Sample records for lactate dehydrogenase reaction

  1. The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test...

  4. D-Lactate dehydrogenase of Peptostreptococcus elsdenii.

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, H L; Wood, W A

    1975-01-01

    D-Lactate dehydrogenase has been purified to near homogeneity from Peptostreptococcus elsdenii. As isolated, the enzyme contains flavine adenine dinucleotide and a tightly bound metal cofactor. Inactivation by ortho-phenanthroline occurs in two steps and is partially blocked by D-lactate. Reactivation by divalent metal ions occurs, with divalent zinc being the most effective. When ferricyanide is used as the electron acceptor, D-lactate has an apparent K0.5 of 3.3 M0.46; its binding is negatively cooperative with a Hill coefficient of 0.46. Replacement of ferricyanide by the other components of the electron transport system yields hyperbolic kinetics with an apparent Km for D-lactate of 26 mM. The apparent Km for ferricyanide is 2.2 X 10(-4) M. Phosphate and pyrophosphate compounds stimulate the D-lactate:ferricyanide activity. These properties suggest that interaction of this enzyme with other electron transport proteins in the chain may enhance D-lactate binding and, hence, the rate of electron transport. PMID:368

  5. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system....

  8. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Reidarson, T H; McBain, J; Dalton, L M

    1999-06-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme activity was analyzed in cetaceans. Animals that were treated by i.m. injection and others that received azole therapy had distinctly different LDH isoenzyme profiles. A third distinctive pattern was occasionally observed in clinically normal animals with elevations in total transaminase and LDH activity levels. DH isoenzyme activity patterns were not affected by mild or moderate hemolysis, refrigeration after 24 hr, or freezing for 24 hr with subsequent thawing. However, severe hemolysis produced artifactual changes similar to those observed in individuals that received injections but of a lesser magnitude. DH isoenzyme activity patterns may provide useful corroboration of other clinical findings when diagnostic modalities are limited, especially to differentiate nonspecific enzyme elevation from nonpathologic elevations in serum enzyme concentrations due to i.m. injections or azole therapy. PMID:10484137

  10. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax: Lactate-Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Application for in Vitro Drug Susceptibility Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Basco; F. Marquet; M. M. Makler; J. Lebras

    1995-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase, the terminal enzyme of anerobic Embden-Meyerhoff glycolysis, plays an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of human malaria parasites. Based on the ability of malarial lactate dehydrogenase to use 3-acetylpyridine NAD as a coenzyme in a reaction leading to the formation of pyruvate from L-lactate, the enzymatic activity of fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

  11. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...in serum. Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...in serum. Lactate dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and...

  13. Urea-requiring lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Yancey; George N. Somero

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic properties — apparentKm of pyruvate, pyruvate inhibition pattern, and maximal velocity — of M4 (skeletal muscle) lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes resemble those of the homologous lactate dehydrogenases of non-elasmobranchs only when physiological concentrations of urea (approximately 400 mM) are present in the assay medium. Urea increases the apparentKm of pyruvate to values typical of other vertebrates

  14. Myocardial lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme distribution in the normal heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Schultheiß; G. Bispink; V. Neuhoff; H.-D. Bolte

    1981-01-01

    Summary The isoenzyme pattern of the lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) in different parts of the heart was measured by micro-isoelectric focusing. Samples were taken from the right and left auricle, the outer, middle and inner layer of the myocardial wall of both ventricles and from the papillary muscle of the left ventricle. The results show that the activity of LDHtotal and the

  15. Selective Distribution of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in Neurons and Astrocytes of Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe G. Bittar; Yves Charnay; Luc Pellerin; Constantin Bouras; Pierre J. Magistretti

    1996-01-01

    In vertebrates, the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Two distinct subunits combine to form the five tetrameric isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase. The LDH-5 subunit (muscle type) has higher maximal velocity (Vmax) and is present in glycolytic tissues, favoring the formation of lactate from pyruvate. The LDH-1 subunit (heart type) is inhibited by pyruvate

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism. PMID:16758363

  17. L-lactate dehydrogenase from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Betsche; K. Bosbach; B. Gerhardt

    1979-01-01

    By ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration an enzyme preparation which catalyzed NAD+-dependent L-lactate oxidation (10-4 kat kg-1 protein), as well as NADH-dependent pyruvate reduction (10-3 kat kg-1 protein), was obtained from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris. This lactate dehydrogenase activity was not due to an unspecific activity of either glycolate oxidase, glycolate dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, or a malate

  18. A detailed investigation of the properties of lactate dehydrogenase in which the 'Essential' cysteine-165 is modified by thioalkylation.

    PubMed Central

    Bloxham, D P; Sharma, R P; Wilton, D C

    1979-01-01

    The reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase with methyl methanethiosulphonate resulted in the modification of one thiol group per protomer, and this was located at cysteine-165 in the enzyme sequence. On reduction, both the thiomethylation of cysteine-165 and any changes in kinetic properties of the enzyme were completely reversed. Cysteine-165 has been considered essential for catalytic activity; however, cysteine-165-thiomethylated dehydrogenase possessed full catalytic activity, although the affinity of the enzyme for carbonyl-or hydroxy-containing substrates was markedly decreased. The nicotinamide nucleotide-binding capacity was unaffected, as judged by the formation of fluorescent complexes with NADH. The enzyme-mediated activation of NAD+, as judged by sulphite addition, was unaffected in thiomethylated lactate dehydrogenase. However, the affinity of oxamate for the enzyme--NADH complex was decreased by 100-fold and it was calculated that this constituted a net increase of 10.4 kJ/mol in the activation energy for binding. Thiomethylated lactate dehydrogenase was able to form an abortive adduct between NAD+ and fluoropyruvate. However, the equilibrium constant for adduct formation between pyruvate and NAD+ was too low to demonstrate this complex at reasonable pyruvate concentrations. A conformational change in the protein structure on selective thiomethylation was revealed by the decreased thermostability of the modified enzyme. The alteration of lactate dehydrogenase catalytic properties on modification depended on the bulk of the reagent used, since thioethylation resulted in an increase in Km for pyruvate (13.5 +/- 3.5 mm) and an 85% decrease in maximum catalytic activity. The implications of all these findings for the catalytic mechanism of lactate dehydrogenase are discussed. PMID:36072

  19. Fabrication of lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nesakumar, Noel; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-11-15

    An electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine lactate that plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, fermentation and food quality analysis. Abnormal concentration of lactate has been related to diseases such as hypoxia, acute heart disorders, lactic acidosis, muscle fatigue and meningitis. Also, lactate concentration in blood helps to evaluate the athletic performance in sports. The main aim of the work is to fabricate NADH/LDH/Nano-CeO2/GCE bio-electrode for sensing lactate in human blood samples. Toward this, CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) and NaOH as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) studies were carried out to determine the structural and morphological characteristics of CeO2 nanoparticles. XRD pattern indicated the formation of highly crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. The FE-SEM studies revealed the formation of nanospherical particles of size 29.73±2.59 nm. The working electrode was fabricated by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on GCE surface with CeO2 nanoparticles as an interface. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry using a three electrode system with NADH/LDH/NanoCeO2/GCE as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl saturated with 0.1M KCl as a reference electrode and Pt wire as a counter electrode. From the amperometric study, the linearity was found to be in the range of 0.2-2 mM with the response time of less than 4s. PMID:24034216

  20. Pressure-Adaptive Differences in Lactate Dehydrogenases of Congeneric Fishes Living at Different Depths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Siebenaller; George N. Somero

    1978-01-01

    The muscle-type (M4) lactate dehydrogenases of Sebastolobus altivelis, a deep-water scorpaenid, and S. alascanus, a shallower species, are electrophoretically indistinguishable, yet differ in pressure sensitivities. The lactate dehydrogenase of S. altivelis exhibits lower pressure sensitivities of substrate and coenzyme binding and catalytic rate. Such apparently pressure-adaptive kinetic properties may be important for establishing species depth zonation patterns in the ocean.

  1. Pressure-adaptive differences in lactate dehydrogenases of congeneric fishes living at different depths.

    PubMed

    Siebenaller, J; Somero, G N

    1978-07-21

    The muscle-type (M4) lactate dehydrogenases of Sebastolobus altivelis, a deep-water scorpaenid, and S. alascanus, a shallower species, are electrophoretically indistinguishable, yet differ in pressure sensitivities. The lactate dehydrogenase of S. altivelis exhibits lower pressure sensitivities of substrate and coenzyme binding and catalytic rate. Such apparently pressure-adaptive kinetic properties may be important for establishing species depth zonation patterns in the ocean. PMID:208149

  2. Estimation of correlation of lactate dehydrogenase subunits mole quota based on differences in substrate inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Gubernieva; E. E. Safronova; V. N. Malakhov; V. B. Mamaev; G. A. Annenkov

    1978-01-01

    A kinetic method of estimating the mole quota ratios of the human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) H and M subunits based on differences in substrate inhibition of LDH isoenzymes by lactate is proposed. Stability of kinetic constants for a prolonged period of time is demonstrated. The dependence of the activity ratios on the contribution of the mole quota of the M-subunit

  3. Alanine production in an H+-ATPase- and lactate dehydrogenase-defective mutant of Escherichia coli expressing alanine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masaru; Narita, Kotomi; Yokota, Atsushi

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we reported that pyruvate production was markedly improved in TBLA-1, an H(+)-ATPase-defective Escherichia coli mutant derived from W1485lip2, a pyruvate-producing E. coli K-12 strain. TBLA-1 produced more than 30 g/l pyruvate from 50 g/l glucose by jar fermentation, while W1485lip2 produced only 25 g/l pyruvate (Yokota et al. in Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58:2164-2167, 1994b). In this study, we tested the ability of TBLA-1 to produce alanine by fermentation. The alanine dehydrogenase (ADH) gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus was introduced into TBLA-1, and direct fermentation of alanine from glucose was carried out. However, a considerable amount of lactate was also produced. To reduce lactate accumulation, we knocked out the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) in TBLA-1. This alanine dehydrogenase-expressing and lactate dehydrogenase-defective mutant of TBLA-1 produced 20 g/l alanine from 50 g/l glucose after 24 h of fermentation. The molar conversion ratio of glucose to alanine was 41%, which is the highest level of alanine production reported to date. This is the first report to show that an H(+)-ATPase-defective mutant of E. coli can be used for amino acid production. Our results further indicate that H(+)-ATPase-defective mutants may be used for fermentative production of various compounds, including alanine. PMID:17583806

  4. The effects of season and temperature on D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase in the foot of Helix pomatia L.

    PubMed

    Wieser, W; Wright, E

    1979-04-01

    The effects of pH, season, environmental and experimental temperatures on the activities and kinetic parameters of D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase from the foot of the pulmonate snail Helix pomatia were analyzed. Both in phosphate and Tris buffers D-lactate dehydrogenase was the enzyme with the most acid maximum, arginine kinase that with the most alkaline, whilst pyruvate kinase occupied an intermediate position. Pyruvate kinase activity, measured at 20 degrees C, was positively correlated with the environmental temperature at the moment of collecting the animal, whereas neither arginine kinase nor D-lactate dehydrogenase showed such a relationship. A seasonal study based on approximately 100 specimens established that arginine kinase activity remained the same throughout the year. Pyruvate kinase activity was slightly lower, and D-lactate dehydrogenase activity significantly higher, in winter than in summer animals. Snails subjected in spring to a short warm-up period before enzyme extraction showed extreme variability and some extraordinarily high values of pyruvate kinase activity, suggesting that either season or elevated temperature may have an immediate effect on the activity of this enzyme. Individual variability of all three enzymes ranges from 300 to 400%. The activities of pyruvate kinase and D-lactate dehydrogenase are strongly correlated in summer, forming a "constant-proportion-group", whereas in winter, with D-lactate dehydrogenase activity increasing and pyruvate kinase activity decreasing these two enzymes become "uncoupled". The Km value of pyruvate kinase is independent of experimental temperature between 10 and 25 degrees C, whereas that of D-lactate dehydrogenase and arginine kinase increases about three-fold within this range. Thus the temperature relationship of a single enzymic reaction cannot be used as an arguemnt for or against the occurrence of temperature compensation of whole animal metabolism. The possibility of modulation of enzyme activity by environmental temperature is discussed. PMID:35457

  5. Induction of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hypoxically Induced Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Good, Allen G.; Crosby, William L.

    1989-01-01

    In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are induced by anaerobiosis in both aleurone layers and roots. Under aerobic conditions, developing seeds of cv Himalaya accumulate ADH activity, which survives seed drying and rehydration. This activity consists almost entirely of the ADH1 homodimer. Activity of LDH also increases during seed development, but the level of activity in dry or rehydrated seeds is very low, indicating that this enzyme may not be involved in anaerobic glycolysis during the initial stages of germination. In contrast to ADH, the LDH isozymes present in developing seeds are similar to those found in uninduced and induced roots. Developmental expression of ADH and LDH was monitored from 0 to 24 days postgermination. Neither activity was induced to any extent in the germinating seeds; however, both enzymes were highly induced by anoxia in root tissue during development. Based on gel electrophoresis, this increase in activity results from the differential expression of different Adh and Ldh genes in root tissue. The changes in ADH and LDH activity levels were matched by changes in the amount of these particular proteins, indicating that the increase in activity results from de novo synthesis of these two proteins. The level of inducible LDH activity in an ADH1? mutant was not found to differ from cv Himalaya. We suggest that although the ADH? plants are more susceptible to flooding, they are not capable of responding to the lack of ADH1 activity by increasing the amount of LDH activity in root tissue. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16666889

  6. Direct evidence of catalytic heterogeneity in lactate dehydrogenase by temperature jump infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reddish, Michael J; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-09-18

    Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm(-1), respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

  7. Ligand Binding and Protein Dynamics in Lactate Dehydrogenase J. R. Exequiel T. Pineda,* Robert Callender,y

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    Ligand Binding and Protein Dynamics in Lactate Dehydrogenase J. R. Exequiel T. Pineda,* Robert dehydrogenase (LDH) binds its substrate via the formation of a LDH/NADHÁsubstrate encounter complex through an enzyme binds its substrate at the earliest stages of binding. We specifically ex- amine the lactate

  8. Structural studies of malate dehydrogenases (MDHs): MDHs in Brevundimonas species are the first reported MDHs in Proteobacteria which resemble lactate dehydrogenases in primary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Charnock, C

    1997-01-01

    The N-terminal sequences of malate dehydrogenases from 10 bacterial strains, representing seven genera of Proteobacteria, were determined. Of these, the enzyme sequences of species classified in the genus Brevundimonas clearly resembled those malate dehydrogenases with greatest similarity to lactate dehydrogenases. Additional evidence from subunit molecular weights, peptide mapping, and enzyme mobilities suggested that malate dehydrogenases from species of the genus Brevundimonas were structurally distinct from others in the study. PMID:9190829

  9. L-lactate dehydrogenase from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. : I. Identification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Betsche, T; Bosbach, K; Gerhardt, B

    1979-10-01

    By ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration an enzyme preparation which catalyzed NAD(+)-dependent L-lactate oxidation (10(-4) kat kg(-1) protein), as well as NADH-dependent pyruvate reduction (10(-3) kat kg(-1) protein), was obtained from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris. This lactate dehydrogenase activity was not due to an unspecific activity of either glycolate oxidase, glycolate dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, or a malate oxidizing enzyme. These enzymes could be separated from the protein displaying lactate dehydrogenase activity by gel filtration and electrophoresis and distinguished from it by their known properties. The enzyme under consideration does not oxidize D-lactate, and reduces pyruvate to L-lactate (the configuration of which was determined using highly specific animal L-lactate dehydrogenase). Based on these results the studied Capsella leaf enzyme is classified as L-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). It has a Km value of 0.25 mmol l(-1) (pH 7.0, 0.3 mmol l(-1) NADH) for pyruvate and of 13 mmol l(-1) (pH 7.8, 3 mmol l(-1) NAD(+)) for L-lactate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also detected in the leaves of several other plants. PMID:24318328

  10. Free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: A network analysis of atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoliang; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the structure of a protein is a hierarchy of conformations interconverting on multiple time scales. However, the conformational heterogeneity is rarely considered in the context of enzymatic catalysis in which the reactant is usually represented by a single conformation of the enzyme/substrate complex. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of two forms of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+). Recent experimental results suggest that multiple substates exist within the Michaelis complex of LDH, and they are catalytic competent at different reaction rates. In this study, millisecond-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed on LDH to explore the free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex, and network analysis was used to characterize the distribution of the conformations. Our results provide a detailed view of the kinetic network the Michaelis complex and the structures of the substates at atomistic scale. It also shed some light on understanding the complete picture of the catalytic mechanism of LDH.

  11. Isoenzymes of hexokinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and lactate dehydrogenase in uterine cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M. J.; Neal, F. E.; Goldberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Electrophoresis of cytosol prepared from normal and malignant tissue samples of uterine cervix and endometrium revealed interesting differences which may be relevant to the characteristic alterations in glucose metabolism associated with tumour development. Hexokinase II was detected in 30% of the cancer material from both sources, but in none of the samples of normal cervix. A duplet band of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrognease was seen in the majority of the cancer samples but in no sample of normal cervix; it appeared to be partly due to ageing of the sample, and is not phenotypically related to the malignant process. Analysis of genetic variance for phosphoglucomutase at the PGM1 locus revealed a highly significant excess of the PGM1-1 phenotype in patients with cancer of the endometrium, which may reflect susceptibility to endometrial cancer in patients with this phenotype. At the PGM2 locus, samples of malignant cervix were deficient in "Band f" compared with normal cervix samples, all of which showed this band. Conversely, gene products of the PGM3 locus were found in most samples of malignant cervix and a small minority of normal cervix samples. Compared with the isomorphic distribution of lactate dehydrogenase enzymes in normal uterine tissue, cancers showed a shift towards either a more anodal or a more cathodal pattern. The former may be associated with tumours enjoying a good oxygen supply, and the latter with tumours which, because of their depth or poor blood supply have to function under less aerobic conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:508567

  12. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  13. Nasopharyngeal Lactate Dehydrogenase Concentrations Predict Bronchiolitis Severity in a Prospective Multicenter Emergency Department Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Laham, Federico R.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    We re-examined the finding of an inverse relationship between values of nasopharyngeal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of the innate immune response, and bronchiolitis severity. In a prospective, multicenter study of 258 children we found in a mutlivariable model that higher nasopharyngeal LDH values in young children with bronchiolitis were independently associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization. PMID:22517336

  14. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  15. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  16. Modification of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase with methyl methanethiosulphonate to produce an enzyme with altered catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bloxham, D P; Wilton, D C

    1977-01-01

    Methyl methanethiosulphonate was used to produce a modification of the essential thiol group in lactate dehydrogenase which leaves the enzyme catalytically active. Methyl methanethiosulphonate produced a progressive inhibition of enzyme activity, with 2mM-pyruvate and 0.14mM-NADH as substrates, which ceased once the enzyme had lost 70-90% of its activity. In contrast, with 10mM-lactate and 0.4mM-NAD+ as substrates the enzyme was virtually completely inhibited. The observed inhibition was critically dependent on the chosen substrate concentration, since methanethiolation with methyl methanethiosulphonate resulted in a large decrease in affinity for pyruvate. At 0.14mM-NADH, methanethiolation increased the apparent KmPyr from from 40micronM for the control enzyme to 12mM for the modified enzyme. Steady-state kinetics showed that there was not a statistically significant change in either KmNADH or KsNADH. At saturating NADH and pyruvate concentrations, the Vmax. was virtually unaffected for the methanethiolated enzyme. However, a decrease in Vmax. was observed when the modified enzyme was incubated in dilute solution. The modification of lactate dehydrogenase by methyl methanethiosulphonate involved the active site, since inhibition was completely prevented by substrate-analogue pairs such as NADH and oxamate or NAD+ and oxalate. The formation of complexes between methanethiolated lactate dehydrogenase and substrates or substrate analogues can also be shown by re-activation experiments. The methanethiolated enzyme was re-activated in a time-dependent reaction by dithiothreitol and this was prevented by oxamate, by NADH and by NADH plus oxamate in increasing order of effectiveness. The results of this work are interpreted in terms of a role for the essential thiol group in the binding of substrates. PMID:15552

  17. Glucose metabolism and regulation of glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis strains with decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Garrigues, C; Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Cocaign-Bousquet, M; Renault, P; Lindley, N D; Loubiere, P

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of carbon flux at the pyruvate node was investigated in Lactococcus lactis under anaerobic conditions with mutant strains having decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Strains previously selected by random mutagenesis by H. Boumerdassi, C. Monnet, M. Desmazeaud, and G. Corrieu (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 2293-2299, 1997) were found to have single punctual mutations in the ldh gene and presented a high degree of instability. The strain L. lactis JIM 5711 in which lactate dehydrogenase activity was diminished to less than 30% of the wild type maintained homolactic metabolism. This was due to an increase in the intracellular pyruvate concentration, which ensures the maintained flux through the lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate metabolism was linked to the flux limitation at the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as previously postulated for the parent strain (C. Garrigues, P. Loubière, N. D. Lindley, and M. Cocaign-Bousquet (1997) J. Bacteriol. 179, 5282-5287, 1997). However, a strain (L. lactis JIM 5954) in which the ldh gene was interrupted reoriented pyruvate metabolism toward mixed metabolism (production of formate, acetate, and ethanol), though the glycolytic flux was not strongly diminished. Only limited production of acetoin occurred despite significant overflow of pyruvate. Intracellular metabolite profiles indicated that the in vivo glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was no longer flux limiting in the Deltaldh strain. The shift toward mixed acid fermentation was correlated with the lower intracellular trioses phosphate concentration and diminished allosteric inhibition of pyruvate formate lyase. PMID:11461143

  18. Lactate Dehydrogenase A Expression Is Necessary to Sustain Rapid Angiogenesis of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Bonilla, Glenda; Alvarez, Diego F.; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Vasauskas, Audrey; Stevens, Troy

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a fundamental property of endothelium, yet not all endothelial cells display equivalent angiogenic responses; pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells undergo rapid angiogenesis when compared to endothelial cells isolated from conduit vessels. At present it is not clear how pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells fulfill the bioenergetic demands that are necessary to sustain such rapid blood vessel formation. We have previously established that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells utilize aerobic glycolysis to generate ATP during growth, a process that requires the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A to convert pyruvate to lactate. Here, we test the hypothesis that lactate dehydrogenase A is required for pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells to sustain rapid angiogenesis. To test this hypothesis, Tet-On and Tet-Off conditional expression systems were developed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, where doxycycline is utilized to induce lactate dehydrogenase A shRNA expression. Expression of LDH-A shRNA induced a time-dependent decrease in LDH-A protein, which corresponded with a decrease in glucose consumption from the media, lactate production and cell growth; re-expression of LDH-A rescued each of these parameters. LDH-A silencing greatly reduced network formation on Matrigel in vitro, and decreased blood vessel formation in Matrigel in vivo. These findings demonstrate that LDH-A is critically important for sustaining the rapid angiogenesis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:24086675

  19. Inhibition of stress mediated cell death by human lactate dehydrogenase B in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Sara; Jones, Natalie K; Eid, Rawan; Gharib, Nada; Arab, Nagla T T; Titorenko, Vladimir; Vali, Hojatollah; Young, Paul A; Greenwood, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    We report the identification of human L- lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) as a novel Bax suppressor. Yeast heterologously expressing LDHB is also resistant to the lethal effects of copper indicating that it is a general suppressor of stress mediated cell death. To identify potential LDHB targets, LDHB was expressed in yeast mutants defective in apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. The absence of functional PCD regulators including MCA1, YBH3, cyclophilin (CPR3) and VMA3, as well as the absence of the pro-survival autophagic pathway (ATG1,7) did not interfere with the LDHB mediated protection against copper indicating that LDHB functions independently of known PCD regulators or by simply blocking or stimulating a common PCD promoting or inhibitory pathway. Measurements of lactate levels revealed that short-term copper stress (1.6 mM, 4 h), does not increase intracellular levels of lactate, instead a three-fold increase in extracellular lactate was observed. Thus, yeast cells resemble mammalian cells where different stresses are known to lead to increased lactate production leading to lactic acidosis. In agreement with this, we found that the addition of exogenous lactic acid to growth media was sufficient to induce cell death that could be inhibited by the expression of LDHB. Taken together our results suggest that lactate dehydrogenase is a general suppressor of PCD in yeast. PMID:26032856

  20. Hypoxically inducible barley lactate dehydrogenase: cDNA cloning and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA)); Hanson, A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA) Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    In the roots of barley and other cereals, hypoxia induces a set of five isozymes of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; (S)-lactate:NADH oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). Biochemical and genetic data indicate that the five LDH isozymes are tetramers that arise from random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library derived from hypoxically treated barley roots. The library was screened with antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approx}3,000-fold by an improved three-step procedure. Immunopositive clones were rescreened with a cDNA probe synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction using primers modeled from the amino acid sequences of two tryptic LDH peptides. Two types of LDH clones were found. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one representative insert of each type (respectively, 1,305 and 1,166 base pairs) revealed open reading framed encoding 10 peptide fragments of LDH. The 1,305-base-pair insert included the entire coding region of a 356-residue LDH monomer. The nucleotide sequences of the two LDH cDNAs were 92% identical in the coding region, but highly divergent in the 3{prime} noncoding region, and thus probably correspond to the two postulated Ldh loci. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs were 96% identical to each other and very similar to those from vertebrate and bacterial LDHs. RNA blot hybridization showed a single mRNA band of 1.5 kilobases whose level rose about 8-fold in roots during hypoxic induction, as did the level of translatable LDH message.

  1. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating 

    E-print Network

    Collins, Sharen Sue

    1987-01-01

    LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

  3. Search for Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Nilov, D. K.; Prokhorova, E. A.; Švedas, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    The human lactate dehydrogenase isoform A plays an important role in the anaerobic metabolism of tumour cells and therefore constitutes an attractive target in the oncology field. Full-atom models of lactate dehydrogenase A (in complex with NADH and in the apo form) have been generated to enable structure-based design of novel inhibitors competing with pyruvate and NADH. The structural criteria for the selection of potential inhibitors were established, and virtual screening of a library of low-molecular-weight compounds was performed. A potential inhibitor, STK381370, was identified whose docking pose was stabilized through additional interactions with the loop 96-111 providing for the transition from the open to the closed conformation.

  4. p -Chloromercuribenzoate-Induced Inactivation and Partial Unfolding of Porcine Heart Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-B. Zheng; B.-Y. Chen; X.-C. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Purified porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase was inactivated and partially unfolded with p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB). With the increase of pCMB\\/enzyme ratio the enzyme was gradually inhibited till almost completely inactivated at the pCMB\\/enzyme ratio of 20 : 1. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that with the increase of pCMB\\/enzyme ratio the bands of native enzyme decreased till completely vanished. Meanwhile inactive multiple

  5. Cloning and characterization of the lactate dehydrogenase genes from Lactobacillus sp. RKY2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ha Lee; Mi-Hwa Choi; Ji-Young Park; Hee-Kyoung Kang; Hwa-Won Ryu; Chang-Sin Sunwo; Young-Jung Wee; Ki-Deok Park; Do-Won Kim; Doman Kim

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid is an environmentally benign organic acid that could be used as a raw material for biodegradable plastics if it\\u000a can be inexpensively produced by fermentation. Two genes (IdhL andIdhD) encoding the L-(+) and D-(?) lactate dehydrogenases (L-LDH and D-LDH) were cloned fromLactobacillus sp., RKY2, which is a lactic acid hyper-producing bacterium isolated from Kimchi. Open reading frames ofIdhL

  6. Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. M ARTINEZ; L. J. C HAPMAN; J. M. G RADY; B. B. R EES

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri from Rwembaita Swamp (low-oxygen) and Njuguta River (high-oxygen) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda differed in traits related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential. Haematocrit was measured as an index of blood oxygen-carrying capacity, and tissue activities and isozyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as indices of tissue anaerobic

  7. Cryoprotection mechanisms of polyethylene glycols on lactate dehydrogenase during freeze-thawing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanli Mi; George Wood; Laura Thoma

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cryoprotection mechanisms of high molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs)\\u000a (eg, PEG 4000 and PEG 8000) on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Ultraviolet activity assays, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy,\\u000a gel filtration, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),14C-PEG 4000 labeling and binding, and cryostage microscopic study were conducted. Different molecular weights and concentrations\\u000a of

  8. Ethanol production by anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: regulation of lactate dehydrogenase activity in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Germain; Fatiou Toukourou; Luiz Donaduzzi

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum is controlled by the type and the concentration of the substrate. In batch fermentations an increase of the initial concentration of glucose leads to an increase in the activity of LDH. This increase in activity is related to the accumulation of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (F 1,6-DP), an intermediate of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway,

  9. Structural basis for discriminatory recognition of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase by a DNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yee-Wai; Kwok, Jane; Law, Alan W L; Watt, Rory M; Kotaka, Masayo; Tanner, Julian A

    2013-10-01

    DNA aptamers have significant potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, but the paucity of DNA aptamer-target structures limits understanding of their molecular binding mechanisms. Here, we report a distorted hairpin structure of a DNA aptamer in complex with an important diagnostic target for malaria: Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). Aptamers selected from a DNA library were highly specific and discriminatory for Plasmodium as opposed to human lactate dehydrogenase because of a counterselection strategy used during selection. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed aptamer binding to PfLDH with a dissociation constant of 42 nM and 2:1 protein:aptamer molar stoichiometry. Dissociation constants derived from electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments were consistent. The aptamer:protein complex crystal structure was solved at 2.1-Å resolution, revealing two aptamers bind per PfLDH tetramer. The aptamers showed a unique distorted hairpin structure in complex with PfLDH, displaying a Watson-Crick base-paired stem together with two distinct loops each with one base flipped out by specific interactions with PfLDH. Aptamer binding specificity is dictated by extensive interactions of one of the aptamer loops with a PfLDH loop that is absent in human lactate dehydrogenase. We conjugated the aptamer to gold nanoparticles and demonstrated specificity of colorimetric detection of PfLDH over human lactate dehydrogenase. This unique distorted hairpin aptamer complex provides a perspective on aptamer-mediated molecular recognition and may guide rational design of better aptamers for malaria diagnostics. PMID:24043813

  10. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S F; Baek, S J; Pack, M Y

    1991-01-01

    An allosteric L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. The gene was composed of an open reading frame of 981 bp, starting with a GTG codon and ending with a TAA codon. The sequences for the promoter and ribosome binding site were identified, and a sequence for a structure resembling a rho-independent transcription terminator was also found. Images PMID:1768113

  11. The determination of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in normal human muscle and other tissues

    PubMed Central

    Emery, A. E. H.

    1967-01-01

    1. A technique has been developed, based on preferential inhibition by urea, for determining the amounts and proportions of the M and H sub-units of lactate dehydrogenase (referred to as LDH-M and LDH-H respectively) in human tissues, including muscle. 2. There was good agreement between the results obtained with urea inhibition and those obtained with starch-gel electrophoresis. 3. With increasing age there was a significant decrease in the total amount of lactate dehydrogenase and the amount of LDH-M in skeletal muscle. This could not be accounted for by the replacement of functioning muscle tissue by fibrous connective tissue. 4. The proportion of LDH-M was less in certain muscles (e.g. soleus and extra-ocular) than in other muscles (e.g. gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis). 5. The proportions of LDH-M and LDH-H did not differ significantly in different superficial limb muscles and were not significantly affected by either age or sex. 6. Specimens of muscle from 86 different individuals (all Europeans) have been subjected to electrophoresis, but no variants of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes have been found. PMID:5584002

  12. Re-evaluation of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme system. Evidence against the direct transfer of NADH between active sites.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P; Storey, K B

    1991-09-15

    An investigation of the direct transfer of metabolites from rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) to glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH, EC 1.1.1.8) revealed discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental results. Measurements of the GPDH reaction rate at a fixed NADH concentration and in the presence of increasing LDH concentrations gave experimental results similar to those previously obtained by Srivastava, Smolen, Betts, Fukushima, Spivey & Bernhard [(1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6464-6468]. However, a mathematical solution of the direct-transfer-mechanism equations as described by Srivastava et al. (1989) showed that the direct-transfer model did not adequately describe the experimental behaviour of the reaction rate at increasing LDH concentrations. In addition, experiments designed to measure the formation of an LDH4.NADH.GPDH2 complex, predicted by the direct-transfer model, indicated that no significant formation of tertiary complex occurred. An examination of other kinetic models, developed to describe the LDH/GPDH/NADH system better, revealed that the experimental results may be best explained by assuming that free NADH, and not E1.NADH, is the sole substrate for GPDH. These results suggest that direct transfer of NADH between rabbit muscle LDH and GPDH does not occur in vitro. PMID:1898374

  13. Production of optically pure l-phenyllactic acid by using engineered Escherichia coli coexpressing l-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhao, Mingyue; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-08-10

    l-Phenyllactic acid (l-PLA) is a novel antiseptic agent with broad and effective antimicrobial activity. In addition, l-PLA has been used for synthesis of poly(phenyllactic acid)s, which exhibits better mechanical properties than poly(lactic acid)s. However, the concentration and optical purity of l-PLA produced by native microbes was rather low. An NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH) from Bacillus coagulans NL01 was confirmed to have a good ability to produce l-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). In the present study, l-nLDH gene and formate dehydrogenase gene were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli. Through two coupled reactions, 79.6mM l-PLA was produced from 82.8mM PPA in 40min and the enantiomeric excess value of l-PLA was high (>99%). Therefore, this process suggested a promising alternative for the production of chiral l-PLA. PMID:26008622

  14. Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.

    2000-09-12

    It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

  15. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  16. A lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase\\/nictotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form) immobilized on a conducting polymer\\/multiwall carbon nanotube composite film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; Muhammad J. A. Shiddiky; Yoon-Bo Shim

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric lactate biosensor was developed based on a conducting polymer, poly-5,2?-5?,2??-terthiophene-3?-carboxylic acid (pTTCA), and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite on a gold electrode. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) were subsequently immobilized onto the pTTCA\\/MWNT composite film. The modified electrode was characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical

  17. Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones of anaerobically induced lactate dehydrogenase from barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D.; Hanson, A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    In barley roots during hypoxia, five lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes accumulate with a concomitant increase in enzyme activity ({approximately}20-fold). These isozymes are thought to be tetramers resulting from the random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH have been isolated from a {lambda}gt11 library using antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approximately}3,000-fold and using nucleic acid probes synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction. Two cDNA clones were obtained (1,305 and 1,166 bp). The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs are 96% identical to each other, and 50% and 40% identical to vertebrate and bacterial LDHs, respectively. Northern blots identified a single mRNA band ({approximately}1.5 kb) whose level rose 8-fold during hypoxia.

