998-09-25

244

Mixed glucose and lactate uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum through metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

The Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 lysC(fbr) strain was engineered to grow fast on racemic mixtures of lactate and to secrete lysine during growth on lactate as well as on mixtures of lactate and glucose. The wild-type C. glutamicum only grows well on L-lactate. Overexpression of D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld) achieved by exchanging the native promoter of the dld gene for the stronger promoter of the sod gene encoding superoxide dismutase in C. glutamicum resulted in a duplication of biomass yield and faster growth without any secretion of lysine. Elementary mode analysis was applied to identify potential targets for lysine production from lactate as well as from mixtures of lactate and glucose. Two targets for overexpression were pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme. The overexpression of these genes using again the sod promoter resulted in growth-associated production of lysine with lactate as sole carbon source with a carbon yield of 9% and a yield of 15% during growth on a lactate-glucose mixture. Both substrates were taken up simultaneously with a slight preference for lactate. As surmised from the elementary mode analysis, deletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase resulted in a decreased production of lysine on the mixed substrate. Elementary mode analysis together with suitable objective functions has been found a very useful tool guiding the design of strains producing lysine on mixed substrates. PMID:21370474

Neuner, Andreas; Heinzle, Elmar

2011-03-01

245

Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine.  

PubMed

Growth rate inhibition of subcutaneously implanted tumors results from feeding rats and athymic nude mice diets containing 1% cyclocreatine or 1%, 2%, 5%, or 10% creatine. The tumors studied included rat mammary tumors (Ac33tc in Lewis female rats and 13762A in Fischer 344 female rats), rat sarcoma MCI in Lewis male rats, and tumors resulting from the injection of two human neuroblastoma cell lines, IMR-5 and CHP-134, in athymic nude mice. Inhibition was observed regardless of the time experimental diets were administered, either at the time of tumor implantation or after the appearance of palpable tumors. For mammary tumor Ac33tc, the growth inhibition during 24 days after the implantation was approximately 50% for both 1% cyclocreatine and 1% creatine, and inhibition increased as creatine was increased from 2% to 10% of the diet. For the other rat mammary tumor (13762A), there was approximately 35% inhibition by both 1% cyclocreatine and 2% creatine. In the case of the MCI sarcoma, the inhibitory effect appeared more pronounced at earlier periods of growth, ranging from 26% to 41% for 1% cyclocreatine and from 30% to 53% for 1% creatine; there was no significant difference in growth rate between the tumors in the rats fed 1% and 5% creatine. The growth rate of tumors in athymic nude mice, produced by implantation of the human neuroblastoma IMR-5 cell line, appeared somewhat more effectively inhibited by 1% cyclocreatine than by 1% creatine, and 5% creatine feeding was most effective. For the CHP-134 cell line, 33% inhibition was observed for the 1% cyclocreatine diet and 71% for the 5% creatine diet. In several experiments, a delay in appearance of tumors was observed in animals on the experimental diets. In occasional experiments, neither additive inhibited tumor growth rate for the rat tumors or the athymic mouse tumors. PMID:8475072

Miller, E E; Evans, A E; Cohn, M

1993-04-15

246

Inactivation of creatine kinase induced by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylmyoglobin.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of dopa and dopamine on creatine kinase (CK) activity in the presence of ferrylmyoglobin (ferrylMb). CK was sharply inhibited by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylMb. Dopa and dopamine markedly promoted the reduction of ferrylMb to metmyoglobin (metMb). The semiquinone from dopa and dopamine may be involved in CK inactivation. During inactivation of the enzyme, both kinetic parameters Vmax and Km changed. In addition, reduced glutathione restored the activity of CK at an early stage. These results suggest that inactivation of CK is dominantly due to oxidation of sulfhydryl (SH) groups of the enzyme. Other catechols, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, little inactivated CK activity, whereas they promoted the reduction of ferrylMb to metMb. Other SH enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were inactivated to a lesser extent by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylMb. Adrenaline and noradrenaline did not significantly prevent the inactivation of ADH and very slightly inhibited GAPDH. These results suggest that dopa and dopamine act as prooxidants to inactivate SH enzymes in the presence of ferrylMb. PMID:10597901

Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y

1999-11-15

247

Creatine and phosphocreatine analogs: anticancer activity and enzymatic analysis.  

PubMed

The brain isoform of creatine kinase has been implicated in cellular transformation processes. Cyclocreatine, a creatine kinase substrate analog, was previously shown to be cytotoxic to a broad spectrum of solid tumors. We have synthesized, enzymatically characterized, and evaluated the antitumor activity of a series of substrate analogs of creatine kinase. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrate that several of these analogs are cytotoxic to the human ME-180 cervical carcinoma, the MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines at low mM concentrations. Analogs that were active in vitro delayed the growth of a subcutaneously implanted rat 13,762 mammary adenocarcinoma. Tumor growth delays of 6-8 days were achieved, which is comparable to effects seen with standard regimens of currently used anticancer drugs. These studies further establish the creatine kinase system as a promising and novel target for anticancer chemotherapy drug design. PMID:8823808

Bergnes, G; Yuan, W; Khandekar, V S; O'Keefe, M M; Martin, K J; Teicher, B A; Kaddurah-Daouk, R

1996-01-01

248

21 CFR 862.1210 - Creatine test system.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1210 Creatine test system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

249

Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection  

E-print Network

as positive to halothane anaesthesia. Standardized stress was provoked by administration anaesthesia is unclear and non classifiable, CK-MM isoenzyme assay performed before and 24 h after sensitivity. creatine kinase isoenzymes / pig / standardized stress / halothane anaesthesia / ACTH / syn

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Clinical Pharmacology of the Dietary Supplement Creatine Monohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ................ ................ ................ ................ ............... 162 I. Introduction,................ ................ ................ ................ ........... 162 II. Creatine synthesis,and,transport,................ ................ ................ ........ 162 A. Synthesis ................ ................ ................ ................ ........... 162 B. Transporters,................ ................ ................ ................ ........ 163 III. Mechanisms,of action ................ ................ ................ ................ ... 164 A. Energy,metabolism,................ ................ ................ ................ .. 164 B. Protein synthesis,................ ................ ................ ................ ... 165

ADAM M. PERSKY; GAYLE A. BRAZEAU

251

[Temperature-switched high-efficiency D-lactate production from glycerol].  

PubMed

Glycerol from oil hydrolysis industry is being considered as one of the abundent raw materials for fermentation industry. In present study, the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and growth properties on glycerol by Esherichia coli CICIM B0013-070, a D-lactate over-producing strain constructed previously, at different temperatures were investigated, followed by a novel fermentation process, named temperature-switched process, was established for D-lactate production from glycerol. Under the optimal condition, lactate yield was increased from 64.0% to 82.6%. Subsequently, the yield of D-lactate from glycerol was reached up to 88.9% while a thermo-inducible promoter was used to regulate D-lactate dehydrogenase transcription. PMID:23631124

Tian, Kangming; Zhou, Li; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Shi, Guiyang; Singh, Suren; Lu, Fuping; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-01-01

252

THE USE OF VARYING CREATINE REGIMENS ON SPRINT CYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effects of different acute creatine loadings (ACRL) on repeated cycle sprints. Twenty-eight active subjects divided into the control (n=7) and the experimental (n=21) group. The exercise protocol comprised three 30s Anaerobic Wingate Tests (AWT) interspersed with six minutes recovery, without any supplements ingested and following placebo and creatine ingestion, according to each ACRL (40g,

Konstantinos Havenetidis; Ourania Matsouka; Carlton Brian Cooke; Apostolos Theodorou

2003-01-01

253

Creatine and Tempol attenuate noise-induced hearing loss  

PubMed Central

To define the role of free radical formation and potential energy depletion in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), we measured the effectiveness of tempol (free radical scavenger) and creatine (enhances cellular energy storage) alone and in combination to attenuate NIHL. Guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups: controls, 3 % creatine diet (2 weeks prior to noise exposure), tempol (3 mM in drinking water 2 weeks prior to exposure), and creatine plus tempol and exposed to 120 dB SPL one-octave band noise centered at 4 kHz for 5 h. The noise-only control group showed frequency-dependent auditory threshold shifts (measured by auditory brainstem response, ABR) of up to 73 dB (16 kHz) on day 1, and up to 50 dB (8 kHz) on day 10. Creatine-treated subjects had significantly smaller ABR threshold shifts on day 1 and on day 10. Tempol alone significantly reduced ABR threshold shifts on day 10 but not on day 1. ABR shifts after combination treatment were similar to those in the creatine group. Hair cell loss on day 10 was equally attenuated by creatine and tempol alone or in combination. Our results indicate that the maintenance of ATP levels is important in attenuating both temporary and permanent NIHL, while the scavenging of free radicals provides protection from permanent NIHL. PMID:17359945

Minami, Shujiro B.; Yamashita, Daisuke; Ogawa, Kaoru; Schacht, Jochen; Miller, Josef M.

2009-01-01

254

Evaluation of genetic manipulation strategies on D-lactate production by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In order to rationally manipulate the cellular metabolism of Escherichia coli for D: -lactate production, single-gene and multiple-gene deletions with mutations in acetate kinase (ackA), phosphotransacetylase (pta), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (pps), pyruvate formate lyase (pflB), FAD-binding D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE), and fumarate reductase (frdA) were tested for their effects in two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production). Lactate yield and productivity could be improved by single-gene deletions of ackA, pta, pflB, dld, poxB, and frdA in the wild type E. coli strain but were unfavorably affected by deletions of pps and adhE. However, fermentation experiments with multiple-gene mutant strains showed that deletion of pps in addition to ackA-pta deletions had no effect on lactate production, whereas the additional deletion of adhE in E. coli B0013-050 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB) increased lactate yield. Deletion of all eight genes in E. coli B0013 to produce B0013-070 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA) increased lactate yield and productivity by twofold and reduced yields of acetate, succinate, formate, and ethanol by 95, 89, 100, and 93%, respectively. When tested in a bioreactor, E. coli B0013-070 produced 125 g/l D-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 0.61 g/g h (2.1-fold greater than E. coli B0013). These kinetic properties of D-lactate production are among the highest reported and the results have revealed which genetic manipulations improved D-lactate production by E. coli. PMID:21086129

Zhou, Li; Zuo, Zhi-Rui; Chen, Xian-Zhong; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Prior, Bernard A; Shen, Wei; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2011-03-01

255

Elevated serum creatine kinase MB and creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme fractions after ultra-marathon running  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To determine the incidence and range of serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme activity after ultra-marathon running,\\u000a a popular test kit was used to measure total serum creatine kinase (CK) and CK MB-activity in 75 athletes immediately after\\u000a they had completed an 88-km running race. Total serum CK activity was markedly elevated after the race (mean value: 637 U·l?1) and

T. D. Noakes; G. Kotzenberg; P. S. McArthur; J. Dykman

1983-01-01

256

Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood\\u000a and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation\\u000a of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group\\u000a D (placebo control group).

Shi Daling

2005-01-01

257

Systems bioenergetics of creatine kinase networks: physiological roles of creatine and phosphocreatine in regulation of cardiac cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological role of creatine (Cr) became first evident in the experiments of Belitzer and Tsybakova in 1939, who showed\\u000a that oxygen consumption in a well-washed skeletal muscle homogenate increases strongly in the presence of creatine and with\\u000a this results in phosphocreatine (PCr) production with PCr\\/O2 ratio of about 5–6. This was the beginning of quantitative analysis in bioenergetics. It was

R. Guzun; N. Timohhina; K. Tepp; M. Gonzalez-Granillo; I. Shevchuk; V. Chekulayev; A. V. Kuznetsov; T. Kaambre; V. A. Saks

2011-01-01

258

Lactate-Induced Release of GABA in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Contributes to Counterregulatory Failure in Recurrent Hypoglycemia and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Suppression of GABAergic neurotransmission in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is crucial for full activation of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and increased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) output contributes to counterregulatory failure in recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) and diabetic rats. The goal of this study was to establish whether lactate contributes to raising VMH GABA levels in these two conditions. We used microdialysis to deliver artificial extracellular fluid or l-lactate into the VMH and sample for GABA. We then microinjected a GABAA receptor antagonist, an inhibitor of lactate transport (4CIN), or an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, oxamate (OX), into the VMH prior to inducing hypoglycemia. To assess whether lactate contributes to raising GABA in RH and diabetes, we injected 4CIN or OX into the VMH of RH and diabetic rats before inducing hypoglycemia. l-lactate raised VMH GABA levels and suppressed counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. While blocking GABAA receptors did not prevent the lactate-induced rise in GABA, inhibition of lactate transport or utilization did, despite the presence of lactate. All three treatments restored the counterregulatory responses, suggesting that lactate suppresses these responses by enhancing GABA release. Both RH and diabetic rats had higher baseline GABA levels and were unable to reduce GABA levels sufficiently to fully activate counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. 4CIN or OX lowered VMH GABA levels in both RH and diabetic rats and restored the counterregulatory responses. Lactate likely contributes to counterregulatory failure in RH and diabetes by increasing VMH GABA levels. PMID:23939392

Chan, Owen; Paranjape, Sachin A.; Horblitt, Adam; Zhu, Wanling; Sherwin, Robert S.

2013-01-01

259

Creatine kinase equilibration follows solution thermodynamics in skeletal muscle. 31P NMR studies using creatine analogs.  

PubMed

The hypothesis tested was whether creatine kinase (CK) equilibrates with its substrates and products in the cytosol as if in solution. We used the creatine analogs cyclocreatine (cCr) or beta-guanidopropionate (beta GPA) to test if mass action ratios (gamma) for CK in muscle could be predicted from combined equilibrium constants (Kcomb) measured in solutions mimicking the intracellular environment. Mice were fed cCr or beta GPA and their muscles assayed for substrates and products of the CK reaction by 31P NMR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. After three weeks of feeding, gamma was indistinguishable from Kcomb in cCr-treated muscles demonstrating both PCr/Cr and phospho-analog/analog must have equilibrated with a constant and uniform cellular ATP/ADP ratio. In beta GPA-treated muscles, gamma was smaller than Kcomb due to a higher content of muscle beta GPA. Feeding beta GPA for 9-12 weeks resulted in a closer agreement between Kcomb and gamma, suggesting ATP/ADP ratios are not uniform within the muscle perhaps due to transient metabolic stress in some cells. From this analysis it follows that calculation of free ADP from the CK equilibrium for a heterogeneous population of cells with respect to total Cr and ATP content is correct only if chemical potentials of these cells are uniform. PMID:7759484

Wiseman, R W; Kushmerick, M J

1995-05-26

260

Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels  

PubMed Central

Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies. PMID:24271489

Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A.; Jacobs, Danny O.

2013-01-01

261

Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels.  

PubMed

Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies. PMID:24271489

Santacruz, Lucia; Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Jacobs, Danny O

2014-02-01

262

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency.  

PubMed

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8-/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8-/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8-/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8-/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8-/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; Degrauw, Ton J; Lindquist, Diana M; Blanco, Victor M; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C; Clark, Joseph F

2012-08-01

263

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency  

PubMed Central

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

264

Creatine loading does not impact on stroke performance in tennis.  

PubMed

The effect of acute creatine supplementation on stroke quality was investigated during simulated match play. Well-trained tennis players reported to the test center on two occasions. On each occasion they performed the Leuven Tennis Performance Test (LTPT) and a 70 m shuttle run (SHR). During 5 days prior to each test session they received in random order and according to a double-blind cross-over study design either oral creatine supplements (4 x 5 g per day) or placebo. The two experimental periods were separated by a 5-week washout period. Stroke quality was evaluated during the LTPT by means of registration of error rate and measurement of ball velocity and precision of lateral and longitudinal ball placement. Compared with placebo, creatine supplementation did not significantly impact on either power or precision of first and second services, baseline strokes in neutral and defensive rallies, and volleys. Shuttle run time was 19.87 +/- 0.30 sec during placebo versus 19.85 +/- 0.27 sec during creatine treatment. Acute creatine supplementation does not enhance stroke performance or sprint power in match-like conditions in elite tennis players. PMID:11258645

Eijnde, B O; Vergauwen, L; Hespel, P

2001-01-01

265

Arginine catabolism in lactating porcine mammary tissue.  

PubMed

In vivo studies have shown that the uptake of plasma arginine by the lactating porcine mammary gland greatly exceeds the output of arginine in milk, but little is known about the metabolic fate of arginine in this organ. The objective of this study was to quantify arginine catabolism via arginase and nitric oxide synthase pathways in the mammary tissue of sows on d 28 of lactation. Mammary tissue slices (approximately 60 mg) were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in 2 mL of Krebs bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 or 2 mM L-[U-14C]arginine, and arginine metabolites were measured using HPLC and radiochemical techniques. Rates of arginine utilization were similar to rates of urea production. Proline, ornithine, urea, glutamate, glutamine, CO2 and polyamines (putrescine + spermidine + spermine) were formed from arginine, accounting for 46, 31, 17, 2.3, 1.5, 0.22, and 0.30%, respectively, of the metabolized arginine carbons. Relatively small amounts of arginine were utilized for nitric oxide and citrulline synthesis, with citrulline accounting for 2% of the metabolized arginine carbons. Production of all arginine metabolites increased with increasing extracellular arginine concentrations from 0.5 to 2 mM, indicating a high capacity for arginine degradation. Consistent with the metabolic findings, the activities of arginases, ornithine aminotransferase, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase were high, whereas those of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, ornithine decarboxylase, and nitric oxide synthases were relatively low, and there was no proline oxidase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase or pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase activity in the mammary tissue. Our results demonstrate for the first time that proline, ornithine, and urea were the major products of arginine catabolism via the arginase pathway in lactating porcine mammary tissue and provide a biochemical basis to explain a relative enrichment of proline but a relative deficiency of arginine in sow's milk. PMID:11881931

O'Quinn, P R; Knabe, D A; Wu, G

2002-02-01

266

[Creatine in a metabolism of cell and its protective action at brain ischemia].  

PubMed

The aim of this review was the discussion of creatine involvement in metabolism of nervous tissue cells. The questions of creatine penetration through the blood brain barrier and creatine transporter expression were raised. Also mechanisms of creatine protective effect were considered at experimental models of brain ischemia. It was shown that creatine was involved in energy metabolism (creatine phosphate synthesis), inhibition of excitotoxicity. Besides it had antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. The creatine delivery problem was also discussed. Synthesis of substances capable to get through the blood brain barrier without CRT was the possible solution of the problem. The most perspective substances were creatine amides apparently capable to move through cell membranes without amino acid transporters. Prospects of their application were discussed. PMID:25470940

Kolpakova, M E; Veselkina, O S; Vlasov, T D

2013-08-01

267

[Creatine in a metabolism of cell and its protective action at brain ischemia].  

PubMed

The aim of this review was the discussion of creatine involvement in metabolism of nervous tissue cells. The questions of creatine penetration through the blood brain barrier and creatine transporter expression were raised. Also mechanisms of creatine protective effect were considered at experimental models of brain ischemia. It was shown that creatine was involved in energy metabolism (creatine phosphate synthesis), inhibition of excitotoxicity. Besides it had antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. The creatine delivery problem was also discussed. Synthesis of substances capable to get through the blood brain barrier without CRT was the possible solution of the problem. The most perspective substances were creatine amides apparently capable to move through cell membranes without amino acid transporters. Prospects of their application were discussed. PMID:25508567

2013-08-01

268

Mammalian d-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase. Effect of inhibitors and reaction sequence  

PubMed Central

1. The reaction of d-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase with d-lactate and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCIP) at pH8.6 yields reciprocal plots of 1/rate versus 1/[d-lactate], at different DCIP concentrations, which appear to be parallel. However, at pH7.55, or in the presence of the competitive inhibitor oxalate at pH8.6, the plots are convergent. This is inconsistent with the mechanism previously proposed for this enzyme. 2. The pattern of inhibition by the product, pyruvate, is consistent with either an Ordered mechanism or an Iso Theorell–Chance mechanism. 3. The observation that the enzyme forms a complex with d-lactate favours the Ordered reaction. In this, first d-lactate and then DCIP bind to the enzyme to form a ternary complex, from which pyruvate and reduced DCIP dissociate in that order. PMID:5528639

Cammack, R.

1970-01-01

269

Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in dermatomyositis: a noncardiac source  

SciTech Connect

Three patients with polymyositis had elevated serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. The presence of this isoenzyme is used extensively to diagnose myocardial infarction, but the isoenzyme is also found in sera of patients with primary muscular and neuromuscular disorders. Researchers studied cardiac function in two of our patients with electrocardiograms, technetium stannous pyrophosphate scanning, and technetium 99m-labeled erythrocyte gated blood pool imaging and in the third patient by postmortem examination. There was no evidence of myocardial involvement to account for the high serum levels of isoenzyme. Creatine kinase MB in the sera of patients with polymyositis does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis.

Larca, L.J.; Coppola, J.T.; Honig, S.

1981-03-01

270

Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase bb in the serum of schizophrenic patients  

SciTech Connect

Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure in two schizophrenic populations. The data would indicate that in the schizophrenic populations examined there is insufficient tissue disruption to cause abnormal build-up of brain creatine kinase levels. However the possibility of a rapid removal of creatine kinase BB from the circulation exists. The elevated creatine kinase reported in acute schizophrenics is most likely not of brain origin.

Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

1980-03-03

271

Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on the incidence of injury observed during 3-years of NCAA Division IA college football training and competition. In an open label manner, athletes participating in the 1998–2000 football seasons elected to take creatine or non-creatine containing supplements following workouts\\/practices. Subjects who decided to take creatine were administered

Michael Greenwood; Richard B. Kreider; Charlie Melton; Christopher Rasmussen; Stacy Lancaster; Edward Cantler; Purvis Milnor; Anthony Almada

2003-01-01

272

Re-design of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flavocytochrome b2: introduction of L-mandelate dehydrogenase activity.  

PubMed Central

Flavocytochrome b2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an l-lactate dehydrogenase which exhibits only barely detectable activity levels towards another 2-hydroxyacid, l-mandelate. Using protein engineering methods we have altered the active site of flavocytochrome b2 and successfully introduced substantial mandelate dehydrogenase activity into the enzyme. Changes to Ala-198 and Leu-230 have significant effects on the ability of the enzyme to utilize l-mandelate as a substrate. The double mutation of Ala-198-->Gly and Leu-230-->Ala results in an enzyme with a kcat value (25 degrees C) with L-mandelate of 8.5 s-1, which represents an increase of greater than 400-fold over the wild-type enzyme. Perhaps more significantly, the mutant enzyme has a catalytic efficiency (as judged by kcat/Km values) that is 6-fold higher with l-mandelate than it is with L-lactate. Closer examination of the X-ray structure of S. cerevisiae flavocytochrome b2 led us to conclude that one of the haem propionate groups might interfere with the binding of L-mandelate at the active site of the enzyme. To test this idea, the activity with l-mandelate of the independently expressed flavodehydrogenase domain (FDH), was examined and found to be higher than that seen with the wild-type enzyme. In addition, the double mutation of Ala-198-->Gly and Leu-230-->Ala introduced into FDH produced the greatest mandelate dehydrogenase activity increase, with a kcat value more than 700-fold greater than that seen with the wild-type holoenzyme. In addition, the enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km) of this mutant enzyme was more than 20-fold greater with L-mandelate than with l-lactate. We have therefore succeeded in constructing an enzyme which is now a better mandelate dehydrogenase than a lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:9639570

Sinclair, R; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1998-01-01

273

Blocking Lactate Export by Inhibiting the Myc Target MCT1 Disables Glycolysis and Glutathione Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Myc oncoproteins induce genes driving aerobic glycolysis, including lactate dehydrogenase-A that generates lactate. Here we report that Myc controls transcription of the lactate transporter SLC16A1/MCT1, and that elevated MCT1 levels are manifest in premalignant and neoplastic E?-Myc transgenic B cells and in human malignancies with MYC or MYCN involvement. Notably, disrupting MCT1 function leads to an accumulation of intracellular lactate that rapidly disables tumor cell growth and glycolysis, provoking marked alterations in glycolytic intermediates, and reductions in glucose transport, and in levels of ATP, NADPH and glutathione. Reductions in glutathione then lead to increases in hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial damage and, ultimately, cell death. Finally, forcing glycolysis by metformin treatment augments this response and the efficacy of MCT1 inhibitors, suggesting an attractive combination therapy for MYC/MCT1-expressing malignancies. PMID:24285728

Doherty, Joanne R.; Yang, Chunying; Scott, Kristen E. N.; Cameron, Michael D.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Li, Weimin; Hall, Mark A.; Amelio, Antonio L.; Mishra, Jitendra K.; Li, Fangzheng; Tortosa, Mariola; Genau, Heide Marika; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Lu, Yunqi; Dang, Chi. V.; Kumar, K. Ganesh; Butler, Andrew A.; Bannister, Thomas D.; Hooper, Andrea T.; Unsal-Kacmaz, Keziban; Roush, William R.; Cleveland, John L.

2014-01-01

274

Kinetic Modeling of Hyperpolarized 13C Label Exchange between Pyruvate and Lactate in Tumor Cells*  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the kinetics of hyperpolarized 13C label exchange between [1-13C]pyruvate and lactate in suspensions of intact and lysed murine lymphoma cells, and in cells in which lactate dehydrogenase expression had been modulated by inhibition of the PI3K pathway, were used to determine quantitatively the role of enzyme activity and membrane transport in controlling isotope flux. Both steps were shown to share in the control of isotope flux in these cells. The kinetics of label exchange were well described by a kinetic model that employed rate constants for the lactate dehydrogenase reaction that had been determined previously from steady state kinetic studies. The enzyme showed pyruvate inhibition in steady state kinetic measurements, which the kinetic model predicted should also be observed in the isotope exchange measurements. However, no such pyruvate inhibition was observed in either intact cells or cell lysates and this could be explained by the much higher enzyme concentrations present in the isotope exchange experiments. The kinetic analysis presented here shows how lactate dehydrogenase activity can be determined from the isotope exchange measurements. The kinetic model should be useful for modeling the exchange reaction in vivo, particularly as this technique progresses to the clinic. PMID:21596745

Witney, Timothy H.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Brindle, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

275

Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition by creatine kinase substrates. Requirement for microcompartmentation.  

PubMed

Mitochondria from transgenic mice, expressing enzymatically active mitochondrial creatine kinase in liver, were analyzed for opening of the permeability transition pore in the absence and presence of creatine kinase substrates but with no external adenine nucleotides added. In mitochondria from these transgenic mice, cyclosporin A-inhibited pore opening was delayed by creatine or cyclocreatine but not by beta-guanidinopropionic acid. This observation correlated with the ability of these substrates to stimulate state 3 respiration in the presence of extramitochondrial ATP. The dependence of transition pore opening on calcium and magnesium concentration was studied in the presence and absence of creatine. If mitochondrial creatine kinase activity decreased (i.e. by omitting magnesium from the medium), protection of permeability transition pore opening by creatine or cyclocreatine was no longer seen. Likewise, when creatine kinase was added externally to liver mitochondria from wild-type mice that do not express mitochondrial creatine kinase in liver, no protective effect on pore opening by creatine and its analog was observed. All these findings indicate that mitochondrial creatine kinase activity located within the intermembrane and intercristae space, in conjunction with its tight functional coupling to oxidative phosphorylation, via the adenine nucleotide translocase, can modulate mitochondrial permeability transition in the presence of creatine. These results are of relevance for the design of creatine analogs for cell protection as potential adjuvant therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12621025

Dolder, Max; Walzel, Bernd; Speer, Oliver; Schlattner, Uwe; Wallimann, Theo

2003-05-16

276

A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Creatine monohydrate (creatine) has potential neuroprotective properties and is a commonly used supplement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Minimum therapeutic and maximum tolerated dosages of creatine are not yet known, nor is it known what systemic plasma concentrations result from specific dosage regimens. The objectives of this study were to establish steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of creatine at several dosages, and to evaluate the effects of creatine on brain metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Six participants with ALS received creatine at three weekly escalating oral dosages (5, 10, and 15 g b.i.d.). Plasma creatine levels and MR spectra were obtained at baseline and with each dosage increase. Mean pre-dose steady-state creatine plasma concentrations were 20.3, 39.3, and 61.5 ug/ml at 5, 10, and 15 g b.i.d., respectively. Creatine spectra increased by 8% ( p = 0.06) and glutamate + glutamine signals decreased by 17% ( p = 0.039) at higher dosages. There were no safety concerns at any of the dosages. In conclusion, creatine plasma concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner. Creatine appears to cross the blood-brain barrier, and oral administration of 15 g b.i.d. is associated with increased in vivo brain creatine concentrations and decreased glutamate concentrations. PMID:20698808

ATASSI, NAZEM; RATAI, EVA-MARIA; GREENBLATT, DAVID J.; PULLEY, DARLENE; ZHAO, YANLI; BOMBARDIER, JEFFERY; WALLACE, STUART; ECKENRODE, JOANNA; CUDKOWICZ, MERIT; DIBERNARDO, ALLITIA

2011-01-01

277

Luminometric Assays of ATP, Phosphocreatine, and Creatine for Estimation of Free ADP and Free AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present methods to measure ATP, phosphocreatine, and total creatine (the sum of creatine and phosphocreatine) in alkaline cell extracts. Knowledge of these parameters, together with the known equilibrium constants for the creatine kinase and adenylate kinase-catalyzed reactions, allows one to estimate the levels of free ADP and free AMP inside cells. The enzymatic assays for the above-mentioned metabolites all

Peter Ronner; Edward Friel; Katharina Czerniawski; Stefanie Fränkle

1999-01-01

278

Potential cytotoxic effect of chronic administration of creatine, a nutrition supplement to augment athletic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine is alleged to be an ergogenic aid to enhance sports performance and recently became a popular sports nutrition supplement. Although short-term supplementation of creatine has not been associated with major health risks, the safety of prolonged use has caused some concern. The present study demonstrates that creatine is metabolized to methylamine, which is further converted to formaldehyde by semicarbazide-sensitive

P. H. Yu; Y. Deng

2000-01-01

279

The effects of a 16 mile run on Creatine Kinase levels 24, 48, and 72 hours  

E-print Network

The effects of a 16 mile run on Creatine Kinase levels 24, 48, and 72 hours post run. L. J. Palombo in their regular training program. This training run may cause muscle damage. Creatine Kinase (CK), an enzyme analysis of the Creatine Kinase values revealed that CK was significantly higher (p=0.0053) 24 and 48 hours

New Hampshire, University of

280

The cataract and glucosuria associated monocarboxylate transporter MCT12 is a new creatine transporter.  