  18. Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

  19. Catalytic properties of three L-lactate dehydrogenases from saffron corms (Crocus sativus L).

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Ezzatollah; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2002-01-01

    Three L-lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were detected in saffron corms, using potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor. Their pH optima were 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. All three dehydrogenases were substrate-inhibited by ferricyanide, but at different concentrations; maximum enzymatic activity was observed for 250, 100 and 600 microM ferricyanide, at pH 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. Catalytic efficiency, calculated per mg corm extract protein, was 1.9, 1.0 and 0.4 min(-1), respectively at pH 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5. Pseudo first order rate constant was also different under the three pH conditions. Malate was an inhibitor for the isoenzyme active at pH 9.5, but had no effect on the others. PMID:12241049

  20. Antibody-independent thrombocytopenia in lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Dan; Musaji, Andrei; Legrain, Sarah; Detalle, Laurent; van der Kaa, Jos; Verbeek, J Sjef; Ryffel, Bernhard; Coutelier, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    Previously we demonstrated that antibody-mediated thrombocytopenia is strongly enhanced by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) infection. Here we report that mice infected with LDV develop a moderate thrombocytopenia, even in the absence of immunoglobulins or Fc receptors. A similar decrease of platelet counts was observed after mouse hepatitis virus infection. LDV-induced type I interferon-independent thrombocytopenia was partly suppressed by treatment with clodronate-containing liposomes. Therefore, we conclude that the thrombocytopenia results from increased phagocytosis of nonopsonized platelets by macrophages. PMID:22933286

  1. Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) Rescues Mouse Ldhc-Null Sperm Function1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huanghui; Duan, Chongwen; Bleher, Reiner; Goldberg, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT By targeted disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene, we demonstrated that spermatozoa require Ldhc for capacitation, motility, and fertilizing capacity. Ldhc expression is restricted to the developing germ cells that, however, are apparently not compromised by the lack of the LDHC isozyme. Because LDHC is abundant in spermatozoa that utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy requirements, its main function was presumed to be the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate with the concomitant oxidation/reduction of NADH to NAD+. We found that sperm without LDHC were still able to convert lactate to pyruvate as mediated by LDHA that is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. It was assumed that the level of glycolysis was insufficient to power motility and the subsequent fertilizing capacity of the mutated sperm. To investigate whether LDHC possesses certain unique characteristics essential for fertility, human LDHA was introduced as a transgene to Ldhc-null mice. We report here that the exogenous LDHA rescued the phenotype of the Ldhc-null males. Sperm from the LDHA transgenic males with the Ldhc deletion (LDHA+/Ldhc?/?) are motile, capable of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and able to fertilize, thus restoring these properties to LDHC-null sperm. However, the lactate and ATP levels in the rescued sperm did not differ significantly from sperm lacking LDHC. We suggest that it is the localization of the transgene to the sperm cytosol that is mainly responsible for restoration of sperm function and fertility. PMID:23467744

  2. Diagnosing melanoma patients entering American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV, C-reactive protein in serum is superior to lactate dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Deichmann; B Kahle; K Moser; J Wacker; K Wüst

    2004-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum has recently been introduced into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for cutaneous melanoma because of its prognostic value. We hypothesised LDH to be of value in discriminating melanoma patients entering AJCC stage IV from patients staying in AJCC stages I, II or III. Lactate dehydrogenase was compared to the acute phase

  3. Crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Gu, Sol-A; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-07-01

    The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Ljd-LDH) is a key enzyme in the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of d-lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The crystal structures of Ljd-LDH and in complex with NAD(+) were determined at 2.13 and 2.60? resolutions, respectively. The Ljd-LDH monomer consists of the N-terminal substrate-binding domain and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain. The Ljd-LDH forms a homodimeric structure, and the C-terminal NAD-binding domain mostly enables the dimerization of the enzyme. The NAD cofactor is bound to the GxGxxG NAD-binding motif located between the two domains. Structural comparisons of Ljd-LDH with other d-LDHs reveal that Ljd-LDH has unique amino acid residues at the linker region, which indicates that the open-close dynamics of Ljd-LDH might be different from that of other d-LDHs. Moreover, thermostability experiments showed that the T50(10) value of Ljd-LDH (54.5°C) was much higher than the commercially available d-lactate dehydrogenase (42.7°C). In addition, Ljd-LDH has at least a 7°C higher denaturation temperature compared to commercially available d-LDHs. PMID:24794195

  4. Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.

    1988-12-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

  5. Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

  6. The crystal structure of d-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Dym, Orly; Pratt, Elizabeth Ann; Ho, Chien; Eisenberg, David

    2000-01-01

    d-Lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH) of Escherichia coli is a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme involved in electron transfer, located on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane. d-LDH catalyzes the oxidation of d-lactate to pyruvate, which is coupled to transmembrane transport of amino acids and sugars. Here we describe the crystal structure at 1.9 ? resolution of the three domains of d-LDH: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain, the cap domain, and the membrane-binding domain. The FAD-binding domain contains the site of d-lactate reduction by a noncovalently bound FAD cofactor and has an overall fold similar to other members of a recently discovered FAD-containing family of proteins. This structural similarity extends to the cap domain as well. The most prominent difference between d-LDH and the other members of the FAD-containing family is the membrane-binding domain, which is either absent in some of these proteins or differs significantly. The d-LDH membrane-binding domain presents an electropositive surface with six Arg and five Lys residues, which presumably interacts with the negatively charged phospholipid head groups of the membrane. Thus, d-LDH appears to bind the membrane through electrostatic rather than hydrophobic forces. PMID:10944213

  7. THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

    Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

  8. Quinoline 3-sulfonamides inhibit lactate dehydrogenase A and reverse aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most normal cells in the presence of oxygen utilize glucose for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, many cancer cells rapidly convert glucose to lactate in the cytosol, a process termed aerobic glycolysis. This glycolytic phenotype is enabled by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potent and selective inhibitors of LDHA. Methods High throughput screening and lead optimization were used to generate inhibitors of LDHA enzymatic activity. Effects of these inhibitors on metabolism were evaluated using cell-based lactate production, oxygen consumption, and 13C NMR spectroscopy assays. Changes in comprehensive metabolic profile, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed upon compound treatment. Results 3-((3-carbamoyl-7-(3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)-6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl) amino) benzoic acid was identified as an NADH-competitive LDHA inhibitor. Lead optimization yielded molecules with LDHA inhibitory potencies as low as 2 nM and 10 to 80-fold selectivity over LDHB. Molecules in this family rapidly and profoundly inhibited lactate production rates in multiple cancer cell lines including hepatocellular and breast carcinomas. Consistent with selective inhibition of LDHA, the most sensitive breast cancer cell lines to lactate inhibition in hypoxic conditions were cells with low expression of LDHB. Our inhibitors increased rates of oxygen consumption in hepatocellular carcinoma cells at doses up to 3 microM, while higher concentrations directly inhibited mitochondrial function. Analysis of more than 500 metabolites upon LDHA inhibition in Snu398 cells revealed that intracellular concentrations of glycolysis and citric acid cycle intermediates were increased, consistent with enhanced Krebs cycle activity and blockage of cytosolic glycolysis. Treatment with these compounds also potentiated PKM2 activity and promoted apoptosis in Snu398 cells. Conclusions Rapid chemical inhibition of LDHA by these quinoline 3-sulfonamids led to profound metabolic alterations and impaired cell survival in carcinoma cells making it a compelling strategy for treating solid tumors that rely on aerobic glycolysis for survival. PMID:24280423

  9. Phenylpropanoids and flavonoids from Phlomis kurdica as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bader, Ammar; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Granchi, Carlotta; Martinelli, Adriano; Macchia, Marco; Minutolo, Filippo; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    Two flavonoids, jaceosidin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside (1) and hispidulin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), and one phenylpropanoid, 3,3'-dimethyl-lunariifolioside (3), along with 11 known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the aerial parts of Phlomis kurdica growing in Jordan. Structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. These isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activity against isoform 5 of human lactate dehydrogenase. Compound 4, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, showed an IC50 value comparable to that of galloflavin, used as reference compound. Docking studies were carried out to hypothesize the interaction mode of compound 4 in the enzyme active site. PMID:25890391

  10. Lactate Dehydrogenase B Is Associated with the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyi; Zhang, Xiaomin; Ding, Xu; Li, Huaiqi; Geng, Meiyu; Xie, Zuoquan; Wu, Heming; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) comprises a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with poor therapeutic outcomes and high glycolytic dependency. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) are currently accepted as standard regimens for HNSCC patients with a high risk of distant metastatic spread. However, the antitumor outcomes of TPF neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HNSCC remain controversial. This study investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), a key glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the inter-conversion between pyruvate and lactate, in determining chemotherapy response and prognosis in OSCC patients. We discovered that a high protein level of LDHB in OSCC patients was associated with a poor response to TPF regimen chemotherapy as well as poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Our in-depth study revealed that high LDHB expression conferred resistance to taxol but not 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin. LDHB deletion sensitized OSCC cell lines to taxol, whereas the introduction of LDHB decreased sensitivity to taxol treatment. Taxol induced a pronounced impact on LDHB-down-regulated OSCC cells in terms of apoptosis, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and energy metabolism. In conclusion, our study highlighted the critical role of LDHB in OSCC and proposed that LDHB could be used as a biomarker for the stratification of patients for TPF neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the determination of prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:25973606

  11. Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E.; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1?Å in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

  12. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-08-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC/sub 4/, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD/sup +/ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC/sub 4/ is as different from rodent LDHC/sub 4/ (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA/sub 4/ (76% homology) and porcine LDHB/sub 4/ (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC/sub 4/ sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  13. Development of an enzymatic chromatography strip with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium coupling reactions for quantitative l-lactate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lan, Min-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lai, Wei-Shiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsiung, Kuang-Pin; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2015-02-15

    In this study, a dry assay of l-lactate via the enzymatic chromatographic test (ECT) was developed. An l-lactate dehydrogenase plus a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration reaction were applied simultaneously. Various tetrazolium salts were screened to reveal visible color intensities capable of determining the lactate concentrations in the sample. The optimal analysis conditions were as follows. The diaphorase (0.5 ?l, 2(-6)U/?l) was immobilized in the test line of the ECT strip. Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (5 ?l, 12 mM), l-lactate dehydrogenase (1 ?l, 0.25U/?l), and NAD(+) (2?l, 1.5×10(-5)M) were added into the mobile phase (100 ?l) composed of 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20 in 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), and the process was left to run for 10 min. This detection had a linear range of 0.039 to 5mM with a detection limit of 0.047 mM. This quantitative analysis process for l-lactate was easy to operate with good stability and was proper for the point-of-care testing applications. PMID:25454507

  14. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  15. Purification and determination of the binding site of lactate dehydrogenase from chicken breast muscle on immobilized ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G; Andersson, L; Porath, J

    1992-12-25

    Lactate dehydrogenase from chicken breast muscle was purified to homogeneity in one step by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was used to localize the binding site to immobilized Fe(III) ions. After cyanogen bromide degradation and digestion with trypsin, small enzyme fragments capable of binding to immobilized Fe(III) ions were obtained. It is proposed that several histidyl groups are involved in the binding. PMID:1487526

  16. Characteristic Changes in Platelet-Large Cell Ratio, Lactate Dehydrogenase and C-Reactive Protein in Thrombocytosis-Related Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Kabutomori; Yuzuru Kanakura; Yoshinori Iwatani

    2007-01-01

    We examined the clinical usefulness of 3 parameters of routine laboratory tests [platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] in 84 patients with thrombocytosis-related diseases (reactive thrombocytosis, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera). These thrombocytosis-related diseases were characterized using the 3 parameters P-LCR, LDH and CRP as follows: high P-LCR and high LDH in

  17. The rodent malaria lactate dehydrogenase assay provides a high throughput solution for in vivo vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hitoshi; Yokouchi, Yuki; Iyoku, Natsumi; Tachibana, Mayumi; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Torii, Motomi

    2015-08-01

    Rodent malaria is a useful model for evaluating the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates; however, labor-intensive microscopic parasite counting hampers the use of an in vivo parasite challenge in high-throughput screening. The measurement of malaria parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) activity, which is commonly used in the in vitro growth inhibition assay of Plasmodium falciparum, may be the cheapest and simplest alternative to microscopic parasite counting. However, the pLDH assay has not been applied in the in vivo rodent malaria model. Here, we showed that the pLDH assay is reliable and accurately determines parasitemia in the rodent malaria model. pLDH activity measured using a chromogenic substrate reflects the parasite number in the blood; it allows fast and easy assessment using a conventional microplate reader. To validate this approach, we synthesized recombinant PyMSP1-19 protein (rPyMSP1-19) using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system and immunized mice with rPyMSP1-19. The antisera showed specific reactivity on the surface of the Plasmodium yoelii merozoite and immunized mice were protected against a lethal P. yoelii 17 XL challenge. The pLDH assay quickly and easily demonstrated a significant reduction of the parasite numbers in the immunized mice. Accordingly, the pLDH assay proved to be an efficient alternative to rodent malaria parasite counting, and may therefore accelerate in vivo vaccine candidate screening. PMID:25701649

  18. Stable high surface area lactate dehydrogenase particles produced by spray freezing into liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Josh D; Simpson, Dale T; Cloonan, Carrie; Lai, Edwina S; Williams, Robert O; Barrie Kitto, G; Johnston, Keith P

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme activities were determined for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) powder produced by lyophilization, and two fast freezing processes, spray freeze-drying (SFD) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) nitrogen. The 0.25 mg/mL LDH aqueous feed solutions included either 30 or 100 mg/mL trehalose. The SFL process produced powders with very high enzyme activities upon reconstitution, similar to lyophilization. However, the specific surface area of 13 m(2)/g for SFL was an order of magnitude larger than for lyophilization. In SFD activities were reduced in the spraying step by the long exposure to the gas-liquid interface for 0.1-1s, versus only 2 ms in SFL. The ability to produce stable high surface area submicron particles of fragile proteins such as LDH by SFL is of practical interest in protein storage and in various applications in controlled release including encapsulation into bioerodible polymers. The SFL process has been scaled down for solution volumes <1 mL to facilitate studies of therapeutic proteins. PMID:17027245

  19. Gene Expression Variation in Duplicate Lactate dehydrogenase Genes: Do Ecological Species Show Distinct Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Melania E.; Demiri, Bora; Altshuler, Ianina; Crease, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been shown to play an important role in adaptation of several aquatic species to different habitats. The genomes of Daphnia pulex, a pond species, and Daphnia pulicaria, a lake inhabitant, encode two L-LDH enzymes, LDHA and LDHB. We estimated relative levels of Ldh gene expression in these two closely related species and their hybrids in four environmental settings, each characterized by one of two temperatures (10°C or 20°C), and one of two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 6.5–7 mg/l or 2–3 mg/l). We found that levels of LdhA expression were 4 to 48 times higher than LdhB expression (p<0.005) in all three groups (the two parental species and hybrids). Moreover, levels of LdhB expression differed significantly (p<0.05) between D. pulex and D. pulicaria, but neither species differed from the hybrid. Consistently higher expression of LdhA relative to LdhB in both species and the hybrid suggests that the two isozymes could be performing different functions. No significant differences in levels of gene expression were observed among the four combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (p>0.1). Given that Daphnia dwell in environments characterized by fluctuating conditions with long periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration, we suggest that these species could employ regulated metabolic depression to survive in such environments. PMID:25080082

  20. SYNAPTOSOMAL LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYME COMPOSITION IS SHIFTED TOWARD AEROBIC FORMS IN PRIMATE BRAIN EVOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Tetyana; Anderson, Sarah M.; Collins, Zachary; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2014-01-01

    With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e., tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoforms, LDHB, among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e., lorises and lemurs), while in total homogenate of neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in the LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, displaying an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in LDH-B to LDH-A ratio was correlated with species typical brain mass, but not encephalization quotient. A significant LDHB increase in the sub-neuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement. PMID:24686273

  1. An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

  2. Quick histochemical staining method for measuring lactate dehydrogenase C4 activity in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhaolei; Chen, Liangyuan; Liu, Yaohua; Zeng, Zhangxin; Lan, Fenghua

    2015-04-01

    The enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4, due to tetrameric nature of C-subunit) has been proposed as an important parameter in evaluating sperm motility and semen quality. A novel histochemical staining method for detecting LDH-C4 activity in human spermatozoa is described in this report. The staining working solution comprises sodium 2-hydroxybutyrate (an affinity substrate of LDH-C4), nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and naphthol blue. The positive products were purple black lumps concentrated in the neck segment of the spermatozoa and weakly in the middle piece. A normal reference range for the integral enzyme activity was constructed from 120 healthy males based upon the scoring criteria. The study further compared the staining method with the routine spectrophotometry technique in terms of the results of 96 cases with infertile status. Moreover, we found the down-regulated LDH-C4 expression was significantly correlated with the lowered enzyme activity (r=0.865, P=0.000). Our data suggest that the histochemical staining method hallmarks a relatively high accuracy and may be a better alternative for measuring LDH-C4 activity in human spermatozoa. PMID:25795631

  3. Observation and identification of lactate dehydrogenase anomaly in a postburn patient

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, X

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) anomaly is one of the macroenzymes. Macroenzymes are enzymes in serum that have formed high molecular mass complexes, either by self polymerisation or by association with other serum components. The aim of this study was to identify the properties of LDH anomaly and observe the changes from admission to discharge in a postburn patient with LDH anomaly in his serum. Methods: LDH isoenzymes of the serum were electrophoretically fractionated with terylene cellulose acetate supporting media; LDH anomaly was identified by counter immunoelectrophoresis. Results: An abnormal LDH-4 band and an extra band on the cathode of LDH-5 were observed in the serum of this patient and were found to be part of an LDH-IgG complex. As his symptoms improved, the patient's LDH anomaly gradually disappeared. The appearance and disappearance of the anomaly seemed to be related to the progression of the patient's burns. Conclusion: In clinical practice, it is important to keep in mind the possibility of an LDH anomaly in patients when the LDH level is abnormally high or does not seem to be related to the clinical state. Early discovery of an LDH anomaly in a patient's serum may be useful for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:15299160

  4. Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

    1987-12-01

    Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yuan Hwan

    2009-05-15

    concentration, TRA, and were the least oxidized over display. These results confirm the involvement of LDH in meat color stability through replenishment of NADH. Lactate enhancement promotes meat color stability by providing superior antioxidant capacity...

  6. Interaction between chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water and plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Ali, Nurshad; Haque, Abedul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Yeasmin, Tanzima; Hossain, Mostaque; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic is a potent environmental pollutant that has caused one of the largest public health poisonings in the history of human civilization, affecting tens of millions of people worldwide especially in Bangladesh. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plays an important role in predicting cell or organ damage and as an important clue to the diagnosis of a variety of cancers. However, effect of chronic arsenic exposure on the LDH level in blood has not yet been documented. Since the chronic arsenic exposure is associated with organ damages and multi-site cancers, this research aimed at assaying the plasma level of LDH activity in the population who were exposed to arsenic chronically in Bangladesh. A total of 185 individuals living in arsenic-exposed areas and 121 individuals living in non-exposed area in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic content in drinking water, hair and nails were estimated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and LDH activity was assayed by a spectrophotometer. Significant increase in LDH activity was observed with increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails. Further, the study subjects were split into four groups based on the three ways of each exposure metrics (water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations) where the study subjects in the non-exposed area were used as a reference (lowest exposure) group. LDH activity was found to be increased in the higher exposure groups of water and hair arsenic concentrations. LDH activity was also increased at low to medium exposure groups of nail arsenic concentrations.Thus, the elevated plasma LDH activity might be helpful for the early prognosis of organ or tissue damage in the individuals who were exposed to arsenic chronically. PMID:21035168

  7. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S) for Glutamic acid (F) at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive. PMID:21767386

  8. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use. PMID:21779323

  9. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species. PMID:24953504

  10. Regulation of liver lactate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in response to anoxia in a freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zi Jian; Storey, Kenneth B

    2012-10-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis and key to hypoxia/anoxia survival by most animals. In this study, the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 7°C in nitrogen-bubbled water) were assessed on LDH from liver of an anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Liver LDH from aerobic and anoxic turtles was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The kinetic properties and thermal stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing significant differences between the two enzyme forms in V(max), K(m) pyruvate, and I(50) pyruvate as well as melting temperature determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms of LDH was visualized by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining, the results indicating that the anoxic form had a higher phosphorylation state. Incubation studies that promoted protein kinase versus protein phosphatase actions showed that changes in the phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms mimicked the anoxia-responsive changes in K(m) pyruvate and I(50) pyruvate. The high phosphate form of liver LDH that occurs in anoxic turtles appears to be a less active form. Turtle liver LDH was also subject to another form of posttranslational modification, protein acetylation, with a 70% higher content of acetylated lysine residues on anoxic versus aerobic LDH. This is the first study to show that LDH function in an anoxia-tolerant animal can be differentially modified between aerobic and anoxic states via the mechanism of posttranslational modification. PMID:22735190

  11. Nicotine promotes Streptococcus mutans extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, cell aggregation and overall lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Li, M; Gregory, R L

    2015-08-01

    Several epidemiology studies have reported a positive relationship between smoking and dental caries. Nicotine, an alkaloid component of tobacco, has been demonstrated to stimulate biofilm formation and metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans, one of the most important pathogens of dental caries. The first aim of the present study was to explore the possible mechanisms leading to increased biofilm by nicotine treatment from three aspects, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis, glucosyltransferase (Gtf) synthesis and glucan-binding protein (Gbp) synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels. The second aim was to investigate how nicotine affects S. mutans virulence, particular in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results demonstrated that both biofilm bacterial cell numbers and EPS were increased by nicotine. Gtf and GbpA protein expression of S. mutans planktonic cells were upregulated while GbpB protein expression of biofilm cells were downregulated by nicotine. The mRNA expression trends of those genes were mostly consistent with results on protein level but not statistically significant, and gtfD and gbpD of biofilm cells were inhibited. Nicotine was not directly involved in S. mutans LDH activity. However, since it increases the total number of bacterial cells in biofilm, the overall LDH activity of S. mutans biofilm is increased. In conclusion, nicotine stimulates S. mutans planktonic cell Gtf and Gbp expression. This leads to more planktonic cells attaching to the dental biofilm. Increased cell numbers within biofilm results in higher overall LDH activity. This contributes to caries development in smokers. PMID:25985036

  12. Regulation of the Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenases from Four Lactic Acid Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L.; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C.; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ? Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ? Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs. PMID:23720742

  13. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, M C; Dawson, A P

    1975-01-01

    1. The choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) WAS SOLUBILIZED FROM ACETONE-DRIED POWDERS OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA BY TREATMENT WITH Naja naja venom. 2. The kinetics of the reaction of enzyme with phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptors were investigated. 3. With both electron acceptors the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free, modified-enzyme intermediate. 4. With some electron acceptors the maximum velocity of the reaction is independent of the nature of the acceptor. With phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as acceptors the Km value for choline is also independent of the nature of the acceptor molecule. 5. The mechanism of the Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme is apparently the smae as that for the snake venom solubilized enzyme. PMID:1218095

  14. Construction of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase DNA vaccine and experimental study of its immunocontraceptive effect on mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Chen; Duo Zhang; Na Xin; YongZhong Xiong; Ping Chen; Bo Li; XiangDong Tu; FengHua Lan

    2008-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDHC4) is a key enzyme for sperm metabolism. It is distributed specifically in testis and is highly\\u000a immunogenic. In this study, two DNA vaccines pVAX1-hLDHC and pVAX1-mLDHC were constructed by inserting coding sequences of\\u000a human and mice LDHC4 into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. The production of LDHC4 specific antibodies was induced\\u000a in the sera of vaccinated

  15. Circulating cell-free methylated DNA and lactate dehydrogenase release in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypermethylation of DNA is an epigenetic alteration commonly found in colorectal cancer (CRC) and can also be detected in blood samples of cancer patients. Methylation of the genes helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and hyperplastic polyposis 1 (HPP1) have been proposed as prognostic, and neurogenin 1 (NEUROG1) as diagnostic biomarker. However the underlying mechanisms leading to the release of these genes are unclear. This study aimed at examining the possible correlation of the presence of methylated genes NEUROG1, HLTF and HPP1 in serum with tissue breakdown as a possible mechanism using serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a surrogate marker. Additionally the prognostic impact of these markers was examined. Methods Pretherapeutic serum samples from 259 patients from all cancer stages were analyzed. Presence of hypermethylation of the genes HLTF, HPP1, and NEUROG1 was examined using methylation-specific quantitative PCR (MethyLight). LDH was determined using an UV kinetic test. Results Hypermethylation of HLTF and HPP1 was detected significantly more often in patients with elevated LDH levels (32% vs. 12% [p = 0.0005], and 68% vs. 11% [p < 0.0001], respectively). Also, higher LDH values correlated with a higher percentage of a fully methylated reference in a linear fashion (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.18 for HLTF [p = 0.004]; 0.49 [p < .0001] for HPP1). No correlation between methylation of NEUROG1 and LDH was found in this study. Concerning the clinical characteristics, high levels of LDH as well as methylation of HLTF and HPP1 were significantly associated with larger and more advanced stages of CRC. Accordingly, these three markers were correlated with significantly shorter survival in the overall population. Moreover, all three identified patients with a worse prognosis in the subgroup of stage IV patients. Conclusions We were able to provide evidence that methylation of HLTF and especially HPP1 detected in serum is strongly correlated with cell death in CRC using LDH as surrogate marker. Additionally, we found that prognostic information is given by both HLTF and HPP1 as well as LDH. In sum, determining the methylation of HLTF and HPP1 in serum might be useful in order to identify patients with more aggressive tumors. PMID:24708595

  16. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Important for NADH/NAD+ Redox Homeostasis in Cancer Cells ?

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun; Hitosugi, Taro; Chung, Tae-Wook; Xie, Jianxin; Ge, Qingyuan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Boggon, Titus J.; Lonial, Sagar; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The Warburg effect describes an increase in aerobic glycolysis and enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) regulates the last step of glycolysis that generates lactate and permits the regeneration of NAD+. LDH-A gene expression is believed to be upregulated by both HIF and Myc in cancer cells to achieve increased lactate production. However, how oncogenic signals activate LDH-A to regulate cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 directly phosphorylates LDH-A. Phosphorylation at Y10 and Y83 enhances LDH-A activity by enhancing the formation of active, tetrameric LDH-A and the binding of LDH-A substrate NADH, respectively. Moreover, Y10 phosphorylation of LDH-A is common in diverse human cancer cells, which correlates with activation of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, cancer cells with stable knockdown of endogenous LDH-A and rescue expression of a catalytic hypomorph LDH-A mutant, Y10F, demonstrate increased respiration through mitochondrial complex I to sustain glycolysis by providing NAD+. However, such a compensatory increase in mitochondrial respiration in Y10F cells is insufficient to fully sustain glycolysis. Y10 rescue cells show decreased cell proliferation and ATP levels under hypoxia and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances LDH-A enzyme activity to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth by regulating the NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis, representing an acute molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. PMID:21969607

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M I Koukourakis; A Giatromanolaki; E Sivridis; G Bougioukas; V Didilis; K C Gatter; A L Harris

    2003-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) catalyses the reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate, having a principal position in the anaerobic cellular metabolism. Induction of LDH-5 occurs during hypoxia and LDH-5 transcription is directly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Serum LDH levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various neoplastic diseases. The expression, however,

  18. Enalapril improves heart failure induced by monocrotaline without reducing pulmonary hypertension in rats: roles of preserved myocardial creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyosuke Ishikawa; Hidekazu Hashimoto; Sachio Mitani; Yukio Toki; Kenji Okumura; Takayuki Ito

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the redistribution of myocardial isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) in rats with right heart failure induced by monocrotaline and assessed the effect of enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) control (n = 20), (2) control + enalapril (25 mg\\/kg\\/day) (n = 22), (3) monocrotaline (50 mg\\/kg)

  19. Association of an oxygen-sensitive lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme, LDk, with LD-6 in serum of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Onorato, V A; Manly, K F; Vladutiu, A O

    1984-10-01

    We measured a highly unusual, oxygen-sensitive lactate dehydrogenase, LDk, in the serum of six patients whose serum showed a band for LD-6 on routine agarose gel electrophoresis for LD isoenzymes. All these patients showed very high serum LDk activity, greatly exceeding the high values previously described in serum of patients with various malignant tumors. In two of the patients, LDk activity was low both before LD-6 was found in and after it disappeared from the serum, evidencing a correlation with LD-6. All of the six patients, five of whom died in the hospital, had severe hypotension. We suggest that hypoxia is responsible for the appearance of LD-6 in serum and that LD-6 is found in association with high LDk activity in serum of critically ill patients. PMID:6478590

  20. Purification and Properties of a Fructose-1,6-Diphosphate-Activated Lactate Dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberger, Charles L.; Angelo, Noreen

    1970-01-01

    An l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase was purified approximately 35-fold from crude extracts of Streptococcus faecalis. The purified enzyme had an absolute and specific requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) for catalytic activity. The concentration of FDP required for 50% maximal activity was about 0.045 mm. The activator was bound to the enzyme more effectively at pH 5.8 than it was at a neutral or alkaline pH. Activation appeared to involve a conformational change in the enzyme which made the substrate and coenzyme sites more accessible to the respective reactants. Among the evidence supporting this hypothesis was the fact that FDP lowered significantly the apparent Km for both pyruvate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Moreover, the enzyme, which was quite heat stable in the absence of any of the reactants, was rendered heat labile by FDP. PMID:4314543

  1. [Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the brain cortex and hippocampus of Mongolian gerbils after global ischemia and reperfusion injuries].

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N S; Galagudza, M M; Ovchinnikov, D A; Kuz'menkov, A N; Iukina, G Iu; Barantsevich, E R; Tomson, V V; Shliakhto, E V

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral ischemia results in severe derangements of energy metabolism in the nervous tissue including activation of glycolytic pathway. Activity of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the specific brain structures remains unclear. The recent study was aimed at investigation into the LDH activity in the cytoplasm of both hippocampal and cortical neurons in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at different durations of reperfusion after global ischemia. Analysis showed that the activity of LDH in pyramidal neurons of various hippocampal areas and neurons of II, III and V cortical layers after 7-minute forebrain ischemia depended on both localization of the neurons and duration ofreperfusion. In general, the changes in postischemic cytosolic LDH activity include significant decrease in the LDH activity 2 days after reperfusion with varying degree of recovery on day 7 of reperfusion. PMID:22650061

  2. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  3. Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers Philippe Connes1,2,3* , Yann Lamarre1,2 , Marie-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe Abstract Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79680. doi:10

  4. Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

  5. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

  6. Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    in muscles [8]. The involvement of a lactate shuttle in peroxisomes confers this organelle with the ability to metabolize fatty acids. The presence of this enzyme was recently confirmed in liver peroxisomes [9 postulated that this monocarboxylic acid may be supporting oxidative respiration in the neurons. This may

  7. The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic Enzymes (Lactate Dehydrogenase)

    E-print Network

    The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic Enzymes THE COST OF CAPTURING PREY: MEASURING LARGEMOUTH BASS FORAGING ACTIVITY USING GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES (LACTATE #12;11 The Cost of Capturing Prey: Measuring Largemouth Bass Foraging Activity using Glycolytic

  8. Interdependence of coenzyme-induced conformational work and binding potential in yeast alcohol and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenases: a hydrogen-deuterium exchange study

    SciTech Connect

    De Weck, Z.; Pande, J.; Kaegi, J.H.R.

    1987-07-28

    Binding of NAD coenzymes to yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase (PHLDH) was studied by hydrogen-deuterium exchange with the infrared technique. Conformational changes in the enzymes specific to the coenzymes and their fragments were observed, and the pH dependence of the exchange reaction shows that it conforms to the EX-2 scheme. In both YADH and PHLDH the magnitude of the conformational change as measured by exchange retardation is considerably larger for the NAD/sup +/ than for NADH. Studies with coenzyme fragments like ADP-ribose, ADP, and AMP also highlight the lack of rigorous correlation between structural features such as charge and size and their influence on exchange behavior. Ternary complexes such as YADH-NAD/sup +/-pyrazole, PHLDH-NAD/sup +/-oxalate, and PHLDH-NADH-oxamate, which mimic the transition state, have a significantly more pronounced effect on exchange rates than the corresponding binary complexes. The outstanding feature of this study is the demonstration that in the binary enzyme-coenzyme complexes the more loosely bound NAD/sup +/ is more effective in retarding exchange than the more firmly bound NADH. These differences are attributed to the unequal structural constraints exerted by the two coenzymes upon the enzymes, which translate to unequal expenditure of transconformational work in the formation of the two complexes. The opposing variation in the free energy of binding and the transconformational work expended can be viewed as an unequal partitioning of the net free energy gain resulting from the protein-ligand interaction into a binding term and that required for conformational change.