PubMed

Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822

Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M R; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara

2013-08-15

281

Two respiratory enzyme systems in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 contribute to growth on L-lactate.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne intestinal pathogen, preferentially utilizes a few specific amino acids and some organic acids such as pyruvate and L- and D-lactate as carbon sources, which may be important for growth in the avian and mammalian gut. Here, we identify the enzymatic basis for C. jejuni growth on L-lactate. Despite the presence of an annotated gene for a fermentative lactate dehydrogenase (cj1167), no evidence for lactate excretion could be obtained in C. jejuni NCTC 11168, and inactivation of the cj1167 gene did not affect growth on lactate as carbon source. Instead, L-lactate utilization in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was found to proceed via two novel NAD-independent L-LDHs; a non-flavin iron-sulfur containing three subunit membrane-associated enzyme (Cj0075c-73c), and a flavin and iron-sulfur containing membrane-associated oxidoreductase (Cj1585c). Both enzymes contribute to growth on L-lactate, as single mutants in each system grew as well as wild-type on this substrate, while a cj0075c cj1585c double mutant showed no L-lactate oxidase activity and did not utilize or grow on L-lactate; D-lactate-dependent growth was unaffected. Orthologues of Cj0075c-73c (LldEFG/LutABC) and Cj1585c (Dld-II) were recently shown to represent two novel families of L- and D-lactate oxidases; this is the first report of a bacterium where both enzymes are involved in L-lactate utilization only. The cj0075c-73c genes are located directly downstream of a putative lactate transporter gene (cj0076c, lctP), which was also shown to be specific for L-lactate. The avian and mammalian gut environment contains dense populations of obligate anaerobes that excrete lactate; our data indicate that C. jejuni is well equipped to use L- and D-lactate as both electron-donor and carbon source. PMID:20653766

Thomas, Marie T; Shepherd, Mark; Poole, Robert K; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Kelly, David J; Pearson, Bruce M

2011-01-01

282

Lactation and infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Lactation is of great importance to infant nutritional needs. It is difficult to generalize about infant growth expectations since there are variations among communities and since there may be some modification of infant feeding practices. The choice of an appropriate standard is even more difficult to estimate since they are interdependent on energy intakes. However, the balance between energy and protein content in breastmilk appears to be fairly constant through lactation and among communities. It is likely that for normally growing children exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to result in a serious mineral or nutrient deficiency. Discussion is included about measurement of breastmilk output and the various means to do so in order to calculate energy and nutrient requirements. Currently, controversy surrounds the timing of milk supplements for those infants being breastfed. A general guideline seems to be that weaning should be avoided before age 4 months in industrialized countries. The various problems which are reiterated are: growth targets, nutritional requirements, optimization of lactation, and the weanling dilemma. A rational public health target should be normal growth and the maintenance of a normal nutritional status. Nutritional requirements must be sensibly set because if the target is too high it will be dismissed as impractical; if it is too low, it will fail to meet the needs of a substantial portion of the population. It seems wise to concentrate on achieving an optimal start to lactation in the early weeks when it appears likely that the breastfeeding potential is being determined. Since normal growth in infancy is an appropriate health goal, breastfeeding should perhaps be utilized to the maximum and be backed by systematic supplementation at a time when growth would likely falter. More attention must be directed toward prevalent weaning strategies. PMID:7020870

Rowland, M G; Paul, A A; Whitehead, R G

1981-01-01

283

Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: a 13C-NMR study.  

PubMed

As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-13C]-, or L-[2-13C]-, or L-[3-13C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice. PMID:19747499

Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès

2010-01-01

284

Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting and dysfunction are strong independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Creatine nutritional supplementation produces increased muscle mass and exercise performance in health. A controlled study was performed to look for similar effects in 38 patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty eight patients with COPD (mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second

J P Fuld; L P Kilduff; J A Neder; Y Pitsiladis; M E J Lean; S A Ward; M M Cotton

2005-01-01

285

Serum creatine kinase activity following forearm flexion isometric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to 1) compare serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following two forearm flexion isometric exercise regimens differing in work to rest ratio, and 2) examine the CK response to a repeated bout of isometric exercise. Eleven males were tested on two sessions (bouts) spaced 1 week apart. For bout 1, five subjects (group A) performed

Priscilla M. Clarkson; Paul Litchfield; James Graves; John Kirwan; William C. Byrnes

1985-01-01

286

Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

2007-07-01

287

Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 ?M as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

2014-01-01

288

Simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate, creatine and 12 nucleotides in rat heart by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of creatine phosphate (CP), creatine (Cr) and 12 nucleotides in rat heart. The analytes, ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, CTP, CDP, CMP, UTP, UDP, UMP, CP, Cr, were extracted from heart tissue with pre-cooled (0°C) methanol/water (1:1, v/v) and separated on a Hypersil Gold AQ C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3?m) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 2mmol/L ammonium acetate in water (pH 10.0, adjusted with ammonia). The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in selective reaction monitoring mode (SRM). In the assay, all the analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.99). The accuracy was between 80.7% and 120.6% and the precision expressed in RSD was less than 15.6%. This method was successfully applied to measure the concentrations of the 12 nucleotides, creatine phosphate and creatine in rat heart for the first time. PMID:24705537

Wang, Jun-mei; Chu, Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiang-yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Yan, Lu-lu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying-li; Yin, Qi-hui; Liu, Chang-xiao

2014-05-01

289

Injected Progestogen and Lactation  

PubMed Central

Norethisterone ethanate (200 mg every 84 days) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (150 mg every three months) were found to be completely effective in fertility control when started in the puerperium. Neither agent had any ill effect on the amount of milk or the duration of lactation. From the third month onward the three-hourly available milk and the infant weight gain per month were statistically higher in treated groups than in controls. Milk proteins showed a slight decrease in most groups, including the controls, owing to the low-protein diet. No important side effect was produced by these agents other than amenorrhoea. PMID:5099971

Karim, M.; Ammar, R.; El Mahgoub, S.; El Ganzoury, B.; Fikri, F.; Abdou, I.

1971-01-01

290

Contraception and lactation.  

PubMed

Lactation's contraceptive effect cannot be relied upon for more than 6 weeks postpartum, and ovulation often occurs in advance of the 1st postpartum menstrual period. Although breastfeeding mothers should adopt a contraceptive method, care must be taken to select a method that will not adversely affect the production and composition of breast milk. Of greatest concern is the effect of synthetic hormones transmitted via breast milk on the developing infant. Possible alternatives are the Billings ovulation detection natural family planning method, diaphragms and caps, IUDs, and sexual sterilization. While combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are contraindicated because of their harmful effects on the fat and protein composition of breast milk and on milk production, the progestogen-only OC does not appear to interfere with the quality of breast milk and less than 0.1% of the progestogen passes on to the infant. Depo-Provera, and other injectable progestogens, appear to be appropriate for breastfeeding women, although the 1st injection should be postponed until 6 weeks postpartum to reduce the likelihood of heavy bleeding. Under investigation is a nasal spray containing buserelin, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, that shows promise as a reliable, acceptable, and easily administered nonsteroidal contraceptive that does not interfere with lactation. A biodegradable buserelin implant, which would last as least 3 months, also is being developed and would be especially useful in developing countries where storage of a nasal spray might be problematic. PMID:3650668

Dewart, P J; Loudon, N B

1987-08-01

291

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 ( PDP1 ) null mutation produces a lethal infantile phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency has previously only been confirmed at the molecular level in two brothers and\\u000a two breeds of dog with exercise intolerance. A female patient, who died at 6 months, presented with lactic acidemia in the\\u000a neonatal period with serum lactate levels ranging from 2.5 to 17 mM. Failure of dichloroacetate to activate the PDH complex\\u000a in skin fibroblasts was

J. M. Cameron; M. Maj; V. Levandovskiy; C. P. Barnett; S. Blaser; N. MacKay; J. Raiman; A. Feigenbaum; A. Schulze; B. H. Robinson

2009-01-01

292

Evidence for an associative mechanism in the phosphoryl transfer step catalyzed by rabbit muscle creatine kinase.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase does not catalyze the scrambling of 18O in adenosine 5'-[alpha beta-18O, beta-18O2]triphosphate in the absence of creatine, in the presence of L-arginine or taurocyamine (competitive inhibitors of creatine), or in the presence of poor substrates where single turnover experiments were performed. In order to support this prima facie evidence for an associative mechanism of phosphoryl transfer, an investigation was undertaken of 1-carboxymethyl-2-aminoimidazole, a new substrate analogue of creatine. This analogue has a binding constant for rabbit muscle creatine kinase similar to creatine and 1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine, but the initial rate of phoshorylation by MgATP in the presence of creatine kinase is almost 5 orders of magnitude slower. The phosphorylation product, assigned the structure 1-carboxymethyl-2-imino-3-phospho-4-imidazoline is also a poor substrate for the phosphorylation of MgADP by creatine kinase. These observations can be accounted for by an associative SN2(P) mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and by a microenvironment of the enzyme-bound creatine (or creatine analogue) which lowers the pKa of the guanidino group by several pH units compared with that in aqueous solution. PMID:7372661

Lowe, G; Sproat, B S

1980-05-10

293

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update  

PubMed Central

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly). PMID:22817979

2012-01-01

294

A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate  

PubMed Central

Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2?±?2?years, 181?±?7?cm, 82.1?±?12?kg, and 14.7?±?5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5?g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5?g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean?±?SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4?±?20.7 and 11.9?±?24.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L ?7.9?±?22.3, 4.7?±?27.0; KA-H 1.0?±?12.8, 9.1?±?23.2; CrM 11.3?±?23.9, 22.3?±?21.0?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.46). However, while no overall group differences were observed (p?=?0.14), pairwise comparison between the KA-L and CrM groups revealed that changes in muscle creatine content tended to be greater in the CrM group (KA-L ?1.1?±?4.3, CrM 11.2?±?4.3?mmol/kg DW, p?=?0.053 [mean?±?SEM]). Although some significant time effects were observed, no significant group x time interactions (p?>?0.05) were observed in changes in body mass, fat free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, or total body water; bench press and leg press 1RM strength; WAC mean power, peak power, or total work; serum blood lipids, markers of catabolism and bone status, and serum electrolyte status; or, whole blood makers of lymphocytes and red cells. Serum creatinine levels increased in all groups (p?creatine promoting greater increases in serum creatinine (p?=?0.03) but the increases observed (0.1 – 0.2?mg/dl) were well within normal values for active individuals (i.e., <1.28?±?0.2?mg/dl). Serum LDL was decreased to a greater degree following ingesting loading doses in the CrM group but returned to baseline during the maintenance phase. No side effects were reported. Conclusions Neither manufacturers recommended doses of KA (1.5?g/d) or KA with equivalent loading (20?g/d for 7-days) and maintenance doses (5?g/d for 21-days) of CrM promoted greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM (20?g/d for 7-days, 5?g/d for 21-days). There was no evidence that supplementing the diet w

2012-01-01

295

Elevated creatine kinase and transaminases in asymptomatic SBMA.  

PubMed

X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase. PMID:17364438

Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J

2007-02-01

296

Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+-Cl?-creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization  

PubMed Central

In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [14C]Creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na+: 1 Cl?: 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a Km for creatine of 29 ?m. [14C]Creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, ?-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A A

2002-01-01

297

Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+ - Cl- -creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization.  

PubMed

In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [(14)C] creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na(+): 1 Cl(-): 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a K(m) for creatine of 29 microM. [(14)C] creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, beta-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A

2002-11-15

298

A role for thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) in cellular creatine homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Creatine is important for energy metabolism, yet excitable cells such as cardiomyocytes do not synthesize creatine and rely on uptake via a specific membrane creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8). This process is tightly controlled with downregulation of CrT upon continued exposure to high creatine via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Our aim was to identify candidate endogenous CrT inhibitors. In 3T3 cells overexpressing the CrT, creatine uptake plateaued at 3 h in response to 5 mM creatine but peaked 33% higher (P < 0.01) in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting CrT regulation depends on new protein synthesis. Global gene expression analysis identified thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) as the only significantly upregulated gene (by 46%) under these conditions (P = 0.036), subsequently verified independently at mRNA and protein levels. There was no change in Txnip expression with exposure to 5 mM taurine, confirming a specific response to creatine rather than osmotic stress. Small-interfering RNA against Txnip prevented Txnip upregulation in response to high creatine, maintained normal levels of creatine uptake, and prevented downregulation of CrT mRNA. These findings were relevant to the in vivo heart since creatine-deficient mice showed 39.71% lower levels of Txnip mRNA, whereas mice overexpressing the CrT had 57.6% higher Txnip mRNA levels and 28.7% higher protein expression compared with wild types (mean myocardial creatine concentration 124 and 74 nmol/mg protein, respectively). In conclusion, we have identified Txnip as a novel negative regulator of creatine levels in vitro and in vivo, responsible for mediating substrate feedback inhibition and a potential target for modulating creatine homeostasis. PMID:23715727

Ray, Tanmoy; Sahgal, Natasha; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Cross, Rebecca; Medway, Debra J.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

2013-01-01

299

Amino acid dehydrogenases from thermotolerant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated many thermotolerant bacteria from soil samples and selected the bacteria, which showed phenylalanine dehydrogenase and lysine dehydrogenase activities. Phenylalanine dehydrogenase can be useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-phenylalanine and its derivatives and for the enzymatic assay of phenylketoneurea syndrome. Lysine dehydrogenase is useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-?- aminoadipate, which is a useful material for the

Kanoktip PACKDIBAMRUNG; Siriporn SITTIPRANEED; Shinji NAGATA; Haruo MISONO

300

Mechanism of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate and other halogenated carboxylic acids  

PubMed Central

1. Monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate, 2,2?-dichloropropionate and 3-chloropropionate were inhibitors of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Dichloroacetate was also shown to inhibit rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The inhibition was mainly non-competitive with respect to ATP. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was approx. 100?m for the three chloroacetates, difluoroacetate and 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate. Dichloroacetamide was not inhibitory. 2. Dichloroacetate had no significant effect on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase when this was maximally activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. 3. Dichloroacetate did not increase the catalytic activity of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase. 4. Dichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate increased the proportion of the active (dephosphorylated) form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria with 2-oxoglutarate and malate as respiratory substrates. Similar effects of dichloroacetate were shown with kidney and fat-cell mitochondria. Glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetamide were inactive. 5. Dichloroacetate increased the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in the perfused rat heart, isolated rat diaphragm and rat epididymal fat-pads. Difluoroacetate and dichloroacetamide were also active in the perfused heart, but glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and trichloroacetate were inactive. 6. Injection of dichloroacetate into rats starved overnight led within 60 min to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts from heart, psoas muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and liver. The blood concentration of lactate fell within 15 min to reach a minimum after 60 min. The blood concentration of glucose fell after 90 min and reached a minimum after 120 min. There was no significant change in plasma glycerol concentration. 7. In epididymal fatpads dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]fructose and from [U-14C]lactate into CO2 and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound. PMID:4478069

Whitehouse, Sue; Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.

1974-01-01

301

Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill. 4 high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of peak velocity to determine critical velocity (CV). Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance. PMID:22131203

Smith, A E; Fukuda, D H; Ryan, E D; Kendall, K L; Cramer, J T; Stout, J

2011-12-01

302

Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

1982-01-01

303

Improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma  

SciTech Connect

We describe convenient and relatively rapid procedures for purifying creatine kinase isoenzymes MM, BB, and MB, and their use in an improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma. The modifications include use of: (a) BB with a specific activity of 400 kU/G, which can be labeled with a specific radioactivity of 20 Ci/g; (b) albumin-free purified MB as inhibitor; (c) antiserum to MB creatine kinase; and (d) a second-antibody technique that necessitates only a 15-min incubation. The radioimmunoassay for MB has a sensitivity of 0.2 ..mu..g/L (80 mU/L) and a CV of <5%. Plasma MB average 22 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 normal subjects; 24 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 patients with chest pain without infarction; and 23 (SD 7) ..mu..g/L in 43 patients with renal disease, whether measured before or after dialysis. Peak values for plasma MB averaged 191 (SD 86) ..mu..g/L in 325 patients with documented myocardial infarction; BB was negligible. Extensive clinical experience indicates the radioimmunoassay to be suitably rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable as a diagnostic assay for MB on plasma.

Ritter, C.S.; Mumm, S.R.; Roberts, R.

1981-11-01

304

Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa  

E-print Network

in the staining solution for 20 hours 49 51 17 Temperature effects of MDH activity of bovine sperm cells 52 r. INTRODUCTION I Malate dehydrogenase, widely distributed in mammalian , tissues, is an enzyme associated with the tricarboxylic ' acid cycle... acceptor which is reduced to an insoluble formazan iat the site of the enzyme-substrate reaction. Cytochemical demonstration of succinic dehydrogenase in intact rabbit spermatozoa had been studied by Edwards and Valentine (1962). They reported...

Lin, Hozong Robert

1973-01-01

305

Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creatine\\/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the β-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly

M. Gallant; M. Rak; A. Szeghalmi; M. Del Bigio; D. Westaway; J. Yang; R. Julian; K. Gough

2006-01-01

306

Stability of creatine derivatives during simulated digestion in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Newly developed forms of creatine are often claimed to exhibit improved bioavailability and efficacy. They are of great interest for sports nutrition and therapeutic uses. However, for most newer creatine forms stability after ingestion under physiological conditions is insufficiently documented, relevant data are inconsistent or even missing. Therefore, we developed a controlled simulated digestion system for testing different creatine derivatives in specific simulated parts of the human digestive system. All derivatives showed high stability with negligible formation of creatinine. PMID:24366174

Hageböck, Martin; Stahl, Ulf; Bader, Johannes

2014-02-01

307

Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells.  

PubMed Central

Previous publications from our laboratory have shown that methylglyoxal inhibits mitochondrial respiration of malignant and cardiac cells, but it has no effect on mitochondrial respiration of other normal cells [Biswas, Ray, Misra, Dutta and Ray (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 343-348; Ray, Biswas and Ray (1997) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 171, 95-103]. However, this inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is not significant in cardiac tissue slices. Moreover, post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) of cardiac cells could almost completely protect the mitochondrial respiration against the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal. A systematic search indicated that creatine present in cardiac cells is responsible for this protective effect. Glutathione has also some protective effect. However, creatine phosphate, creatinine, urea, glutathione disulphide and beta-mercaptoethanol have no protective effect. The inhibitory and protective effects of methylglyoxal and creatine respectively on cardiac mitochondrial respiration were studied with various concentrations of both methylglyoxal and creatine. Interestingly, neither creatine nor glutathione have any protective effect on the inhibition by methylglyoxal on the mitochondrial respiration of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The creatine and glutathione contents of several PMS, which were tested for the possible protective effect, were measured. The activities of two important enzymes, namely glyoxalase I and creatine kinase, which act upon glutathione plus methylglyoxal and creatine respectively, were also measured in different PMS. Whether mitochondrial creatine kinase had any role in the protective effect of creatine had also been investigated using 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an inhibitor of creatine kinase. The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal. PMID:12605598

Roy, Soumya Sinha; Biswas, Swati; Ray, Manju; Ray, Subhankar

2003-01-01

308

EFFECTS OF CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION AND TRAINING ON ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN JUDO ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The investigation aimed to determine the effects of the two-week creatine monohydrate supplementation and specially designed training program on anaerobic power and body composition in judo athletes.Atotal of 12 athletes was divided into the creatine (C) and placebo (P) groups. During the first week, the C group subjects (n=6) were given a prepared aqueous solution of creatine monohydrate and

Dragan Radovanovic; Milovan Bratic; Dragana Milovanovi

309

Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has been reported to be an effective ergogenic aid for athletes. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term safety of creatine supplementation. This study examined the effects of long-term creatine supplementation on a 69-item panel of serum, whole blood, and urinary markers of clinical health status in athletes. Over a 21-month period, 98 Division IA college football players

Richard B. Kreider; Charles Melton; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Michael Greenwood; Stacy Lancaster; Edward C. Cantler; Pervis Milnor; Anthony L. Almada

2003-01-01

310

Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.  

PubMed

The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant ?cyb2. The ?cyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the ?cyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The ?cyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata. PMID:21931845

Ueno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Uno, Jun; Sasamoto, Kaname; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kinjo, Yuki; Chibana, Hiroji

2011-01-01

311

21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6 H10 FeO6 , CAS Reg. No. 5905-52-2) in the trihydrate form is a greenish-white powder or crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate,...

2010-04-01

312

Creatine Protects against Excitoxicity in an In Vitro Model of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Creatine has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging, neurodegenerative conditions and brain injury. As a common molecular background, oxidative stress and disturbed cellular energy homeostasis are key aspects in these conditions. Moreover, in a recent report we could demonstrate a life-enhancing and health-promoting potential of creatine in rodents, mainly due to its neuroprotective action. In order to investigate the underlying pharmacology mediating these mainly neuroprotective properties of creatine, cultured primary embryonal hippocampal and cortical cells were challenged with glutamate or H2O2. In good agreement with our in vivo data, creatine mediated a direct effect on the bioenergetic balance, leading to an enhanced cellular energy charge, thereby acting as a neuroprotectant. Moreover, creatine effectively antagonized the H2O2-induced ATP depletion and the excitotoxic response towards glutamate, while not directly acting as an antioxidant. Additionally, creatine mediated a direct inhibitory action on the NMDA receptor-mediated calcium response, which initiates the excitotoxic cascade. Even excessive concentrations of creatine had no neurotoxic effects, so that high-dose creatine supplementation as a health-promoting agent in specific pathological situations or as a primary prophylactic compound in risk populations seems feasible. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that the protective potential of creatine was primarily mediated by its impact on cellular energy metabolism and NMDA receptor function, along with reduced glutamate spillover, oxidative stress and subsequent excitotoxicity. PMID:22347384

Genius, Just; Geiger, Johanna; Bender, Andreas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Klopstock, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan

2012-01-01

313

Creatine therapy provides neuroprotection after onset of clinical symptoms in Huntington’s disease transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

While there have been enormous strides in the understanding of Huntington’s disease (HD) pathogenesis, treatment to slow or prevent disease progression remains elusive. We previously reported that dietary creatine supplementation significantly improves the clinical and neuropathological phenotype in transgenic HD mice lines starting at weaning, before clinical symptoms appear. We now report that creatine administration started after onset of clinical symptoms significantly extends survival in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntingtin aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to HD patients. PMID:12787055

Dedeoglu, Alpaslan; Kubilus, James K.; Yang, Lichuan; Ferrante, Kimberly L.; Hersch, Steven M.; Beal, M. Flint; Ferrante, Robert J.

2010-01-01

314

Exposing cardiomyocytes to subclinical concentrations of doxorubicin rapidly reduces their creatine transport.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin is commonly used to treat leukemia, lymphomas, and solid tumors, such as soft tissue sarcomas or breast cancer. A major side effect of doxorubicin therapy is dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin's effects on cardiac energy metabolism are emerging as key elements mediating its toxicity. We evaluated the effect of doxorubicin on [(14)C]creatine uptake in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes and HL-1 murine cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter protein. A significant and irreversible decrease in creatine transport was detected after an incubation with 50-100 nmol/l doxorubicin. These concentrations are well below peak plasma levels (5 ?mol/l) and within the ranges (25-250 nmol/l) for steady-state plasma concentrations reported after the administration of 15-90 mg/m(2) doxorubicin for chemotherapy. The decrease in creatine transport was not solely because of increased cell death due to doxorubicin's cytotoxic effects. Kinetic analysis showed that doxorubicin decreased V(max), K(m), and creatine transporter protein content. Cell surface biotinylation experiments confirmed that the amount of creatine transporter protein present at the cell surface was reduced. Cardiomyocytes rely on uptake by a dedicated creatine transporter to meet their intracellular creatine needs. Our findings show that the cardiomyocellular transport capacity for creatine is substantially decreased by doxorubicin administration and suggest that this effect may be an important early event in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity. PMID:22752631

Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mantilla, Jose Gabriel; Mishra, Rajashree; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Santacruz, Lucia; Jacobs, Danny O

2012-09-01

315

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid [creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group]. Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens [normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups]. After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC distribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC transitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of animals to be used. PMID:7713838

Adams, G R; Baldwin, K M

1995-01-01

316

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

1995-01-01

317

Lactate Utilization Is Regulated by the FadR-Type Regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an l-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a d-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses d-iLDH and l-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldRM, lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. l-Lactate and d-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, l-iLDH and d-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of l-lactate or d-lactate. PMID:22408166

Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min

2012-01-01

318

Lactate utilization is regulated by the FadR-type regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an L-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a D-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses D-iLDH and L-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldR(M), lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. L-Lactate and D-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, L-iLDH and D-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of L-lactate or D-lactate. PMID:22408166

Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Xu, Ping

2012-05-01

319

Novel sensory surface for creatine kinase electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

This work describes a novel concept of biosensor for quantifying enzymes, where the substrate is immobilized directly over the working area of a screen printed electrode (Au-SPE). This concept is applied here to creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), a cardiac biomarker in ischemic conditions. It acts as a phospho-transferase on creatine (Crea), requiring the presence of phosphate. So, the phosphorylated form of creatine (Pcrea) was immobilized on the Au/SPE previously aminated with cysteamine (Cys) by self-assembling monolayer technique. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were used to follow the chemical modifications in the Au-SPE. Since Pcrea is an electroactive species at low potential, its consumption over the platform by the enzyme changed the electrical response of the biosensor. So, CK-MB determination has been achieved in mediator free-conditions due the redox proprieties of the Pcrea. The analytical features of the resulting biosensor were studied by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The limit of detection was 0.11 µg/mL and the slope was -0.029(± 0.0035) µA × mL/µg. The interference effect of troponin T (TnT), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin (Myo) in the performance of the sensor was tested and good selectivity was observed. The biosensor was successfully applied to biological fluids, showing good stability at room temperature and excellent sensitivity and selectivity. This new concept of biosensor is especially useful for point of care (POC) applications, due to the low cost and small size of the final device. PMID:24508544

Moreira, Felismina T C; Dutra, Rosa A F; Noronha, João P; Sales, M Goreti F

2014-06-15

320

Development of an enzymatic chromatography strip with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium coupling reactions for quantitative l-lactate analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, a dry assay of l-lactate via the enzymatic chromatographic test (ECT) was developed. An l-lactate dehydrogenase plus a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration reaction were applied simultaneously. Various tetrazolium salts were screened to reveal visible color intensities capable of determining the lactate concentrations in the sample. The optimal analysis conditions were as follows. The diaphorase (0.5?l, 2(-6)U/?l) was immobilized in the test line of the ECT strip. Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (5?l, 12mM), l-lactate dehydrogenase (1?l, 0.25U/?l), and NAD(+) (2?l, 1.5×10(-5)M) were added into the mobile phase (100?l) composed of 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20 in 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), and the process was left to run for 10min. This detection had a linear range of 0.039 to 5mM with a detection limit of 0.047mM. This quantitative analysis process for l-lactate was easy to operate with good stability and was proper for the point-of-care testing applications. PMID:25454507

Kan, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lan, Min-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lai, Wei-Shiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsiung, Kuang-Pin; Liu, Yung-Chuan

2015-02-15

321

Inactivation of creatine kinase induced by quercetin with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative actions of quercetin.  