  9. Efficient Production of L-Lactic Acid by Metabolically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a Genome-Integrated L-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiro Ishida; Satoshi Saitoh; Kenro Tokuhiro; Eiji Nagamori; Takashi Matsuyama; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Haruo Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    We developed a metabolically engineered yeast which produces lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant strain, the coding region for pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) on chromosome XII is substituted for that of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) through homologous recombination. The expression of mRNA for the genome-integrated LDH is regulated under the control of the native PDC1 promoter, while PDC1 is

  10. Cu–Zn SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE INHIBITS LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE RELEASE AND PROTECTS AGAINST CELL DEATH IN MURINE FIBROBLASTS PRETREATED WITH ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu Kimura; Hisanori Minakami; Kunio Otsuki; Akira Shoji

    2000-01-01

    The effects of adding Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu–Zn SOD) to culture medium of the murine fibroblast cell line, L-929, pretreated with UV-B (312nm, 480mJ\\/cm2) have been investigated. Cell injury was monitored by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the medium, and cell death by the trypan blue exclusion test. UV-B radiation induced cell death by apoptosis, as demonstrated by

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-08-01

    The thermostable D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (LjD-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the D-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The LjD-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100?mM Tris-HCl pH 9, 200?mM magnesium sulfate at 295?K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1?Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8?Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.58?Å(3)?Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative. PMID:25084378

  12. Localization of pyruvate kinase isozymes in bovine kidney and comparison of these patterns with those of lactate dehydrogenases and aldolases.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, J M; Richards, T C; Gabourel, L

    1978-08-01

    Electrophoretic and immunofluorescence analysis were used to study the distribution of pyruvate kinase isozymes in the bovine kidney. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated the presence of large amounts of K4 plus small amounts of K-M hybrids in cortical, medullary, and papillary sections cut from the kidney. Nearly all of the K-L hybrids seen in whole kidney extracts were found in cortical sections. Immunofluorescence of frozen sections revealed the presence of type L subunits in the tubules but the complete absence of this subunit type in flomeruli. Glomeruli do contain large quantities of pyruvate kinase isozymes, probably K4 and K-M hybrids, that cross-react with antibodies produced against type M pyruvate kinase. Type L-containing forms of pyruvate kinase and aldolase type B both appear to be found in cell types thought to be capable of catalyzing of gluconeogenesis, while type K pyruvate kinase and type A aldolase are found in predominantly glycolytic cell types of the kidney. Lactate dehydrogenase isozymic patterns appear to be less closely correlated with glycolytic versus gluconeogenic functions of the kidney but may be determined more directly by other metabolic functions. PMID:670304

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors sensitize lymphoma cells to cisplatin without enhancing the drug effects on immortalized normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Fiume, Luigi; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio; Di Stefano, Giuseppina

    2015-07-10

    Up-regulation of glycolysis, a well recognized hallmark of cancer cells, was also found to be predictive of poor chemotherapy response. This observation suggested the attempt of sensitizing cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting glucose metabolism. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition can be a way to hinder glycolysis of cancer cells without affecting the metabolism of normal tissues, which usually does not require this enzymatic activity. In this paper, we showed that two LDH inhibitors (oxamate and galloflavin) can increase the efficacy of cisplatin in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells and that this potentiating effect is not exerted in proliferating normal lymphocytes. This result was explained by the finding that in BL cells LDH inhibition induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was not evidenced in proliferating normal lymphocytes. In BL cells treated with the association of cisplatin and LDH inhibitors, these ROS can be a further cause of DNA damage, to be added to that produced by cisplatin, leading to the failure of the response repair. At present LDH inhibitors suitable for clinical use are actively searched; our results can allow a better understanding of the potentiality of LDH as a possible target to develop innovative anticancer treatments. PMID:25930121

  14. The Adaptive Cline at LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) in Killifish Fundulus heteroclitus Remains Stationary After 40 Years of Warming Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tina M; Strand, Allan E; Sotka, Erik E

    2014-03-11

    Since the 1970s, water temperatures along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States have risen by an average of 0.5 °C in summer months and 2.2 °C in winter months. In response, the distribution and abundance of several nearshore species have changed dramatically, but no study has attempted to document whether estuarine populations have evolved greater thermal tolerance. Here, we re-examine the classic latitudinal cline at lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus that was originally described by Dennis Powers and associates from samples collected between 1970 and 1972. Laboratory and field evidences indicated that northern and southern isozymes at muscle LDH are locally adapted to cold and warm temperatures, respectively. Despite the potential for evolutionary response at this adaptive locus, we detected no significant shift of the LDH cline from 20 to 30 F. heteroclitus collected at each of 13 locations between the early 1970s and 2010. We conclude that the microevolution of LDH-mediated thermal tolerance has not occurred, that shifts in alleles are too incremental to be distinguished from random processes, or that F. heteroclitus uses phenotypic and genetic mechanisms besides LDH to respond to warmer waters. PMID:24620002

  15. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  16. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Amylase Concentrations in Umbilical Blood of Preterm Infants after Long-Term Tocolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Masaoka, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and amylase levels of preterm infants following long-term tocolysis in pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to determine if the tocolytic therapy affects CK, LDH, and amylase levels in the umbilical blood. This study included 215 preterm infants born to women treated with and without ritodrine hydrochloride. CK, LDH, and amylase levels in the umbilical blood at delivery were determined. Infants were divided according to the ritodrine tocolysis, as follows: Group A (n = 91), not exposed to ritodrine; Group B (n = 44), IV ritodrine for <1 week; Group C (n = 80), IV ritodrine for ?1 week. The CK concentration in cord blood of Group C (198.8 ± 14.2?IU/L) was significantly higher in comparison with Group A (155.0 ± 7.3?IU/L, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in LDH and amylase levels in the three groups. The CK significantly correlated with gestational age (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) and birth weight (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). LDH and amylase levels did not change with gestational age nor birth weight. In conclusion, long-term ritodrine tocolysis leads to increased umbilical blood CK level. PMID:24693289

  17. Loss of /sup 51/chromium, lactate dehydrogenase, and /sup 111/indium as indicators of endothelial cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, J.; Joist, J.H.; Webster, R.O.

    1987-11-01

    Injury to endothelial cells appears to be an important initial event in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as acute lung injury, venous and arterial thromboembolism, and atherosclerosis. Different methods for detecting damage to cultured endothelial cells have been described. However, their relative sensitivity as markers of endothelial cell damage has not been adequately determined. We compared the loss of /sup 51/Chromium (/sup 51/Cr), the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and /sup 111/Indium (/sup 111/In) from endothelial cells upon exposure to several injurious agents. Cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells in confluent monolayers were labeled with /sup 51/Cr or /sup 111/Inoxine and exposed to increasing concentrations of the nonionic detergent, Triton X-100 (0.2 to 1%), hydrogen peroxide (1 to 500 microM), or neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. With all forms of injury, loss of /sup 51/Cr occurred earlier and to a greater extent than LDH loss which in turn was greater than loss of /sup 111/In. Substantial loss of /sup 51/Cr was observed in the absence of appreciable ultrastructural damage to endothelial cell external membranes. The findings may reflect the relative ease with which small molecules such as adenine nucleotides (/sup 51/Cr-labeled) escape whereas larger molecules such as LDH and proteins binding /sup 111/In are retained intracellularly. Thus, /sup 51/Cr loss appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sublytic endothelial cell injury than either /sup 111/In or LDH release.

  18. Differences in Rat Tissue Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Caused by Giberellic Acid and Homobrassinolide (Giberellik Asit ve Homobrassinolit Uygulamasi ile Siçan Doku Laktat Dehidrogenaz Aktivitesinde Gözlenen De?i?iklikler) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeyaraman Vikramathithan; Gopalarau Gautami; Irissappan Ganesh; Kotteazeth Srikumar

    Objective: Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, a tissue marker for cardiac disorders, reversibly forms pyruvate from lactate in all animal tissues. Low-dose effect of dietary plant hormones homobrassinolide and gibberellic acid on this enzyme ac- tivity was therefore investigated in normal rat tissues. Methods: Hormones were administered intradermally to male albino wistar rat groups (100-120 g) at 10, 50 and 250 µg,

  19. Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD(+). The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) K m for L-lactate and a higher V max value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the K m of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the K m of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

  20. The Global Repressor SugR Controls Expression of Genes of Glycolysis and of the l-Lactate Dehydrogenase LdhA in Corynebacterium glutamicum?

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Verena; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator SugR from Corynebacterium glutamicum represses genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). Growth experiments revealed that the overexpression of sugR not only perturbed the growth of C. glutamicum on the PTS sugars glucose, fructose, and sucrose but also led to a significant growth inhibition on ribose, which is not taken up via the PTS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarray analysis and gel retardation experiments were performed to identify further target genes of SugR. Gel retardation analysis confirmed that SugR bound to the promoter regions of genes of the glycolytic enzymes 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (fba), enolase (eno), pyruvate kinase (pyk), and NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA). The deletion of sugR resulted in increased mRNA levels of eno, pyk, and ldhA in acetate medium. Enzyme activity measurements revealed that SugR-mediated repression affects the activities of PfkA, Fba, and LdhA in vivo. As the deletion of sugR led to increased LdhA activity under aerobic and under oxygen deprivation conditions, l-lactate production by C. glutamicum was determined. The overexpression of sugR reduced l-lactate production by about 25%, and sugR deletion increased l-lactate formation under oxygen deprivation conditions by threefold. Thus, SugR functions as a global repressor of genes of the PTS, glycolysis, and fermentative l-lactate dehydrogenase in C. glutamicum. PMID:18849435

  1. Renal Cortical Lactate Dehydrogenase: A Useful, Accurate, Quantitative Marker of In Vivo Tubular Injury and Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali C. M.; Becker, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Studies of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) are critically dependent on having precise methods for assessing the extent of tubular cell death. However, the most widely used techniques either provide indirect assessments (e.g., BUN, creatinine), suffer from the need for semi-quantitative grading (renal histology), or reflect the status of residual viable, not the number of lost, renal tubular cells (e.g., NGAL content). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release is a highly reliable test for assessing degrees of in vitro cell death. However, its utility as an in vivo AKI marker has not been defined. Towards this end, CD-1 mice were subjected to graded renal ischemia (0, 15, 22, 30, 40, or 60 min) or to nephrotoxic (glycerol; maleate) AKI. Sham operated mice, or mice with AKI in the absence of acute tubular necrosis (ureteral obstruction; endotoxemia), served as negative controls. Renal cortical LDH or NGAL levels were assayed 2 or 24 hrs later. Ischemic, glycerol, and maleate-induced AKI were each associated with striking, steep, inverse correlations (r, ?0.89) between renal injury severity and renal LDH content. With severe AKI, >65% LDH declines were observed. Corresponding prompt plasma and urinary LDH increases were observed. These observations, coupled with the maintenance of normal cortical LDH mRNA levels, indicated the renal LDH efflux, not decreased LDH synthesis, caused the falling cortical LDH levels. Renal LDH content was well maintained with sham surgery, ureteral obstruction or endotoxemic AKI. In contrast to LDH, renal cortical NGAL levels did not correlate with AKI severity. In sum, the above results indicate that renal cortical LDH assay is a highly accurate quantitative technique for gauging the extent of experimental acute ischemic and toxic renal injury. That it avoids the limitations of more traditional AKI markers implies great potential utility in experimental studies that require precise quantitation of tubule cell death. PMID:23825563

  2. High levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase correlate with the severity and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    HU, EN-CI; HE, JIAN-GUO; LIU, ZHI-HONG; NI, XIN-HAI; ZHENG, YA-GUO; GU, QING; ZHAO, ZHI-HUI; XIONG, CHANG-MING

    2015-01-01

    Liver dysfunction reflects the status of heart failure, and previous studies have demonstrated that serum lactate dehydrogenase (S-LDH) levels are increased in patients exhibiting heart failure and liver dysfunction. Right heart failure is a main characteristic of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic significance of S-LDH levels in patients with IPAH. S-LDH levels were determined in 173 patients with IPAH, and these patients were subclassified into two groups according to a defined upper reference limit of S-LDH (250 IU/l). Right heart catheterization was performed in all patients. A total of 53 patients were found to have elevated S-LDH to ?250 IU/l. In a mean follow-up period of 31.2±17.9 months, 57 patients succumbed. In the group with lower S-LDH levels (S-LDH <250 IU/l), 16.7% of the patients succumbed, compared with 69.8% of patients in the group with higher S-LDH levels (S-LDH ?250 IU/l). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with higher S-LDH levels had a significantly lower survival rate than did those with lower S-LDH levels (log-rank test, P<0.001). Cox proportional hazard analyses identified reduced body mass index, reduced cardiac index, elevated World Health Organization functional class, higher S-LDH and an absence of PAH-targeted therapy as significant predictors of adverse outcomes. In conclusion, elevated S-LDH is a risk factor for mortality in patients with IPAH.

  3. Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase at posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome onset in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Wright, Steven M; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Van Hemert, Rudy; Brown, Aliza T; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

    2014-09-01

    The pathophysiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is incompletely understood; however, an underlying state of immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction has been proposed. We examined alterations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, relative to the development of PRES in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective Institutional Review Board approved database of 88 PRES patients was examined. PRES diagnosis was confirmed by congruent clinical diagnosis and MRI. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Serum LDH values were collected at three time points: prior to, at the time of, and following PRES diagnosis. Student's t-test was employed. LDH values were available during the course of treatment in 12 patients (nine women; mean age 57.8 years [range 33-75 years]). Chemotherapy-associated PRES patients were more likely to be normotensive (25%) versus the non-chemotherapy group (9%). LDH levels at the time of PRES diagnosis were higher than those before and after (p=0.0263), with a mean difference of 114.8 international units/L. Mean time intervals between LDH measurement prior to and following PRES diagnosis were 44.8 days and 51.4 days, respectively. Mean elapsed time between last chemotherapy administration and PRES onset was 11.1days. In conclusion, serum LDH, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, shows statistically significant elevation at the onset of PRES toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Our findings support a systemic process characterized by endothelial injury/dysfunction as a factor, if not the prime event, in the pathophysiology of PRES. PMID:24780237

  4. Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Savijoki, K; Palva, A

    1997-01-01

    The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

  5. Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer and impacts tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J.; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W.M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Seth, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Summary The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use a novel inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by re-activation of mitochondrial function in vitro but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC including cancer stem cell-dependent drug resistant tumors. PMID:24726384

  6. Direct production of allitol from d-fructose by a coupling reaction using d-tagatose 3-epimerase, ribitol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Takeshita; Yutaka Ishida; Goro Takada; Ken Izumori

    2000-01-01

    Allitol was produced from d-fructose via a new NADH-regenerating enzymatic reaction system using d-tagatose 3-epimerase (d-TE), ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH). d-Fructose was epimerized to d-psicose by the d-TE of Pseudomonas cichorii ST-24 and the d-psicose was subsequently reduced to allitol by the RDH of an RDH-constitutive mutant, X-22, derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 3321. NADH regeneration for

  7. Simultaneous synthesis of enantiomerically pure ( R )-1-phenylethanol and ( R )-?-methylbenzylamine from racemic ?-methylbenzylamine using ?-transaminase\\/alcohol dehydrogenase\\/glucose dehydrogenase coupling reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungdon Yun; Yung-Hun Yang; Byung-Kwan Cho; Bum-Yeol Hwang; Byung-Gee Kim

    2003-01-01

    A simultaneous synthesis of (R)-1-phenylethanol and (R)-?-methylbenzylamine from racemic ?-methylbenzyl- amine was achievied using an ?-transaminase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and glucose dehydrogenase in a coupled reaction. Racemic ?-methylbenzylamine (100 mM) was converted to 49 mM (R)-1-phenylethanol (> 99% ee) and 48 mM (R)-?-methylbenzylamine (> 98% ee) in 18 h at 37 °C. This method was also used to overcome product inhibition of ?-TA by the ketone

  8. In vitro and in vivo generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage and lactate dehydrogenase leakage by selected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Hassoun, E A; Stohs, S J

    1995-12-15

    Reactive oxygen species may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides and we have, therefore, examined the in vivo effects of structurally dissimilar polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (PCH), such as endrin and chlordane, chlorinated acetamide herbicides (CAH), such as alachlor, and organophosphate pesticides (OPS), such as chlorpyrifos and fenthion, on the production of hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA-single strand breaks (SSB), two indices of oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage. The selected pesticides were administered p.o. to female Sprague-Dawley rats in two 0.25 LD50 doses at 0 h and 21 h and killed at 24 h. In a parallel set of experiments, we have determined the in vitro effects of these pesticides on the DNA-SSB and enhanced lactate dehydrogenase leakage (LDH) from neuroactive PC-12 cells in culture. In vitro production of reactive oxygen species by these pesticides was also assessed by determining the enhanced chemiluminescence responses of hepatic and brain homogenates. Following treatment of rats with endrin, chlordane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos and fenthion, increases of 2.8-, 3.0-, 4.2-, 4.3- and 4.8-fold were observed in hepatic lipid peroxidation, respectively, while at these same doses, increases in lipid peroxidation of 2.4-, 2.1-, 3.6-, 4.6- and 5.3-fold, respectively, were observed in brain homogenates. Increases of 4.4-, 3.9-, 1.6-, 3.0- and 3.5-fold were observed in hepatic DNA-SSB following treatment of the rats with endrin, chlordane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively, while at these same doses, increases of 1.9-, 1.7-, 2.2-, 1.4-, 1.4-fold, respectively, were observed in brain nuclear DNA-SSB. Following in vitro incubation of hepatic and brain tissues with 1 nmol/ml of each of the five pesticides, maximum increases in chemiluminescence occurred within 4-7 min of incubation and persisted for over 10 min. Increases of 3.0-, 2.7-, 3.6-, 4.9- and 4.4-fold were observed in chemiluminescence following in vitro incubation of the liver homogenates with endrin, chlordane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively, while increases of 1.7-, 1.8-, 2.0-, 3.4- and 3.7-fold, respectively, were observed in the brain homogenates. Increases of 2.2-, 2.3-, 2.9-, 2.9- and 3.4-fold were observed in the chemiluminescence responses in the liver homogenates of the animals treated with endrin, chlordane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively, while increases of 1.8-, 2.0-, 3.2-, 2.9- and 2.4-fold, respectively, were observed in the brain homogenates. Cultured neuroactive PC-12 cells were incubated with the pesticides and the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the media as an indicator of cellular damage and cytotoxicity was examined. Maximal release of LDH from cultured PC-12 cells was observed at 100 nM concentrations of the pesticides. Increases of 2.3-, 2.5-, 2.8-, 3.1 and 3.4-fold were observed in LDH leakage following incubation of the PC-12 cells with endrin, chlordane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively. Following incubation of the cultured PC-12 cells with 100 nM concentrations of these same pesticides, increases in DNA-SSB of 2.5-, 2.2-, 2.1-, 2.4- and 2.5-fold, respectively, were observed. The results clearly demonstrate that these different classes of pesticides induce production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative tissue damage which may contribute to the toxic manifestations of these xenobiotics. Reactive oxygen species may serve as common mediators of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in response to many toxicants and pathological conditions. PMID:8560491

  9. Unusually large isotope effect for the reaction of aromatic amine dehydrogenase. A common feature of quinoproteins?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Lan Hyun; Victor L. Davidson

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of the tryptophan tryptophylquinone [TTQ] prosthetic group of aromatic amine dehydrogenase by dopamine exhibits a deuterium kinetic isotope effect of 8.6–11.7. This effect is partially suppressed in the steady-state. These data support the proposed mechanism for the reductive half-reaction of AADH in which TTQ reduction is linked to proton abstraction from a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate and in which

  10. The effects of pH and temperature on the kinetic properties of skeletal muscle lactate dehydrogenase from anuran amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mendiola; J. De Costa

    1990-01-01

    Muscle LDH activities were measured in two anuran amphibians with different behaviour and ecology, Rana perezi and Bufo calamita. Both pyruvate reduction and lactate oxidation were measured at temperatures of 15, 20 and 30°C, and at pH 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0. Pyruvate and lactate muscle concentrations were determined in individuals at rest and after exercise. R. perezi muscle used anaerobic

  11. Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma Cells (CCF-STTG1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Lemire; Ryan J. Mailloux; Vasu D. Appanna; George Brooks

    2008-01-01

    Lactate has long been regarded as an end product of anaerobic energy production and its fate in cerebral metabolism has not been precisely delineated. In this report, we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a human astrocytic cell line (CCF-STTG1) to consume lactate and to generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. 13C-NMR and HPLC analyses aided in the identification

  12. Catalysis of diaphorase reactions by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoamide dehydrogenase occurs at the EH4 level.

    PubMed

    Argyrou, Argyrides; Sun, Guangxing; Palfey, Bruce A; Blanchard, John S

    2003-02-25

    Lipoamide dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of the dihydrolipoyl cofactors that are covalently attached to the acyltransferase components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and glycine reductase multienzyme complexes. It contains two redox centers: a tightly, but noncovalently, bound FAD and an enzymic disulfide, each of which can accommodate two electrons. In the two-electron-reduced enzyme (EH(2)), the disulfide is reduced while the FAD cofactor is oxidized. In the four-electron-reduced enzyme (EH(4)), both redox centers are reduced. Lipoamide dehydrogenase can also catalyze the NADH-dependent reduction of alternative electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, ferricyanide, quinones, and molecular oxygen (O(2)). To determine the mechanism of these "diaphorase" reactions, we generated the EH(2) and EH(4) forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoamide dehydrogenase and rapidly mixed these enzyme forms with d,l-lipoylpentanoate, 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and O(2), in a stopped-flow spectrophotometer at pH 7.5 and 4 degrees C. EH(2) reduced d,l-lipoylpentanoate >/=100 times faster than EH(4) did. Conversely, EH(4) reduced 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and molecular oxygen 90 and 40 times faster than EH(2), respectively. Comparison of the rates of reduction of the above substrates by EH(2) and EH(4) with their corresponding steady-state kinetic parameters for kinetic competence leads to the conclusion that reduction of lipoyl substrates occurs with EH(2) while reduction of diaphorase substrates occurs with EH(4). PMID:12590611

  13. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography on Co2+-carboxymethylaspartate-agarose Superflow, as demonstrated by one-step purification of lactate dehydrogenase from chicken breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G; Hopp, J; Nelson, P

    1999-02-01

    A rapid method for the purification of lactate dehydrogenase from whole chicken muscle extract in one chromatographic step is reported. The purification procedure can be accomplished in less than 1 h. A new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography adsorbent is used that can be utilized at linear flow rates higher than 5 cm/min. The final preparation of the enzyme was with purity higher than 95% as ascertained by SDS-PAGE. Three immobilized metal ions (Ni2+, Zn2+ and Co2+) were compared for their binding properties towards the purified enzyme. The binding site of the enzyme for immobilized intermediate metal ions was determined after cleavage with CNBr and binding studies of the derivative peptides on immobilized Co2+. A peptide located on the N-terminus of the enzyme, implicated in the binding, has great potential as a purification tag in fusion proteins. PMID:9889081

  14. The Effects of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation and Cardiomyopathy Syndrome on Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Powell, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising. PMID:22701371

  15. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli (MSU)

    2012-08-31

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

  17. Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD+, which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in Vmax (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

  18. Direct production of allitol from D-fructose by a coupling reaction using D-tagatose 3-epimerase, ribitol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Ishida, Y; Takada, G; Izumori, K

    2000-01-01

    Allitol was produced from D-fructose via a new NADH-regenerating enzymatic reaction system using D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE), ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH). D-fructose was epimerized to D-psicose by the D-TE of Pseudomonas cichorii ST-24 and the D-psicose was subsequently reduced to allitol by the RDH of an RDH-constitutive mutant, X-22, derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 3321. NADH regeneration for the reduction of D-psicose by the RDH was achieved by the irreversible formate dehydrogenase reaction, which allowed the D-psicose produced from d-fructose to be successively transformed to allitol with a production yield from D-fructose of almost 100%. The reactions progressed without any by-product formation. After separation of the product from the reaction mixture by a simple procedure, a crystal of allitol was obtained in a yield exceeding 90%. This crystal was characterized and determined to be allitol by HPLC analysis, its IR and NMR spectra, its melting point, and optical rotation measurement. PMID:16232907

  19. Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

    2010-10-28

    The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2 {angstrom} resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg{sup 2+} and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. However, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate intermediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH.

  20. Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2?Å resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg2+ and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. How­ever, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate inter­mediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH. PMID:20516620

  1. Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+) - but with no leg ulcers at the time of the study – were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

  2. The role of the spleen in a lactate dehydrogenase mutant mouse (Ldh-1c/Ldh-1c) with hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Datta, T; Kremer, J P; Hültner, L; Dörmer, P

    1988-05-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase mouse mutant Ldh-1c/Ldh-1c is afflicted with a severe hemolytic anemia associated with extreme reticulocytosis (95%) and splenomegaly. Ninety-one percent of the total body colony-forming units--erythroid (CFU-E) have been quantified in the seven- to ten-times enlarged spleens of the mutant mice. Moreover, the splenic fraction of morphologically recognizable erythroid precursors was 134 times normal. From these data it was apparent that the spleen crucially contributes to the maintenance of steady state erythropoiesis in the mutants. On the other hand, an enhanced sequestration of red blood cells in the enlarged spleen may augment the anemia. Splenectomy experiments were performed with LDH mutant and wild type mice in order to investigate the role of the spleen in this particular hemolytic disease. Following splenectomy, the peripheral blood values and the frequency of femoral stem and progenitor cells were determined, and histological investigations were carried out. The life span of the splenectomized mutants was not shortened, in spite of a very low red blood cell count (25% of the untreated mutant value). Compared to the splenic loss only a moderate increase in bone marrow erythropoiesis was observed, such as a 250% increase of CFU-E. It is concluded that the reduction in red blood cell survival due to splenic sequestration in the mutants is of such a magnitude that it counterbalances a significant portion of splenic erythropoiesis. PMID:3360065

  3. Expression of the glycolytic enzymes enolase and lactate dehydrogenase during the early phase of Toxoplasma differentiation is regulated by an intron retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Matteo; Galizi, Roberto; Magini, Alessandro; Carruthers, Vern B; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2015-06-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii converts from a rapidly replicating tachyzoite form during acute infection to a quiescent encysted bradyzoite stage that persists inside long-lived cells during chronic infection. Bradyzoites adopt reduced metabolism and slow replication while waiting for an opportunity to recrudesce the infection within the host. Interconversion between these two developmental stages is characterized by expression of glycolytic isoenzymes that play key roles in parasite metabolism. The parasite genome encodes two isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1 and LDH2) and enolase (ENO1 and ENO2) that are expressed in a stage-specific manner. Expression of different isoforms of these enzymes allows T. gondii to rapidly adapt to diverse metabolic requirements necessary for either a rapid replication of the tachyzoite stage or a quiescent lifestyle typical of the bradyzoites. Herein we identified unspliced forms of LDH and ENO transcripts produced during transition between these two parasite stages suggestive of an intron retention mechanism to promptly exchange glycolytic isoforms for rapid adaptation to environmental changes. We also identified key regulatory elements in the ENO transcription units, revealing cooperation between the ENO2 5'-untranslated region and the ENO2 intron, along with identifying a role for the ENO1 3'-untranslated region in stage-specific expression. PMID:25777509

  4. A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

    2014-07-01

    Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124. PMID:24861375

  5. ERYTHROCYTE ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY: LACK OF ASSOCIATION WITH ALCOHOL USE AND DEPENDENCE OR ALCOHOL REACTIONS IN AUSTRALIAN TWINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARELLE K. HANSELL; DONA PANG; ANDREW C. HEATH; NICHOLAS G. MARTIN; JOHN B. WHITFIELD

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been advocated as a marker of alcohol intake. The absence or low levels of ALDH1 may be associated with alcohol-induced flushing or other reactions to alcohol in Europeans and therefore, with reduced alcohol use. This study tested whether variation in erythrocyte ALDH1 activity was associated with alcohol use, alcohol dependence or reactions to alcohol

  6. Catching catalysis in the act: using single crystal kinetics to trap methylamine dehydrogenase reaction intermediates.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Arwen R; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2003-04-11

    Methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) is produced by a range of gram-negative methylotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, and allows the organisms to utilise methylamine as the sole source of carbon. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of methylamine to formaldehyde and ammonia, leaving it in a two-electron reduced state. To complete the catalytic cycle, MADH is reoxidised via an electron transfer (ET) chain. The redox center in the enzyme is the organic cofactor tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) derived from the posttranslational modification of two Trp residues in the protein. This cofactor has spectral features in the visible region, which change during catalytic turnover, defining spectrally distinct reaction intermediates that reflect the electronic state of the TTQ. In the case of the Paracoccus denitrificans enzyme the physiologic ET chain involves the protein redox partner amicyanin (a blue copper protein). A stable binary (MADH/amicyanin) complex can be formed, and its crystal structure has been solved to 2.5 A resolution by Chen et al. [Biochemistry 21 (1992) 4959]. These crystals were shown to be competent for catalysis and ET by Merli et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 9177] using single crystal polarised absorption spectroscopy. Through a novel combination of single crystal visible microspectrophotometry, X-ray crystallography and freeze-trapping, we have trapped reaction intermediates of the enzyme in complex with its physiological redox partner amicyanin in the crystalline state. We will present data confirming that catalysis and ET in the binary complex crystals can be tracked by single crystal visible microspectrophotometry. We will also show that the reaction pathway is unperturbed by the presence of cryoprotectant solution, enabling direct freeze-trapping of reaction intermediates within the crystal. We will present new data demonstrating that the binary complex crystals are also capable of exhibiting UV light-dependent oxidase activity, as observed in solution [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1364 (1998) 297]. PMID:12686162

  7. Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Partl, Richard, E-mail: richard.partl@medunigraz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Richtig, Erika [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Kapp, Karin S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ?70 and LDH ?240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ?70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ?240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

  8. Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antigens in the proven malaria cases. Methods: The antibodies were raised against two epitopes of PfHRP2 protein and three unique and unexplored epitopes of PfLDH protein. These antibodies were able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens in culture supernatant and parasitized RBC lysate of P. falciparum, respectively up to 50 parasites/?l. The in-house reagents were tested in 200 P. falciparum positive patients residing in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Results: Microsphere (PLGA) with CpG ODN were used to generate high titre and high affinity antibodies against selected peptides of PfHRP-2 and pLDH antigen in mice and rabbit. The peptide specific peak titre varied from 12,800 - 102,400 with an affinity ranging 0.73 - 3.0 mM. The indigenously developed reagents are able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens as low as 75 parasites/?l of blood with a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (100%). Interpretation & conclusions: The study highlight the identification of unique epitopes of PfHRP2 and PfLDH, and the generated antibodies against these antigens were used for quantitative estimation of these two antigens using sandwich ELISA. No corresreactivity with P. vivax infected patients was observed with the sera. PMID:24521645

  9. Effects of L-carnitine and Pentoxifylline on the Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase C4 isozyme and Motility of Testicular Spermatozoa in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Elham; Karimi, Fatemeh; Rasti, Mozhgan; Akmali, Masoumeh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracted sperm from the testis have poor motility. Moreover, their motility changes during their journey through epidydimis. Meanwhile, they face high concentration of L-carnitin. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) gene disorders has been shown to cause impaired sperm motility, leading to infertility in male mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate sperm motility and LDH-C4 enzyme activity upon L-carnitine (LC) and Pentoxifylline (PTX) administrations in mice. Methods We extracted testicular sperm of 48 mice and divided them into three equal parts. One part was incubated with Ham's F10 medium (control), the other parts were treated with Ham's F10 containing LC and PTX with a final concentration of 1.76 mM, for 30 min at room temperature. Sperm motility was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Sperm LDH-C4 enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometery method. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test, and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant difference. Results Sperm motility increased after 30 min of incubation in LC- and PTX-treated group (p<0.001). LC and PTX administrations showed a significant increase in the LDHC4 enzyme activity of sperm compared to that of the controls after 30 min (P=0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusion The effects of LC and PTX on motility of sperm can be explained by an increase in LDH-C4 enzyme activity that may influence male fertility status. We suggest that LC as a non-toxic antioxidant is more suitable for use in assisted reproductive technique protocols than PTX. PMID:23926565

  10. A lactate dehydrogenase ELISA-based assay for the in vitro determination of Plasmodium berghei sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria is a well-known model for the investigation of anti-malarial drug efficacy in vivo. However, the availability of drug in vitro assays in P. berghei is reduced when compared with the spectrum of techniques existing for Plasmodium falciparum. New alternatives to the current manual or automated methods described for P. berghei are attractive. The present study reports a new ELISA drug in vitro assay for P. berghei using two monoclonal antibodies against the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods This procedure includes a short-in vitro culture, the purification of schizonts and the further generation of synchronized mice infections. Early stages of the parasite are then incubated against different concentrations of anti-malarial drugs using micro-plates. The novelty of this procedure in P. berghei relies on the quantification of the drug activity derived from the amount of pLDH estimated by an ELISA assay using two monoclonal antibodies: 14C1 and 19G7. The IC50s obtained through the ELISA assay were compared with those from the micro-test. Results The initial parameters of the synchronized samples used in the in vitro assays were a parasitaemia of 0.5% and haematocrit of 1%, with an incubation period of 22 hours at 36.5°C. pLDH detection using a 14C1 coating at 10 ?g/ml and 19G7 at 2.5 × 10-3 ?g/ml provided good readouts of optical densities with low background in negative controls and specific detection levels for all parasite stages. IC50s values derived from the ELISA assay for artesunate, chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine were: 15, 7, 2, and 144 nM, respectively. When artesunate and chloroquine IC50s were evaluated using the micro-test similar values were obtained. Conclusion This ELISA-based in vitro drug assay is easy to implement, fast, and avoids the use radioisotopes or expensive equipment. The utility of this simple assay for screening anti-malarial drug activity against P. berghei in vitro is demonstrated. PMID:23126583

  11. Metastatic Melanoma: Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels and CT Imaging Findings of Tumor Devascularization Allow Accurate Prediction of Survival in Patients Treated with Bevacizumab1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Mark R.; del Campo, Sara Martin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Haowei; Souza, Frederico F.; Carson, William E.; Smith, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To predict survival in patients with metastatic melanoma by evaluating a combination of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and initial computed tomographic (CT) findings of tumor devascularization after antiangiogenic therapy. Materials and Methods Consent was waived for this institutional review board–approved, retrospective, secondary analysis. Forty-four patients with metastatic melanoma received bevacizumab therapy in a randomized prospective phase II trial. Target lesions on the initial posttherapy CT images were evaluated by using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the Choi criteria, and Morphology, Attenuation, Size, and Structure (MASS) criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline clinical variables including serum LDH and imaging findings with progression-free and overall survival. The receiver operating characteristic curve with area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate accuracy. Results In multivariate analysis, a high baseline serum LDH level was associated with decreased progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.29 for each increase of 100 IU/L; P = .002) and overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.44 for each increase of 100 IU/L; P = .001). Evaluation with MASS criteria of the first CT examination after therapy strongly predicted progression-free (P < .001) and overall (P < .001) survival. Baseline serum LDH level was moderately accurate for predicting progression-free survival at 9 months (AUC = 0.793) and overall survival at 18 months (AUC = 0.689). The combination of baseline serum LDH levels and evaluation with MASS criteria at the first CT examination after therapy had significantly higher accuracy for predicting progression-free survival at 9 months (AUC = 0.969) and overall survival at 18 months (AUC = 0.813) than did baseline serum LDH levels alone for prediction of progression-free survival (P = .020). Conclusion A combination of baseline serum LDH levels and evaluation with MASS criteria at the first CT examination after bevacizumab therapy had the highest accuracy for predicting survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:24072776

  12. Decreases in activation energy and substrate affinity in cold-adapted A4-lactate dehydrogenase: evidence from the Antarctic notothenioid fish Chaenocephalus aceratus.

    PubMed

    Fields, Peter A; Houseman, Daniel E

    2004-12-01

    Enzyme function is strongly affected by temperature, and orthologs from species adapted to different thermal environments often show temperature compensation in kinetic properties. Antarctic notothenioid fishes live in a habitat of constant, extreme cold (-1.86 +/- 2 degrees C), and orthologs of the enzyme A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) in these species have adapted to this environment through higher catalytic rates, lower Arrhenius activation energies (Ea), and increases in the apparent Michaelis constant for the substrate pyruvate (Km(PYR)). Here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine which amino acid substitutions found in A4-LDH of the notothenioid Chaenocephalus aceratus, with respect to orthologs from warm-adapted teleosts, are responsible for these adaptive changes in enzyme function. Km(PYR) was measured in eight single and two double mutants, and Ea was tested in five single and two double mutants in the temperature range 0 degrees C-20 degrees C. Of the four mutants that had an effect on these parameters, two increased Ea but did not affect Km(PYR) (Gly224Ser, Ala310Pro), and two increased both Ea and Km(PYR) (Glu233Met, Gln317Val). The double mutants Glu233Met/Ala310Pro and Glu233Met/Gln317Val increased Km(PYR) and Ea to levels not significantly different from the A4-LDH of a warm temperate fish (Gillichthys mirabilis, habitat temperature 10 degrees C-35 degrees C). The four single mutants are associated with two alpha-helices that move during the catalytic cycle; those that affect Ea but not Km(PYR) are further from the active site than those that affect both parameters. These results provide evidence that (1) cold adaptation in A4-LDH involves changes in mobility of catalytically important molecular structures; (2) these changes may alter activation energy alone or activation energy and substrate affinity together; and (3) the extent to which these parameters are affected may depend on the location of the substitutions within the mobile alpha-helices, perhaps due to differences in proximity to the active site. PMID:15317880

  13. Development of an Optical Fiber Lactate Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojing Liu; Weihong Tan

    1999-01-01

    Lactate analysis is important in clinical diagnostics and the food industry. An ultrasensitive optical fiber lactate sensor with rapid response time and 50 wm size has been developed. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been directly immobilized onto an optical fiber probe surface through covalent binding mechanisms. The optical fiber surface is initially activated by silanization, which adds amine groups (-NH2) to

  14. Identification of reaction products and intermediates of aromatic-amine dehydrogenase by 15N and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G R; Zhu, Z; Whitehead, T L; Hicks, R P; Davidson, V L

    1998-03-15

    13C- and 15N-NMR studies of the reaction of aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) with methylamine demonstrated that the products of the reductive half-reaction are an equivalent of formaldehyde hydrate and a reduced aminoquinol form of the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor which contains covalently bound substrate-derived N. These data are consistent with the Ping Pong kinetic mechanism and aminotransferase-type chemical reaction mechanism which have been previously proposed for AADH. Comparison of the 15N-NMR spectra of the aminoquinol TTQ intermediates of AADH and methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) revealed that the substrate-derived aminoquinol N of AADH and MADH exhibited distinct 15N chemical shifts which are separated by approx. 7 p.p.m. In each case, the signal for the substrate-derived aminoquinol N appears optimally with short pulse delay and exhibits a relaxation time and chemical shift which are consistent with 15N covalently bound to an aromatic ring (i.e. aminoquinol) which is attached to a rigid protein matrix. The aminoquinol of AADH is less stable against reoxidation than that of MADH. These data suggest that differences in the active-site mediated electrostatic environments of the aminoquinol N in the respective enzymes may influence both the observed 15N chemical shift and the relative reactivities of the TTQ aminoquinols towards oxygen. These data also demonstrate the utility of 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring the intermediates and products of enzyme-catalysed transformations. PMID:9494080

  15. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline 

    E-print Network

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  16. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline

    E-print Network

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  17. Analysis of Conformationally Restricted ?-Ketoglutarate Analogues as Substrates of Dehydrogenases and Aminotransferases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis T. Denton; Charles M. Thompson; Arthur J. L. Cooper

    2001-01-01

    Five synthetic, conformationally restricted ?-ketoglutarate analogues were tested as substrates of a variety of dehydrogenases and aminotransferases. The compounds were found not to be detectable substrates of glutamate dehydrogenase, l-leucine dehydrogenase, l-phenylalanine dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine transaminase K, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. However, two thermostable aminotransferases were identified that catalyze transamination between several l-amino

  18. Elucidating the reaction mechanism of the benzoate oxidation pathway encoded aldehyde dehydrogenase from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Jasleen; Leon, Rafael; Temke, Kevin G; Boulanger, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Oxidation of cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde to cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA by the aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDHC (EC.1.2.1.77), is an essential step in the metabolism of benzoate in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In a previous study, we established a structural blueprint for this novel group of ALDH enzymes. Here, we build significantly on this initial work and propose a detailed reaction mechanism for ALDHC based on comprehensive structural and functional investigations of active site residues. Kinetic analyses reveal essential roles for C296 as the nucleophile and E257 as the associated general base. Structural analyses of E257Q and C296A variants suggest a dynamic charge repulsion relationship between E257 and C296 that contributes to the inherent flexibility of E257 in the native enzyme, which is further regulated by E496 and E167. A proton relay network anchored by E496 and supported by E167 and K168 serves to reset E257 for the second catalytic step. We also propose that E167, which is unique to ALDHC and its homologs, serves a critical role in presenting the catalytic water to the newly reset E257 such that the enzyme can proceed with deacylation and product release. Collectively, the reaction mechanism proposed for ALDHC promotes a greater understanding of these novel ALDH enzymes, the ALDH super-family in general, and benzoate degradation in B. xenovorans LB400. PMID:21495107

  19. Regression of Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via decline in lactate dehydrogenase and induction of apoptosis by a ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide as ligand.

    PubMed

    Koiri, Raj K; Trigun, Surendra K; Mishra, Lallan; Pandey, Kiran; Dixit, Deobrat; Dubey, Santosh K

    2009-12-01

    A novel ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide (Ru(II)-CNEB) was found to interact with and inhibit M4-lactate dehydrogenase (M4-LDH), a tumor growth supportive enzyme, at the tissue level. The present article describes modulation of M4-LDH by this compound in a T-cell lymphoma (Dalton's Lymphoma: DL) vis a vis regression of the tumor in vivo. The compound showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity to DL cells in vitro. When a non toxic dose (10 mg/kg bw i.p.) of Ru(II)-CNEB was administered to DL bearing mice, it also produced a significant decline in DL cell viability in vivo. The DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice showed a significant decline in the level of M4-LDH with a concomitant release of this protein in the cell free ascitic fluid. A significant increase of nuclear DNA fragmentation in DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice also coincided with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in those DL cells. Importantly, neither blood based biochemical markers of liver damage nor the normal patterns of LDH isozymes in other tissues were affected due to the treatment of DL mice with the compound. These results were also comparable with the effects of cisplatin (an anticancer drug) observed simultaneously on DL mice. The findings suggest that Ru(II)-CNEB is able to regress Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via declining M4-LDH and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction-apoptosis pathway without producing any toxicity to the normal tissues. PMID:19043664

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus replication persists in liver, spleen, lymph node, and testis tissues and results in accumulation of viral RNA in germinal centers, concomitant with polyclonal activation of B cells.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G W; Rowland, R R; Palmer, G A; Even, C; Plagemann, P G

    1995-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) replicates primarily and most likely solely in a subpopulation of macrophages in extraneuronal tissues. Infection of mice, regardless of age, with LDV leads to the rapid cytocidal replication of the virus in these cells, resulting in the release of large amounts of LDV into the circulation. The infection then progresses into life-long, asymptomatic, low-level viremic persistence, which is maintained by LDV replication in newly generated LDV-permissive cells which escapes all antiviral immune responses. In situ hybridization studies of tissue sections of adult FVB mice revealed that by 1 day postinfection (p.i.), LDV-infected cells were present in practically all tissues but were present in the highest numbers in the lymph nodes, spleen, and skin. In the central nervous system, LDV-infected cells were restricted to the leptomeninges. Most of the infected cells had disappeared at 3 days p.i., consistent with the cytocidal nature of the LDV infection, except for small numbers in lymph node, spleen, liver, and testis tissues. These tissues harbored infected cells until at least 90 days p.i. The results suggest that the generation of LDV-permissive cells during the persistent phase is restricted to these tissues. The continued presence of LDV-infected cells in testis tissue suggests the possibility of LDV release in semen and sexual transmission. Most striking was the accumulation of large amounts of LDV RNA in newly generated germinal centers of lymph nodes and the spleen. The LDV RNA was not associated with infected cells but was probably associated with virions or debris of infected, lysed cells. The appearance of LDV RNA in germinal centers in these mice coincided in time with the polyclonal activation of B cells, which leads to the accumulation of polyclonal immunoglobulin G2a and low-molecular-weight immune complexes in the circulation. PMID:7609091

  1. Regulation of glycolysis in the erythrocyte: role of the lactate/pyruvate and NAD/NADH ratios.

    PubMed

    Tilton, W M; Seaman, C; Carriero, D; Piomelli, S

    1991-08-01

    Mature erythrocytes, when removed from the circulation, exhibit severe disturbances of glycolytic flow, with accumulation not only of lactate, the ultimate product of glycolysis, but also of several upstream metabolic intermediates, primarily fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This accumulation may be prevented (and also reverted) by allowing the diffusible end products lactate and pyruvate to leave the cell by equilibrating with a much larger extracellular compartment. The disturbance of erythrocyte glycolysis does not result from direct inhibition by lactate itself but from the interplay between the lactate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (3-PGAD) reactions. The accumulation of intermediates reflects the increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; this leads to a secondary imbalance of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-to-reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD-to-NADH) ratio, which in turn slows down glycolysis at the 3-PGAD step, whose upstream metabolites then pile up. No accumulation, however, takes place if the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio is maintained constant in the extracellular compartment, regardless of concentrations. These studies demonstrate that orderly glycolysis in the erythrocyte is regulated by the NAD-to-NADH ratio and also provide a method that makes possible the in vitro study of erythrocyte glycolysis. PMID:1856577

  2. Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J mice predisposes mice to paralytic infection by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G W; Palmer, G A; Rowland, R R; Even, C; Plagemann, P G

    1995-01-01

    Certain mouse strains, such as AKR and C58, which possess N-tropic, ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviruses and are homozygous at the Fv-1n locus are specifically susceptible to paralytic infection (age-dependent poliomyelitis [ADPM]) by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Our results provide an explanation for this genetic linkage and directly prove that ecotropic MuLV infection of spinal cord cells is responsible for rendering anterior horn neurons susceptible to cytocidal LDV infection, which is the cause of the paralytic disease. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization of total tissue RNA and in situ hybridization of tissue sections demonstrated that only mice harboring central nervous system (CNS) cells that expressed ecotropic MuLV were susceptible to ADPM. Our evidence indicates that the ecotropic MuLV RNA is transcribed in CNS cells from ecotropic MuLV proviruses that have been acquired by infection with exogenous ecotropic MuLV, probably during embryogenesis, the time when germ line proviruses in AKR and C58 mice first become activated. In young mice, MuLV RNA-containing cells were found exclusively in white-matter tracts and therefore were glial cells. An increase in the ADPM susceptibility of the mice with advancing age correlated with the presence of an increased number of ecotropic MuLV RNA-containing cells in the spinal cords which, in turn, correlated with an increase in the number of unmethylated proviruses in the DNA extracted from spinal cords. Studies with AKXD recombinant inbred strains showed that possession of a single replication-competent ecotropic MuLV provirus (emv-11) by Fv-1n/n mice was sufficient to result in ecotropic MuLV infection of CNS cells and ADPM susceptibility. In contrast, no ecotropic MuLV RNA-positive cells were present in the CNSs of mice carrying defective ecotropic MuLV proviruses (emv-3 or emv-13) or in which ecotropic MuLV replication was blocked by the Fv-1n/b or Fv-1b/b phenotype. Such mice were resistant to paralytic LDV infection. In utero infection of CE/J mice, which are devoid of any endogenous ecotropic MuLVs, with the infectious clone of emv-11 (AKR-623) resulted in the infection of CNS cells, and the mice became ADPM susceptible, whereas littermates that had not become infected with ecotropic MuLV remained ADPM resistant. PMID:7983723

  3. Towards catalyst compartimentation in combined chemo- and biocatalytic processes: immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases for the diastereoselective reduction of a ?-hydroxy ketone obtained from an organocatalytic aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Giuseppe; Heidlindemann, Marcel; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2013-11-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from Lactobacillus kefir and Rhodococcus sp., which earlier turned out to be suitable for a chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis with organocatalysts, were immobilized with their cofactors on a commercially available superabsorber based on a literature known protocol. The use of the immobilized ADH from L. kefir in the reduction of acetophenone as a model substrate led to high conversion (>95%) in the first reaction cycle, followed by a slight decrease of conversion in the second reaction cycle. A comparable result was obtained when no cofactor was added although a water rich reaction media was used. The immobilized ADHs also turned out to be suitable catalysts for the diastereoselective reduction of an organocatalytically prepared enantiomerically enriched aldol adduct, leading to high conversion, diastereomeric ratio and enantioselectivity for the resulting 1,3-diols. However, at a lower catalyst and cofactor amount being still sufficient for biotransformations with "free" enzymes the immobilized ADH only showed high conversion and >99% ee for the first reaction cycle whereas a strong decrease of conversion was observed already in the second reaction cycle, thus indicating a significant leaching effect of catalyst and/or cofactor. PMID:24036136

  4. Malate dehydrogenase from the green gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus is phylogenetically related to lactic dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørnar Synstad; Oddmund Emmerhoff; Reidun Sirevåg

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. The mdh gene corresponded to a polypeptide of 309 amino acids with a molecular mass of 32,717 Da. The primary structure and the coenzyme-binding\\u000a domain showed a high degree of similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas the conserved amino acids that participate\\u000a in substrate binding were

  5. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better clinical outcome. PMID:25904838

  6. Reactions of monodithiolene tungsten(VI) sulfido complexes with copper(I) in relation to the structure of the active site of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Groysman, Stanislav; Majumdar, Amit; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Holm, R H

    2010-02-01

    Reactions directed at the synthesis of structural analogues of the active site of molybdenum-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase have been investigated utilizing [WO(2)S(bdt)](2-) (1) and [WOS(2)(bdt)](2-) (2) and sterically hindered [Cu(R)L] or [Cu(SSiR'(3))(2)](-) as reactants. All successful reactions of 2 afford the binuclear W(VI)/Cu(I) products [WO(bdt)(mu(2)-S)(2)Cu(L)](2-/-) with L = carbene (3), Ar*S (4), Ar* (7), SSiR(3) (R = Ph (5), Pr(i) (6)). Similarly, [W(bdt)(OSiPh(3))S(2)](-) leads to [W(bdt)(OSiPh(3))(mu(2)-S)(2)Cu(SAr*)](-) (8). These complexes, with apical oxo and basal dithiolato and sulfido coordination (excluding 8), terminal thiolate ligation at Cu(I) (4-6, 8), and W-(mu(2)-S)-Cu bridging, bear a structural resemblance to the enzyme site. Differences include two bridges instead of one and the absence of basal oxo/hydroxo ligation. Complex 8 differs from the others by utilizing apical and basal sulfido ligands in bridge formation. Related reaction systems based on 1 gave 4 in small yield or product mixtures in which the desired monobridged complex [WO(2)(bdt)(mu(2)-S)Cu(R)](2-) was not detected. Mass spectrometric analysis of the reaction system with L = carbene suggests that any monobridged species forms may converted to the dibridged form by disproportionation. In these experiments, the use of W(VI) preserves the structural integrity of Mo(VI), whose analogues of 1 and 2 have not been isolated. (Ar* = 2,6-bis(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)phenyl, bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate(2-)). PMID:20030373

  7. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  8. Heavy atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneth, Piotr

    1994-05-01

    The theory of isotope effects, which has proved to be extremely useful in providing geometrical details of transition states in a variety of chemical reactions, has recently found an application in studies of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. These reactions are multistep in nature with few steps being partially rate-limiting, thus interpretation of these isotope effects is more complex. The theoretical framework of heavy-atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions is critically analyzed on the basis of recent results of: carbon kinetic isotope effects on carbonic anhydrase and catalytic antibodies; multiple carbon, deuterium isotope effects on reactions catalyzed by formate decarboxylase; oxygen isotope effects on binding processes in reactions catalyzed by pyruvate kinase; and equilibrium oxygen isotope effect on binding an inhibitor to lactate dehydrogenase. The advantages and disadvantages of reaction complexity in learning details of formal and molecular mechanisms are discussed in the examples of reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, orotidine decarboxylase and glutamine synthetase.

  9. Importance of glutamate 87 and the substrate ?-amine for the reaction catalyzed by D-arginine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jacob; Bui, Quan V V; Gannavaram, Swathi; Gadda, Giovanni

    2015-02-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa D-arginine dehydrogenase (PaDADH) catalyzes the oxidation of D-arginine to iminoarginine, which is non-enzymatically hydrolyzed to 2-ketoarginine and ammonia. Here, site-directed mutagenesis and pH effects were used to investigate binding and catalysis of zwitterionic and cationic substrates for the enzyme. An unprotonated group with apparent pKa value ?7.9 is required for binding D-arginine or D-lysine, but not D-methionine or D-leucine. This group is E87, as suggested by its replacement with leucine. An unprotonated group with pKa of 9.5, which persists in the H48F and E87L variants, is required for amine oxidation with all substrates. Since Y53 and Y249 were previously ruled out, the pKa is assigned to the substrate ?-NH3(+) group, which previous QM/MM and Kd pH-profile demonstrated to be protonated for preferred binding to the enzyme. Lack of pH effects on the (D)kred with D-leucine established 9.5 as the intrinsic pKa, and D-leucine as a non-sticky substrate. D-Arginine, D-lysine and D-methionine and their corresponding iminoproducts were significantly stickier than D-leucine, as indicated by apparent pKa values <9.5 in both kcat/Km and kcat. Restricted proton movements in catalysis were established from hollowed kcat pH profiles in wild-type PaDADH with D-lysine and in the H48F and E87L enzymes with D-arginine. PMID:25637657

  10. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant ?26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant ?32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species. PMID:26167158

  11. Functions of the Membrane-Associated and Cytoplasmic Malate Dehydrogenases in the Citric Acid Cycle of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Douwe; van der Rest, Michel E.; Drysch, André; Yücel, Raif

    2000-01-01

    Like many other bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses two types of l-malate dehydrogenase, a membrane-associated malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO; EC 1.1.99.16) and a cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) The regulation of MDH and of the three membrane-associated dehydrogenases MQO, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and NADH dehydrogenase was investigated. MQO, MDH, and SDH activities are regulated coordinately in response to the carbon and energy source for growth. Compared to growth on glucose, these activities are increased during growth on lactate, pyruvate, or acetate, substrates which require high citric acid cycle activity to sustain growth. The simultaneous presence of high activities of both malate dehydrogenases is puzzling. MQO is the most important malate dehydrogenase in the physiology of C. glutamicum. A mutant with a site-directed deletion in the mqo gene does not grow on minimal medium. Growth can be partially restored in this mutant by addition of the vitamin nicotinamide. In contrast, a double mutant lacking MQO and MDH does not grow even in the presence of nicotinamide. Apparently, MDH is able to take over the function of MQO in an mqo mutant, but this requires the presence of nicotinamide in the growth medium. It is shown that addition of nicotinamide leads to a higher intracellular pyridine nucleotide concentration, which probably enables MDH to catalyze malate oxidation. Purified MDH from C. glutamicum catalyzes oxaloacetate reduction much more readily than malate oxidation at physiological pH. In a reconstituted system with isolated membranes and purified MDH, MQO and MDH catalyze the cyclic conversion of malate and oxaloacetate, leading to a net oxidation of NADH. Evidence is presented that this cyclic reaction also takes place in vivo. As yet, no phenotype of an mdh deletion alone was observed, which leaves a physiological function for MDH in C. glutamicum obscure. PMID:11092846

  12. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  13. Augmented cerebellar lactate in copper deficient rat pups originates from both blood and cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Gybina, Anna A.; Prohaska, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for proper brain development, particularly the cerebellum, and functions as a cofactor for enzymes including mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Cu deficiency severely limits CCO activity. Augmented lactate in brain of Cu deficient (Cu?) humans and cerebella of Cu? rats is though to originate from impaired mitochondria. However, brain lactate may also originate from elevated blood lactate. The hypothesis that cerebellar lactate originates from elevated blood lactate in Cu? rat pups was tested. Analysis of Cu? and Cu adequate (Cu+) rat pups (experiment I) revealed blood lactate was elevated in Cu? rat pups and cerebellar lactate levels were closely correlated to blood lactate concentration. A second rat experiment (experiment II) assessed Cu? cerebellar lactate without the confounding factor of elevated blood lactate. Blood lactate levels of Cu? rat pups in experiment II were equal to those of controls; however, Cu? cerebellar lactate was still elevated, suggesting mitochondrial impairment by Cu deficiency. Treatment of rat pups with dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), lowered Cu? cerebellar lactate to control levels suggesting PDC inhibition is a site of mitochondrial impairment in Cu? cerebella. Results suggest Cu? cerebellar lactate originates from blood and cerebellum. PMID:19319671

  14. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  15. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  16. Direct and Nitroxyl (HNO)-Mediated Reactions of Acyloxy Nitroso Compounds with the Thiol- Containing Proteins Glyceraldehyde 3- Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase Subunit C

    PubMed Central

    Mitroka, Susan; Shoman, Mai E.; DuMond, Jenna F.; Bellavia, Landon; Aly, Omar M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; King, S. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) reacts with thiols and this reactivity requires the use of donors with 1-nitrosocyclohexyl acetate, pivalate and trifluoroacetate forming a new group. These acyloxy nitroso compounds inhibit glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) by forming a reduction reversible active site disulfide and a reduction irreversible sulfinic acid or sulfinamide modification at Cys 244. Addition of these acyloxy nitroso compounds to AhpC C165S yields a sulfinic acid and sulfinamide modification. A potential mechanism for these transformations includes nucleophilic addition of the protein thiol to a nitroso compound to yield an N-hydroxysulfenamide, which reacts with thiol to give disulfide or rearranges to sulfinamides. Known HNO donors produce the un-substituted protein sulfinamide as the major product while the acetate and pivalate give substituted sulfinamides that hydrolyze to sulfinic acids. These results suggest that nitroso compounds form a general class of thiol-modifying compounds allowing their further exploration. PMID:23895568

  17. Identification of the Genes That Contribute to Lactate Utilization in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137–0139 (lldEFG), hp0140–0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137–0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140–0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137–0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140–0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

  18. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 '?=?-190?mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 '?=?-320?mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A.?woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 '???-500?mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate?+?Fd(2-) ?+?2 NAD(+) ???pyruvate?+?Fd?+?2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( ? ? ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes. PMID:24762045

  19. The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Edward C.

    1988-01-01

    Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

  20. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

  1. Characterization of the L-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacie A. Brown; Marvin Whiteley; Paul Cobine

    2009-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource

  2. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II...

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. W. Plagemann; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Chen Even; Kay S. Faaberg

    1995-01-01

    LDV contradicts all commonly held views about mechanisms of virus persistence, namely that persistence is primarily associated with noncytopathic viruses, or the selection of immune escape variants or other mutants, or a decrease in expression of certain viral proteins by infected cells, or replication in “immune-privileged sites”, or a general suppression of the host immune system, etc. [1, 2, 5,

  4. Partial reconstruction of in vitro gluconeogenesis arising from mitochondrial l-lactate uptake/metabolism and oxaloacetate export via novel L-lactate translocators.

    PubMed Central

    De Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    In the light of the occurrence of L-lactate dehydrogenase inside the mitochondrial matrix, we looked at whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize L-lactate, and provide oxaloacetate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to a partial reconstruction of gluconeogenesis in vitro. We found that: (1) L-lactate (10 mM), added to mitochondria in the presence of a cocktail of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis enzymes and cofactors, can lead to synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate at a rate of about 7 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein. (2) Three novel translocators exist to mediate L-lactate traffic across the inner mitochondrial membrane. An L-lactate/H+ symporter was identified by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous pyridine nucleotide reduction. Consistently, L-lactate oxidation was found to occur with P/O ratio=3 (where P/O ratio is the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation) and with generation of membrane potential. Proton uptake, which occurred as a result of addition of L-lactate to RLM together with electron flow inhibitors, and mitochondrial swelling in ammonium L-lactate solutions were also monitored. L-Lactate/oxaloacetate and L-lactate/pyruvate anti-porters were identified by monitoring photometrically the appearance of L-lactate counter-anions outside mitochondria. These L-lactate translocators, which are distinct from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in V(max) values and in inhibition and pH profiles, and proved to regulate mitochondrial L-lactate metabolism in vitro. The role of lactate/mitochondria interactions in gluconeogenesis is discussed. PMID:14960150

  5. Lactate stress testing by bedside lactate determination.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2003-12-01

    Lactate determination for the lactate-stress-test (LST) by means of a bedside method has not been performed. Serum lactate was determined by means of the Ektachrome Clinical Chemistry Slide (LST1) and bedside by means of the Acutrend Lactate (LST2) once before, 3 times during, and once after a 15-min, constant 30-W workload on a bicycle in 20 controls, 21 disease controls, and 22 patients with mitochondriopathy (MCP). Lactate's upper reference limits at rest, 5, 10, 15 min after starting, and 15 min after finishing the exercise were 2.0, 1.9, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.5 mmol/L for the LST1 and 2.5, 2.9, 2.5, 2.7, and 2.0 mmol/L for the LST2. The LSTI (LST2) was abnormal in 17 (18) MCP patients, 7 (3) disease controls, and none (none) of the healthy subjects. The sensitivity of the LST1 (LST2) for MCP patients was 77% (82%). The specificity of the LST1 (LST2) was 67% (86%). Sensitivity and specificity of the LST2 are higher than that of the LST1. The LST2 can thus replace the LST1, since it is also easier to handle, quick, reliable, and cheaper. PMID:15128184

  6. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  7. Analysis of conformationally restricted alpha-ketoglutarate analogues as substrates of dehydrogenases and aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Denton, T T; Thompson, C M; Cooper, A J

    2001-11-15

    Five synthetic, conformationally restricted alpha-ketoglutarate analogues were tested as substrates of a variety of dehydrogenases and aminotransferases. The compounds were found not to be detectable substrates of glutamate dehydrogenase, L-leucine dehydrogenase, L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine transaminase K, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. However, two thermostable aminotransferases were identified that catalyze transamination between several L-amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, glutamate) and the alpha-ketoglutarate analogues of interest. Transamination between L-glutamate (or L-phenylalanine) and the alpha-ketoglutarate analogues was found to be 0.13 to 1.08 micromol/h/mg at 45 degrees C. The products resulting from transamination between L-phenylalanine and the alpha-ketoglutarate analogues were separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and the newly formed amino acid analogues were analyzed by LC-MS in an ion selective mode. In each case, the ions obtained were consistent with the expected product and a representative example is provided. The possibility existed that although the alpha-ketoglutarate analogues are not substrates of the dehydrogenases and most of the aminotransferases investigated, they might be good inhibitors. Weak inhibition of aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase was found with some of the alpha-ketoglutarate analogues. The newly available thermostable aminotransferases may have general utility in the synthesis of bulky L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids. PMID:11700982

  8. Energetics of two-step binding of a chromophoric reaction product, trans-3-indoleacryloyl-CoA, to medium-chain acyl-coenzyme-A dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Qin, L; Srivastava, D K

    1998-03-10

    We previously demonstrated that the UV/visible spectrum of a chromophoric ligand, trans-3-indoleacryloyl-coenzyme-A (IACoA), is red-shifted (due to polarization of its carbonyl group) upon binding to pig kidney medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). The transient kinetic data revealed that the overall binding occurred in two steps. The first (fast) step involved the formation of an MCAD-IACoA collision complex in which the electronic structure of IACoA remained unchanged (the "colorless" complex), followed by a slow isomerization step with a concomitant red-shift in the IACoA spectrum (the "colored" complex) [Johnson, J. K., Wang, Z. X., and Srivastava, D. K. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 10564-10575]. To ascertain the energetics of the above two-step process, we investigated the temperature dependence of the spectral changes, binding constant of the MCAD-IACoA complex, and the rate constants for the conversion between the colorless and colored complexes. The data revealed that as the temperature of the incubation mixture of MCAD and IACoA ([IACoA] > [MCAD] > Kd) increases from 12 to 35 degrees C, the resultant spectral peak of the MCAD-IACoA complex (lambda max = 417 nm) decreases. However, in this temperature range, the equilibrium constant for the second (isomerization) step remains unaffected. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies for the binding of IACoA to MCAD reveal that the overall binding energy at 25 degrees C (delta G degree = -7.4 kcal/mol) is contributed almost equally by the enthalpic (delta H degree = -3.7 kcal/mol) and entropic (T delta S degree = 3.7 kcal/mol) changes. As the temperature increases, both delta H degree and T delta S degree decrease proportionately, resulting in a strong enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. The temperature dependence of delta H degree yields a delta Cp degree value of -0.24 kcal/mol. The data presented herein throw light on the energetic consequences for the binding of IACoA to MCAD, the apparent similarity between the van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies, enthalpic and entropic contributions during the polarization of the carbonyl group of IACoA, and the overall structural-functional features of the enzyme-ligand complex as well as enzyme catalysis. PMID:9521671

  9. On the Role of Conserved Histidine 106 in 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Catalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey A. Krupenko; Alexander P. Vlasov; Conrad Wagner

    The enzyme, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH), converts 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-formyl- THF) to tetrahydrofolate in an NADP1-dependent dehy- drogenase reaction or an NADP1-independent hydrolase reaction. The hydrolase reaction occurs in a 310-amino acid long amino-terminal domain of FDH (Nt-FDH), whereas the dehydrogenase reaction requires the full- length enzyme. The amino-terminal domain of FDH shares some sequence identity with several other en- zymes utilizing

  10. No evidence of an intracellular lactate shuttle in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Kent; Fernström, Maria; Svensson, Michael; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2002-01-01

    The concerted view is that cytosolic pyruvate is transferred into mitochondria and after oxidative decarboxylation further metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Recently this view has been challenged. Based on experimental evidence from rat skeletal muscle it has been concluded that mitochondria predominantly oxidize lactate in vivo and that this constitutes part of an ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’. This view appears to be gaining acceptance in the scientific community and due to its conceptual importance, confirmation by independent experiments is required. We have repeated the experiments in mitochondria isolated from rat soleus muscle. Contrary to the previously published findings we cannot find any mitochondrial respiration with lactate. Analysis of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by spectrophotometry demonstrated that the activity in the mitochondrial fraction was only 0.7 % of total activity. However, even when external LDH was added to mitochondria, there were no signs of respiration with lactate. In the presence of conditions where lactate is converted to pyruvate (external additions of both LDH and NAD+), mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased. Furthermore, we provide theoretical evidence that direct mitochondrial lactate oxidation is energetically unlikely. Based on the present data we conclude that direct mitochondrial lactate oxidation does not occur in skeletal muscle. The presence of an ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ can therefore be questioned. PMID:12042360

  11. Production of panic-like symptoms by lactate is associated with increased neural firing and oxidation of brain redox in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bergold, Peter J; Pinkhasova, Valariya; Syed, Maryam; Kao, Hsin-Yi; Jozwicka, Anna; Zhao, Ning; Coplan, Jeremy D; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Fenton, André A

    2009-04-10

    Lactate uses an unknown mechanism to induce panic attacks in people and panic-like symptoms in rodents. We tested whether intraperitoneal (IP) lactate injections act peripherally or centrally to induce panic-like symptoms in rats by examining whether IP lactate directly affects the CNS. In Long-Evans rats, IP lactate (2 mmol/kg) injection increased lactate levels in the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid. IP lactate also induced tachycardia and behavioral freezing suggesting the production of panic-like behavior. To enter intermediate metabolism, lactate is oxidized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to pyruvate with co-reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. Therefore, we measured the ratio of NADH/NAD(+) to test whether IP lactate altered lactate metabolism in the CNS. Lactate metabolism was studied in the hippocampus, a brain region believed to contribute to panic-like symptoms. IP lactate injection lowered the ratio of NADH/NAD(+) without altering the total amount of NADH and NAD(+) suggesting oxidation of hippocampal redox state. Lactate oxidized hippocampal redox since intrahippocampal injection of the LDH inhibitor, oxamate (50mM) prevented the oxidation of NADH/NAD(+) by IP lactate. In addition to oxidizing hippocampal redox, IP lactate rapidly increased the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Similar IP pyruvate injections had no effect. Neural discharge also increased following intrahippocampal lactate injection suggesting that increased discharge was a direct action of lactate on the hippocampus. These studies show that oxidation of brain redox and increased hippocampal firing are direct actions of lactate on the CNS that may contribute to the production of lactate-induced panic. PMID:19429039

  12. Activity of select dehydrogenases with Sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-03-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD. PMID:25611453

  13. Lactic dehydrogenase and cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Monica; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Daniele; Calogero, Armando; Naviglio, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the intense scientific efforts made, there are still many tumors that are difficult to treat and the percentage of patient survival in the long-term is still too low. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of cancer are needed. Cancer is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease, whose development requires a reorganization of cell metabolism. Most tumor cells downregulate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increase the rate of glucose consumption and lactate release, independently of oxygen availability (Warburg effect). This metabolic rewiring is largely believed to favour tumor growth and survival, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Importantly, the correlation between the aerobic glycolysis and cancer is widely regarded as a useful biochemical basis for the development of novel anticancer strategies. Among the enzymes involved in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is emerging as a very attractive target for possible pharmacological approaches in cancer therapy. This review addresses the state of the art and the perspectives concerning LDH both as a useful diagnostic marker and a relevant molecular target in cancer therapy and management. PMID:25961554

  14. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in §...

  15. Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Michael J.; Schubert, Karel R.

    1983-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.95), an enzyme believed to be involved in the synthesis of serine, an intermediate in ureide biosynthesis, has been purified about 200-fold from nodules of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Amsoy 71). The reaction was reversible and exhibited a strong pH dependence with optima of 9.4 and 6.1 for the forward and reverse reactions. The Km values for the forward reaction were 0.25 millimolar for NAD+ and 0.29 millimolar for d-3-phosphoglycerate at pH 9.4, while those for the reverse reaction were 12 ?m for NADH and 0.15 millimolar for 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate at pH 7.5. NADPH functioned as an alternate reductant with a Km of 0.15 millimolar. Product inhibition for the reverse reaction was competitive for NAD+ with respect to NADH and noncompetitive for phosphoglycerate with respect to phosphohydroxypyruvate. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity was dependent on inorganic ions and was not inhibited by serine. PMID:16662883

  16. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  17. The changes of ?-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase isozymes in Solenopsis invicta queens during development and colony founding 

    E-print Network

    Dowler, Megan Gail

    1978-01-01

    on the frequency of the oscillatory contractions (Pringle 1965). The flight muacle of other insect orders behave like leg muscles, i. e. , their contractions are controlled directly from the nervous system. et-GPDH and LDH. --Insect muscles are among the most... dehydrogenase (LDH), resulting in a build up of lactate and an oxygen debt. Insect flight muscle oper- ates under high oxygen conditions and is low in LDH but high in at ? glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (4-GPDH). The LDH in insect leg muscle is usually...