PubMed

Pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative actions of quercetin were examined through inactivation of CK and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Quercetin induced inactivation of creatine kinase (CK) during the interaction with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O(2)). CK activity in heart homogenate was also reduced by quercetin with HRP-H(2)O(2). Flavonoids that have a catechol structure in the B ring, such as taxifolin, catechin and luteolin, also induced CK inactivation. These flavonoids strongly inhibited NADPH and ADP-Fe(3+)-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation. These results suggest a close relationship between pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative actions of quercetin. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signals of the quercetin radical was emitted during the interaction of quercetin with HRP-H(2)O(2) in the presence of Zn(2+) as a stabilizer. Adding CK diminished the ESR signals of quercetin radicals, suggesting CK efficiently scavenged quercetin radicals. Sulfhydryl groups and tryptophan residues in CK decreased during the interaction of quercetin with HRP-H(2)O(2). The kinetic parameters of K(m) and V(max) for ADP and creatine phosphate changed rapidly, suggesting that the inactivation of CK was induced through conformational change of the enzyme. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase had a higher sensitivity to quercetin with HRP-H(2)O(2) than CK. Quercetin radicals may mediate between pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative action. PMID:12738181

Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y

2003-06-01

322

Regulation of T Cell Development and Activation by Creatine Kinase B  

PubMed Central

Creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of the N-phosphoryl group from phosphocreatine to ADP to generate ATP and plays a key role in highly energy-demanding processes such as muscle contraction and flagellar motility; however, its role in signal transduction (which frequently involves ATP-consuming phosphorylation) and consequent cell-fate decisions remains largely unknown. Here we report that creatine kinase B was significantly up-regulated during the differentiation of double-positive thymocytes into single-positive thymocytes. Ectopic expression of creatine kinase B led to increased ATP level and enhanced phosphorylation of the TCR signaling proteins. Consequentially, transgenic expression of creatine kinase B promoted the expression of Nur77 and Bim proteins and the cell death of TCR signaled thymocyte. In addition, the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of T cells were also enhanced by the expression of creatine kinase B transgene. In contrast, treatment of T cells with specific creatine kinase inhibitor or creatine kinase B shRNA resulted in severely impaired T cell activation. Taken together, our results indicate that creatine kinase B plays an unexpected role in modulating TCR-mediated signaling and critically regulates thymocyte selection and T cell activation. PMID:19337362

Zhang, Yafeng; Li, Hai; Wang, Xiaoming; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Xiaolong

2009-01-01

323

Antitumor activity of creatine analogs produced by alterations in pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

When rats bearing the 13,762 mammary carcinoma were treated with intravenously administered creatine analogs, cyclocreatine, beta-guanidinopropionic acid or creatine phosphate on days 4 through 8 and 14 through 18 post tumor implantation, the tumor growth delay produced varied with whether the animals were drinking water or sugar water over the course of the study. The tumor growth delays increased when the animals drank sugar water from 9.3, 1.6 and 7.6 days for cyclocreatine, beta-guanidinopropionic acid and creatine phosphate, respectively, to 15.0, 6.3 and 12.6 days. Blood glucose was decreased over the course of the creatine analog treatment regimen and the skeletal muscle transport protein GLUT-4 increased 1.5 to 2-fold with the creatine analog treatments. Plasma insulin was profoundly decreased to 20-25% of normal by the creatine analog treatment while plasma glucagon levels were increased. Plasma somatostatin increased 3- to 4-fold during the administration of the creatine analogs. These results implicate alterations in pancreatic hormone balance in the antitumor activity of these creatine analogs. PMID:9627806

Ara, G; Gravelin, L M; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Teicher, B A

1998-01-01

324

Neuroprotective Effects of Creatine in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness for which there is no effective therapy. We examined whether creatine, which may exert neuroprotective effects by increasing phosphocreatine levels or by stabilizing the mito- chondrial permeability transition, has beneficial effects in a transgenic mouse model of HD (line 6\\/2). Dietary creatine sup- plementation significantly improved survival, slowed the devel- opment of

Robert J. Ferrante; Ole A. Andreassen; Bruce G. Jenkins; Alpaslan Dedeoglu; Stefan Kuemmerle; James K. Kubilus; Rima Kaddurah-Daouk; Steven M. Hersch; M. Flint Beal

2000-01-01

325

Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Weightlifting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use cre- atine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resis- tance training workouts. Although several studies have eval- uated the combined effects of

Eric S. Rawson; Jeff S. Volek

2003-01-01

326

Effects of creatine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: results of a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), whose mutations cause cystic fibrosis (CF), depends on ATP for activation and transport function. Availability of ATP in the cell and even more in specific cellular microcompartments often depends on a functional creatine kinase system, which provides the ‘energy buffer’ phosphocreatine. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase phosphocreatine levels, thus promoting muscle

Christian P. Braegger; Uwe Schlattner; Theo Wallimann; Anna Utiger; Friederike Frank; Beat Schaefer; Claus W. Heizmann; Felix H. Sennhauser

2003-01-01

327

Creatine therapy provides neuroprotection after onset of clinical symptoms in Huntington's disease transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there have been enormous strides in the understanding of Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, treatment to slow or prevent disease progression remains elusive. We previ- ously reported that dietary creatine supplementation signifi- cantly improves the clinical and neuropathological phenotype in transgenic HD mice lines starting at weaning, before clinical symptoms appear. We now report that creatine administration started after onset

Alpaslan Dedeoglu; James K. Kubilus; Lichuan Yang; Kimberly L. Ferrante; Steven M. Hersch; M. Flint Beal; Robert J. Ferrante

2003-01-01

328

Creatine kinase, energy-rich phosphates and energy metabolism in heart muscle of different vertebrates.  

PubMed

Maximal activities of creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and cytochrome oxidase and total concentrations of creatine and phosphorylated adenylates were measured in cardiac muscle of hagfish, eight teleost species, frog, turtle, pigeon and rat. The ratio of creatine kinase to cytochrome oxidase with cytochrome oxidase as a rough estimate of aerobic capacity and cellular "energy turnover", was increased in myocardia of hagfish, turtle and crucian carp. These myocardia are likely to be frequently exposed to oxygen deficiency. In agreement with this, they possess a high relative glycolytic capacity as indicated by a high pyruvate kinase/cytochrome oxidase ratio. The creatine kinase/cytochrome oxidase ratio for the other myocardia varied within a factor of 2, except the value for cod myocardium which was below the others. Total creatine varied among species and was high in active species such as herring, pigeon and rat but also high in crucian carp. The variation in total concentration of phosphorylated adenylates was considerably less than the variation in total creatine. The high creatine kinase/cytochrome oxidase ratio in myocardia likely to be challenged by hypoxia may represent an enhanced efficiency for both "spatial" and "temporal" buffering of phosphorylated adenylates to attenuate the impact of a depressed energy liberation. As to the differences in total creatine, this factor influences not only the cellular energy distribution but possibly also contractility via an effect on the free phosphate level. PMID:8056878

Christensen, M; Hartmund, T; Gesser, H

1994-01-01

329

Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue  

SciTech Connect

The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

2006-01-01

330

The role of creatine kinase in inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition.  

PubMed

Cyclosporin A sensitive swelling of mitochondria isolated from control mouse livers and from the livers of transgenic mice expressing human ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase occurred in the presence of both 40 microM calcium and 5 microM atractyloside which was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase over state 4 respiration rates. Creatine and cyclocreatine inhibited the latter only in transgenic liver mitochondria. Protein complexes isolated from detergent solubilised rat brain extracts, containing octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase, porin and the adenine nucleotide translocator, were reconstituted into malate loaded lipid vesicles. Dimerisation of creatine kinase in the complexes and exposure of the reconstituted complexes to >200 microM calcium induced a cyclosporin A sensitive malate release. No malate release occurred with complexes containing octameric creatine kinase under the same conditions. PMID:9315696

O'Gorman, E; Beutner, G; Dolder, M; Koretsky, A P; Brdiczka, D; Wallimann, T

1997-09-01

331

Fecal lactate and ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Impaired metabolism of short-chain fatty acids, as well as a modified fecal ionogram, have been reported in ulcerative colitis. Fecal water samples from 62 patients with ulcerative colitis were analyzed in the present investigation to evaluate changes in SCFAs and lactic acid in relation to activity and severity of disease. Short-chain fatty acid levels were high in quiescent and mild disease (162.6 +/- 63.6 and 147.8 +/- 63.2 mM/L, respectively), but significantly decreased in the severe form (64.7 +/- 46.9 mM/L). Lactate showed a progressive increase from mild colitis (3.0 +/- 1.8 mM/L) to severe colitis (21.4 +/- 18.6 mM/L). It thus appears that mild colitis displayed a fecal pattern characterized by normal pH and bicarbonate, slightly impaired electrolyte handling, high short-chain fatty acid values, and only moderately increased lactate. Severe colitis, on the other hand, was characterized by low fecal pH, bicarbonate, and potassium, high sodium and chloride, low short-chain fatty acid levels, and very high lactate levels. A critical lowering of intraluminal pH, which shifts bacterial metabolism from short-chain fatty acid to lactate production, may be responsible for the intraluminal pooling of lactate. PMID:3181680

Vernia, P; Caprilli, R; Latella, G; Barbetti, F; Magliocca, F M; Cittadini, M

1988-12-01

332

Boosting D-lactate production in engineered cyanobacteria using sterilized anaerobic digestion effluents.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an environmentally friendly approach to waste treatment, which can generate N and P-rich effluents that can be used as nutrient sources for microalgal cultivations. Modifications of AD processes to inhibit methanogenesis leads to the accumulation of acetic acid, a carbon source that can promote microalgal biosynthesis. This study tested different AD effluents from municipal wastes on their effect on D-lactate production by an engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (carrying a novel lactate dehydrogenase). The results indicate that: (1) AD effluents can be supplemented into the modified BG-11 culture medium (up to 1:4 volume ratio) to reduce N and P cost; (2) acetate-rich AD effluents enhance D-lactate synthesis by ? 40% (1.2g/L of D-lactate in 20 days); and (3) neutral or acidic medium had a deleterious effect on lactate secretion and biomass growth by the engineered strain. This study demonstrates the advantages and guidelines in employing wastewater for photomixotrophic biosynthesis using engineered microalgae. PMID:25084044

Hollinshead, Whitney D; Varman, Arul M; You, Le; Hembree, Zachary; Tang, Yinjie J

2014-10-01

333

Dependence of myosin-ATPase on structure bound creatine kinase in cardiac myfibrils from rainbow trout and freshwater turtle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of myofibrillar creatine kinase on the myosin-ATPase activity was examined in cardiac ventricular myofibrils isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). The ATPase rate was assessed by recording the rephosphorylation of ADP by the pyruvate kinase reaction alone or together with the amount of creatine formed, when myofibrillar bound creatine kinase was activated with

L. Haagensen; D. H. Jensen; H. Gesser

2008-01-01

334

Creatine supplementation does not affect kidney function in an animal model with pre-existing renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Creatine is widely used as an ergogenic substance among athletes. Safety of prolonged creatine intake has been questioned, based upon case reports and animal data. We investigated the effect of pro- longed creatine ingestion on renal function in animals with normal kidney function or pre-existing kidney failure, respectively. Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four experimental groups:

Youri E. C. Taes; Joris R. Delanghe; Birgitte Wuyts; Johan van de Voorde; Norbert H. Lameire

335

A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes  

PubMed Central

Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases.

Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

2014-01-01

336

A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes.  

PubMed

Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement's usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

Smith, Rachel N; Agharkar, Amruta S; Gonzales, Eric B

2014-01-01

337

Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance.  

PubMed

Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1). This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne; Weber, Jean-Michel

2014-10-15

338

L-lactate utilization by dairy goats  

SciTech Connect

Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

Rodriguez, N.R.

1984-01-01

339

The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants  

PubMed Central

Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

1973-01-01

340

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement  

E-print Network

in highoxygen modified atmosphere package, irradiated, stored in the dark at 1°C for 14 days. Instrumental color, TRA, lipid oxidation, and NADH were measured. LD remained the most red, whereas PM was most discolored. LD had a significantly higher level of LDH-1...

Kim, Yuan Hwan

2009-05-15

341

PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS, LONGER LACTATIONS, AND CALF VALUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longer lactations are more profitable than in the past, and daughter pregnancy rate evaluations now allow separate selection for cow fertility and longevity. Measures of productive life were compared and updated life expectancy factors were derived to replace those estimated in 1993. Extra credits f...

342

21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

343

Cell–cell and intracellular lactate shuttles  

PubMed Central

Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. ‘Cell–cell’ and ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell–cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

Brooks, George A

2009-01-01

344

HOPE, a New Lactate Editing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for localized editing of weakly homonuclear coupled AX3systems as, for example, lactate. It is based on the volume-selective PRESS sequence, using the properties of homonuclear polarization transfer. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by measurements on different phantoms containing lactate and acetic acid or fat. Lactate and lipid proton signals can be well discriminated

Michael Bunse; Wulf-Ingo Jung; Fritz Schick; Günther J. Dietze; Otto Lutz

1995-01-01

345

Creatine as a compatible osmolyte in muscle cells exposed to hypertonic stress  

PubMed Central

Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to hypertonic stress induced an increase in cell content of creatine transporter mRNA and of creatine transport activity, which peaked after about 24 h incubation at 0.45 osmol (kg H2O)?1. This induction of transport activity was prevented by addition of either cycloheximide, to inhibit protein synthesis, or of actinomycin D, to inhibit RNA synthesis. Creatine uptake by these cells is largely Na+ dependent and kinetic analysis revealed that its increase under hypertonic conditions resulted from an increase in Vmax of the Na+-dependent component, with no significant change in the Km value of about 75 ?mol l?1. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a more than threefold increase in the expression of creatine transporter mRNA in cells exposed to hypertonicity. Creatine supplementation significantly enhanced survival of C2C12 cells incubated under hypertonic conditions and its effect was similar to that obtained with the well known compatible osmolytes, betaine, taurine and myo-inositol. This effect seemed not to be linked to the energy status of the C2C12 cells because hypertonic incubation caused a decrease in their ATP content, with or without the addition of creatine at 20 mmol l?1 to the medium. This induction of creatine transport activity by hypertonicity is not confined to muscle cells: a similar induction was shown in porcine endothelial cells. PMID:16873409

Alfieri, Roberta R; Bonelli, Mara A; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Brigotti, Maurizio; Fumarola, Claudia; Sestili, Piero; Mozzoni, Paola; De Palma, Giuseppe; Mutti, Antonio; Carnicelli, Domenica; Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Borghetti, Angelo F; Wheeler, Kenneth P; Petronini, Pier Giorgio

2006-01-01

346

Urinary creatine at rest and after repeated sprints in athletes: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.05). UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r = -0.34, p < 0.01) and lean mass (r = -0.30, p < 0.05), and positively correlated with fat mass (r = 0.32, p < 0.05). After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

Bezrati-Benayed, I; Nasrallah, F; Feki, M; Chamari, K; Omar, S; Alouane-Trabelsi, L; Ben Mansour, A; Kaabachi, N

2014-03-01

347

Creatine supplementation in trained rats causes changes in myenteric neurons and intestinal wall morphometry.  

PubMed

Creatine is widely used by athletes as an ergogenic resource. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of creatine supplementation on the duodenum of rats submitted to physical training. The number and myenteric neuronal cell bodies as well mucosal and muscular tunic morphometry were evaluated. Control animals received a standard chow for 8 weeks, and the treated ones received the standard chow for 4 weeks and were later fed with the same chow but added with 2% creatine. Animals were divided in groups: sedentary, sedentary supplemented with creatine, trained and trained supplemented with creatine. The training consisted in treadmill running for 8 weeks. Duodenal samples were either processed for whole mount preparations or for paraffin embedding and hematoxylin-eosin staining for histological and morphometric studies of the mucosa, the muscular tunic and myenteric neurons. It was observed that neither creatine nor physical training alone promoted alterations in muscular tunic thickness, villus height or crypts depth, however, a reduction in these parameters was observed when both were associated. The number of myenteric neurons was unchanged, but the neuronal cell body area was reduced in trained animals but not when training and creatine was associated, suggesting a neuroprotector role of this substance. PMID:24392580

De Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói; Brogio, Thais Andréia; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Vicente Umada; Peres, Sidney Barnabé; Hernandes, Luzmarina

2013-08-01

348

Genetically switched D-lactate production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

During a fermentation process, the formation of the desired product during the cell growth phase competes with the biomass for substrates or inhibits cell growth directly, which results in a decrease in production efficiency. A genetic switch is required to precisely separate growth from production and to simplify the fermentation process. The ldhA promoter, which encodes the fermentative D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the lactate producer Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-070 (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA), was replaced with the ? p(R) and p(L) promoters (as a genetic switch) using genomic recombination and the thermo-controllable strain B0013-070B (B0013-070, ldhAp::kan-cI(ts)857-p(R)-p(L)), which could produce two-fold higher LDH activity at 42°C than the B0013-070 strain, was created. When the genetic switch was turned off at 33°C, strain B0013-070B produced 10% more biomass aerobically than strain B0013-070 and produced only trace levels of lactate which could reduce the growth inhibition caused by oxygen insufficiency in large scale fermentation. However, 42°C is the most efficient temperature for switching on lactate production. The volumetric productivity of B0013-070B improved by 9% compared to that of strain B0013-070 when it was grown aerobically at 33°C with a short thermo-induction at 42°C and then switched to the production phase at 42°C. In a bioreactor experiment using scaled-up conditions that were optimized in a shake flask experiment, strain B0013-070B produced 122.8 g/l D-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited productivity of 0.89 g/g·h. The results revealed the effectiveness of using a genetic switch to regulate cell growth and the production of a metabolic compound. PMID:22683845

Zhou, Li; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Chen, Xian-Zhong; Prior, Bernard A; Shen, Wei; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2012-09-01

349

Creatine phosphokinase after submaximal physical exercise in untrained individuals.  