  18. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A {sup 13}C-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel [Metabolomique et Maladies Metaboliques, Institut National de la Sante et de la recherche Medicale, Unit 820, Faculte de Medecine R.T.H. Laennec, Universite de Lyon, 7-11 rue G. Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Conjard-Duplany, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.duplany@recherche.univ-lyon1.f [Metabolomique et Maladies Metaboliques, Institut National de la Sante et de la recherche Medicale, Unit 820, Faculte de Medecine R.T.H. Laennec, Universite de Lyon, 7-11 rue G. Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[2-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[3-{sup 13}C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  19. Central carbon metabolism in marine bacteria examined with a simplified assay for dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Wen, Weiwei; Wang, Shizhen; Zhou, Xiaofen; Fang, Baishan

    2013-06-01

    A simplified assay platform was developed to measure the activities of the key oxidoreductases in central carbon metabolism of various marine bacteria. Based on microplate assay, the platform was low-cost and simplified by unifying the reaction conditions of enzymes including temperature, buffers, and ionic strength. The central carbon metabolism of 16 marine bacteria, involving Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Marinobacter, Citreicella, and Novosphingobium were studied. Six key oxidoreductases of central carbon metabolism, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were investigated by testing their activities in the pathway. High activity of malate dehydrogenase was found in Citreicella marina, and the specific activity achieved 22 U/mg in cell crude extract. The results also suggested that there was a considerable variability on key enzymes' activities of central carbon metabolism in some strains which have close evolutionary relationship while they adapted to the requirements of the niche they (try to) occupy. PMID:23553104

  20. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed Central

    Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192

  1. Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 ?M as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

  2. Suppression of NDA-Type Alternative Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana Modifies Growth and Metabolism, but not High Light Stimulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wallström, Sabá V.; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L.; Escobar, Matthew A.; Geisler, Daniela A.; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2014-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

  3. Citalopram in pregnancy and lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuija Heikkinen; Ulla Ekblad; Pentti Kero; Satu Ekblad; Kari Laine

    2002-01-01

    Background: Although citalopram has gained wide acceptance in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, its use during pregnancy and lactation has been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of citalopram in relation to concentrations of citalopram and its metabolites during pregnancy and lactation.Methods: Eleven mothers taking citalopram and their infants were

  4. Crystal Structure of Lactaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and Inferences Regarding Substrate and Cofactor Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, Luigi; Gomez, German A.; Christianson, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of aldehyde substrates to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli (aldA gene product, P25553) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme implicated in the metabolism of L-fucose and L-rhamnose. During the heterologous expression and purification of taxadiene synthase from the Pacific yew, lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli was identified as a minor (? 5%) side product subsequent to its unexpected crystallization. Accordingly, we now report the serendipitous crystal structure determination of unliganded lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli determined by the technique of multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering at 2.2 Å... resolution. Additionally, we report the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme complex with products lactate and NADH at 2.1 Å... resolution, and the crystal structure of the enzyme complex with NADPH at 2.7 Å... resolution. The structure of the ternary complex reveals that the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor is disordered between two conformations: one with the ring positioned in the active site in the so-called “hydrolysis” conformation, and another with the ring extended out of the active site into the solvent region, designated the “out” conformation. This represents the first crystal structure of an aldehyde dehydrogenase-product complex. The active site pocket in which lactate binds is more constricted than that of medium-chain dehydrogenases such as the YdcW gene product of E. coli. The structure of the binary complex with NADPH reveals the first view of the structural basis of specificity for NADH: the negatively charged carboxylate group of E179 sterically and electrostatically destabilizes the binding of the 2?-phosphate group of NADPH, thereby accounting for the lack of enzyme activity with this cofactor. PMID:17173928

  5. Synthesis of Triptorelin Lactate Catalyzed by Lipase in Organic Media

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Hong; Xun, Erna; Chen, Ge; Yue, Hong; Tang, Ning; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in the reaction for about 48 h. PMID:22949842

  6. The role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an enzymatic methylation reaction. Methylation of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase by the methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein.

    PubMed

    Menon, S; Ragsdale, S W

    1999-04-23

    This paper focuses on how a methyl group is transferred from a methyl-cobalt(III) species on one protein (the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP)) to a nickel iron-sulfur cluster on another protein (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase). This is an essential step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The results described here strongly indicate that transfer of methyl group to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase occurs by an SN2 pathway. They also provide convincing evidence that oxidative inactivation of Co(I) competes with methylation. Under the conditions of our anaerobic assay, Co(I) escapes from the catalytic cycle one in every 100 turnover cycles. Reductive activation of the CFeSP is required to regenerate Co(I) and recruit the protein back into the catalytic cycle. Our results strongly indicate that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP is required for reductive activation. They support the hypothesis that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP does not participate directly in the methyl transfer step but provides a conduit for electron flow from physiological reductants to the cobalt center. PMID:10206956

  7. Lactate Utilization Is Regulated by the FadR-Type Regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min

    2012-01-01

    NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an l-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a d-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses d-iLDH and l-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldRM, lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. l-Lactate and d-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, l-iLDH and d-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of l-lactate or d-lactate. PMID:22408166

  8. Reaction products and intermediates of tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Davidson; Zhenyu Zhu

    2000-01-01

    Methylamine dehydrogenase and aromatic amine dehydrogenase each possess the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines and transfer of substrate-derived electrons to type I copper proteins. The reaction steps and intermediates in the overall oxidation–reduction reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are described. An important feature of the reaction mechanism of TTQ-dependent amine dehydrogenases is that

  9. Bifunctional isocitrate–homoisocitrate dehydrogenase: A missing link in the evolution of ?-decarboxylating dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Miyazaki

    2005-01-01

    ?-Decarboxylating dehydrogenases comprise 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. They share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and occupy equivalent positions in the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for leucine, glutamate, and lysine, respectively. Therefore, not only the enzymes but also the whole pathways should have evolved from a common ancestral pathway. In Pyrococcus horikoshii, only one pathway

  10. Synthesis of allysine ethylene acetal using phenylalanine dehydrogenase from Thermoactinomyces intermedius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L Hanson; Jeffrey M Howell; Thomas L LaPorte; Mary Jo Donovan; Dana L Cazzulino; Valerie Zannella; Michael A Montana; Venkata B Nanduri; Steven R Schwarz; Ronald F Eiring; Susan C Durand; John M Wasylyk; William L Parker; Mark S Liu; Francis J Okuniewicz; Bang-Chi Chen; John C Harris; Kenneth J Natalie; Keith Ramig; Shankar Swaminathan; Victor W Rosso; Shawn K Pack; Bruce T Lotz; Peter J Bernot; Andrew Rusowicz; David A Lust; Kai S Tse; John J Venit; Laszlo J Szarka; Ramesh N Patel

    2000-01-01

    Allysine ethylene acetal [(S)-2-amino-5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-pentanoic acid (2)] was prepared from the corresponding keto acid by reductive amination using phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PDH) from Thermoactinomyces intermedius ATCC 33205. Glutamate, alanine, and leucine dehydrogenases, and PDH from Sporosarcina species (listed in order of increasing effectiveness) also gave the desired amino acid but were less effective. The reaction requires ammonia and NADH. NAD produced during

  11. Liver fat content and lipid metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation and during a mid-lactation feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-08-01

    During the transition period, the lipid metabolism of dairy cows is markedly affected by energy status. Fatty liver is one of the main health disorders after parturition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages in lactation [NEB at the onset of lactation postpartum (p.p.) and a deliberately induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d in milk] on liver triglyceride content and parameters of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver based on mRNA abundance of associated genes. Fifty multiparous dairy cows were studied from wk 3 antepartum to approximately wk 17 p.p. in 2 periods. According to their energy balance in period 1 (parturition to wk 12 p.p.), cows were allocated to a control (CON; n=25) or a restriction group (RES; 70% of energy requirements; n=25) for 3 wk in mid lactation starting at around 100 d in milk (period 2). Liver triglyceride (TG) content, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and ?-hydroxybutyrate were highest in wk 1 p.p. and decreased thereafter. During period 2, feed restriction did not affect liver TG and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration, whereas NEFA concentration was increased in RES cows as compared with CON cows. Hepatic mRNA abundances of tumor necrosis factor ?, ATP citrate lyase, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 were not altered by lactational and energy status during both experimental periods. The expression of fatty acid synthase was higher in period 2 compared with period 1, but did not differ between RES and CON groups. The mRNA abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase showed a tendency toward higher expression during period 2 compared with period 1. The solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1 (SLC27A1) was upregulated in wk 1 p.p. and also during feed restriction in RES cows. In conclusion, the present study shows that a NEB has different effects on hepatic lipid metabolism and TG concentration in the liver of dairy cows at early and later lactation. Therefore, the homeorhetic adaptations during the periparturient period trigger excessive responses in metabolism, whereas during the homeostatic control of endocrine and metabolic systems after established lactation, as during the period of feed restriction in the present study, organs are well adapted to metabolic and environmental changes. PMID:23746584

  12. The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

  13. Purification and properties of Klebsiella aerogenes D-arabitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M S; Patterson, R A; Hartley, B S

    1979-01-01

    An Escherichia coli K12 strain was constructed that synthesized elevated quantities of Klebsiella aerogenes D-arabitol dehydrogenase; the enzyme accounted for about 5% of the soluble protein in this strain. Some 280 mg of enzyme was purified from 180 g of cell paste. The purified enzyme was active as a monomer of 46,000 mol.wt. The amino acid composition and kinetic constants of the enzyme for D-arabitol and D-mannitol are reported. The apparent Km for D-mannitol was more than 3-fold that for D-arabitol, whereas the maximum velocities with both substrates were indistinguishable. The enzyme purified from the E. coli K12 construct was indistinguishable by the criteria of molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility in native polyacrylamide gel and D-mannitol/D-arabitol activity ratio from D-arabitol dehydrogenase synthesized in wild-type K. aerogenes. Purified D-arabitol dehydrogenase showed no immunological cross-reaction with K. aerogenes ribitol dehydrogenase. During electrophoresis in native polyacrylamide gels, oxidation by persulphate catalysed the formation of inactive polymeric forms of the enzyme. Dithiothreitol and pre-electrophoresis protected against this polymerization. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:393250

  14. Hypoxia stimulates lactate disposal in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Teye; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-15

    Current understanding of lactate metabolism in fish is based almost entirely on the interpretation of concentration measurements that cannot be used to infer changes in flux. The goals of this investigation were: (1) to quantify baseline lactate fluxes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under normoxic conditions; (2) to establish how changes in rates of lactate appearance (R(a)) and disposal (R(d)) account for the increase in blood lactate elicited by hypoxia; and (3) to identify the tissues responsible for lactate production. R(a) and R(d) lactate of rainbow trout were measured in vivo by continuous infusion of [U-(14)C]lactate in trout exposed to 25% O(2) saturation or maintained in normoxia for 90 min. In normoxic fish, R(a) lactate decreased from 18.2 to 13.1 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1) and R(d) lactate from 19.0 to 12.8. R(a) and R(d) were always matched, thereby maintaining a steady baseline blood lactate concentration of ?0.8 mmol l(-1). By contrast, the hypoxic fish increased blood lactate to 8.9 mmol l(-1) and R(a) lactate from 18.4 to 36.5 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1). This stimulation of anaerobic glycolysis was unexpectedly accompanied by a 52% increase in R(d) lactate from 19.9 to 30.3 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1). White muscle was the main producer of lactate, which accumulated to 19.2 ?mol g(-1) in this tissue. This first study of non-steady-state lactate kinetics in fish shows that the increase in lactate disposal elicited by hypoxia plays a strategic role in reducing the lactate load on the circulation. Without this crucial response, blood lactate accumulation would double. PMID:21037059

  15. Functional Replacement of the Escherichia coliD-(-)Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhA) with the L-(+)Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhL) from Pediococcus acidilactici

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengde Zhou; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram

    2003-01-01

    The microbial production of L-()-lactic acid is rapidly expanding to allow increased production of poly- lactic acid (PLA), a renewable, biodegradable plastic. The physical properties of PLA can be tailored for specific applications by controlling the ratio of L-() and D-() isomers. For most uses of PLA, the L-() isomer is more abundant. As an approach to reduce costs associated

  16. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  17. Needle-type lactate biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Atanasov, P; Wilkins, E

    1999-02-01

    A needle-type lactate biosensor has been developed for continuous intravascular lactate monitoring. The sensor employs poly(1,3-phenylenediamine) as the inner layer on the platinum electrode in order to eliminate the interference from oxidizable physiological substances. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde was used for enzyme immobilization. Dithiothreitol was used as the stabilizer of lactate oxidase. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was chosen as the external diffusion control membrane. Sensor performance was evaluated in vitro and the sensor shows a sensitivity of 10-15 nA/mM, and a linear range from 1 mM to at least 15 mM lactate. Evaluation of the sensor response in blood plasma showed similar sensitivity and linear range as indicated by the calibration curves obtained in buffer solution. The sensor has a short response time of approximately 1 minute. The sensors were operated continuously for 7 days in phosphate buffer containing solution with a concentration at the physiological lactate level. No significant change in sensor sensitivity and its linear range has been observed. Sensors show a minimum change in its performance when stored in buffer at 4 degrees C for at least 9 months. PMID:10101841

  18. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-15

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1). This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  19. Strategy for the isolation of native dehydrogenases with potential for biosensor development from the organism Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii ZV580.

    PubMed

    Hilbrig, Frank; Jérôme, Valérie; Salzig, Mark; Freitag, Ruth

    2009-04-17

    Dehydrogenases are interesting candidates for the development of electrochemical biosensors. Most dehydrogenases are characterised by a comparatively broad substrate spectrum, yet highly specific enzymes exist as well. A specific formaldehyde dehydrogenase has, e.g., been described for the organism Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii ZV580. Isolation of enzymes from their natural source instead of a recombinant expression renders the isolation more challenging, as common tools such as affinity tags are no longer available. In this contribution, we develop chromatographic procedures for such isolation tasks. The previously described formaldehyde dehydrogenase was isolated by two procedures, one based on affinity chromatography, the other on hydroxyapatite. Neither procedure yielded an active enzyme. In addition two dehydrogenases, a formaldehyde and a methylamine dehydrogenase, were found in the cell free extract, which had not been described previously. Both enzymes could be isolated to near purity by a sequence of hydroxyapatite and anion exchange chromatography. The new formaldehyde dehydrogenase requires reconstitution with calcium and pyrroloquinoline quinone in order to become active. The enzyme shows no cross-reactivity with methylamine or methanol. The methylamine dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of methylamine into formaldehyde, hence it could become a technical catalyst for the inverse reaction. This enzyme consists of two types of subunit and may be one of the rare alpha,beta-methylamine dehydrogenases. PMID:18835606

  20. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of fat metabolism genes in mammary tissue of lactating and non-lactating water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, Ranjit Singh; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and secretion is important for dairy industry, as the nature of the cream fraction influences the manufacturing properties and organoleptic qualities of milk and dairy products. So, there is a need to understand the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and to elucidate the key genes regulating milk fat synthesis by studying the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis. Present manuscript reports the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis and metabolism in buffalo mammary tissue. The expression of lipogenic genes was studied in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissue of water buffalo by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis. The genes studied were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), 3 hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), LIPIN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF). The expression of ACACA, BDH, LIPIN, PPARG, LPL, and SREBF was higher in lactating as compared to non-lactating buffalo whereas no difference was found in the expression of SCD between both the stages. PMID:21965031

  1. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23999443

  2. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L

    2013-09-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23999443

  3. alpha-Amylase activity by the Beckman reaction system and suppression by pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Hanson, N Q; Yasmineh, W G

    1979-07-01

    We evaluated the new Beckman Enzymatic Amyalse-DS Method with maltotetraose as substrate. Our findings indicate that the method is approximately twice as sensitive as the old method involving soluble starch [Clin. Chem. 24, 762 (1978)]. The new method also shows a linear rate of reaction, in contrast to the curvilinear rate previously observed with the old method. The Km with maltotetraose is 0.77 g/L, or about twice that with soluble starch (0.42 g/L). The method correlates well with the Phadebas alpha-amylase method (r = 0.974 and 0.991 on 84 serum and 52 urine specimens, respectively). Of 43 specimens with high concentrations of pyruvate we examined for interference with alpha-amylase activity, only six showed interference when maltotetraose was the substrate. (With both Beckman methods the reaction of pyruvate with NADH produced lactate and NAD+ in the presence of lactate dehydrogenase as contaminant.) Pyruvate interference decreased with increases in (a) the alpha-amylase activity of the specimen, (b) the amount of NADH initially present in the maltotetraose reagent, and (c) the length of time the reconstituted maltotetroase reagent was allowed to stand before being used. PMID:222501

  4. A Successful Induction of Lactation in Surrogate Pregnancy with Metoclopramide and Review of Lactation Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzieh Shiva; Mitra Frotan; Arezoo Arabipoor; Elahe Mirzaaga

    In surrogate pregnancies genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding with their infants, either prenatally (in utero) or during the immediate postnatal period. Procedures commonly used to induce lactation include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, often in combination. Studies reporting induced lactation are sparse, due to the rarity of augmented lactation. Here we report a case of lactation induction

  5. Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2009-12-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

  6. Polymorphisms of Human Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilis Vasiliou; Aglaia Pappa

    2000-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes with similar primary structures, catalyze the oxidation of a wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Thus far, 16 ALDH genes with distinct chromosomal locations have been identified in the human genome. Polymorphism in ALDH2 is associated with altered acetaldehyde metabolism, decreased risk of alcoholism and increased risk of

  7. Genetically switched D-lactate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Chen, Xian-Zhong; Prior, Bernard A; Shen, Wei; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    During a fermentation process, the formation of the desired product during the cell growth phase competes with the biomass for substrates or inhibits cell growth directly, which results in a decrease in production efficiency. A genetic switch is required to precisely separate growth from production and to simplify the fermentation process. The ldhA promoter, which encodes the fermentative D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the lactate producer Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-070 (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA), was replaced with the ? p(R) and p(L) promoters (as a genetic switch) using genomic recombination and the thermo-controllable strain B0013-070B (B0013-070, ldhAp::kan-cI(ts)857-p(R)-p(L)), which could produce two-fold higher LDH activity at 42°C than the B0013-070 strain, was created. When the genetic switch was turned off at 33°C, strain B0013-070B produced 10% more biomass aerobically than strain B0013-070 and produced only trace levels of lactate which could reduce the growth inhibition caused by oxygen insufficiency in large scale fermentation. However, 42°C is the most efficient temperature for switching on lactate production. The volumetric productivity of B0013-070B improved by 9% compared to that of strain B0013-070 when it was grown aerobically at 33°C with a short thermo-induction at 42°C and then switched to the production phase at 42°C. In a bioreactor experiment using scaled-up conditions that were optimized in a shake flask experiment, strain B0013-070B produced 122.8 g/l D-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited productivity of 0.89 g/g·h. The results revealed the effectiveness of using a genetic switch to regulate cell growth and the production of a metabolic compound. PMID:22683845

  8. Evaluation of alginate-immobilized Lactobacillus casei for lactate production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Guoqiang; Rajni Kaul; Bo Mattiasson

    1991-01-01

    Lactate production by immobilized Lactobacillus casei has been studied. The cells were immobilized in alginate and the effect of variations in different parameters on product formation and productivity was investigated. The performance of the reaction was evaluated in stirred batch as well as in packed-bed conditions. pH control was a problem in the packed-bed reactor. In stirred batch experiments, nearly

  9. Clonorchis sinensis: molecular cloning and functional expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nancai; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Chen, Jinzhong; Hu, Xuchu; Song, Linxia; Yang, Guang; Ji, Chaoneng; Chen, Shouyi; Gu, Shaohua; Ying, Kang; Yu, Xinbing

    2005-04-01

    The NAD-dependent cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (cMDH, EC 1.1.1.37) plays a pivotal role in the malate-aspartate shuttle pathway that operates in a metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria, and thus is crucial for the survival and pathogenicity of the parasite. In the high throughput sequencing of the cDNA library constructed from the adult stage of Clonorchis sinensis, a cDNA clone containing 1152bp insert was identified to encode a putative peptide of 329 amino acids possessing more than 50% amino acid sequence identities with the cMDHs from other organisms such as fish, plant, and mammal. But low sequence similarities have been found between this cMDH and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase as well as glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase from other organisms. Northern blot analysis showed the size of the C. sinensis cMDH mRNA was 1.2 kb. The cMDH was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 as a His-tag fusion protein and purified by BD TALON metal affinity column. The recombinant cMDH showed high MDH activity of 241 U mg(-1), without lactate dehydrogenase and NADP(H) selectivity. It provides a model for the structure, function analysis, and drug screening on cMDH. PMID:15755419

  10. Variations in the activity of several enzymes in the mammary glands of non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, P. E.; Jones, E. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. The enzymes phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), ATP–citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) were assayed in rabbit mammary glands at various stages of the pregnancy–lactation cycle. 2. The activities of all enzymes were low during pregnancy and, with the exception of phosphofructokinase, in non-pregnant animals. Two- to ten-fold increases in enzyme activities occurred over the first 20 days of lactation. Although milk yield was considerably decreased, the enzyme activities remained elevated in late lactation (45 days after parturition). 3. These findings are discussed in relation to mammary-gland metabolism and compared with similar observations previously made on ruminants and other small mammals. PMID:4244890

  11. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  12. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Ekundayo K; Smith, Thomas J; Hoberg, Anne-Mette; Velarde, Giles; Ford, Robert; Dalton, Howard

    2004-03-01

    In methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is an important but potentially toxic metabolic intermediate that can be assimilated into biomass or oxidized to yield energy. Previously reported was the purification of an NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) from the obligate methane-oxidizing methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), presumably important in formaldehyde oxidation, which required a heat-stable factor (known as the modifin) for FDH activity. Here, the major protein component of this FDH preparation was shown by biophysical techniques to comprise subunits of 64 and 8 kDa in an alpha(2)beta(2) arrangement. N-terminal sequencing of the subunits of FDH, together with enzymological characterization, showed that the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer was a quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase of the type found in other methylotrophs. The FDH preparations were shown to contain a highly active NAD(P)(+)-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase that was the probable source of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde oxidation activity. These results support previous findings that methylotrophs possess multiple pathways for formaldehyde dissimilation. PMID:14993320

  13. Novel model of neuronal bioenergetics: postsynaptic utilization of glucose but not lactate correlates positively with Ca2+ signalling in cultured mouse glutamatergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Lasse K.; Obel, Linea F.; Walls, Anne B.; Schousboe, Arne; Faek, Sevan A.A.; Jajo, Farah S.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously investigated the relative roles of extracellular glucose and lactate as fuels for glutamatergic neurons during synaptic activity. The conclusion from these studies was that cultured glutamatergic neurons utilize glucose rather than lactate during NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate)-induced synaptic activity and that lactate alone is not able to support neurotransmitter glutamate homoeostasis. Subsequently, a model was proposed to explain these results at the cellular level. In brief, the intermittent rises in intracellular Ca2+ during activation cause influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix thus activating the tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases. This will lead to a lower activity of the MASH (malate–aspartate shuttle), which in turn will result in anaerobic glycolysis and lactate production rather than lactate utilization. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of an ionomycin-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) on neuronal energy metabolism employing 13C-labelled glucose and lactate and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of labelling in glutamate, alanine and lactate. The results demonstrate that glucose utilization is positively correlated with intracellular Ca2+ whereas lactate utilization is not. This result lends further support for a significant role of glucose in neuronal bioenergetics and that Ca2+ signalling may control the switch between glucose and lactate utilization during synaptic activity. Based on the results, we propose a compartmentalized CiMASH (Ca2+-induced limitation of the MASH) model that includes intracellular compartmentation of glucose and lactate metabolism. We define pre- and post-synaptic compartments metabolizing glucose and glucose plus lactate respectively in which the latter displays a positive correlation between oxidative metabolism of glucose and Ca2+ signalling. PMID:22385215

  14. Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen limitation, and fumarate respiration conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor-limited growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under conditions of O(2) limitation but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410

  15. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  16. Reaction of cells cultured in vitro to different asbestos dusts of equal surface area but different fibre length.

    PubMed Central

    Kaw, J. L.; Tilkes, F.; Beck, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages from mice were cultured in Leighton tubes and exposed to UICC chrysotile, crocidolite or amosite. Their cytotoxicity (Erythrosin uptake), release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and uptake of 3H amino acids were determined according to weight (100 micrograms/tube), surface area (21.3 cm2 or fibre length. In all reactions tested chrysotile was more active than the amphiboles, but the latter gained activity if applied according to surface area. Uptake of 3H amino acids basis. Long-fibred asbestos dusts proved more cytotoxic than the corresponding short fibres when used on the basis of equal mass. In experiments with ascites tumour cells induced by nemalite the different asbestos dusts showed a very significant reduction of 3H-labelled thymidine uptake, but on weight basis the amphibole uptake was markedly higher. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7066178

  17. Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

    2014-06-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  18. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  19. Lactate formation in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is regulated by the energy carriers pyrophosphate and ATP.

    PubMed

    Willquist, Karin; van Niel, Ed W J

    2010-05-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus displays superior H(2) yields on a wide range of carbon sources provided that lactate formation is avoided. Nevertheless, a low lactate flux is initiated as the growth rate declined in the transition to the stationary phase, which coincides with a drastic decrease in the glucose consumption and acetate production fluxes. In addition, the decrease in growth rate was accompanied by a sudden increase and then decrease in NADH levels. The V'(MAX) of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) doubled when the cells entered the stationary phase. Kinetic analysis revealed that at the metabolic level LDH activity is regulated through (i) competitive inhibition by pyrophosphate (PPi, k(i)=1.7 mM) and NAD (k(i)=0.43 mM) and (ii) allosteric activation by FBP (300%), ATP (160%) and ADP (140%). From these data a MWC-based model was derived. Simulations with this model could explain the observed lactate shift by displaying how the sensitivity of LDH activity to NADH/NAD ratio varied with different PP(i) concentrations. Moreover, the activation of LDH by ATP indicates that C. saccharolyticus uses LDH as a means to adjusts its flux of ATP and NADH production. To our knowledge, this is the first time PPi is observed as an effector of LDH. PMID:20060925

  20. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  1. Mitochondrial lactate metabolism is involved in antioxidative defense in human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Joseph; Auger, Christopher; Mailloux, Ryan; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-04-01

    Although lactate has traditionally been known to be an end product of anaerobic metabolism, recent studies have revealed its disparate biological functions. Oxidative energy production and cell signaling are two important roles assigned to this monocarboxylic acid. Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial lactate metabolism to pyruvate mediated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a human astrocytic cell line is involved in antioxidative defense. The pooling of this ?-ketoacid helps to detoxify reactive oxygen species, with the concomitant formation of acetate. In-gel activity assays following blue native PAGE electrophoresis were utilized to demonstrate the increase in mitochondrial LDH activity coupled to the decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the cells challenged by oxidative stress. The enhanced production of pyruvate with the concomitant formation of acetate in astrocytoma cells was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ability of pyruvate to fend off oxidative stress was visualized by fluorescence microscopy with the aid of the dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Immunoblotting helped confirm the presence of elevated levels of LDH in cells exposed to oxidative stress, and recovery experiments were performed with pyruvate to diminish the oxidative burden on the astrocytoma. The acetate, generated as a consequence of the antioxidative attribute of pyruvate, was subsequently channeled toward the production of lipids, a process facilitated by the upregulation in activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, as demonstrated by in-gel activity assays. The mitochondrial lactate metabolism mediated by LDH appears to play an important role in antioxidative defence in this astrocytic system. PMID:24452607

  2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases: Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose homeostasis is one of the risk factors for causing metabolic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. In glucose metabolism, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) mediates a major regulatory step, an irreversible reaction of oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Tight control of PDC is critical because it plays a key role in glucose disposal. PDC activity is tightly regulated using phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1 to 4) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDP1 and 2). PDKs and PDPs exhibit unique tissue expression patterns, kinetic properties, and sensitivities to regulatory molecules. During the last decades, the up-regulation of PDKs has been observed in the tissues of patients and mammals with metabolic diseases, which suggests that the inhibition of these kinases may have beneficial effects for treating metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of specific PDK isoenzymes on the induction of metabolic diseases and describes the effects of PDK inhibition on the prevention of metabolic diseases using pharmacological inhibitors. Based on these reports, PDK isoenzymes are strong therapeutic targets for preventing and treating metabolic diseases.

  3. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases: Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Nam Ho

    2015-06-01

    Impaired glucose homeostasis is one of the risk factors for causing metabolic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. In glucose metabolism, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) mediates a major regulatory step, an irreversible reaction of oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Tight control of PDC is critical because it plays a key role in glucose disposal. PDC activity is tightly regulated using phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1 to 4) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDP1 and 2). PDKs and PDPs exhibit unique tissue expression patterns, kinetic properties, and sensitivities to regulatory molecules. During the last decades, the up-regulation of PDKs has been observed in the tissues of patients and mammals with metabolic diseases, which suggests that the inhibition of these kinases may have beneficial effects for treating metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of specific PDK isoenzymes on the induction of metabolic diseases and describes the effects of PDK inhibition on the prevention of metabolic diseases using pharmacological inhibitors. Based on these reports, PDK isoenzymes are strong therapeutic targets for preventing and treating metabolic diseases. PMID:26124988

  4. Tin-containing silicates: alkali salts improve methyl lactate yield from sugars.

    PubMed

    Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Osmundsen, Christian M; Fristrup, Peter; Holm, Martin S; Taarning, Esben

    2015-02-01

    This study focuses on increasing the selectivity to methyl lactate from sugars using stannosilicates as heterogeneous catalyst. All group?I ions are found to have a promoting effect on the resulting methyl lactate yield. Besides, the alkali ions can be added both during the preparation of the catalyst or directly to the solvent mixture to achieve the highest reported yield of methyl lactate (ca. 75?%) from sucrose at 170?°C in methanol. The beneficial effect of adding alkali to the reaction media applies not only to highly defect-free Sn-Beta prepared through the fluoride route, but also to materials prepared by post-treatment of dealuminated commercial Beta zeolites, as well as ordered mesoporous stannosilicates, in this case Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. These findings open the door to the possibility of using other preparation methods or different Sn-containing silicates with equally high methyl lactate yields as Sn-Beta. PMID:25605624

  5. Beta-galactoside transport in bacterial membrane preparations: energy coupling via membrane-bounded D-lactic dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Barnes, E M; Kaback, H R

    1970-08-01

    The transport of beta-galactosides by isolated membrane preparations from Escherichia coli strains containing a functional y gene is markedly stimulated by the conversion of D-lactate to pyruvate. The addition of D-lactate to these membrane preparations produces a 19-fold increase in the initial rate of uptake and a 10-fold stimulation of the steady-state level of intramembranal lactose or thiomethylgalactoside. Succinate, DL-alpha-hydroxybutyrate, and L-lactate partially replace D-lactate, but are much less effective; ATP and P-enolpyruvate, in addition to a number of other metabolites and cofactors, do not stimulate lactose transport by the vesicles. Lactose uptake by the membrane preparations in the presence of D-lactate requires oxygen, and is blocked by electron transport inhibitors and proton conductors; however, uptake is not significantly inhibited by high concentrations of arsenate or oligomycin. Furthermore, the P-enolpyruvate-P-transferase system is not involved in beta-galactoside transport by the E. coli membrane vesicles. The findings indicate that the beta-galactoside uptake system is coupled to the membrane-bound D-lactic dehydrogenase via an electron transport chain but does not involve oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:4394455

  6. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-10-15

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was sensitive to inhibition by several aromatic aldehydes; in particular, ortho-substituted benzaldehydes such as 2-bromo-, 2-chloro- and 2-fluoro-benzaldehydes were potent inhibitors of the enzyme. PMID:3060114

  7. Flavocytochrome b2-Based Enzymatic Method of L-Lactate Assay in Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Smutok, Halyna

    2013-01-01

    L-lactate, a key metabolite of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway, plays an important role as a biomarker in medicine, in the nutritional sector and food quality control. For these reasons, there is a need for very specific, sensitive, and simple analytical methods for the accurate L-lactate measuring. A new highly selective enzymatic method for L-lactate determination based on the use of flavocytochrome b2 (EC 1.1.2.3; FC b2) isolated from the recombinant strain of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been developed. A proposed enzymatic method exploits an enzymatic oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate coupled with nitrotetrazolium blue (NTZB) reduction to a colored product, formazan. The maximal absorption peak of the colored product is near ? = 525?nm and the linear range is observed in the interval 0.005–0.14?mM of L-lactate. The main advantages of the proposed method when compared to the LDH-based routine approaches are a higher sensitivity (2.0??M of L-lactate), simple procedure of analysis, usage of inexpensive, nontoxic reagents, and small amount of the enzyme. Enzymatic oxidation of L-lactate catalyzed by flavocytochrome b2 and coupled with formazan production from nitrotetrazolium blue was shown to be used for L-lactate assay in food samples. A high correlation between results of the proposed method and reference ones proves the possibility to use flavocytochrome b2-catalysed reaction for enzymatic measurement of L-lactate in biotechnology and food chemistry. PMID:24223505

  8. Isolation and characterization of an inducible NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, W.; Duerre, P. [Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD) has been purified from C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 and DSM 173 1. This key enzyme of butanol production, catalyzing the conversion of butyryl-CoA to butyraldehyde, was induced shortly before the onset of butanol production and proved to be oxygen-sensitive. A one step purification procedure on reactive green 19 allowed to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be extremely unstable and could only partially be stabilized by addition of mercaptoethanol and storage below -20{degrees}C. The enzyme subunit had a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa. In the reverse reaction (butyryl-CoA-forming) the apparent pH optimum was 9.75 and Vmax was significantly higher with butyraldehyde and propionaldehyde than with acetaldehyde. BAD could also use NADP+, but NAD+ was the preferred coenzyme for the reverse reaction. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the C. acetobutylicurn DSM 792 protein showed high homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAP), especially to the protein of C. pasteurianum. Genomic libraries of C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 were screened by hybridization using PCR-generated heterologous probes encoding the gap gene of C. pasteurianum. Sequence analysis of the positive clones revealed high homology, but no identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the butyraldehyde dehydrogenase. Thus, BAD from C. acetobutylicum is distinctly different from other reported aldehyde dehydrogenases with butyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  9. Some properties of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase from Corynebacterium callunae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haluk Ertan

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the three major ammonia assimilatory enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Corynebacterium callunae (NCIB 10338) were examined. The GDH of C. callunae specifically required NADPH and NADP+ as coenzymes in the amination and deamination reactions, respectively. This enzyme showed a marked specificity for a-ketoglutarate and glutamate as substrates. The optimum pH was

  10. Orbital Contributions to CO Oxidation in Mo-Cu Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    A molecular orbital analysis provides new insight into the mechanism of Mo/Cu carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, and reveals electronic structure contributions to reactivity that are remarkably similar to the structurally related molybdenum hydroxylases. A calculated reaction barrier of ~12 kcal/mol is in excellent agreement with experiment. PMID:24322538

  11. Structural Analyses of a Malate Dehydrogenase with a Variable Active Site*

    E-print Network

    Viola, Ronald

    Structural Analyses of a Malate Dehydrogenase with a Variable Active Site* Received for publication in distinguishing substrate specificity is exam- ined by the mutant R153C. The x-ray structure of the NAD binary with the concomitant reduc- tion of NAD or, in chloroplasts, NADP. The reaction is part of the citric acid cycle and

  12. Lactation performance of mid-Lactation Dairy Cows Fed ruminally Degradable protein at Concentrations Lower

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    Lactation performance of mid-Lactation Dairy Cows Fed ruminally Degradable protein of diets containing lower proportions of ruminally de- gradable protein (RDP) but with a constant proportion of ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) alters feed intake, milk production and yield

  13. Mechanistic aspects and redox properties of hyperthermophilic L-proline dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus related to dimethylglycine dehydrogenase/oxidase.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Phillip J; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2007-04-01

    Two ORFs encoding a protein related to bacterial dimethylglycine oxidase were cloned from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and shown to be a flavoprotein amine dehydrogenase. The enzyme oxidizes the secondary amines L-proline, L-pipecolic acid and sarcosine, with optimal catalytic activity towards L-proline. The holoenzyme contains one FAD, FMN and ATP per alphabeta complex, is not reduced by sulfite, and reoxidizes slowly following reduction, which is typical of flavoprotein dehydrogenases. Isolation of the enzyme in a form containing only FAD cofactor allowed detailed pH dependence studies of the reaction with L-proline, for which a bell-shaped dependence (pK(a) values 7.0 +/- 0.2 and 7.6 +/- 0.2) for k(cat)/K(m) as a function of pH was observed. The pH dependence of k(cat) is sigmoidal, described by a single macroscopic pK(a) of 7.7 +/- 0.1, tentatively attributed to ionization of L-proline in the Michaelis complex. The preliminary crystal structure of the enzyme revealed active site residues conserved in related amine dehydrogenases and potentially implicated in catalysis. Studies with H225A, H225Q and Y251F mutants ruled out participation of these residues in a carbanion-type mechanism. The midpoint potential of enzyme-bound FAD has a linear temperature dependence (- 3.1 +/- 0.05 mV x C degrees (-1)), and extrapolation to physiologic growth temperature for P. furiosus (100 degrees C) yields a value of - 407 +/- 5 mV for the two-electron reduction of enzyme-bound FAD. These studies provide the first detailed account of the kinetic/redox properties of this hyperthermophilic L-proline dehydrogenase. Implications for its mechanism of action are discussed. PMID:17371548

  14. Field energetics of free-living, lactating and non-lactating echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Schmid; Niels A. Andersen; John R. Speakman; Stewart C. Nicol

    2003-01-01

    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water turnover rates in lactating and non-lactating short beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) using the doubly labelled water technique during the lactation period in spring. Reproductively inactive echidnas were on average significantly heavier (median: 3354 g; range: 2929–3780 g; N=4) than lactating females (median: 2695 g; range: 2690–2715 g; N=3) during the equivalent time

  15. Reducing lactate secretion by ldhA Deletion in L-glutamate- producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Guan, Dan; Liang, Jingbo; Guo, Chunqian; Xie, Xixian; Zhang, Chenglin; Xu, Qingyang; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is one of main byproducts excreted in to the fermentation medium. To improve L-glutamate production and reduce L-lactate accumulation, L-lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene ldhA was knocked out from L-glutamate producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9, designated GDK-9?ldhA. GDK-9?ldhA produced approximately 10.1% more L-glutamate than the GDK-9, and yielded lower levels of such by-products as ?-ketoglutarate, L-lactate and L-alanine. Since dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of main factors affecting L-lactate formation during L-glutamate fermentation, we investigated the effect of ldhA deletion from GDK-9 under different DO conditions. Under both oxygen-deficient and high oxygen conditions, L-glutamate production by GDK-9?ldhA was not higher than that of the GDK-9. However, under micro-aerobic conditions, GDK-9?ldhA exhibited 11.61% higher L-glutamate and 58.50% lower L-alanine production than GDK-9. Taken together, it is demonstrated that deletion of ldhA can enhance L-glutamate production and lower the unwanted by-products concentration, especially under micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25763057

  16. Polymers Protect Lactate Dehydrogenase during Freeze-Drying by Inhibiting Dissociation in the Frozen State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Anchordoquy; John F. Carpenter

    1996-01-01

    Enzymes subjected to freeze-thawing are known to be protected by polymers that are preferentially excluded from the hydrated surface of proteins [reviewed in Carpenteret al.(1994)ACS Symp. Ser.567, 134–147]. Preferentially excluded solutes are also known to stabilize quaternary structure, which enhances the thermostability of multimeric proteins in aqueous systems. Also, it has been suggested that retention of quaternary structure may play

  17. Inhibition of Rhizopus Lactate Dehydrogenase by Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of the filamentous fungus Rhizopus is of significant value because of the organism’s industrial importance, clinical detriment, and agricultural problems. Yet, research has yielded very few advances that allow site directed integration of DNA used for transformation. This is because plas...

  18. Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alexander J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

  19. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  20. The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions 

    E-print Network

    MacAlpine, David Michael

    1995-01-01

    (primary root axis, nodal root axis, primary root tip, and the nodal root tip) from seedlings of different ages. In the 'open system', in which the roots were sparged with N2 while shoots remained exposed to air, Ldh1 transcripts and enzymatic activity were...

  1. The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions

    E-print Network

    MacAlpine, David Michael

    1995-01-01

    et al. , 1986). The transcript 'levels of LDH in hypoxically stressed barley were -8. 5 times greater than aerobic controls after two days (Hondred and Hanson, 1990). However, the overexpression of barley LDH in tomato roots revealed that although... of LDH (Rivoal and Hanson, 1994). These results suggest that while LDH may play a role in the survival of hypoxic environments its role in metabolism may be limited. Maize root tips normally sensitive to anoxia can be acclimated by a hypoxic pre...

  2. Lactate Dehydrogenase Undergoes a Substantial Structural Change to Bind its Substrate

    E-print Network

    Callender, Robert

    and in the presence of small concentrations of a protein destabilizer (urea) and protein stabilizer (TMAO). It shows capacity of 610 6 84 cal/Mol K), is slowed in the presence of TMAO and speeded up in the presence of urea

  3. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T L; Waters, D L E; Henry, R J

    2009-03-01

    Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial research, especially during the last 20 years. Initial characterisation of BADH as an enzyme involved in the production of glycine betaine (GB) has led to detailed studies of the role of BADH in the response of plants to abiotic stress in vivo, and the potential for transgenic expression of BADH to improve abiotic stress tolerance. These studies have, in turn, yielded significant information regarding BADH and GB function. Recent research has identified the potential for BADH as an antibiotic-free marker for selection of transgenic plants, and a major role for BADH in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-based fragrance associated with jasmine and basmati style aromatic rice varieties. PMID:19228319

  4. Drosophila Alcohol Dehydrogenase Polymorphism and Carbon-13 Fluxes: Opportunities for Epistasis and Natural Selection

    PubMed Central

    Freriksen, A.; de-Ruiter, BLA.; Scharloo, W.; Heinstra, PWH.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of genetic variations in Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on steady-state metabolic fluxes was studied by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Four pathways were found to be operative during 8 hr of ethanol degradation in third instar larvae of Drosophila. Seven strains differed by 18-25% in the ratio between two major pathway fluxes, i.e., into glutamate-glutamine-proline vs. lactate-alanine-trehalose. In general, Adh genotypes with higher ADH activity exhibit a twofold difference in relative carbon flux from malate into lactate and alanine vs. ?,?-trehalose compared to low ADH activity genotypes. Trehalose was degraded by the pentose-phosphate shunt. The pentose-phosphate shunt and malic enzyme could supply NADPH necessary for lipid synthesis from ethanol. Lactate and/or proline synthesis may maintain the NADH/NAD(+) balance during ethanol degradation. After 24 hr the flux into trehalose is increased, while the flux into lipids declines in Adh(F) larvae. In Adh(S) larvae the flux into lipids remains high. This co-ordinated nature of metabolism and the genotype-dependent differences in metabolic fluxes may form the basis for various epistatic interactions and ultimately for variations in organismal fitness. PMID:7982561

  5. Thermally induced disintegration of the Bacillus stearothermophilus dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hiromasa, Y; Aso, Y; Yamashita, S; Meno, K

    2000-09-01

    Upon heat treatment of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus, the most thermostable component is a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3c). To understand this stability, the thermal disintegration of E3 dissociated from the complex (E3d) was examined, comparing with that of E3c. Judging from residual activity and inactivation rate, E3d was less thermostable than E3c; E3d and E3c lost half of their original activities upon incubations for 30 min at 79 degrees C and 90 degrees C, respectively. Heat treatment of E3d raised the fluorescence intensities of Trp residue, intrinsic FAD, and extrinsic 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate. E3d lost FAD, and inactive E3d polypeptides were aggregated. The sulfonate bound to the aggregate became notably fluorescent. The thermal disintegration of E3d was speculated to be a consecutive reaction that was different from the concurrent disintegration reaction of the complex. Some interactions with other component polypeptides was suggested to improve the thermostability of E3c. PMID:11055397

  6. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Pierre Rioux (Universite du Quebec a Rimouski Dept de Biologie Chimie et des Sciences de la Sante)

    2010-10-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  7. Lactation/Quiet Rooms Physical Specifications

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Daniel

    . Costs are built in to the cost of the new construction. L/QR in Existing Buildings Lactation/Quite Rooms in new buildings will utilize standard signage developed by Project Management and Construction ServicesLactation/Quiet Rooms Physical Specifications L/QR in New Construction New construction

  8. Predicting lactate threshold using ventilatory threshold.

    PubMed

    Plato, P A; McNulty, M; Crunk, S M; Tug Ergun, A

    2008-09-01

    Lactate threshold is an important reference point when setting training intensities for endurance athletes. Ventilatory threshold has been used as a noninvasive estimate of lactate threshold, but appears to underestimate training intensity for many athletes. This study evaluated whether data obtained during a noninvasive, maximal exercise test could be used to predict lactate threshold. Maximal oxygen consumption (55+/-2 ml O(2) x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and heart rate at the ventilatory threshold (V-slope method) were determined for 19 cyclists (10 men, 9 women, 35+/-2 years). Cyclists also performed a lactate threshold test, consisting of 8 min stages at power outputs below, at, and above the ventilatory threshold. Heart rate associated with the lactate threshold was determined using the Dmax method. The correlation coefficient between heart rates at the ventilatory and lactate thresholds was 0.67, indicating 45% shared variance. The best fitting model to predict heart rate at the lactate threshold included heart rate at the ventilatory threshold, gender, body weight, and an interaction between gender and body weight. Using this model, R(2) was 0.70. Thus, heart rate at the ventilatory threshold may be adjusted to more accurately predict a heart rate that corresponds to the lactate threshold for recreational cyclists. PMID:18214811

  9. Lactate: the ultimate cerebral oxidative energy substrate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avital Schurr

    2006-01-01

    Research over the past two decades has renewed the interest in lactate, no longer as a useless end product of anaerobic glycolysis in brain (and other tissues), but as an oxidative substrate for energy metabolism. While this topic would be considered blasphemy only three decades ago, much recent evidence indicates that lactate does play a major role in aerobic energy

  10. Malarial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jeffrey; Farajallah, Azizeh M; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Phillips, Margaret A

    2002-11-01

    The malarial parasite relies on de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis to maintain its pyrimidine pools, and unlike the human host cell it is unable to scavenge preformed pyrimidines. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate (DHO) to produce orotate, a key step in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The enzyme is located in the outer membrane of the mitochondria of the malarial parasite. To characterize the biochemical properties of the malarial enzyme, an N-terminally truncated version of P. falciparum DHODH has been expressed as a soluble, active enzyme in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme binds 0.9 molar equivalents of the cofactor FMN and it has a pH maximum of 8.0 (k(cat) 8 s(-1), K(m)(app) DHO (40-80 microm)). The substrate specificity of the ubiquinone cofactor (CoQ(n)) that is required for the oxidation of FMN in the second step of the reaction was also determined. The isoprenoid (n) length of CoQ(n) was a determinant of reaction efficiency; CoQ(4), CoQ(6) and decylubiquinone (CoQ(D)) were efficiently utilized in the reaction, however cofactors lacking an isoprenoid tail (CoQ(0) and vitamin K(3)) showed decreased catalytic efficiency resulting from a 4 to 7-fold increase in K(m)(app). Five potent inhibitors of mammalian DHODH, Redoxal, dichloroallyl lawsone (DCL), and three analogs of A77 1726 were tested as inhibitors of the malarial enzyme. All five compounds were poor inhibitors of the malarial enzyme, with IC(50)'s ranging from 0.1-1.0 mm. The IC(50) values for inhibition of the malarial enzyme are 10(2)-10(4)-fold higher than the values reported for the mammalian enzyme, demonstrating that inhibitor binding to DHODH is species specific. These studies provide direct evidence that the malarial DHODH active site is different from the host enzyme, and that it is an attractive target for the development of new anti-malarial agents. PMID:12189151

  11. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Parameters of Enzyme Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John H. Williamson (Davidson College; )

    1999-01-01

    One of four biology laboratories where students research the properties of a model enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, by using scientifitic method, molecular biology enzyme assay techniques and data analysis using a computer graphing program.

  12. IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additional conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of alpha-butylglucoside lactate: a new alpha-hydroxy acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, M P; Willemot, R M; Monsan, P; Boures, E

    1999-01-20

    An alpha-hydroxy acid derivative, alpha-butylglucoside lactate, was successfully prepared by enzymatic transesterification of alpha-butylglucoside with a lactate alkyl ester in a non-aqueous medium using immobilized lipase as biocatalyst. Ester synthesis in organic solvent was optimized. Solvent choice was made on the basis of substrate solubility and enzyme stability in the medium. A solvent-free reaction using butyllactate as lactate donor led to the highest yields. In the presence of 0.5M alphabutylglucoside and 100 g/L Novozym(R), a 67 % yield could be obtained within 40 h at 50 degrees C. However, the presence of butanol by-product limited the reaction to a maximum that could not be exceeded in closed systems. The elimination of the alcohol under reduced pressure resulted in the complete equilibrium shift of the transesterification reaction in favor of synthesis; below 15 mbars, more than 95% of 0.5M alpha-butylglucoside could be converted within 30 h. Moreover, simultaneous evaporation of water allowed hydrolysis of butyllactate to be eliminated. Consequently, a very high alpha-butylglucoside lactate concentration (170 g/) could be obtained in a single batch reaction. A single purification procedure, consisting of butyllactate extraction with hexane, enabled the product to be obtained at a purity above 95% (w/w). 1H and 13C NMR analysis later demonstrated that lactic acid was exclusively grafted onto the primary hydroxyl group of alphabutylglucoside. PMID:10099533

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Anaerobic Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenase, a Novel Mo-Fe-S Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Hope A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2001-01-01

    The first step in anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization in denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 is the oxidation of ethylbenzene to (S)-(?)-1-phenylethanol. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, which catalyzes this reaction, is a unique enzyme in that it mediates the stereoselective hydroxylation of an aromatic hydrocarbon in the absence of molecular oxygen. We purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase to apparent homogeneity and showed that the enzyme is a heterotrimer (???) with subunit masses of 100 kDa (?), 35 kDa (?), and 25 kDa (?). Purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase contains approximately 0.5 mol of molybdenum, 16 mol of iron, and 15 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of holoenzyme, as well as a molydopterin cofactor. In addition to ethylbenzene, purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase was found to oxidize 4-fluoro-ethylbenzene and the nonaromatic hydrocarbons 3-methyl-2-pentene and ethylidenecyclohexane. Sequencing of the encoding genes revealed that ebdA encodes the ? subunit, a 974-amino-acid polypeptide containing a molybdopterin-binding domain. The ebdB gene encodes the ? subunit, a 352-amino-acid polypeptide with several 4Fe-4S binding domains. The ebdC gene encodes the ? subunit, a 214-amino-acid polypeptide that is a potential membrane anchor subunit. Sequence analysis and biochemical data suggest that ethylbenzene dehydrogenase is a novel member of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes. PMID:11443088

  15. In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

    1996-02-01

    The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

  16. Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase from Perilla can form citral and perillaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Ito, Michiho

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the biosynthesis of oil compounds in Perilla will help in understanding regulatory systems of secondary metabolites and in elucidating reaction mechanisms for natural product synthesis. In this study, two types of alcohol dehydrogenases, an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) and a geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH), which are thought to participate in the biosynthesis of perilla essential oil components, such as citral and perillaldehyde, were isolated from three pure lines of perilla. These enzymes shared high amino acid sequence identity within the genus Perilla, and were expressed regardless of oil type. The overall reaction from geranyl diphosphate to citral was performed in vitro using geraniol synthase and GeDH to form a large proportion of citral and relatively little geraniol as reaction products. The biosynthetic pathway from geranyl diphosphate to citral, the main compound of citral-type perilla essential oil, was established in this study. PMID:24864017

  17. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials. PMID:22081939

  18. Cotton fabric-based electrochemical device for lactate measurement in saliva.

    PubMed

    Malon, Radha S P; Chua, K Y; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Córcoles, Emma P

    2014-06-21

    Lactate measurement is vital in clinical diagnostics especially among trauma and sepsis patients. In recent years, it has been shown that saliva samples are an excellent applicable alternative for non-invasive measurement of lactate. In this study, we describe a method for the determination of lactate concentration in saliva samples by using a simple and low-cost cotton fabric-based electrochemical device (FED). The device was fabricated using template method for patterning the electrodes and wax-patterning technique for creating the sample placement/reaction zone. Lactate oxidase (LOx) enzyme was immobilised at the reaction zone using a simple entrapment method. The LOx enzymatic reaction product, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured using chronoamperometric measurements at the optimal detection potential (-0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl), in which the device exhibited a linear working range between 0.1 to 5 mM, sensitivity (slope) of 0.3169 ?A mM(-1) and detection limit of 0.3 mM. The low detection limit and wide linear range were suitable to measure salivary lactate (SL) concentration, thus saliva samples obtained under fasting conditions and after meals were evaluated using the FED. The measured SL varied among subjects and increased after meals randomly. The proposed device provides a suitable analytical alternative for rapid and non-invasive determination of lactate in saliva samples. The device can also be adapted to a variety of other assays that requires simplicity, low-cost, portability and flexibility. PMID:24776756

  19. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  20. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases and Glyoxylate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Cerff, R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of NADP- and NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADH-specific glyoxylate reductase was followed in Sinapis alba cotyledons grown in the dark or under continuous red and far red light. All three enzyme activities are promoted by light, continuous far red light being more than twice as effective as continuous red light. The activities of the NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate reductase increase in the far red light from 36 to 96 hours. They remain constant until at least 120 hours after sowing and are respectively 11 and 6 times higher than the maximum dark activities. Contrary to this, the activity of the NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is scarcely more than doubled under continuous far red irradiation relative to its maximal dark level, and its time course curve is displaced along the time axis, with the activity increasing between 24 and 72 hours after sowing. The increase in activity of NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate reductase is inhibited by d-threo-chloramphenicol but not by the l-threo isomer at concentrations of 200 micrograms per milliliter or less, whereas the slight inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on the NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not stereospecific. The three enzyme activities are inhibited by cycloheximide. When Knop's solution is used as growth medium it strongly promotes NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in vivo and is twice as effective in the red light as in the far red light and dark. The activity of NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is only slightly and almost equally enhanced by Knop's solution in the dark, red, and far red light. These results are consistent with the following conclusions. [List: see text] PMID:16658301

  1. Crystal Structure of Uronate Dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens*

    PubMed Central

    Parkkinen, Tarja; Boer, Harry; Jänis, Janne; Andberg, Martina; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu; Rouvinen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Uronate dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtUdh) belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and catalyzes the oxidation of d-galacturonic acid and d-glucuronic acid with NAD+ as a cofactor. We have determined the crystal structures of an apo-form of AtUdh, a ternary form in complex with NADH and product (substrate-soaked structure), and an inactive Y136A mutant in complex with NAD+. The crystal structures suggest AtUdh to be a homohexamer, which has also been observed to be the major form in solution. The monomer contains a Rossmann fold, essential for nucleotide binding and a common feature of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family enzymes. The ternary complex structure reveals a product, d-galactaro-1,5-lactone, which is bound above the nicotinamide ring. This product rearranges in solution to d-galactaro-1,4-lactone as verified by mass spectrometry analysis, which agrees with our previous NMR study. The crystal structure of the mutant with the catalytic residue Tyr-136 substituted with alanine shows changes in the position of Ile-74 and Ser-75. This probably altered the binding of the nicotinamide end of NAD+, which was not visible in the electron density map. The structures presented provide novel insights into cofactor and substrate binding and the reaction mechanism of AtUdh. This information can be applied to the design of efficient microbial conversion of d-galacturonic acid-based waste materials. PMID:21676870

  2. Thiol-catalyzed formation of lactate and glycerate from glyceraldehyde. [significance in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The rate of lactate formation from glyceraldehyde, catalyzed by N-acetyl-cysteine at ambient temperature in aqueous sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), is more rapid at higher sodium phosphate concentrations and remains essentially the same in the presence and absence of oxygen. The dramatic increase in the rate of glycerate formation that is brought about by this thiol, N-acetylcysteine, is accompanied by commensurate decreases in the rates of glycolate and formate production. It is suggested that the thiol-dependent formation of lactate and glycerate occurs by way of their respective thioesters. Attention is given to the significance of these reactions in the context of molecular evolution.

  3. Efficiency of Energy Utilization by Lactating Alpine Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six lactating Alpine does (50.5 ± 1.2 kg BW) were used to determine the effect of stage of lactation on energy utilization. Twelve does were assigned for measurement periods in early, mid-, and late lactation (28-35, 91-98, and 189 to 196 d of lactation). For six does of each group, after m...

  4. Biochemical characterization of an alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Justyna; Frese, Amina; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Pohl, Martina; Rother, Dörte

    2013-07-01

    Stereoselective reduction towards pharmaceutically potent products with multi-chiral centers is an ongoing hot topic, but up to now catalysts for reductions of bulky aromatic substrates are rare. The NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp. (RADH) is an exception as it prefers sterically demanding substrates. Recent studies with this enzyme indicated outstanding potential for the reduction of various alpha-hydroxy ketones, but were performed with crude cell extract, which hampered its detailed characterization. We have established a procedure for the purification and storage of RADH and found a significantly stabilizing effect by addition of CaCl(2). Detailed analysis of the pH-dependent activity and stability yielded a broad pH-optimum (pH 6-9.5) for the reduction reaction and a sharp optimum of pH 10-11.5 for the oxidation reaction. The enzyme exhibits highest stability at pH 5.5-8 and 8-15°C; nevertheless, biotransformations can also be carried out at 25°C (half-life 80 h). Under optimized reaction parameters a thorough study of the substrate range of RADH including the reduction of different aldehydes and ketones and the oxidation of a broad range of alcohols was conducted. In contrast to most other known alcohol dehydrogenases, RADH clearly prefers aromatic and cyclic aliphatic compounds, which makes this enzyme unique for conversion of space demanding substrates. Further, reductions are catalyzed with extremely high stereoselectivity (>99% enantio- and diastereomeric excess). In order to identify appropriate substrate and cofactor concentrations for biotransformations, kinetic parameters were determined for NADP(H) and selected substrates. Among these, we studied the reduction of both enantiomers of 2-hydroxypropiophenone in more detail. PMID:23381774

  5. Safety of dermatologic medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part II. Lactation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Daniel C; Heller, Misha M; Murase, Jenny E

    2014-03-01

    Dermatologists are frequently faced with questions from women who are breastfeeding about the safety of commonly prescribed topical and systemic medications during lactation. Safety data in lactation, particularly regarding medications that are unique to dermatology, are limited and can be difficult to locate. We have consolidated the available safety data in a single reference guide for clinicians. We review literature pertaining to the safety of common dermatologic therapies in lactation and offer recommendations based on the available evidence. PMID:24528912

  6. Enhancing the light-driven production of D-lactate by engineering cyanobacterium using a combinational strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yu; Yao, Feng; Xu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    It is increasingly attractive to engineer cyanobacteria for bulk production of chemicals from CO2. However, cofactor bias of cyanobacteria is different from bacteria that prefer NADH, which hampers cyanobacterial strain engineering. In this study, the key enzyme D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhD) from Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 was engineered to reverse its favored cofactor from NADH to NADPH. Then, the engineered enzyme was introduced into Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 to construct an efficient light-driven system that produces D-lactic acid from CO2. Mutation of LdhD drove a fundamental shift in cofactor preference towards NADPH, and increased D-lactate productivity by over 3.6-fold. We further demonstrated that introduction of a lactic acid transporter and bubbling CO2-enriched air also enhanced D-lactate productivity. Using this combinational strategy, increased D-lactate concentration and productivity were achieved. The present strategy may also be used to engineer cyanobacteria for producing other useful chemicals.

  7. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese. PMID:20025435

  8. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  9. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Article Body A growing number ... a breastfeeding relationship while further stimulating milk production. Nursing Supplement While there is no way to predict ...

  10. Activation of liver alcohol dehydrogenase by glycosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C S; White, J H

    1983-01-01

    D-Fructose and D-glucose activate alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver to oxidize ethanol. One mol of D-[U-14C]fructose or D-[U-14C]glucose is covalently incorporated per mol of the maximally activated enzyme. Amino acid and N-terminal analyses of the 14C-labelled glycopeptide isolated from a proteolytic digest of the [14C]glycosylated enzyme implicate lysine-315 as the site of the glycosylation. 13C-n.m.r.-spectroscopic studies indicate that D-[13C]glucose is covalently linked in N-glucosidic and Amadori-rearranged structures in the [13C]glucosylated alcohol dehydrogenase. Experimental results are consistent with the formation of the N-glycosylic linkage between glycose and lysine-315 of liver alcohol dehydrogenase in the initial step that results in an enhanced catalytic efficiency to oxidize ethanol. PMID:6342612

  11. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  12. Lactation: historical patterns and potential for manipulation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, D G

    1993-10-01

    The advent of biotechnology has made data on undomesticated mammals relevant to dairy science. Such data indicate the potential of lactation for modification, reveal genetic material available for use through bioengineering, help distinguish adaptive features from historical artifacts, and clarify limits on lactational diversity that date from early evolution. Evolutionary analysis indicates that a complex degree of lactation preceded divergence of the extant mammalian lineages during the Mesozoic Era. Although aspects of monotreme lactation appear to be ancestral for extant mammals, the marsupials and eutherians exhibit divergent specializations. Evidence is consistent with the idea that protolacteal glands evolved by combining features of skin gland populations into a new functional complex. Secretions of these ancestral glands may have had antimicrobial properties that protected the eggs or hatchlings and organic components that supplemented offspring nutrition. Following development of highly nutritious milks, evolution produced diversity in milk composition and function, milk output, length of lactation, mammary gland anatomy, and contributions of lactation to offspring nutrition. Certain marsupials are specialized in terms of functional independence and temporal plasticity of mammary tissues. Mammalian diversity indicates that artificial selection and physiological manipulation of domestic artiodactyls has only modestly exploited the potential of mammary glands as a nutritional source for humans. PMID:8227641

  13. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase are found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase are found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of...

  15. [Immobilization of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide derivatives and their function as cofactors of bacterial formic dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Iavarkovskaia, L L; Osipov, A P; Dikov, M M; Egorov, A M

    1979-01-01

    NAD+ was modified with respect to the C(6)-amino group of the adenine residue by iod acetic acid alkylation in N1-position and subsequent rearrangement into N6-position. By condensation of N6-carboxy methyl-NAD+ with 1,6-diamino hexane, N6-[(6-aminohexyl)-acetamide]-NAD+ was synthesized. This process was controlled spectrophotometrically and by analytical isotachophoresis. NAD+ derivatives were found to maintain high co-enzymic activity in the reaction of formic oxidation with formic dehydrogenase from gram-negative methylotrophic bacteria, str. 1. Kinetic parameters of the reaction involving the resultant components were determined. NAD+N6-derivatives were covalently bound with the water insoluble carrier--Sepharose 4B and water soluble carriers--acrolein and 4-vinyl pyridine copolymers and dextran. The rates of formic dehydrogenase reduction of the native and immobilized cofactors were compared. PMID:231779

  16. Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Lin, Hozong Robert

    1973-01-01

    of the bovine spermatozoa is another objective of this investigation. LITERATURE REVIEW MDH catalyzes the following reversible reaction: + D-malate + NAD ~ oxaloacetate + NADH + H ! ' It also reversibly catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation.... I Krampitz and Werkman (l941) had, for example, demonstrated i that they can bring about the decarboxylation of oxaloace- tic acid to pyruvate and carbon dioxide. In addition, 26 crII) ln Icm 0 'Icm 2cm 3cm lcm Scm ecm + Figure 4. Schematic...

  17. Mechanistic enzymology of CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    The final steps in acetyl-CoA biosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria are performed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a nickel/iron-sulfur protein. An important achievement was to establish conditions under which acetyl-CoA synthesis by purified enzymes equals the in vivo rate of acetate synthesis. Under these optimized conditions we established that the rate limiting step in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from methyl-H[sub 4]folate, CO and CoA is likely to be the methylation of CODH by the methylated corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein. We then focused on stopped flow studies of this rate limiting transmethylation reaction and established its mechanism. We have studied the carbonylation of CODH by infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy and determined that the [Ni-Fe[sup 3-4]S[sub 4

  18. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? and ? mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the ?-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPAR? coactivator 1? decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The decline in muscle fatty acid oxidation within the first 4 wk of lactation accompanied with increased feed intake refer to greater supply of ruminally derived acetate, which as the preferred fuel of the muscle, saves long-chain fatty acids for milk fat production. PMID:23910553

  19. Characterization of 17 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 in human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nagayoshi; T. Ohba; H. Yamamoto; Y. Miyahara; H. Tashiro; H. Katabuchi; H. Okamura

    2005-01-01

    The human ovarian surface epithelium (hOSE) is a single layer of mesothelial-type primitive epithelial cells that are potential estrogen targets. It has been reported that hOSE cells can produce estrogen. However, the mechanisms that regulate estrogen level(s) in hOSE cells are not yet known. To elucidate the enzymes involved in these reactions, we examined gene expression of 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs)

  20. Role of the Coenzyme in the Stabilization of Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Elodi; G. Szabolcsi

    1959-01-01

    THE role of a coenzyme is studied mostly with respect to the mechanism of reactions catalysed by specific enzymes. It has been established in some cases that coenzymes and prosthetic groups have a protecting and stabilizing effect on the protein molecule. It is known that the large molecule of D-glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PGAD) (molecular weight 140,000) is labile, and does not

  1. cDNA sequences of human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase cloned in pBR322

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Persico; D. Toniolo; C. Nobile; M. D'Urso; L. Luzzatto

    1981-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first reaction of the so-called oxidative pathway of glucose metabolism1. In many cells, in addition to providing pentose sugars required for nucleic acid synthesis, G6PD has a major role in providing an adequate supply of reducing power in the form of NADPH (ref. 2). The enzyme has been purified and characterized from many sources3.

  2. Urease–glutamic dehydrogenase biosensor for screening heavy metals in water and soil samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belen Bello Rodriguez; John A Bolbot; Ibtisam E Tothill

    2004-01-01

    A screen-printed three-electrode amperometric biosensor based on urease and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH)–glutamic dehydrogenase system was developed and applied to the screening of heavy metals in environmental samples. The development of an amperometric sensor for the monitoring of urease activity was feasible by coupling the urea breakdown reaction catalysed by urease to the reductive ammination of ketoglutarate catalysed

  3. The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    amounts of glucose were simultaneously infused. The blood was sampled frequently. Plasma insulin and their action on blood glucose in lactating and non-lactating goats. Material and methods. Nine Alpine goats 4.m.). Two separate experiments (I and II) were performed. In experimentI (6 goats), unlabelled porcine

  4. PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS AND LONGER LACTATIONS WITH DIMINISHING CREDITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures of productive life (PL) were compared and life expectancy factors were updated to replace estimates from 1993. Alternatives were proposed with extra credits for lactations longer than 10 mo and beyond 84 mo of age, and for each calf produced so that an extremely long lactation w...