PubMed

Serial estimations of total serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) have been performed before and during 18-49 hours after submaximal physical exercise in 17 untrained individuals, mean age 50 years. The maximal CPK increase after exercise was 32 mU/ml (73%). The serum CPK did not exceed the upper normal limit (130 mU/ml) except in one individual (150 mU/ml). The maximal CPK increase in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varied between 101 mU/ml (133%) and 2 260mU/ml(3 790%), mean 900 mU/ml (1 184%). As the maximal CPK elevation in AMI occurs within the same period, it seems that heavy physical work of short duration just before the onset of symptoms will very seldom impair the diagnosis of AMI with the CPK technique used. PMID:1155226

Forssell, G; Nordlander, R; Nyquist, O; Orinius, E; Styrelius, I

1975-06-01

350

Impaired Brain Creatine Kinase Activity in Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with impaired energy metabolism in the brain. Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) into phosphocreatine (PCr), thereby serving as readily available high-capacity spatial and temporal ATP buffering. Objective: Substantial evidence supports a specific role of the Cr/PCr system in neurodegenerative diseases. In the brain, the Cr/PCr ATP-buffering system is established by a concerted operation of the brain-specific cytosolic enzyme BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial uMt-CK. It is not yet established whether the activity of these CK isoenzymes is impaired in HD. Methods We measured PCr, Cr, ATP and ADP in brain extracts of 3 mouse models of HD – R6/2 mice, N171-82Q and HdhQ111 mice – and the activity of CK in cytosolic and mitochondrial brain fractions from the same mice. Results The PCr was significantly increased in mouse HD brain extracts as compared to nontransgenic littermates. We also found an approximately 27% decrease in CK activity in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of R6/2 and N171-82Q mice, and an approximately 25% decrease in the mitochondria from HdhQ111 mice. Moreover, uMt-CK and BB-CK activities were approximately 63% lower in HD human brain samples as compared to nondiseased controls. Conclusion Our findings lend strong support to the role of impaired energy metabolism in HD, and point out the potential importance of impairment of the CK-catalyzed ATP-buffering system in the etiology of HD. PMID:21124007

Zhang, S.F.; Hennessey, T.; Yang, L.; Starkova, N.N.; Beal, M.F.; Starkov, A.A.

2011-01-01

351

Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.  

PubMed

Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

Tarnopolsky, Mark A

2007-01-01

352

Chronic Creatine Supplementation Alters Depression-like Behavior in Rodents in a Sex-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Impairments in bioenergetic function, cellular resiliency, and structural plasticity are associated with the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Preliminary evidence suggests that creatine, an ergogenic compound known to promote cell survival and influence the production and usage of energy in the brain, can improve mood in treatment-resistant patients. This study examined the effects of chronic creatine supplementation using the forced swim test (FST), an animal model selectively sensitive to antidepressants with clinical efficacy in human beings. Thirty male (experiment 1) and 36 female (experiment 2) Sprague–Dawley rats were maintained on either chow alone or chow blended with either 2% w/w creatine monohydrate or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for 5 weeks before the FST. Open field exploration and wire suspension tests were used to rule out general psychostimulant effects. Male rats maintained on 4% creatine displayed increased immobility in the FST as compared with controls with no differences by diet in the open field test, whereas female rats maintained on 4% creatine displayed decreased immobility in the FST and less anxiety in the open field test compared with controls. Open field and wire suspension tests confirmed that creatine supplementation did not produce differences in physical ability or motor function. The present findings suggest that creatine supplementation alters depression-like behavior in the FST in a sex-dependent manner in rodents, with female rats displaying an antidepressant-like response. Although the mechanisms of action are unclear, sex differences in creatine metabolism and the hormonal milieu are likely involved. PMID:19829292

Allen, Patricia J; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B; Renshaw, Perry F

2010-01-01

353

Creatine and Its Potential Therapeutic Value for Targeting Cellular Energy Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Substantial evidence indicates bioenergetic dysfunction and mitochondrial impairment contribute either directly and/or indirectly to the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment paradigms aimed at ameliorating this cellular energy deficit and/or improving mitochondrial function in these neurodegenerative disorders may prove to be useful as a therapeutic intervention. Creatine is a molecule that is produced both endogenously, and acquired exogenously through diet, and is an extremely important molecule that participates in buffering intracellular energy stores. Once creatine is transported into cells, creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transphosphorylation of creatine via ATP to enhance the phosphocreatine energy pool. Creatine kinase enzymes are located at strategic intracellular sites to couple areas of high energy expenditure to the efficient regeneration of ATP. Thus, the creatinekinase/phosphocreatine system plays an integral role in energy buffering and overall cellular bioenergetics. Originally, exogenous creatine supplementation was widely used only as an ergogenic aid to increase the phosphocreatine pool within muscle to bolster athletic performance. However, the potential therapeutic value of creatine supplementation has recently been investigated with respect to various neurodegenerative disorders that have been associated with bioenergetic deficits as playing a role in disease etiology and/or progression which include; Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease. This review discusses the contribution of mitochondria and bioenergetics to the progression of these neurodegenerative diseases and investigates the potential neuroprotective value of creatine supplementation in each of these neurological diseases. In summary, current literature suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation is most efficacious as a treatment paradigm in Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease but appears to be less effective for ALS and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19005780

Adhihetty, Peter J.

2010-01-01

354

How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.  

PubMed

The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein (E3BP) and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) component enzyme form the structural core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by providing the binding sites for two other component proteins, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases and phosphatases. Despite a high similarity between the primary structures of E3BP and E2, the E3-binding domain of human E3BP is highly specific to human E3, whereas the E1-binding domain of human E2 is highly specific to human E1. In this study, we characterized binding of human E3 to the E3-binding domain of E3BP by x-ray crystallography at 2.6-angstroms resolution, and we used this structural information to interpret the specificity for selective binding. Two subunits of E3 form a single recognition site for the E3-binding domain of E3BP through their hydrophobic interface. The hydrophobic residues Pro133, Pro154, and Ile157 in the E3-binding domain of E3BP insert themselves into the surface of both E3 polypeptide chains. Numerous ionic and hydrogen bonds between the residues of three interacting polypeptide chains adjacent to the central hydrophobic patch add to the stability of the subcomplex. The specificity of pairing for human E3BP with E3 is interpreted from its subcomplex structure to be most likely due to conformational rigidity of the binding fragment of the E3-binding domain of E3BP and its exquisite amino acid match with the E3 target interface. PMID:16263718

Ciszak, Ewa M; Makal, Anna; Hong, Young S; Vettaikkorumakankauv, Ananthalakshmy K; Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Patel, Mulchand S

2006-01-01

355

Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 to produce optically pure D-lactate in mineral salts medium.  

PubMed

Klebsiella oxytoca strains were constructed to produce optical pure d-lactate by pH-controlled batch fermentation in mineral salts medium. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adhE, and the phospho-transacetylase/acetate kinase A genes, pta-ackA, were deleted from the wild type. KMS002 (?adhE) and KMS004 (?adhE ?pta-ackA) exhibited d-lactate production as a primary pathway for the regeneration of NAD(+). Both strains produced 11-13 g/L of d-lactate in medium containing 2% (w/v) glucose with yields of 0.64-0.71 g/g glucose used. In sugarcane molasses, KMS002 and KMS004 produced 22-24 g/L of d-lactate with yields of 0.80-0.87 g/g total sugars utilized. Both strains also utilized maltodextrin derived from cassava starch and produced d-lactate at a concentration of 33-34 g/L with yields of 0.91-0.92 g/g maltodextrin utilized. These d-lactate yields are higher than those reported for engineered E. coli strains. PMID:22728200

Sangproo, Maytawadee; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

2012-09-01

356

Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny.  

PubMed

1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine-glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish), buffalo fish (bony fish) or the snapping turtle. Transamidinase or guanidinoacetate methylpherase activity could not be found in the salamander or garter snake, respectively. 3. The results obtained with the lamprey are in direct contrast with those obtained with the hagfish (both subphylum Agnatha, class Cyclostomata). The lamprey had the ability to synthesize creatine and did not abstract creatine from lake water. The hagfish did not have any apparent ability to synthesize creatine and did abstract creatine from sea water. The present report thus supports the theory that the myxinoid (hagfish) and petromyzoid (lamprey) agnathans are only distantly related. 4. The lack of creatine-synthesizing enzyme activities in the cartilaginous fishes may have phylogenetic significance, but may also be explained by the availability of creatine in the diet of these animals. The lack of one or both enzyme activities in vertebrates other than the hagfish and the cartilaginous fish is suggested to be the result of creatine in the diet. PMID:5010856

Van Pilsum, J F; Stephens, G C; Taylor, D

1972-01-01

357

Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT(-/y)) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT(-/y) and wild type (CrT(+/y)) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT(-/y) mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass), but markedly reduced (P < 0.05) TCr levels compared with CrT(+/y) mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass). AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr may be at least partly due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT(-/y) mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT(-/y) mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle. PMID:25206338

Russell, Aaron P; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R; Snow, Rodney J

2014-01-01

358

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production  

PubMed Central

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

359

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production.  

PubMed

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

360

Characterization of the second external alternative dehydrogenase from mitochondria of the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.  

PubMed

The mitochondria of the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis are able to reoxidize cytosolic NADPH. Previously, we characterized an external alternative dehydrogenase, KlNde1p, having this activity. We now characterize the second external alternative dehydrogenase of K. lactis mitochondria, KlNde2p. We examined its role in cytosolic NADPH reoxidation by studying heterologous expression of KlNDE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants and by constructing Deltaklnde1 and Deltaklnde2 mutants. KlNde2p uses NADH or NADPH as substrates, its activity in isolated mitochondria is not regulated by exogenously added calcium and it is not down-regulated when the cells grow in glucose versus lactate. KlNde2p shows lower affinity for NADPH than KlNde1p. Both enzymes show similar pH optimum. PMID:17052684

Tarrío, Nuria; Cerdán, M Esperanza; González Siso, M Isabel

2006-11-01

361

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-01

362

Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen limitation, and fumarate respiration conditions.  

PubMed

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor-limited growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under conditions of O(2) limitation but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K

2011-12-01

363

Effect of creatine supplementation on cardiac muscle of exercise-stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The role of creatine supplementation in altering the physiological parameters regulating cardiac muscle's functional capacity\\u000a through the initiation of cardiac hypertrophy and altered contractile protein expression has not been determined. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to determine the effect of creatine supplementation, with and without exercise stress, on physiological\\u000a parameters regulating functional capacity through alterations in rat cardiac

J. M. McClung; G. Hand; J. Davis; J. Carson

2003-01-01

364

Gastrointestinal Distress After Creatine Supplementation in Athletes: Are Side Effects Dose Dependent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two different creatine-supplementation protocols on incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) distress in top-level athletes. Data were collected from 59 top-level male soccer players who were allocated in a double-blind design to three randomly assigned trials: ingesting creatine supplement (C5: 2 × 5-g doses, and C10: 1 × 10-g

Sergej M. Ostojic; Zlatko Ahmetovic

2008-01-01

365

Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing utilisation of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation among athletes who hope to enhance their performance\\u000a but it is not known if this ingestion has any detrimental effect on the kidney. Five healthy men ingested either a placebo\\u000a or 20?g of creatine monohydrate per day for 5 consecutive days. Blood samples and urine collections were analysed for Cr

J. R. Poortmans; H. Auquier; V. Renaut; A. Durussel; M. Saugy; G. R. Brisson

1997-01-01

366

A Review of Creatine Supplementation and its Potential to Improve Pork Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

James, B.W., Goodband, R.D., Unruh, J.A., Tokach, M.D., Nelssen, J.L. and Dritz, S.S. 2002. A review of creatine supplementation and its potential to improve pork quality. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 1–16.Creatine is an amino acid derivative normally produced by the liver, kidneys and pancreas from arginine, methionine and glycine. It functions to provide high energy phosphate for the rephosphorylation

B. W. James; R. D. Goodband; J. A. Unruh; M. D. Tokach; J. L. Nelssen; S. S. Dritz

2002-01-01

367

Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players  

PubMed Central

Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n?=?14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p?=?0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change?=?- 0.7%; ES?=?- 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change?=?+ 2.4%; ES?=?+ 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p?=?0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

2014-01-01

368

Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2002-01-01

369

Ontogeny of sorbitol dehydrogenases in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that crude extracts of Drosophila melanogaster adults contain three distinctly different enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of d-sorbitol into d-fructose. These include (1) a soluble NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SoDHs), (2) a mitochondrial NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SoDHm), and (3) a soluble NADP-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NADP-SoDH). Developmental studies have shown that the activities of all three of these

William L. Bischoff

1978-01-01

370

Transient alterations of creatine, creatine phosphate, N-acetylaspartate and high-energy phosphates after mild traumatic brain injury in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of creatine (Cr), creatine phosphate (CrP), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), ATP, ADP and phosphatidylcholine\\u000a (PC) were measured at different time intervals after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in whole brain homogenates of rats.\\u000a Anaesthetized animals underwent to the closed-head impact acceleration “weight-drop” model (450 g delivered from 1 m height = mild\\u000a traumatic brain injury) and were killed at 2, 6,

Stefano Signoretti; Valentina Di Pietro; Roberto Vagnozzi; Giuseppe Lazzarino; Angela M. Amorini; Antonio Belli; Serafina D’Urso; Barbara Tavazzi

2010-01-01

371

A technique for in vivo mapping of myocardial creatine kinase metabolism  

PubMed Central

ATP derived from the conversion of phosphocreatine to creatine by creatine kinase provides an essential chemical energy source that governs myocardial contraction. Here, we demonstrate that the exchange of amine protons from creatine with protons in bulk water can be exploited to image creatine through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrEST) in myocardial tissue. We show that CrEST provides about two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results of CrEST studies from ex vivo myocardial tissue strongly correlate with results from 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analysis. We demonstrate the feasibility of CrEST measurement in healthy and infarcted myocardium in animal models in vivo on a 3-T clinical scanner. As proof of principle, we show the conversion of phosphocreatine to creatine by spatiotemporal mapping of creatine changes in the exercised human calf muscle. We also discuss the potential utility of CrEST in studying myocardial disorders. PMID:24412924