  5. Recent Advances in Lactate Estimation and Lactate Sensors for Diagnosis of Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Kumar

    Lactate is one of the principle products of anaerobic metabolism in living organism. Determination of lactate (lactic acid) is required in the diagnosis and medical management of various diseases such as tissue hypoxia, the individual causes include shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic or endotoxic), systemic disorder (neoplastic diseases, liver or renal failure, diabetes mellitus), respiratory failure (asphyxia), severe congestive heart failure and

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenases and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Muzio, G; Maggiora, M; Paiuzzi, E; Oraldi, M; Canuto, R A

    2012-02-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) oxidize aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids using either NAD or NADP as a coenzyme. Aldehydes are highly reactive aliphatic or aromatic molecules that play an important role in numerous physiological, pathological, and pharmacological processes. ALDHs have been discovered in practically all organisms and there are multiple isoforms, with multiple subcellular localizations. More than 160 ALDH cDNAs or genes have been isolated and sequenced to date from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants, and animals. The eukaryote ALDH genes can be subdivided into several families; the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Noteworthy is the fact that elevated activity of various ALDHs, namely ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1A7, ALDH2*2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6, and ALDH9A1, has been observed in normal and cancer stem cells. Consequently, ALDHs not only may be considered markers of these cells, but also may well play a functional role in terms of self-protection, differentiation, and/or expansion of stem cell populations. The ALDH3 family includes enzymes able to oxidize medium-chain aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, such as peroxidic and fatty aldehydes. Moreover, these enzymes also have noncatalytic functions, including antioxidant functions and some structural roles. The gene of the cytosolic form, ALDH3A1, is localized on chromosome 17 in human beings and on the 11th and 10th chromosome in the mouse and rat, respectively. ALDH3A1 belongs to the phase II group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the stomach, lung, keratinocytes, and cornea, but poorly, if at all, in normal liver. Cytosolic ALDH3 is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or chlorinated compounds, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in rat liver cells and increases during carcinogenesis. It has been observed that this increased activity is directly correlated with the degree of deviation in hepatoma and lung cancer cell lines, as is the case in chemically induced hepatoma in rats. High ALDH3A1 expression and activity have been correlated with cell proliferation, resistance against aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation, and resistance against drug toxicity, such as oxazaphosphorines. Indeed, cells with a high ALDH3A1 content are more resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of lipidic aldehydes than are those with a low content. A reduction in cell proliferation can be observed when the enzyme is directly inhibited by the administration of synthetic specific inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, or siRNA or indirectly inhibited by the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) with polyunsaturated fatty acids or PPAR? transfection. Conversely, cell proliferation is stimulated by the activation of ALDH3A1, whether by inhibiting PPAR? with a specific antagonist, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, or a medical device (i.e., composite polypropylene prosthesis for hernia repair) used to induce cell proliferation. To date, the mechanisms underlying the effects of ALDHs on cell proliferation are not yet fully clear. A likely hypothesis is that the regulatory effect is mediated by the catabolism of some endogenous substrates deriving from normal cell metabolism, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, which have the capacity to either stimulate or inhibit the expression of genes involved in regulating proliferation. PMID:22206977

  7. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24162728

  8. A Portable Luminometer with a Disposable Electrochemiluminescent Biosensor for Lactate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Ballesta-Claver, Julio; Palma, Alberto J.; Valencia-Mirón, Maria del Carmen; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermin

    2009-01-01

    A hand-held luminometer for measuring electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for lactate determination and based on one-shot biosensors fabricated using screen-printed electrodes is described. The lactate recognition system is based on lactate oxidase and the transduction system consists of electro-oxidation of luminol, with all the reagents immobilized in a Methocel membrane. The membrane composition and reaction conditions have been optimized to obtain adequate sensitivity. The luminometer is based on a large silicon photodiode as detector and includes a programmable potentiostat to initialize the chemical reaction and signal processing circuitry, designed to acquire a low level photocurrent with offset cancelation, low pass filtering for noise attenuation and adjustable gain up to 1012 V/A. The one-shot biosensor responds to lactate rapidly, with an acquisition time of 2.5 min, obtaining a linear dependence from 8 × 10?6 to 2 × 10?4 M, a detection limit of 2.4 × 10?6 M and a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (relative standard deviation, RSD) of around 7–10 % at the medium level of the range. PMID:22408475

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily: the 2002 update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolas A Sophos; Vasilis Vasiliou

    2003-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily represents a divergently related group of enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. With the advent of megabase genome sequencing, the ALDH superfamily is continuously expanding on many fronts. The presence of ALDH encoding genes in the vast majority of archaeal, eubacterial and eukaryotic genomes supports the notion that these enzymes

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily: the 2000 update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolas A. Sophos; Aglaia Pappa; Thomas L. Ziegler; Vasilis Vasiliou

    2001-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily represents a group of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. With the advent of megabase genome sequencing, the ALDH superfamily is expanding rapidly on many fronts. As expected, ALDH genes are found in virtually all genomes analyzed to date, indicating the importance of these enzymes in biological

  11. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    This image shows the inner and outer shells of the large protein pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is important for a cell’s metabolism. This protein turns pyruvate, which comes from sugars like glucose, into a molecule called acetyl-coA. This transformation helps energize the cell.

  12. Study of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the American Buffalo (Bison bison)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Naik; D. E. Anderson

    1970-01-01

    American buffalos have been studied for their hemoglobin and transferrin types, which show no detectable polymorphism (Braend and Stormont, 1963; Stormont, 1964). This report summarizes new data on erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this species. Blood samples were collected in ACD vacutainer tubes from 45 male and 41 female buffalos from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife

  13. Pyruvate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis is dependent upon glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Even, S; Garrigues, C; Loubiere, P; Lindley, N D; Cocaign-Bousquet, M

    1999-07-01

    Modification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from Lactococcus lactis was undertaken during batch fermentation on lactose, by adding various concentrations of iodoacetate (IAA), a compound which specifically inhibits GAPDH at low concentrations, to the culture medium. As IAA concentration is increased, GAPDH activity diminishes, provoking a decrease of both the glycolytic flux and the specific growth rate. This control exerted at the level of GAPDH was due partially to IAA covalent fixation but also to the modified NADH/NAD+ ratio. The mechanism of inhibition by NADH/NAD+ was studied in detail with the purified enzyme and various kinetic parameters were determined. Moreover, when GAPDH activity became limiting, the triose phosphate pool increased resulting in the inhibition of pyruvate formate lyase activity, while the lactate dehydrogenase is activated by the high NADH/NAD+ ratio. Thus, modifying the GAPDH activity provokes a shift from mixed-acid to homolactic metabolism, confirming the important role of this enzyme in controlling both the flux through glycolysis and the orientation of pyruvate catabolism. PMID:10937934

  14. Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Clinical and biochemical studies in two patients.

    PubMed Central

    Amendt, B A; Greene, C; Sweetman, L; Cloherty, J; Shih, V; Moon, A; Teel, L; Rhead, W J

    1987-01-01

    We describe two patients with short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (SCADH) deficiency. Neonate I excreted large amounts of ethylmalonate and methylsuccinate; ethylmalonate excretion increased after a medium-chain triglyceride load. Neonate II died postnatally and excreted ethylmalonate, butyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, adipate, and lactate. Both neonates' fibroblasts catabolized [1-14C]butyrate poorly (29-64% of control). Neonate I had moderately decreased [1-14C]octanoate catabolism (43-60% of control), while neonate II oxidized this substrate normally; both catabolized radiolabeled palmitate, succinate, and/or leucine normally. Cell sonicates from neonates I and II dehydrogenated [2,3-3H]butyryl-CoA poorly (41 and 53% of control) and [2,3-3H]octanoyl-CoA more effectively (59 and 95% of control). Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ADH) activities with butyryl- and octanoyl-CoAs were 37 and 56% of control in neonate I, and 47 and 81% of control in neonate II, respectively. Monospecific medium-chain ADH (MCADH) antisera inhibited MCADH activity towards both butyryl- and octanoyl-CoAs, revealing SCADH activities to be 1 and 11% of control for neonates I and II, respectively. Fibroblast SCADH and MCADH activities were normal in an adult female with muscular SCADH deficiency. PMID:3571488

  15. The spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: Clinical, biochemical and genetic features in 371 patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kavi P.; O’Brien, Thomas W.; Subramony, Sankarasubramon H.; Shuster, Jonathan; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Context Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disorder commonly associated with lactic acidosis, progressive neurological and neuromuscular degeneration and, usually, death during childhood. There has been no recent comprehensive analysis of the natural history and clinical course of this disease. Objective We reviewed 371 cases of PDC deficiency, published between 1970 and 2010, that involved defects in subunits E1? and E1? and components E1, E2, E3 and the E3 binding protein of the complex. Data sources and extraction English language peer-reviewed publications were identified, primarily by using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. Results Neurodevelopmental delay and hypotonia were the commonest clinical signs of PDC deficiency. Structural brain abnormalities frequently included ventriculomegaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and neuroimaging findings typical of Leigh syndrome. Neither gender nor any clinical or neuroimaging feature differentiated the various biochemical etiologies of the disease. Patients who died were younger, presented clinically earlier and had higher blood lactate levels and lower residual enzyme activities than subjects who were still alive at the time of reporting. Survival bore no relationship to the underlying biochemical or genetic abnormality or to gender. Conclusions Although the clinical spectrum of PDC deficiency is broad, the dominant clinical phenotype includes presentation during the first year of life; neurological and neuromuscular degeneration; structural lesions revealed by neuroimaging; lactic acidosis and a blood lactate:pyruvate ratio?20. PMID:22896851

  16. Successful sustained lactation following postpartum tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul, K; Wongsawasdi, L; Munglapruks, A; Imong, S M; Jackson, D A; Tansuhaj, A; Suwannarach, C; Chiowanich, P; Woolridge, M M; Drewett, R F

    1991-12-01

    This study was undertaken to see whether tubal ligation performed within days postpartum, and associated with a delay in the initiation of breastfeeding, exerts a disruptive influence on successfully establishing lactation among the rural population of northern Thailand. Lactational performance of 12 rural northern Thai mothers was not affected by the delay in reunion of mothers with their babies as a result of postpartum tubal sterilization procedure when compared with a group of 8 other healthy mothers and babies. The volume of breast milk transferred, frequency of breastfeeding and the total feeding time spent on the breast were similar on days 15, 45, 90, 180 and 360 postpartum. This finding suggests that the pattern of intense breastfeeding activity as practiced by this group of mothers has a stronger influence on prolonged and successful lactation than early contact in the immediate postpartum period. PMID:1776561

  17. Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue during lactation: a model of a metabolic control system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J P

    1994-08-01

    The flux of energy-yielding compounds through the pathways of lipogenesis, esterification into triglycerides and lipolysis in adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in supplying the demands of lactation and maternal health. The critical importance of these pathways is demonstrated by the number of highly coordinated and redundant metabolic control elements that regulate the enzyme activity in these pathways, including protein and several steroid hormones, catecholamines, and blood concentrations of several nutrients. Control on these pathways is exerted by all of these elements during lactation. Insights have been gained recently into the adaptations of these pathway reactions due to genetic propensity for milk production, stage of lactation, and intake of energy-yielding components such as starch, cellulose and triglycerides. The rates of these pathways vary exponentially with the intakes of key substrates and demands for milk precursors. The parameters of equations describing these pathways are not constant, but vary with genotype and with prolonged changes in nutritional and environmental conditions. Two major regulatory systems are critical to alterations of carbon flux during the entire lactational period. One is the interaction of growth hormone and insulin to control lipogenesis; the other is the counter-regulation by norepinephrine and insulin on cyclic AMP-initiated enzyme phosphorylation to regulate lipolysis. Examples of specific control points having a critical impact on lactational success and that are associated with genetic selection for milk production are the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hormone sensitive lipase. Further insights into the mechanisms of these adaptations will help us to improve the efficiency of metabolic flux during lactation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064388

  18. Americium(iii) and europium(iii) complex formation with lactate at elevated temperatures studied by spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Barkleit, Astrid; Kretzschmar, Jerome; Tsushima, Satoru; Acker, Margret

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) with lactate were determined with UV-vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in a temperature range between 25 and 70 °C. The reaction enthalpy decreased with increasing ionic strength. ATR FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed structural details of the Eu(iii) lactate 1?:?1 complex: a chelating coordination mode of the lactate with a monodentate binding carboxylate group and the hydroxyl group being deprotonated. PMID:24828353

  19. Application of isotopes to the study of lactate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.

    1986-06-01

    The use of /sup 14/C as tracer to measure lactate turnover and oxidation and its role in gluconeogenesis are discussed. Lactate is formed as well as utilized in many cells, and most of it in the body is present within cells so that interpretation of /sup 14/C data from labelled lactate is more complex and more difficult than that of compounds present largely extracellularly, such as glucose. Apparent uptake of (/sup 14/C)lactate may occur in the absence of net lactate utilization, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production does not provide a measure of true lactate oxidation. In vivo sites of tracer administration and sampling of blood are of critical significance for evaluation of lactate turnover, lactate space, its incorporation into glucose, and oxidation.

  20. Relation between Neonatal Icter and Gilbert Syndrome in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zahedpasha, Yadollah; Ahmadpour, Mousa; Niaki, Haleh Akhavan; Alaee, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The pathogenesis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia hasn’t been completely defined in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient newborns. The aim of this study was to detect the relationship between Gilbert’s syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Amirkola pediatrics teaching hospital, Babol, Iran. A total number of one hundred four infants were included in the study (51 infants with neonatal jaundice and Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted to phototherapy or transfusion were selected as the case group and 53 infants with Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted for other reasons than jaundice were selected as the control group). Exclusion criteria were ABO or Rh incompatibility or other reasons that made Coombs test positive, sepsis, hepatosplenomegaly, metabolic diseases, medical treatment and phototherapy. The promoter and coding regions of Uridine diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) of genomic DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) isolated from leukocytes. We used chi-square test and t-test to compare cases and controls. Results: Distribution of Gilbert genome was not significantly different between the two groups; among cases, 33.3% were homozygote, 35.3% heterozygote, and 31.4% normal. Among controls, 22.6% were homozygote, 34% heterozygote, and 43.4% normal (p-value=xxx). Hyperbilirubinemia family history didn’t differ significantly between these two groups. Conclusions: We showed that in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates, there was no significant association between Gilbert’s syndrome (promoter polymorphism) and hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:24783083

  1. Original article Insulin and/or dexamethasone regulation of lactate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Insulin and/or dexamethasone regulation of lactate production and its relationship and cow adipose tissue (AT) explants. The effects of insulin (2 mU/mL) and/or dexamethasone (DEX, 100 n, the lactate production was two times greater in sheep than in cow AT. Insulin increased lactate production

  2. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury.

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-04-08

    of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct...

  3. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-04-08

    of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct...

  4. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes & Proteins In Grapevine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tesniere; P. Abbal

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) is a dimeric-zinc enzyme which catalyses the inter-conversion\\u000a of acetaldehyde to ethanol, using NAD\\/NADH as a cofactor. This is the terminal step of glycolysis, leading to fermentative\\u000a metabolism in anaerobic conditions. In this context, the evolution of this enzyme’s activity, and gene expression have been\\u000a widely investigated in response to anaerobiosis in

  5. Domain Structure of Rat 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey A. Krupenko; Conrad Wagner; Robert J. Cook

    We expressed the NH2-terminal domain of the mul- tidomain, multifunctional enzyme, 10-formyltetrahydro- folate dehydrogenase (FDH), using a baculovirus ex- pression system in insect cells. Expression of the 203- amino acid NH2-terminal domain (residues 1-203), which is 24 -30% identical to a group of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylases (EC 2.1.2.2), resulted in the appearance of insoluble recombinant protein appar- ently due to

  6. Active site of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl P. Abriola; Robert Fields; Stanley Stein; Alexander D. MacKerell; Regina Pietruszko

    1987-01-01

    Bromoacetophenone (2-bromo-1-phenylethanone) functions as an affinity reagent for human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) and has been found specifically to label a unique tryptic peptide in the enzyme. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the labeled peptide after purification by two different procedures revealed the following sequence: Val-Thr-Leu-Glu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Lys. Radioactivity was found to be associated with the glutamate residue, which was identified as Glu-268

  7. Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M

    1979-04-01

    Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in flesh tissue of mature fruit of the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. var. Tanaka). The enzyme was purified about 30-fold from the crude extract of the fruit, and was demonstrated to catalyze sorbitol-6-phosphate + NADP right harpoon over left harpoon glucose-6-phosphate + NADPH. The optimal pH values for sorbitol 6-phosphate oxidation and glucose 6-phosphate reduction were 9.8 and 9.1, respectively. PMID:16660798

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of gene encoding N-Benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol dehydrogenase from Geotrichum capitatum.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Onodera, Keiko; Kojima, Kazutaka; Takase, Yuhki; Tani, Yoshiki

    2007-11-01

    The gene encoding N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol dehydrogenase (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession no. AB294179), a useful biocatalyst for producing (S)-N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol, was cloned from the genomic DNA of Geotrichum capitatum JCM 3908. The gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 1023 nucleotides corresponding to 340 amino acid residues. The subunit molecular weight was calculated to be 39,000. The predicted amino acid sequence did not have significant similarity to those of N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinone reductases reported previously. From 30 mM N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinone, (S)-N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol was obtained with a yield >99.9% and an enantiomeric excess >99.9% in 1-h and 2-h reactions without NADH addition by the resting cells of Escherichia coli HB 101 strains harboring the expression plasmids pSG-POBS and pSF-POBS that possess the glucose dehydrogenase gene and formate dehydrogenase gene as an NADH-reproducing system, respectively, besides the N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol dehydrogenase gene. N-Benzyl-3-pyrrolidinol dehydrogenase activity (0.56 U/mg) was observed in E. coli (pSG-POBS), which was 17-fold the specific activity observed in G. capitatum JCM 3908. PMID:18086437

  9. Neuropathology in Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Ina; Gibson, K. Michael; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Combs, Susan; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2010-01-01

    Reported here is the novel finding of neuropathology in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, an inherited disorder of ?-aminobutyric acid metabolism characterized by intellectual deficiency, hypotonia, and epilepsy, with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria and abnormalities of the globus pallidus on neuroimaging. A 19-year-old woman of European origin with a neurodevelopmental disorder and epilepsy died unexpectedly in 1998. A postmortem examination was performed, with a final diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. Eight years later, her sister with a neurodevelopmental disorder presented at 13 years of age with seizures and was diagnosed with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. In the decedent, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency was established at the molecular level, 10 years after her death, using genomic DNA from brain tissue specimens. The neuropathologic findings revealed striking discoloration of the globi pallidi, leptomeningeal congestion, and a scar in the frontal cortex. After detection of the pathogenic homozygous mutation c.1226G>A, p.Gly409Asp in the living sister, it was confirmed in the decedent. An underlying metabolic disease may be an additional risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. PMID:20304328

  10. Analysis of Lactation Defects in Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Palmer; Margaret C. Neville; Steven M. Anderson; James L. McManaman

    2006-01-01

    Although lactation is the only physiological function of the mammary gland, little is known about the molecular events required for secretory activation and milk production. Genetically altered mice have been used extensively to study mammary gland development during puberty and pregnancy, as well as mammary tumorigenesis. A number of approaches have been used to produce genetic modifications in mammary glands

  11. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  12. HEXONEOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN BREAST DURING LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose is the major osmotic agent in milk. Therefore, lactose synthesis indirectly regulates milk volume. The aim of this study was to determine the source of glucose and galactose in lactose. Six healthy lactating women were studied twice, during a 24 h fast and during ingestion of a mixed macr...

  13. Atomic Description of an Enzyme Reaction Dominated by Proton Tunneling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Masgrau; Anna Roujeinikova; Linus O. Johannissen; Parvinder Hothi; Jaswir Basran; Kara E. Ranaghan; Adrian J. Mulholland; Michael J. Sutcliffe; Nigel S. Scrutton; David Leys

    2006-01-01

    We present an atomic-level description of the reaction chemistry of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction dominated by proton tunneling. By solving structures of reaction intermediates at near-atomic resolution, we have identified the reaction pathway for tryptamine oxidation by aromatic amine dehydrogenase. Combining experiment and computer simulation, we show proton transfer occurs predominantly to oxygen O2 of Asp128beta in a reaction dominated by

  14. Human liver class I alcohol dehydrogenase gammagamma isozyme: the sole cytosolic 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of iso bile acids.

    PubMed

    Marschall, H U; Oppermann, U C; Svensson, S; Nordling, E; Persson, B; Höög, J O; Jörnvall, H

    2000-04-01

    3beta-Hydroxy (iso) bile acids are formed during enterohepatic circulation from 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids and constitute normal compounds in plasma but are virtually absent in bile. Isoursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA) is a major metabolite of UDCA. In a recent study it was found that after administration of isoUDCA, UDCA became the major acid in bile. Thus, epimerization of the 3beta-hydroxy to a 3alpha-hydroxy group, catalyzed by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) and 3-oxo-reductases must occur. The present study aims to characterize the human liver bile acid 3beta-HSD. Human liver cytosol and recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) betabeta and gammagamma isozymes were subjected to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. Activity staining with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) as cofactors and various iso bile acids as substrates was used to screen for 3beta-HSD activity. Reaction products were identified and quantified by gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Computer-assisted substrate docking of isoUDCA to the active site of a 3-dimensional model of human class I gammagamma ADH was performed. ADH gammagamma isozyme was identified as the iso bile acid 3beta-HSD present in human liver cytosol, with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Values for k(cat)/K(m) were in the rank order isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA), isochenodeoxycholic acid (isoCDCA), isoUDCA, and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) (0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0. 05 min(-1) x micromol/L(-1), respectively). IsoUDCA fits as substrate to the 3-dimensional model of the active-site of ADH gammagamma. ADH gammagamma isozyme was defined as the only bile acid 3beta-HSD in human liver cytosol. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are candidates for the binding and transport of 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids. We assume that ADH gammagamma isozyme is involved in cytosolic bile acid binding and transport processes as well. PMID:10733557

  15. The effect of inspiratory muscle training upon maximum lactate steady-state and blood lactate concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K. McConnell; Graham R. Sharpe

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration ([Lac]B). The present study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 healthy, non-endurance-trained male

  16. Endocrine profiles of cows undergoing extended lactation in relation to the control of lactation persistency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Sorensen; C. H Knight

    2002-01-01

    We conducted an experiment in dairy cows investigating the effects of calving season, milking frequency and nutrition on lactation persistency. Cows calved in the Spring (n=12) or Winter (n=12). Commencing in lactation week 9 one udder-half of each cow was milked thrice-daily and half of each calving group received additional concentrate at a fixed rate of 3kg per day above

  17. [2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and its multipoint control].

    PubMed

    Tylicki, Adam; Bunik, Victoria I; Strumi?o, S?awomir

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes control the course of biochemical reactions. The enzymes involved in bioenergetic processes play most important role in cell metabolism. One of them is 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), the key regulatory enzyme of Krebs cycle. Krebs cycle integrates basic metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids during catabolic as well as anabolic reactions. Due to the key position of OGDHC in mitochondrial metabolism, its activity is controlled by many factors. Allosteric regulation by positive effectors (ADP, Pi, Ca2+, Mn2+) of the complex is very important. These effectors strongly enhances affinity of the first component of OGDHC to 2-oxoglutarate. Moreover there are negative effectors (ATP, NADH, succinyl-CoA) which affect all three enzymes of the complex. Regulation of biosynthesis of individual components of the complex by activation or inactivation of genes expression is very important for proper OGDHC activity too. Activity of OGDHC also depends on posttranslational modifications of its components. All of this control processes maintain OGDHC activity on adequate level and prevent the complex against its excessive action. PMID:22235656

  18. Effects of training on lactate kinetics parameters and their influence on short high-intensity exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Messonnier, L; Freund, H; Denis, C; Féasson, L; Lacour, J-R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the training-induced alterations in lactate kinetics parameters to the concomitant changes in time to exhaustion (T(lim)) at a work rate corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake (Pa(peak)). Eight subjects performed before and after training i) an incremental exercise up to exhaustion to determine Pa(peak), ii) a 5-min 90 % Pa(peak) exercise followed by a 90-min passive recovery to determine an individual blood lactate recovery curve fitted to the bi-exponential time function: La(t) = La(0) + A1(1 - e -gamma1 x t) + A2(1 - e -gamma2 x t), and iii) a time to exhaustion at Pa peak to determine T lim. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle was made before and after training. The training programme consisted in pedalling on a cycle ergometer 2 h a day, 6 days a week, for 4 weeks. Training-induced increases (p < 0.05) in Pa(peak), muscle capillary density, citrate synthase activity, gamma2 that denotes the lactate removal ability (from 0.0547 +/- 0.0038 to 0.0822 +/- 0.0071 min (-1)) and T(lim) (from 299 +/- 23 to 486 +/- 63 s), decreases (p < 0.05) in activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and muscle type of LDH, the phosphofructokinase/citrate synthase activities ratio and the estimated net amount of lactate released (NALR) during exercise recovery (from 66.5 +/- 8.6 to 47.2 +/- 11.1 mmol) were also observed. The improvement of T (lim) with training was related to the increase in gamma2 (r = 0.74, p = 0.0367) and to the decrease in NALR (r = 0.77, p = 0.0250). These results suggest that the post-training greater ability to remove lactate from the organism and reduced muscle lactate accumulation during exercise account for the concomitant improvement of the time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise performed at the same relative work rate. PMID:16388444

  19. Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation

    E-print Network

    Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation in Adulthoodjsm_2065 140..147 Magnus Enquist, PhD,* Hanna Aronsson, B.Sc.,* Stefano that pregnancy or lactation may become sexually attractive in adulthood following an exposure to pregnant

  20. Properties of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase and its potential applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Qun Jin; Yu-Guo Zheng

    Glucoside 3-dehydrogenase, one of the glucose redoxidases, is perhaps known for the vital role it plays in converting a series of sugars to their corresponding 3-ketoglucosides. Glucoside 3- dehydrogenase has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to broad substrate specificity and excellent regioselectivity. Glucoside 3-dehydrogenase is a FAD-enzyme, which is capable of oxidizing glucosides and galactosides to their corresponding

  1. Lactation modifies stress-induced immune changes in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Jaedicke, Katrin M; Fuhrmann, Marco D; Stefanski, Volker

    2009-07-01

    Lactation and stressor exposure both influence the activity of the immune system, but the interaction of both factors on the immune defense is poorly understood. The aim was therefore to investigate in lactating Long-Evans rats the effect of social stress on aspects of cellular immunity in the blood and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Acute social stress (2h) was induced in lactating and non-lactating female intruders using a confrontation model that yielded into social defeat and increased plasma corticosterone concentrations. Stress as well as lactation had marked effects on the immune system. Acute social stress caused granulocytosis, reduced lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production in the blood, but had no significant effects in MLN. In the blood of lactating rats, increased numbers of granulocytes and enhanced phagocytosis, but decreased B cell numbers and reduced IL-2 production was observed. However, in MLN both lymphocyte proliferation and monocyte numbers were increased in lactating rats. The effect of stress on the immune measures was often similar in lactating and non-lactating females, but a few important differences were evident: Only non-lactating animals showed an increase in blood granulocyte numbers and a decrease in IL-2 production in response to stressor exposure. Thus, during lactation, a neuroendocrine status may exist which impedes stress-induced modulations at least of some immune parameters. PMID:19232537

  2. Role and regulation of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in lung inflammation 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that have potent anti-inflammatory actions. Endogenous glucocorticoid action is modulated by 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) which catalyses the interconversion of ...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1565 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system....

  4. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1565 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1420 Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  9. Influence of cell heterogeneity on skeletal muscle lactate kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliassotti, M.J.; Donovan, C.M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Lactate and (14C)lactate kinetics were studied in three rabbit skeletal muscle preparations with distinct fiber type profiles, glycolytic (99.1 +/- 0.2% type IIb fibers), oxidative (97.5 +/- 0.6% type I fibers), and mixed (type I, IIa, and IIb fibers). Single-pass perfusions were carried out for 2 h in the presence of lactate (1 mM), glucose (5 mM), (6-3H)glucose, and (U-14C)lactate. All preparations displayed net lactate release, (14C)lactate removal, and 14CO2 release. Net lactate release was greatest in the glycolytic preparation, 9.7 +/- 0.5 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, and least in the oxidative preparation, 3.7 +/- 0.2 mumol.100 g-1.min-1. (14C)lactate arteriovenous difference was greatest in the mixed preparation, 1,688 +/- 58 (disintegrations/min)/ml (dpm/ml), and least in the glycolytic preparation, 505 +/- 10.3 dpm/ml. Steady-state incorporation of (14C)lactate was observed in CO2, amino acids, and pyruvate. Tissue lactate specific activity (LSA) in all preparations was significantly lower than arterial LSA, but not significantly different from venous LSA. Estimates of lactate removal based on venous LSA were not significantly different from net glycolytic flux. In conclusion, (1) under basal, resting conditions net lactate release and (14C)lactate removal are properties of all fiber types, and (2) tracer estimates of lactate turnover in skeletal muscle reflect net glycolytic flux through pyruvate.

  10. Lactate Kinetics during Multiple Set Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Wahl, Patrick; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2), and Leg Extension with 1 or 2 legs (LE1 or LE2). Each set was performed at a standard velocity and at a previously determined 10RM load. Blood lactate samples were taken immediately before and after each set (pre1, post1, pre2, post2, pre3, post3). Maximum [La] was significantly higher after LE2 (6.8 ± 1.6mmol·L-1) and significantly lower after AC1 (2.8 ± 0.7mmol·L-1) in comparison with the other exercise protocols. There was no difference between AC2 (4.3 ± 1.1mmol·L-1) and LE1 (4.4 ± 1.1mmol·L-1). Surprisingly, [La] decreased during the 3rd set (for AC exercise), and during both the 2nd and 3rd sets (for LE exercise) and increased only during the recovery phases. In contrast to our expectations, blood [La] decreased during the 2nd and 3rd exercise sets and further increased only during recovery phases. However, from the increases observed following the first set, we know that lactate was produced and transported to the blood during our exercise protocol. We speculate that lactate is taken up and metabolized by distal muscle fibres or organs. In addition, as the decreases occurred within a short period of time, blood volume shifts and/or the muscle-to-blood gradient may account for the rapid decreases in [La]. Key Points Blood lactate concentration [La] decreases during the 2nd and 3rd set of a resistance exercise program of the leg extensor muscles. [La] decreases during the 3rd set of a resistance exercise program of the arm flexor muscles. A significant increase of [La] only appears during the first set, during rest periods and after the last set. The decline of [La] during sets becomes larger over the course of exercise. PMID:24570608

  11. Identification of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (CoA) desulfinases within the Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Marc; Demming, Rebecca Michaela; Krewing, Marco; Rose, Judith; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study, the essential role of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) (AcdDPN7) during degradation of 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was elucidated. DTDP is a sulfur-containing precursor substrate for biosynthesis of polythioesters (PTEs). AcdDPN7 showed high amino acid sequence similarity to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases but was unable to catalyze a dehydrogenation reaction. Hence, it was investigated in the present study whether 3SP-CoA desulfinase activity is an uncommon or a widespread property within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Therefore, proteins of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily from Advenella kashmirensis WT001, Bacillus cereus DSM31, Cupriavidus necator N-1, Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Ralstonia eutropha H16, Variovorax paradoxus B4, Variovorax paradoxus S110, and Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 were expressed in E. coli strains. All purified acyl-CoA dehydrogenases appeared as homotetramers, as revealed by size exclusion chromatography. AcdS110, AcdB4, AcdH16, and AcdKT2440 were able to dehydrogenate isobutyryl-CoA. AcdKT2440 additionally dehydrogenated butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA, whereas AcdDSM31 dehydrogenated only butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA. No dehydrogenation reactions were observed with propionyl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA for any of the investigated acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Only AcdTBEA6, AcdN-1, and AcdLB400 desulfinated 3SP-CoA and were thus identified as 3SP-CoA desulfinases within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, although none of these three Acds dehydrogenated any of the tested acyl-CoA thioesters. No appropriate substrates were identified for AcdBL21 and AcdWT001. Spectrophotometric assays provided apparent Km and Vmax values for active substrates and indicated the applicability of phylogenetic analyses to predict the substrate range of uncharacterized acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Furthermore, C. necator N-1 was found to utilize 3SP as the sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:24317404

  12. Identification of 3-Sulfinopropionyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Desulfinases within the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Marc; Demming, Rebecca Michaela; Krewing, Marco; Rose, Judith; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, the essential role of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T (AcdDPN7) during degradation of 3,3?-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was elucidated. DTDP is a sulfur-containing precursor substrate for biosynthesis of polythioesters (PTEs). AcdDPN7 showed high amino acid sequence similarity to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases but was unable to catalyze a dehydrogenation reaction. Hence, it was investigated in the present study whether 3SP-CoA desulfinase activity is an uncommon or a widespread property within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Therefore, proteins of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily from Advenella kashmirensis WT001, Bacillus cereus DSM31, Cupriavidus necator N-1, Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Ralstonia eutropha H16, Variovorax paradoxus B4, Variovorax paradoxus S110, and Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 were expressed in E. coli strains. All purified acyl-CoA dehydrogenases appeared as homotetramers, as revealed by size exclusion chromatography. AcdS110, AcdB4, AcdH16, and AcdKT2440 were able to dehydrogenate isobutyryl-CoA. AcdKT2440 additionally dehydrogenated butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA, whereas AcdDSM31 dehydrogenated only butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA. No dehydrogenation reactions were observed with propionyl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA for any of the investigated acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Only AcdTBEA6, AcdN-1, and AcdLB400 desulfinated 3SP-CoA and were thus identified as 3SP-CoA desulfinases within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, although none of these three Acds dehydrogenated any of the tested acyl-CoA thioesters. No appropriate substrates were identified for AcdBL21 and AcdWT001. Spectrophotometric assays provided apparent Km and Vmax values for active substrates and indicated the applicability of phylogenetic analyses to predict the substrate range of uncharacterized acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Furthermore, C. necator N-1 was found to utilize 3SP as the sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:24317404

  13. Dermatoses of the breast in lactation.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Meagan E; Heller, Misha M; Fullerton Stone, Honor; Murase, Jenny E

    2013-01-01

    Dermatoses of the breast during lactation can be difficult to diagnose because of their overlapping clinical appearances. It is important to properly diagnose and treat nipple dermatitis since it can be a significant source of pain when nursing. Poorly controlled nipple pain in nursing mothers is one of the primary reasons for breastfeeding to be discontinued earlier than is recommended. Therefore, it is relevant for practicing dermatologists to be aware of certain facts in a patient's history, specific physical exam findings, and the most appropriate laboratory tests used to diagnose these conditions. In addition, the therapeutic approach should be effective and safe for the mother and infant. This review article provides dermatologists with a detailed discussion on the clinical features and management of various breast dermatoses seen in lactation, including atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis, bacterial infections, yeast infections and herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23914890

  14. Supplemental energy infusions in the lactating ruminant 

    E-print Network

    Kenison, Dale Christopher

    1983-01-01

    of that of propionate. If amino acids are to be spared from oxidation to CO and conversion to 2 glucose, further studies concerned with the extent of conversion and the effects of administration of other gluconeogenic substrates must be undertaken. The sparing.... According to Bergman (l973) these precursors are, in order of significance: propionate, amino acids, lactate and glycerol. Propionate It is genera11y agreed that propionate is the single most important glucose precursor. Propionate is the only volatile...