Haris, Mohammad; Singh, Anup; Cai, Kejia; Kogan, Feliks; McGarvey, Jeremy; DeBrosse, Catherine; Zsido, Gerald A; Witschey, Walter R T; Koomalsingh, Kevin; Pilla, James J; Chirinos, Julio A; Ferrari, Victor A; Gorman, Joseph H; Hariharan, Hari; Gorman, Robert C; Reddy, Ravinder

2014-01-01

372

Enzyme activities in tissues and elimination half?lives of homologous muscle and liver enzymes in the racing pigeon (Columba Livia domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue enzyme profiles of heart, liver, pectoral muscle, quadriceps muscle, duodenum, kidney and brain from racing pigeons were established. The enzymes were alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyltransferase (y?GT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and creatine kinase (CK). Elimination half?lives (tyß) of certain enzymes were also determined. The mean values (± SD) were: ASAT,

J. T. Lumeij; J. J. De Bruijne; A. Slob; J. Wolfswinkel; J. Rothuizen

1988-01-01

373

Reactions upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate drive Corynebacterium glutamicum (D)-lactate productivity under oxygen deprivation.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated the simplicity of oxygen-deprived Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce D-lactate, a primary building block of next-generation biodegradable plastics, at very high optical purity by introducing heterologous D-ldhA gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Here, we independently evaluated the effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production in C. glutamicum. We consequently show that while the reactions catalyzed by glucokinase (GLK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and bisphosphate aldolase had positive effects on D-lactate productivity by increasing 98, 39, 15, 13, and 10 %, respectively, in 10 h reactions in minimal salts medium, the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase had large negative effect by decreasing 70 %. The other glycolytic enzymes did not affect D-lactate productivity when each of encoding genes was overexpressed. It is noteworthy that all reactions associated with positive effects are located upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate in the glycolytic pathway. The D-lactate yield also increased by especially overexpressing TPI encoding gene up to 94.5 %. Interestingly, overexpression of PFK encoding gene reduced the yield of succinate, one of the main by-products of D-lactate production, by 52 %, whereas overexpression of GAPDH encoding gene increased succinate yield by 26 %. Overexpression of GLK encoding gene markedly increased the yield of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by 10- and 5.8-fold in exchange with decreasing the D-lactate yield. The effect of overexpressing glycolytic genes was also evaluated in 80 h long-term reactions. The variety of effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production is discussed. PMID:23712891

Tsuge, Yota; Yamamoto, Shougo; Suda, Masako; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

2013-08-01

374

Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Binding to Phospholipid Monolayers Induces Cardiolipin Segregation  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the octameric mitochondrial form of creatine kinase (mtCK) binds to the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane mainly via electrostatic interactions with cardiolipin (CL). However, little is known about the consequences of these interactions on membrane and protein levels. Brewster angle microscopy investigations provide, for the first time to our knowledge, images indicating that mtCK binding induced cluster formation on CL monolayers. The thickness of the clusters (10–12 nm) corresponds to the theoretical height of the mtCK-CL complex. Protein insertion into a condensed CL film, together with monolayer stabilization after protein addition, was observed by means of differential capacity measurements. Polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy showed that the mean orientation of ?-helices within the protein shifted upon CL binding from 30° to 45° with respect to the interface plane, demonstrating protein domain movements. A comparison of data obtained with CL and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/CL (2:1:1) monolayers indicates that mtCK is able to selectively recruit CL molecules within the mixed monolayer, consolidating and changing the morphology of the interfacial film. Therefore, CL-rich domains induced by mtCK binding could modulate mitochondrial inner membrane morphology into a raft-like organization and influence essential steps of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:19289067

Maniti, Ofelia; Lecompte, Marie-France; Marcillat, Olivier; Desbat, Bernard; Buchet, René; Vial, Christian; Granjon, Thierry

2009-01-01

375

Specific targeting of tumor cells by the creatine analog cyclocreatine.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase (CK) an enzyme involved in cellular ATP homeostasis has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Cyclocreatine (CCr) a CK substrate analog was shown to be cytotoxic to a broad spectrum of solid tumors. We have measured and compared the CK activity and CCr sensitivity of 49 transformed and non-transformed cell lines. Among tumor cell lines, there was a strong correlation between the two (p = 0.0026, regression analysis); cell lines expressing high levels of CK (>0.10 Units/mg protein) were generally sensitive to the drug and cell lines with low CK were resistant. Tumor cell lines highest in CK and most sensitive to CCr were derived from prostate, small cell lung and neuronal tissue. The hematopoetic tumor lines tested were generally low in CK and all were resistant to CCr. Fourteen non-transformed cell lines were examined and all were resistant to the compound, including six with high levels of CK. Thus, CCr preferentially targeted tumor cells. Further, CCr inhibited tumor cell proliferation more efficiently than macromolecular synthesis indicating that, rather than exerting a general effect on energy metabolism, CCr may act on a specific pathway involved in controlling tumor cell proliferation. PMID:21541606

Martin, K; Winslow, E; Okeefe, M; Khandekar, V; Hamlin, A; Lillie, J; Kaddurahdaouk, R

1996-11-01

376

Elevated creatine kinase activity in primary hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Inconsistent findings have been reported on the occurrence and relevance of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes in mammalian liver cells. Part of this confusion might be due to induction of CK expression during metabolic and energetic stress. Methods The specific activities and isoenzyme patterns of CK and adenylate kinase (AdK) were analysed in pathological liver tissue of patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. Results The brain-type, cytosolic BB-CK isoenzyme was detected in all liver specimens analysed. Conversely, CK activity was strongly increased and a mitochondrial CK (Mi-CK) isoenzyme was detected only in tissue samples of two primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Conclusion The findings do not support significant expression of CK in normal liver and most liver pathologies. Instead, many of the previous misconceptions in this field can be explained by interference from AdK isoenzymes. Moreover, the data suggest a possible interplay between p53 mutations, HCC, CK expression, and the growth-inhibitory effects of cyclocreatine in HCC. These results, if confirmed, could provide important hints at improved therapies and cures for HCC. PMID:15748292

Meffert, Georg; Gellerich, Frank N; Margreiter, Raimund; Wyss, Markus

2005-01-01

377

Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

2014-06-01

378

Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

2014-01-01

379

Effect of whole body gamma radiation on hepatic LDH activity, lactate, pyruvate concentration and rate of oxygen consumption in Bufo melanostictus.  

PubMed

Whole body Co60 gamma radiation induced changes in lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, pyruvate, lactate content and rate of oxygen (O2) consumption in a tropical hibernating anuran (Bufo melanostictus). In 3.5 and 7 Gy treated groups, a significant increase in LDH activity and lactate/pyruvate ratio was observed, whereas a significant decrease in O2 consumption rate was observed in treated animals on post-irradiation day (PID) 1, 5 and 10. Increase in LDH activity was observed on PID-1 in both the treated groups, reached to a peak on PID-5 in 7 Gy treated group and then declined on PID-10. PMID:13677637

Mishra, J; Mittra, B; Mittra, A

2002-11-01

380

The role of lactation in GDM women.  

PubMed

Lactating women exhibit more favorable blood glucose and insulin profiles, as well as increased insulin sensitivity than nonlactating women. Yet, much less is known about whether these favorable effects on metabolic risk factors persist long-term among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The evidence that lactation reduces incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is limited and inconsistent. Well-controlled, prospective studies that measure lactation intensity and duration, and comprehensively screen for postpartum glucose tolerance are needed to conclusively determine whether lactation can lead to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy. PMID:24100596

Gunderson, Erica P

2013-12-01

381

Higher homolog and N-ethyl analog of creatine as synthetic phosphagen precursors in brain, heart, and muscle, repressors of liver amidinotransferase, and substrates for creatine catabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Tissues of chicks fed 5% N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate (N-amidino-N-methyl-beta-alanine) for 12 days accumulated the following amounts of free plus phosphorylated derivatives as mumol/g, wet weight: brain, 5.5; heart, 7.3; leg muscle, 21.0; and breast muscle, 24.4. Since total creatine levels remained nearly the same in brain, N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate-P provided brain with a supplemental reservoir of high energy phosphate. Tissues of rats fed 2% N-ethylguanidinoacetate (N-amidino-N-ethylglycine) accumulated large amounts of N-ethylguanidinoacetate-P, which has thermodynamic properties similar to creatine-P and is the kinetically most reactive synthetic phosphagen yet described. N-Ethylguanidinoacetate derivatives replaced creatine derivatives mole-for-mole, and the fraction of synthetic to total phosphagen after 19 days was 60% in heart, 54% in slow oxidative muscle, 42% in fast glycolytic muscles, and 22% in brain. N-Ethylguanidinoacetate served as a false end product co-repressor of liver arginine:glycine amidinotransferase levels in both chicks and chick embryos; N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate and N-propylguanidinoacetate were relatively inactive. Creatinine amidohydrolase reversibly cyclized both N-ethylguanidinoacetate and N-propylguanidinoacetate with even lower Km values than for creatine derivatives, but it did not react significantly with N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate, 3-guanidinopropionate, or 1-carboxy-methyl-2-imino-imidazolidine (cyclocreatine). Creatine amidinohydrolase also hydrolyzed N-acetimidoylsarcosine, but was relatively unreactive toward N-ethylguanidinoacetate, N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate, 3-guanidinopropionate, and cyclocreatine. Amidinohydrolase can therefore be used to remove interfering creatine in assays of tissues for coexisting N-ethylguanidinoacetate or N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate. Assays are now available to follow changes during metabolic stresses of any combination or all of the following phosphagens accumulated by the same tissue: creatine-P, N-ethylguanidinoacetate-P, cyclocreatine-P, N-methyl-3-guanidinopropionate-P, and homocyclocreatine-P. PMID:4055745

Roberts, J J; Walker, J B

1985-11-01

382

A Bacillus subtilis malate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed Central

A Bacillus subtilis gene for malate dehydrogenase (citH) was found downstream of genes for citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Disruption of citH caused partial auxotrophy for aspartate and a requirement for aspartate during sporulation. In the absence of aspartate, citH mutant cells were blocked at a late stage of spore formation. PMID:8550482

Jin, S; De Jesús-Berríos, M; Sonenshein, A L

1996-01-01

383

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

1996-01-01

384

Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAVISON, R. C. R., D. COLEMAN, J. BALMER, M. NUNN, S. THEAKSTON, M. BURROWS, and S. BIRD. Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 243-247, 2000. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer compared with

R. C. RICHARD DAVISON; DAMIAN COLEMAN; JAMES BALMER; MAXWELL NUNN; SIMON THEAKSTON; MELONIE BURROWS; STEVE BIRD

2000-01-01

385

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation  

E-print Network

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation S. J. Mabjeesh, Aberdeen AB21 9SB Scotland ABSTRACT An arteriovenous kinetics technique was used to monitor mammary gland of stage of lactation, the absolute and fractional oxidation rates of Lys by the mammary gland increased

Bequette, Brian J.

386

Dependence of myosin-ATPase on structure bound creatine kinase in cardiac myofibrils from rainbow trout and freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

The influence of myofibrillar creatine kinase on the myosin-ATPase activity was examined in cardiac ventricular myofibrils isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). The ATPase rate was assessed by recording the rephosphorylation of ADP by the pyruvate kinase reaction alone or together with the amount of creatine formed, when myofibrillar bound creatine kinase was activated with phosphocreatine. The steady-state concentration of ADP in the solution was varied through the activity of pyruvate kinase added to the solution. For rainbow trout myofibrils at a high pyruvate kinase activity, creatine kinase competed for ADP but did not influence the total ATPase activity. When the ADP concentration was elevated within the physiological range by lowering the pyruvate kinase activity, creatine kinase competed efficiently and increased the ATPase activity twice or more for both trout and turtle. As examined for trout myofibrils, the ATPase activity was reduced about four times by inhibiting the activity of myofibril-bound creatine kinase with iodoacetamide and this reduction was only partially counteracted, when the creatine kinase activity was restored by adding creatine kinase to the solution. Hence, the results suggest that myofibril-bound creatine kinase is needed to fully activate the myosin-ATPase activity in hearts from ectothermic vertebrates despite their low energy turn-over relative to endothermic species. PMID:18515165

Haagensen, L; Jensen, D H; Gesser, H

2008-08-01

387

Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ingestion of the dietary supplement creatine (about 20 g\\/day for 5 days or about 2 g\\/day for 30 days) results in increased\\u000a skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine. Subsequently, the performance of high-intensity exercise tasks, which rely heavily\\u000a on the creatine-phosphocreatine energy system, is enhanced. The well documented benefits of creatine supplementation in young\\u000a adults, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and enhanced

Eric S. RawsonAndrew; Andrew C. Venezia

2011-01-01

388

d-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor based on the cell debris of the recombinant yeast Hansenula polymorpha.  

PubMed

A d-lactate-selective biosensor has been developed using cells' debris of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, overproducing d-lactate: cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, d-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), DlDH). The H. polymorpha DlDH-producer was constructed in two steps. First, the gene CYB2 was deleted on the background of the ?-105 (gcr1 catX) strain of H. polymorpha impaired in glucose repression and devoid of catalase activity to avoid specific l-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity. Second, the homologous gene DLD1 coding for DlDH was overexpressed under the control of the strong H. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter in the frame of a plasmid for multicopy integration in the ?cyb2 strain. The selected recombinant strain possesses 6-fold increased DlDH activity as compared to the initial strain. The cells debris was used as a biorecognition element of a biosensor, since DlDH is strongly bound to mitochondrial membranes. The cells' debris, prepared by mechanic disintegration of recombinant cells, was immobilized on a graphite working electrode in an electrochemically generated layer using an Os-complex modified cathodic electrodeposition polymer. Cytochrome c was used as additional native electron mediator to improve electron transfer from reduced DlDH to the working electrode. The constructed d-lactate-selective biosensors are characterized by a high sensitivity (46.3-61.6 A M(-1)m(-2)), high selectivity and sufficient storage stability. PMID:24840438

Smutok, Oleh V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Karkovska, Maria I; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Sibirny, Andriy A

2014-07-01

389

The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions  

E-print Network

and style of Plant Physiology. regenerates the NAD' needed to maintain glycolysis and the minimal production . of ATP. Some tissues such as the anoxic leaves of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus maritimus and Typha latifolia (Barclay and Crawford, 1982...

MacAlpine, David Michael

2012-06-07

390

The effect of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone on diffusion artifacts in lactate dehydrogenase histochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), alone and in combination, on diffusion artifacts in histochemical incubations has been investigated using LDH as model enzyme. By measuring the amount of formazan in the medium at the end of the incubation it has been shown that both substances, but especially PVA, are effective in limiting diffusion. The significance

Hans A. Dahl; Svein Ivar Mellgren

1970-01-01

391

Characterization of the major dehydrogenase related to d-lactic acid synthesis in Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to d-(-)-lactic acid by using d-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for d-lactic acid formation in this organism and to characterize the enzyme to facilitate the production of optically pure d-lactic acid. A genomic analysis of L. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 revealed that 7 genes encode lactate-related dehydrogenase. According to transcriptomic, proteomic, and phylogenetic analyses, LEUM_1756 was the major gene responsible for the production of d-lactic acid. The LEUM_1756 gene, of 996bp and encoding 332 amino acids (36.5kDa), was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star from an inducible pET-21a(+) vector. The enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and showed a specific activity of 4450U/mg, significantly higher than those of other previously reported ldhDs. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the purified enzyme exists as tetramers in solution and this was the first report among lactic acid bacteria. The pH and temperature optima were pH 8.0 and 30°C, respectively, for the pyruvate reduction reaction, and pH 11.0 and 20°C, respectively, for the lactate oxidation reaction. The K(m) kinetic parameters for pyruvate and lactate were 0.58mM and 260mM, respectively. In addition, the k(cat) values for pyruvate and lactate were 2900s(-1) and 2280s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), or urea, but was inhibited by 1mM Zn(2+) and 1mM SDS. PMID:22975125

Li, Ling; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Jung-Mi; Seo, Eunyoung; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

2012-10-10

392

Blood chemistry in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation reveals no effect of handling.  

PubMed

Serum clinical chemistry parameters were examined in lactating southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina mothers and their pups from the declining Macquarie Island population. There were significant changes in serum values from 2 to 21 days postpartum in both nursing mothers (increase: inorganic phosphate; decrease: creatinine, potassium, chloride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase) and suckling pups (increase: inorganic phosphate, globulin, cholesterol; decrease: albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gammaglutamyl transferase; increase followed by decrease: triglycerides, iron). We found no evidence that changes were due to chronic stress effects caused by repeated chemical immobilisations (mothers) or physical restraint (pups): at late lactation, clinical chemistry values were similar for mother-pup pairs of a control group (not handled previously), moderate treatment group (previously handled twice) and high treatment group (previously handled three to four times). We were not able to detect differences in clinical chemistry values between mother-pup pairs distributed over two areas differing in the frequency of human visits. The clinical chemistry values presented here can serve as reference ranges to allow future comparison with other southern elephant seal populations to investigate factors, e.g. food limitation, suspected to be involved in population declines. PMID:12208307

Engelhard, Georg H; Hall, Ailsa J; Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Reijnders, Peter J H

2002-10-01

393

Dissimilarity in the Folding of Human Cytosolic Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes  

PubMed Central

Creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) plays a key role in the energy homeostasis of excitable cells. The cytosolic human CK isoenzymes exist as homodimers (HMCK and HBCK) or a heterodimer (MBCK) formed by the muscle CK subunit (M) and/or brain CK subunit (B) with highly conserved three-dimensional structures composed of a small N-terminal domain (NTD) and a large C-terminal domain (CTD). The isoforms of CK provide a novel system to investigate the sequence/structural determinants of multimeric/multidomain protein folding. In this research, the role of NTD and CTD as well as the domain interactions in CK folding was investigated by comparing the equilibrium and kinetic folding parameters of HMCK, HBCK, MBCK and two domain-swapped chimeric forms (BnMc and MnBc). Spectroscopic results indicated that the five proteins had distinct structural features depending on the domain organizations. MBCK BnMc had the smallest CD signals and the lowest stability against guanidine chloride-induced denaturation. During the biphasic kinetic refolding, three proteins (HMCK, BnMc and MnBc), which contained either the NTD or CTD of the M subunit and similar microenvironments of the Trp fluorophores, refolded about 10-fold faster than HBCK for both the fast and slow phase. The fast folding of these three proteins led to an accumulation of the aggregation-prone intermediate and slowed down the reactivation rate thereby during the kinetic refolding. Our results suggested that the intra- and inter-subunit domain interactions modified the behavior of kinetic refolding. The alternation of domain interactions based on isoenzymes also provides a valuable strategy to improve the properties of multidomain enzymes in biotechnology. PMID:21931810

Wang, Yin; Wang, Sha; Gao, Yan-Song; Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Yan, Yong-Bin

2011-01-01

394

Hearts of some Antarctic fishes lack mitochondrial creatine kinase.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) functions as a spatial and temporal energy buffer, dampening fluctuations in ATP levels as ATP supply and demand change. There are four CK isoforms in mammals, two cytosolic isoforms (muscle [M-CK] and brain [B-CK]), and two mitochondrial isoforms (ubiquitous [uMtCK] and sarcomeric [sMtCK]). Mammalian oxidative muscle couples expression of sMtCK with M-CK, creating an energy shuttle between mitochondria and myofibrils. We hypothesized that the expression pattern and activity of CK would differ between hearts of red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes due to their striking differences in cardiac ultrastructure. Hearts of white-blooded icefishes (family Channichthyidae) have significantly higher mitochondrial densities compared to red-blooded species, decreasing the diffusion distance for ATP between mitochondria and myofibrils and potentially minimizing the need for CK. The distribution of CK isoforms was evaluated using western blotting and maximal activity of CK was measured in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions and tissue homogenates of heart ventricles of red- and white-blooded notothenioids. Transcript abundance of sMtCK and M-CK was also quantified. Overall, CK activity is similar between hearts of red- and white-blooded notothenioids but hearts of icefishes lack MtCK and have higher activities of M-CK in the cytosol compared to red-blooded fishes. The absence of MtCK may compromise cardiac function under stressful conditions when ATP supply becomes limiting. PMID:25151023

O'Brien, K M; Mueller, I A; Orczewska, J I; Dullen, K R; Ortego, M

2014-12-01

395

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-30

396

Effects of creatine supplementation on biomarkers of hepatic and renal function in young trained rats.  

PubMed

Creatine supplementation has been widely used by athletes and young physical exercise practioneers in order of increasing muscle mass and enhancing athletic performance, but their use/overuse may represent a health risk on hepatic and renal impaired function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 40 days of oral creatine supplementation on hepatic and renal function biomarkers in a young animal model. Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were divided in five groups (n = 7): control (CONTR), oral creatine supplementation (CREAT), moderate exercise training (EXERC), moderate exercise training plus oral creatine supplementation (EXERC + CREAT) and pathological group (positive control for liver and kidney injury) by the administration of rifampicin (RIFAMPICIN). Exercise groups were submitted to 60 min/day of swimming exercise session with a 4% of body weight workload for six weeks. The EXERC + CREAT showed the higher body weight at the end of the training protocol. The CREAT and EXERC + CREAT group showed an increase in hepatic (Aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and renal (urea and creatinine) biomarkers levels (p < 0.05). Our study showed that the oral creatine supplementation promoted hepatic and renal function challenge in young rats submitted to moderate exercise training. PMID:24024661

Souza, William Marciel; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Wronski, Evanio Castor; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Boff, Everton

2013-11-01

397

Fine tuning the transcription of ldhA for D-lactate production.  

PubMed

Fine tuning of the key enzymes to moderate rather than high expression levels could overproduce the desired metabolic products without inhibiting cell growth. The aims of this investigation were to regulate rates of lactate production and cell growth in recombinant Escherichia coli through promoter engineering and to evaluate the transcriptional function of the upstream region of ldhA (encoding fermentative lactate dehydrogenase in E. coli). Twelve ldhA genes with sequentially shortened chromosomal upstream regions were cloned in an ldhA deletion, E. coli CICIM B0013-080C (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA ldhA). The varied ldhA upstream regions were further analyzed using program NNPP2.2 (Neural Network Promoter Prediction 2.2) to predict the possible promoter regions. Two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production) of these strains showed that shortening the ldhA upstream sequence from 291 to 106 bp successively reduced aerobic lactate synthesis and the inhibition effect on cell growth during the first phase. Simultaneously, oxygen-limited lactate productivity was increased during the second phase. The putative promoter downstream of the -96 site of ldhA could function as a transcriptional promoter or regulator. B0013-080C/pTH-rrnB-ldhA8, with the 72-bp upstream segment of ldhA, could be grown at a high rate and achieve a high oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 1.09 g g(-1) h(-1). No transcriptional promoting region was apparent downstream of the -61 site of ldhA. We identified the latent transcription regions in the ldhA upstream sequence, which will help to understand regulation of ldhA expression. PMID:22430499

Zhou, Li; Shen, Wei; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Prior, Bernard A; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2012-08-01

398

Adaptations of Maternal Adipose Tissue to Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to store substantial amounts of energy as lipid in adipose tissue has allowed development of a variety of strategies in wild animals to meet the considerable metabolic challenge of lactation. The ability to use adipose tissue energy has also been critical for development of the exceptional rates of milk production achieved in the dairy cow. Lactation thus results

Richard G. Vernon; Caroline M. Pond

1997-01-01

399

21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3 H5 O3 K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid...

2010-04-01

400

Sex-specific antidepressant effects of dietary creatine with and without sub-acute fluoxetine in rats  

PubMed Central

The potential role of metabolic impairments in the pathophysiology of depression is motivating researchers to evaluate the treatment efficacy of creatine, a naturally occurring energetic and neuroprotective compound found in brain and muscle tissues. Growing evidence is demonstrating the benefit of oral creatine supplements for reducing depressive symptoms in humans and animals. A novel question is whether dietary creatine, when combined with antidepressant drug therapy, would be more effective than either compound alone. To answer this question, four studies were conducted to investigate the behavioral effects of combined creatine and low-dose fluoxetine treatment using the forced swim test in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed powdered rodent chow supplemented with 0%, 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for 5 weeks. Rats were injected with fluoxetine (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or saline according to a sub-acute dosing schedule. Female rats maintained on a 4% creatine diet displayed antidepressant-like effects compared to non-supplemented females prior to fluoxetine treatment. In contrast, creatine did not alter behavior reliably in males. Following drug treatment and a second forced swim trial, the antidepressant-like profile of creatine remained significant only in females co-administered 5.0 mg/kg fluoxetine. Moreover, in females only, supplementation with 4% creatine produced a more robust antidepressant-like behavioral profile compared to either dose of fluoxetine alone. Estrous cycle data indicated that ovarian hormones influenced the antidepressant-like effects of creatine. Addressing the issue of sex differences in response to treatment may affect our understanding of creatine, its relationship with depressive behavior, and may lead to sex-specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22429992

Allen, Patricia J.; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Kanarek, Robin B.; Renshaw, Perry F.

2013-01-01

401

Environmental pollutants and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) are a group of steroidogenic enzymes that are involved in the steroid biosynthesis and metabolism. Four classes of HSDs, namely, 3?-, 11?-, 17?-, and 20?-HSDs, are discussed. 3?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of pregnenolone, 17?-hydroxypregnenolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione, respectively. 11?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between active cortisol and inactive cortisone. 17?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between 17?-hydroxyl steroids and 17-ketoandrogens and estrogens. 20?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of progesterone into 20?-hydroxyprogesterone. Many environmental pollutants directly inhibit one or more enzymes of these HSDs, thus interfering with endogenous active steroid hormone levels. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A, and benzophenone), pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and prochloraz), and plant constituents (genistein, gossypol, and licorice). This chapter reviews these inhibitors targeting on HSDs. PMID:24388197

Ye, Leping; Guo, Jingjing; Ge, Ren-Shan

2014-01-01

402

Genome-wide analysis of redox reactions reveals metabolic engineering targets for D-lactate overproduction in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Most current metabolic engineering applications rely on the inactivation of unwanted reactions and the amplification of product-oriented reactions. All of the biochemical reactions involved with cellular metabolism are tightly coordinated with the electron flow, which depends on the cellular energy status. Thus, the cellular metabolic flux can be controlled either by modulation of the electron flow or the regulation of redox reactions. This study analyzed the genome-wide anaerobic fermentation products of 472 Escherichia coli single gene knockouts, which comprised mainly of dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, and redox-related proteins. Many metabolic pathways that were located far from anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation significantly affected the profiles of lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Unexpectedly, D-lactate overproduction was determined by a single gene deletion in dehydrogenases (e.g., guaB, pyrD, and serA) involved with nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the combined knockouts of guaB, pyrD, serA, fnr, arcA, or arcB genes, which are involved with anaerobic transcription regulation, enhanced D-lactate overproduction. These results suggest that the anaerobic fermentation profiles of E. coli can be tuned via the disruption of peripheral dehydrogenases in anaerobic conditions. PMID:23563322

Kim, Hyun Ju; Hou, Bo Kyeng; Lee, Sung Gun; Kim, Joong Su; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

2013-07-01

403

Isoleucine 69 and valine 325 form a specificity pocket in human muscle creatine kinase.  

PubMed

Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of creatine by ATP. From a structural perspective, the enzyme utilizes two flexible loop regions to sequester and position the substrates for catalysis. There has been debate over the specific roles of the flexible loops in substrate specificity and catalysis in CK and other related phosphagen kinases. In CK, two hydrophobic loop residues, I69 and V325, make contacts with the N-methyl group of creatine. In this study, we report the alteration of the substrate specificity of CK through the mutagenesis of V325. The V325 to glutamate mutation results in a more than 100-fold preference for glycocyamine, while mutation of V325 to alanine results in a slight preference of the enzyme for cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine). This study enhances our understanding of how the active sites of phosphagen kinases have evolved to recognize their respective substrates and catalyze their reactions. PMID:15504039

Novak, Walter R P; Wang, Pan-Fen; McLeish, Michael J; Kenyon, George L; Babbitt, Patricia C

2004-11-01

404

Phenotypic variability in a portuguese family with x-linked creatine transport deficiency.  

PubMed

Cerebral creatine transporter deficiency, attributable to mutations in the SLC6A8 gene, causes X-linked mental retardation, language delay, epilepsy, and autistic features. In contrast with creatine synthesis defects, the vast majority of patients with SLC6A8 deficiency do not respond to treatment. We describe a Portuguese family with a mutation (c.456C>T; p.Gln486X) in the SL6CA8 gene: two adult monozygotic twin brothers, with psychomotor delay and severe speech impairment. The family also includes their maternal half-sister with psychomotor retardation, predominantly in language, and their mentally retarded mother. This family illustrates the remarkable phenotypic variability in this condition. Investigation of creatine metabolism is mandatory in patients with developmental delay of unknown etiology, to detect this condition. PMID:22196490

Garcia, Paula; Rodrigues, Fidjy; Valongo, Carla; Salomons, Gajja S; Diogo, Luísa

2012-01-01

405

Arginine administration reduces creatine kinase activity in rat cerebellum.  

PubMed

In the present study were evaluated the in vivo effects of arginine administration on creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebellum of rats. We also tested the influence of antioxidants, namely alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the effects elicited by Arg in order to investigate the possible participation of nitric oxide (NO) and/or its derivatives peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and other/or free radicals on the effects of arginine on CK activity. Sixty-day-old rats were treated with a single i.p. injection of saline (control, group I), arginine (0.8 g/kg) (group II), L-NAME (2.0 mg/kg or 20.0 mg/kg) (group III) or Arg (0.8 g/kg) plus L-NAME (2.0 mg/kg or 20.0 mg/kg) (group IV) and were killed 1 h later. In another set of experiments, the animals were pretreated for 1 week with daily i.p. administration of saline (control) or alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/kg) and ascorbic