  15. Lactate Produced by Glycogenolysis in Astrocytes Regulates Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Korol, Donna L.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions. PMID:22180782

  16. Characterization of the AXDH gene and the encoded xylitol dehydrogenase from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Böer, Erik; Wartmann, Thomas; Schmidt, Silvia; Bode, Rüdiger; Gellissen, Gerd; Kunze, Gotthard

    2005-04-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase-encoding Arxula adeninivorans AXDH gene was isolated and characterized. The gene includes a coding sequence of 1107 bp encoding a putative 368 amino acid protein of 40.3 kDa. The identity of the gene was confirmed by a high degree of homology of the derived amino acid sequence to that of xylitol dehydrogenases from different sources. The gene activity was regulated by carbon source. In media supplemented with xylitol, D-sorbitol and D-xylose induction of the AXDH gene and intracellular accumulation of the encoded xylitol dehydrogenase was observed. This activation pattern was confirmed by analysis of AXDH promoter-GFP gene fusions. The enzyme characteristics were analysed from isolates of native strains as well as from those of recombinant strains expressing the AXDH gene under control of the strong A. adeninivorans-derived TEF1 promoter. For both proteins, a molecular mass of ca. 80 kDa was determined corresponding to a dimeric structure, an optimum pH at 7.5 and a temperature optimum at 35 degrees C. The enzyme oxidizes polyols like xylitol and D-sorbitol whereas the reduction reaction is preferred when providing D-xylulose, D-ribulose and L-sorbose as substrates. Enzyme activity exclusively depends on NAD+ or NADH as coenzymes. PMID:15803389

  17. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD. PMID:22248248

  18. Purification of Xanthine Dehydrogenase and Sulfite Oxidase from Chicken Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapila Ratnam; Michael S. Brody; Russ Hille

    1996-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase from chicken liver are oxomolybdenum enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid and sulfite to sulfate, respectively. Independent purification protocols have been previously described for both enzymes. Here we describe a procedure by which xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase are purified simultaneously from the same batch of fresh chicken liver. Also, unlike

  19. Activator Protein Accelerates Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Gene Transcription in Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Ukon; Keiji Tanimoto; Tatsushi Shimokuni; Takuya Noguchi; Hiroaki Tsujimoto; Masakazu Fukushima; Tetsuya Toge; Masahiko Nishiyama

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase is the most extensively investigated predictive marker for individual response to 5- fluorouracil. Clinical responses to the anticancer agent, along with various reports, have clearly shown that dihydropyrimi- dine dehydrogenase activity is closely correlated to its mRNA levels, but the regulatory mechanisms of its expression have remained unclear. We attempted to clarify the mechanisms and found that activator

  20. HISTIDINE MUTAGENESIS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Analysis of the primary amino acid sequences of PDK from various sources reveals that these enzymes include the five domains characteristic of prokaryotic two-compone...

  1. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for human {triangle}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase, the gene defective in type 2 hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, C.A.; Lin, W.; Valle, D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    P5C dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.12) is a mitochondrial matrix NAD(P) dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of P5C, derived from either proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This reaction is an important component in the pathway interconnecting the urea cycle with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiency of P5C dehydrogenase causes type 2 hyperprolinemia (HPII), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by seizures, hyperprolinemia and accumulation of P5C. To investigate the molecular basis of HPII and the pathophysiology of gyrate atrophy, a disorder of ornithine metabolism, we have cloned a cDNA for P5C dehydrogenase. Utilizing published sequences of peptides from purified human P5C dehydrogenase and the nucleotide sequence of yeast P5C dehydrogenase, we designed degenerate PCR primers to amplify cDNAs from a HepG2 cDNA library. We identified an amplified fragment of the correct size that encoded one of the many peptides and used it to clone near full length clones of the corresponding cDNA. The longest is 1.8 kb with a 1,485 bp ORF encoding a protein corresponding to the C terminal 495 residues of yeast P5C dehydrogenase. The predicted amino acid sequence of this clone has 100% identity to published sequence of human P5C dehydrogenase peptides and 42% identity with the corresponding sequence of the yeast enzyme. This cDNA detects a 2.3 kb transcript in Northern blots of fibroblast RNA. We conclude we have cloned a near full length cDNA for human P5C dehydrogenase. Studies investigating the molecular basis of HPII are in progress.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:23130316

  3. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma – method-comparison evaluations

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Bhatt, Archana; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, Allen; Ellis, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20). Results The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality. PMID:25054981

  4. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  5. Detection of aflatoxinogenic fungi in figs by a PCR reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Färber; Rolf Geisen; W. H. Holzapfel

    1997-01-01

    A PCR reaction was used to detect aflatoxinogenic Aspergillus flavus strains in contaminated figs. The reaction records the presence of three aflatoxin biosynthesis genes, namely the norsolorinic acid reductase (nor-1), versicolorin A dehydrogenase (ver-1) and sterigmatocystin-O-methyltransferase: (omt-A). The reaction gave a triplet pattern in the presence of DNA from A.flavus isolated from pure cultures. The reaction gave the same PCR

  6. Molecular dynamics study of the active site of methylamine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pierdominici-Sottile, Gustavo; Echave, Julian; Palma, Juliana

    2006-06-15

    We have obtained AMBER94 force-field parameters for the TTQ cofactor of the enzyme methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of methylamine to produce formaldehyde and ammonia. In the rate-determining step of the catalyzed reaction, a proton is transferred from the methyl group of the substrate to residue Asp76. We used the new parameters to perform molecular dynamics simulations of MADH in order to characterize the dynamics of the active site prior to the proton-transfer step. We found that only one of the oxygen atoms of Asp76 can act as an acceptor of the proton. The other oxygen interacts with Thr122 via a strong hydrogen bond. In contrast, because of the rotation the methyl group of the substrate, the three methyl hydrogen atoms are alternately in position to be transferred. The distance that the proton has to travel presents a broad distribution with a peak between 1.0 and 1.1 A and reaches values as short as 0.8 A. The fluctuation of the distance between the donor and the acceptor has the largest frequency component at 50 cm(-1), but the spectrum presents a rich structure between 10 and 400 cm(-1). The more important peaks appear below 250 cm(-1). PMID:16771436

  7. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  8. The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; González-Valdez, Alejandra; Sosa-Torres, Martha; Arreguín-Espinoza, Roberto; Escamilla-Marván, Edgardo

    2008-06-30

    The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is the most characteristic process in acetic acid bacteria. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is rather unique among the acetic acid bacteria as it carries out nitrogen fixation and is a true endophyte, originally isolated from sugar cane. Aside its peculiar life style, Ga. diazotrophicus, possesses a constitutive membrane-bound oxidase system for ethanol. The Alcohol dehydrogenase complex (ADH) of Ga. diazotrophicus was purified to homogeneity from the membrane fraction. It-exhibited two subunits with molecular masses of 71.4 kDa and 43.5 kDa. A positive peroxidase reaction confirmed the presence of cytochrome c in both subunits. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) of ADH was identified by UV-visible light and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enzyme was purified in its full reduced state; potassium ferricyanide induced its oxidation. Ethanol or acetaldehyde restored the full reduced state. The enzyme showed an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.1 and its optimal pH was 6.0. Both ethanol and acetaldehyde were oxidized at almost the same rate, thus suggesting that the ADH complex of Ga. diazotrophicus could be kinetically competent to catalyze, at least in vitro, the double oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. PMID:18321602

  9. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A. [Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  10. Undetected toxicity risk in pharmacogenetic testing for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%-30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients' homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies' results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  11. Immobilization and enzymatic properties of Bacillus megaterium glucose dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The enzymatic production of hydrogen gas from renewable sources of energy; e.g., cellulose, starch, lactose, can be obtained by coupling the reactions catalyzed by glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hydrogenase. In order to enhance the thermostability of GDH from Bacillus megaterium, the enzyme was immobilized by ionic adsorption using the polycationic polymer DEAE-(dextran)Sephadex. The effect of enzyme concentration on immobilization showed a tendency to increase the activity of the immobilized enzyme with the increase of the amount of added GDH. When the enzyme: support ratio was 15.97 U: 100 mg, the immobilization yield was 84.76%. The enzymatic profiles for the immobilized GDH were a little different when compared to those for free enzyme with respect to the effects of pH and temperature. Concerning the effect of incubation time carried at pH 7.5 and at 40{degrees}C, the maximum production of reduced coenzyme by the immobilized enzyme was reached within 4 h and it was maintained up to 16 h without loss of enzymatic activity. The coupling of the immobilized GDH activity with that for free alkaline cellulose (Novozym. 342) demonstrated the possibility for obtaining reduced coenzyme from the cellulose hydrolysis and the immobilized GDH could be reassayed 10 times maintaining its enzyme activity.

  12. Clinical applications of L-lactate oxidase-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Keli; Liu, Yanfan; Wang, Lei; Han, Qiao; Yin, Lizhi

    2001-09-01

    A L-lactate oxidase (LOD)-based biosensor is developed for the determination of L-lactate in blood samples. The L- lactate oxidase membrane is prepared by covalently linking LOD into a nylon set, followed by attaching the membrane onto a flow injection type of oxygen electrode. The response of the biosensor is based on the limited diffusion of L- lactate on the L-lactate oxidase membrane. No performance difference have been found between the LOD-based biosensor and regular enzyme optical determination methods for blood sample testing. It is suggested that the LOD-based biosensor may serve as an alternative for the detection of L-lactate in blood.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Staphylococcus aureus homoserine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Navratna, Vikas; Gopal, Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive nosocomial pathogen. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in both hospital and community settings makes it imperative to characterize new drug targets to combat S. aureus infections. In this context, enzymes involved in cell-wall maintenance and essential amino-acid biosynthesis are significant drug targets. Homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) is an oxidoreductase that is involved in the reversible conversion of L-aspartate semialdehyde to L-homoserine in a dinucleotide cofactor-dependent reduction reaction. HSD is thus a crucial intermediate enzyme linked to the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, isoleucine and threonine. PMID:24192352

  14. Distinct but parallel evolutionary patterns between alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: addition of fish\\/human betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase divergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hjelmqvist; A. Norin; M. El-Ahmad; W. Griffiths; H. Jörnvall

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) of the MDR type (medium-chain dehydrogenases\\/reductases) have diverged into two evolutionary groups in eukaryotes: a set of 'constant' enzymes (class III) Throughout, ADH classes are given here with Roman numerals, and ALDH classes with Arabic numerals, in part to avoid confusion between the two enzyme types, and in part because of previous traditions [cf. refs 1–]. typical

  15. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDHK4) in glucose homoeostasis during starvation.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Nam Ho; Wu, Pengfei; Joshi, Mandar A; Jaskiewicz, Jerzy; Bock, Cheryl B; Depaoli-Roach, Anna A; Harris, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    The PDC (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is strongly inhibited by phosphorylation during starvation to conserve substrates for gluconeogenesis. The role of PDHK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4) in regulation of PDC by this mechanism was investigated with PDHK4-/- mice (homozygous PDHK4 knockout mice). Starvation lowers blood glucose more in mice lacking PDHK4 than in wild-type mice. The activity state of PDC (percentage dephosphorylated and active) is greater in kidney, gastrocnemius muscle, diaphragm and heart but not in the liver of starved PDHK4-/- mice. Intermediates of the gluconeogenic pathway are lower in concentration in the liver of starved PDHK4-/- mice, consistent with a lower rate of gluconeogenesis due to a substrate supply limitation. The concentration of gluconeogenic substrates is lower in the blood of starved PDHK4-/- mice, consistent with reduced formation in peripheral tissues. Isolated diaphragms from starved PDHK4-/- mice accumulate less lactate and pyruvate because of a faster rate of pyruvate oxidation and a reduced rate of glycolysis. BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) are higher in the blood in starved PDHK4-/- mice, consistent with lower blood alanine levels and the importance of BCAAs as a source of amino groups for alanine formation. Non-esterified fatty acids are also elevated more in the blood of starved PDHK4-/- mice, consistent with lower rates of fatty acid oxidation due to increased rates of glucose and pyruvate oxidation due to greater PDC activity. Up-regulation of PDHK4 in tissues other than the liver is clearly important during starvation for regulation of PDC activity and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:16606348

  16. Interaction of isocitrate dehydrogenase with (RS)-3-bromo-2-ketoglutarate. A potential affinity label for. cap alpha. -ketoglutarate binding sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred C. Hartman

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of oxidize nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (from pig heart) with (RS)-3-bromo-2-ketoglutarate was investigated in an effort to evaluate the reagent's potential as a selective reagent for ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate binding sites. The enzyme is rapidly inactivated by 0.1 mM bromoketoglutarate at pH 7.4. With increasing concentration of reagent, the reaction shows a rate saturation; the minimum

  17. Age-dependent decrease in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase in rat CA1 pyramidal cells: a quantitative cytochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Bertoni-Freddari; Patrizia Fattoretti; Ugo Caselli; Roberta Paoloni; William Meier-Ruge

    1996-01-01

    A computer-assisted morphometric study has been carried out on the ultrastructure of perikaryal CA1 pyramidal cell mitochondria positive to the copper ferricyanide cytochemical reaction for succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in rats of 3, 12 and 23 months of age. The cytoplasmic volume fraction occupied by the positive mitochondria (Volume density: Vv), the number of organelles\\/?m3 of CA1 pyramidal cell cytoplasm (Numerical

  18. High performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in soybean roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. dos Santos; Maria de Lourdes Lucio Ferrarese; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a simple, quick and reliable method for determining the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) activity in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) roots using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method includes a single extraction of the tissue and conduction of the enzymatic reaction at 30 °C with cinnamaldehydes (coniferyl or sinapyl), substrates of CAD. Disappearance of

  19. Weight Loss during Prolonged Lactation in Rural Bangladeshi Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihar Ranjan Sarkar; Richard Taylor

    To determine the duration of lactation which is associated with weight loss in rural Bangladeshi moth- ers and also to determine the relationship with consumption patterns of principal food items, a cross- sectional study was carried out among 791 lactating rural Bangladeshi mothers aged 18-40 years. Results were compared with 333 non-pregnant and non-lactating mothers of a similar age group.

  20. Lactate transport and receptor actions in cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Shelton T.; Kolko, Miriam; Gjedde, Albert; Bergersen, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a prevalent neurological disorder in the tropics. Most of the patients are children, typically with intractable seizures and high mortality. Current treatment is unsatisfactory. Understanding the pathogenesis of CM is required in order to identify therapeutic targets. Here, we argue that cerebral energy metabolic defects are probable etiological factors in CM pathogenesis, because malaria parasites consume large amounts of glucose metabolized mostly to lactate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate facilitated transfer, which serves to equalize lactate concentrations across cell membranes in the direction of the concentration gradient. The equalizing action of MCTs is the basis for lactate’s role as a volume transmitter of metabolic signals in the brain. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81, recently discovered on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, causing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. High levels of lactate delivered by the parasite at the vascular endothelium may damage the blood–brain barrier, disrupt lactate homeostasis in the brain, and imply MCTs and the lactate receptor as novel therapeutic targets in CM. PMID:24904266

  1. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase mechanism: evidence for allosteric modulation by substrate.

    PubMed

    Hanau, Stefania; Montin, Katy; Cervellati, Carlo; Magnani, Morena; Dallocchio, Franco

    2010-07-01

    The reductive carboxylation of ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from Candida utilis was investigated using kinetic isotope effects. The intrinsic isotope effect for proton abstraction from Ru5P was found at 4.9 from deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K and from tritium isotope effects on V/K. The presence of 6-phosphogluconate (6PG) in the assay mixture changes the magnitude of the observed isotope effects. In the absence of 6PG (D)(V/K) and (D)(V) are 1.68 and 2.46, respectively, whereas the presence of 6PG increases (D)(V/K) to 2.84 and decreases (D)(V) to 1.38. A similar increase of (T)(V/K) is observed as 6PG builds up in the reaction mixture. These data indicate that in the absence of 6PG, a slow step, which precedes the chemical process, is rate-limiting for the reaction, whereas in the presence of 6PG, the rate-limiting step follows the isotope-sensitive step. Kinetic analysis of reductive carboxylation shows that 6PG at low concentrations decreases the K(m) of Ru5P, whereas at higher concentrations, the usual competitive pattern is observed. These data indicate that full activity of 6PGDH is achieved when one subunit carries out the catalysis and the other subunit carries an unreacted 6PG. Thus, 6PG is like an allosteric activator of 6PGDH. PMID:20452987

  2. Structure and mechanism of human UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Egger, Sigrid; Chaikuad, Apirat; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2011-07-01

    Elevated production of the matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is strongly implicated in epithelial tumor progression. Inhibition of synthesis of the hyaluronan precursor UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) therefore presents an emerging target for cancer therapy. Human UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (hUGDH) catalyzes, in two NAD(+)-dependent steps without release of intermediate aldehyde, the biosynthetic oxidation of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) to UDP-GlcUA. Here, we present a structural characterization of the hUGDH reaction coordinate using crystal structures of the apoenzyme and ternary complexes of the enzyme bound with UDP-Glc/NADH and UDP-GlcUA/NAD(+). The quaternary structure of hUGDH is a disc-shaped trimer of homodimers whose subunits consist of two discrete ?/? domains with the active site located in the interdomain cleft. Ternary complex formation is accompanied by rigid-body and restrained movement of the N-terminal NAD(+) binding domain, sequestering substrate and coenzyme in their reactive positions through interdomain closure. By alternating between conformations in and out of the active site during domain motion, Tyr(14), Glu(161), and Glu(165) participate in control of coenzyme binding and release during 2-fold oxidation. The proposed mechanism of hUGDH involves formation and breakdown of thiohemiacetal and thioester intermediates whereby Cys(276) functions as the catalytic nucleophile. Stopped-flow kinetic data capture the essential deprotonation of Cys(276) in the course of the first oxidation step, allowing the thiolate side chain to act as a trap of the incipient aldehyde. Because thiohemiacetal intermediate accumulates at steady state under physiological reaction conditions, hUGDH inhibition might best explore ligand binding to the NAD(+) binding domain. PMID:21502315

  3. Native and Modified Lactate Dehydrogenase Expression in a Fumaric Acid Producing isolate Rhizopus oryzae 99-880

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus that is of broad importance to the industrial, agricultural, and medical community. R. oryzae can be subdivided into two groups based on genetic and phenotypic differences. Type-I isolates accumulate primarily lactic acid when grown in the presence of a ferm...

  4. Trimethylamine N-Oxide Counteracts Urea Effects on Rabbit Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase Function: A Test of the Counteraction Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilia Baskakov; Aijun Wang; D. W. Bolen

    1998-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the cells of sharks and rays is believed to counteract the deleterious effects of the high intracellular concentrations of urea in these animals. It has been hypothesized that TMAO has the generic ability to counteract the effects of urea on protein structure and function, regardless of whether that protein actually evolved in the presence of these two

  5. Kinetic Analysis of the Amino Terminal End of Active Site Loop of Lactate Deyhdrogenase from Plasmodium Vivax

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Özal; Bal?k, Dilek Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, kinetic analysis was performed to understand the functional importance of the amino terminal of the active site of previously mutated Plasmodium vivax Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme by mimicking Toxoplasma gondii I, II, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella LDH’s. Material and Methods: Mutant LDH genes were amplified by PCR and 6xHistag was added to the C-terminal of the enzymes. Then LDH enzymes are overproduced as recombinant in E. coli cells, purified by Ni-NTA agarose matrix and kinetic properties were analysed. Results: Observing increase of Km values of mutant enzymes showed that mutations in this place caused decreasing affinity of enzyme for its substrate. However kcat values were about the same throughout all mutant proteins. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the studied region emphasizes the significance of this site for drug design studies for both Plasmodium and some other Apicomplexans. PMID:25207035

  6. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ? 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  7. Classification of fumarate reductases and succinate dehydrogenases based upon their contrasting behaviour in the reduced benzylviologen/fumarate assay.

    PubMed

    Ackrell, B A; Armstrong, F A; Cochran, B; Sucheta, A; Yu, T

    1993-07-12

    Reduction of fumarate by soluble beef heart succinate dehydrogenase has been shown previously by voltammetry to become increasingly retarded as the potential is lowered below a threshold potential of -80 mV at pH 7.5. The behaviour resembles that of a tunnel diode, an electronic device exhibiting the property of negative resistance. The enzyme thus acts to oppose fumarate reduction under conditions of high thermodynamic driving force. We now provide independent evidence for this phenomenon from spectrophotometric kinetic assays. With reduced benzylviologen as electron donor, we have studied the reduction of fumarate catalysed by various enzymes classified either as succinate dehydrogenases or fumarate reductases. For succinate dehydrogenases, the rate increases as the concentration of reduced dye (driving force) decreases during the reaction. In contrast, authentic fumarate reductases of anaerobic cells (and 'succinate dehydrogenase' from Bacillus subtilis) neither exhibit the electrochemical effect nor deviate from simple kinetic behaviour in the cuvette assay. The 'tunnel-diode' effect may thus represent an evolutionary adaptation to aerobic metabolism. PMID:8325393

  8. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii. PMID:25113830

  9. Functional characterization of xanthoxin dehydrogenase in rice.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akira; Nelson, Ken M; Thoms, Ken; Abrams, Suzanne R; Nambara, Eiji; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays a key role in biotic and abiotic stress responses. ABA metabolic genes are promising targets for molecular breeding work to improve stress tolerance in crops. The accumulation of ABA does not always improve stress tolerance since stress-induced accumulation of ABA in pollen inhibits the normal course of gametogenesis, affecting grain yields in cereals. This effect highlights the importance of manipulating the ABA levels according to the type of tissues. The aim of this study was to assign an ABA biosynthetic enzyme, xanthoxin dehydrogenase (XanDH), as a functional marker to modulate ABA levels in rice. XanDH is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family that catalyzes the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisyl aldehyde (ABAld). Previously, this enzyme had only been identified in Arabidopsis, as AtABA2. In this study, a XanDH named OsABA2 was identified in rice. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a single gene encodes for OsABA2 in the rice genome. Its amino acid sequence contains two motifs that are essential for cofactor binding and catalytic activity. Expression analysis of OsABA2 mRNA showed that the transcript level did not change in response to treatment with ABA or dehydration. Recombinant OsABA2 protein expressed in Escherichia coli converted xanthoxin to ABAld in an NAD-dependent manner. Moreover, expression of OsABA2 in an Arabidopsis aba2 mutant rescued the aba2 mutant phenotypes, characterized by reduced growth, increased water loss, and germination in the presence of paclobutrazol, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor or high concentration of glucose. These results indicate that OsABA2 is a rice XanDH that functions in ABA biosynthesis. PMID:25014258

  10. Contraceptive use during lactation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pebley, A R; Goldberg, H I; Menken, J

    1985-01-01

    Contraceptive use by breastfeeding women in developing countries has led to concern about potentially harmful effects of steroid contraceptives on the health of breastfed children. In this paper, breastfeeding women's use of the pill and hormonal injections is investigated using survey data from 17 Latin American, Asian, and African countries. The results indicate that while the proportions of breastfeeding women who use these methods were small in most countries at the time of the surveys, the proportion using the pill was not inconsequential. In general, younger lactating women with higher education and more live births who live in urban areas are more likely to use the pill than other breastfeeding women. PMID:3983981

  11. Increased metallothionein in mouse liver, kidneys, and duodenum during lactation.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, D; Jonah, M M; Miyazaki, W; Ho, G; Bhattacharyya, M H

    2001-03-01

    Lactation-induced increases in cadmium absorption and retention have been demonstrated in mid-lactating mice, but no systematic measurements of endogenous metal-binding protein concentrations during lactation have been reported. Using Cd/hemoglobin radioassay, this study detected significant increases in metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver (4-fold), kidneys (2-fold), and duodenum (2-fold), but not jejunum, of mouse dams on days 13 and 20 of lactation. These increases occurred in the absence of cadmium exposure and were specific to the lactation period; dams 5 days after weaning showed MT levels that were similar to those of nonpregnant (NP) mice. Similarly, Northern blot analyses of livers from lactating mice demonstrated that MT mRNA concentrations in maternal liver during mid-lactation were 6-fold higher than those observed 5 days after pups were weaned. Gel filtration of final supernatants from the Cd/hemoglobin assay confirmed that the Cd-binding molecule induced during lactation was indeed metallothionein. In addition, chromatographic analyses of cytosols from tissues taken from dams administered small amounts of Cd (66 ng/mouse) showed that the trace amounts of Cd absorbed through the maternal gastrointestinal tract during mid-lactation were also bound to the MT. These results indicate MT induction in mouse dams occurs as a physiological consequence of lactation, requiring no external stimulus. This induced MT participates in binding low levels of dietary cadmium consumed by the dam. During lactation, elevated maternal MT may affect pathways for essential trace metals as well as sequester toxic metals harmful to the neonate. Multiparous humans may have increased risk of accumulating environmental Cd. PMID:11222885

  12. Lactate response to different volume patterns of power clean.

    PubMed

    Date, Anand S; Simonson, Shawn R; Ransdell, Lynda B; Gao, Yong

    2013-03-01

    The ability to metabolize or tolerate lactate and produce power simultaneously can be an important determinant of performance. Current training practices for improving lactate use include high-intensity aerobic activities or a combination of aerobic and resistance training. Excessive aerobic training may have undesired physiological adaptations (e.g., muscle loss, change in fiber types). The role of explosive power training in lactate production and use needs further clarification. We hypothesized that high-volume explosive power movements such as Olympic lifts can increase lactate production and overload lactate clearance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess lactate accumulation after the completion of 3 different volume patterns of power cleans. Ten male recreational athletes (age 24.22 ± 1.39 years) volunteered. Volume patterns consisted of 3 sets × 3 repetition maximum (3RM) (low volume [LV]), 3 sets × 6 reps at 80-85% of 3RM (midvolume [MV]), and 3 sets × 9 reps at 70-75% of 3RM (high volume [HV]). Rest period was identical at 2 minutes. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after each volume pattern. The HV resulted in the greatest lactate accumulation (7.43 ± 2.94 mmol·L) vs. (5.27 ± 2.48 and 4.03 ± 1.78 mmol·L in MV and LV, respectively). Mean relative increase in lactate was the highest in HV (356.34%). The findings indicate that lactate production in power cleans is largely associated with volume, determined by number of repetitions, load, and rest interval. High-volume explosive training may impose greater metabolic demands than low-volume explosive training and may improve ability to produce power in the presence of lactate. The role of explosive power training in overloading the lactate clearance mechanism should be examined further, especially for athletes of intermittent sport. PMID:22648139

  13. Development and validation of a novel derivatization method for the determination of lactate in urine and saliva by liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Davide; Onor, Massimo; Degano, Ilaria; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    We developed a novel and straightforward derivatization method for the determination of lactate by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection in biological matrices as urine and saliva. The derivatization of lactate was achieved employing 9-chloromethyl anthracene (9-CMA) as fluorescence reagent, which has never been previously used to obtain a lactate derivative. Lactate reacts with 9-CMA with high selectivity in a very short time, without requiring extraction procedures from the aqueous solution, and the reaction reaches 70% completion in 30 min. The ester derivative obtained can be easily determined by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection at 410 nm (? ex=365 nm) and UV detection at 365 nm. The method was also optimized in order to allow for the simultaneous determination of lactate and creatinine for the application to urine samples. The lactate calibration curve was linear in the investigated range 2 × 10(-4)-3 × 10(-2)mM and the limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank divided by the calibration curve slope, was 50 nM for both fluorescence and UV detection. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability were lower than 5% and 6%, respectively. The method proposed was successfully applied to the analysis of urine and saliva samples. PMID:25159410

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of ascites tumour. Activation by AMP and other properties of potential significance in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Lazo, P A; Sols, A

    1980-09-15

    1. AMP is an activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of the Ehrlich--Lettré ascites tumour, increasing its V up to 2-fold, with Ka of 40 microM at pH 7.4. This activation appears to be an allosteric effect on the decarboxylase subunit of the complex. 2. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex has a Km for pyruvate within the range 17--36 microM depending on the pH, the optimum pH being approx. 7.4, with a V of approx. 0.1 unit/g of cells. The rate-limiting step is dependent on the transformation of the enzyme--substrate complex. The Km for CoA is 15 microM. The Km for NAD+ is 0.7 mM for both the complex and the lipoamide dehydrogenase. The complex is inhibited by acetyl-CoA competitively with CoA; the Ki is 60 microM. The lipoamide dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADH and NADPH competitively with NAD+, with Ki values of 80 and 90 microM respectively. In the reverse reaction the Km values for NADH and NADPH are essentially equal to their Ki values for the forward reaction, the V for the latter being 0.09 of that of the former. Hence the reaction rate of the complex in vivo is likely to be markedly affected by feedback isosteric inhibition by reduced nicotinamide nucleotides and possibly acetyl-CoA. PMID:7193456

  15. Algebraic Model of the Lactation Curve in Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. P. Wood

    1967-01-01

    MANY factors may influence the total milk yield of a single lactation, but the general shape of the curve, defined by the locus of weekly yield, remains substantially unchanged. Economically, the configuration of the curve is important, for the animal which produces milk at a moderate level steadily throughout her lactation is to be preferred to one which produces a

  16. Heritabilities of Measures of Somatic Cell Count per Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Monardes; B. W. Kennedy; J. E. Moxley

    1983-01-01

    Measures per lactation of somatic cell count were developed from monthly test- day observations for 3,966 Holstein cows on the official test option of the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Cows were daughters of 99 sires that had five or more daughters in two or more herds. Two lactation periods were considered. One was based on all somatic cell counts

  17. GENETIC EVALUATION AND BEST PREDICTION OF LACTATION PERSISTENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows with high persistency tend to milk less than expected at the beginning of lactation and more than expected at the end. Best prediction of persistency was calculated as a function of a trait-specific standard lactation curve and the linear regression of a cow’s test day deviations on days in mil...

  18. Influence of Subclinical Mastitis During Early Lactation on Reproductive Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. Schrick; M. E. Hockett; A. M. Saxton; M. J. Lewis; H. H. Dowlen; S. P. Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of mastitis during early lactation on the reproductive performance of Jersey cows. From 1986 to 1997, quarter foremilk samples were collected every 4 to 8 wk during lactation, at drying off, near calving, and when clinical mastitis was diagnosed and were evaluated microbiologically to identify causative bacteria. Services per conception, days open, and

  19. LACTATION PERSISTENCY: INSIGHTS FROM MAMMARY CELL PROLIFERATION STUDIES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield is a function of the secretory activity and number of mammary epithelial cells. A persistent lactation is dependent upon maintaining number and activity of milk secreting cells with advancing lactation. When dairy cows are milked twice daily, the increase in milk yield from parturition to...

  20. Glycogen synthesis from lactate in a chronically active muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, R.J.; Scheide, J.I.; Silverman, H.

    1989-05-01

    In response to neural overactivity (pseudomyotonia), gastrocnemius muscle fibers from C57Bl/6Jdy2J/dy2J mice have different metabolic profiles compared with normal mice. A population of fibers in the fast-twitch superficial region of the dy2J gastrocnemius stores unusually high amounts of glycogen, leading to an increased glycogen storage in the whole muscle. The dy2J muscle also contains twice as much lactate as normal muscle. A (/sup 14/C)lactate intraperitoneal injection leads to preferential /sup 14/C incorporation into glycogen in the dy2J muscle compared with normal muscle. To determine whether skeletal muscles were incorporating lactate into glycogen without body organ (liver, kidney) input, gastrocnemius muscles were bathed in 10 mM (/sup 14/C)lactate with intact neural and arterial supply but with impeded venous return. The contralateral gastrocnemius serves as a control for body organ input. By using this in situ procedure, we demonstrate that under conditions of high lactate both normal and dy2J muscle can directly synthesize glycogen from lactate. In this case, normal whole muscle incorporates (14C) lactate into glycogen at a higher rate than dy2J whole muscle. Autoradiography, however, suggests that the high-glycogen-containing muscle fibers in the dy2J muscle incorporate lactate into glycogen at nearly four times the rate of normal or surrounding muscle fibers.

  1. Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition M. DOREAU, Sylviane BOULOT W mares were milked using oxytocin 5 times during the first two months of lactation. The two sides of the udder were milked alternatively and 60-ml fractions (from each side) were sampled for the analysis

  2. METABOLIC ADAPTATION TO FEEDING AND FASTING DURING LACTATION IN HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of these studies was to determine the metabolic adaptation to fasting and feeding during lactation. Normal lactating (L) and nonlactating (NL) women (n = 6 each) were studied using infusions of [U-13C]glucose and [2-13C]glycerol during: 1) a 24-h fast, and 2) ingestion of Sustacal (protocol ...

  3. Development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic bioprocess for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Menelaou, Maria; Nicolaou, Evrydiki N

    2014-08-01

    This work explores the potential for the development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic process for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste. Cheese whey was used in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus batch cultures to produce ethanol and lactic acid respectively. Subsequently, the fermentation products were transferred into an organic phase through liquid-liquid extraction and ethyl lactate was formed in an esterification reaction catalyzed by lipases. The production of ethanol and lactic acid achieved under different conditions was 23gL(-1) and 29gL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of various organic solvents for the esterification reaction was evaluated and toluene was chosen for application in the process. The effect of water content was determined aiming to maximize the product yield and 40mgml(-1) was the optimal enzyme concentration. The bioprocess achieved maximum conversion of 33% constituting a valuable alternative to the application of energy demanding chemically derived methods. PMID:24785788

  4. Thermoregulation in intensively lactating cows in near-natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Berman, A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Thermoregulatory reactions of lactating cows (33 kg milk/day) have been measured in summer (25-39° C) and in winter (9·5-24° C) at 3 hr intervals, during four nychthemeral (24 hr) cycles in each season. 2. The rectal-to-tympanic temperature gradient increased with rising body temperatures. The seasonal changes were larger for the rectal temperatures than for the tympanic membrane temperatures. These and the significantly lower correlations between rectal temperatures and regulatory responses suggest that in the ruminant rectal temperatures are considerably affected by rumen metabolism and do not represent a reliable index of the regulated temperature. 3. In the winter the regulatory responses were correlated with skin temperatures only. In the summer responses were correlated with both skin and tympanic temperatures, excepting for skin water loss. 4. The seasonal difference in the effects of skin and tympanic temperatures on regulatory responses was associated with a small change in mean tympanic temperature. The twofold larger nychthemeral fluctuation in the summer tympanic temperature is suggested to cause the seasonal difference in the thermoregulatory mode. 5. The winter range of nychthemeral fluctuations in tympanic temperature suggests a range of permitted core thermolability. A wider permitted core thermolability in summer is unlikely to be a mechanism of acclimatization in the cow. PMID:5169378

  5. Turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase. Reactivation of the cyanide-inactivated enzyme by sulphide and by selenide

    PubMed Central

    Cleere, William F.; Coughlan, Michael P.

    1974-01-01

    1. Turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase engaged in catalysing the oxidation of xanthine by dichlorophenol–indophenol was progressively inactivated by methanol. This inactivation was reversible by NAD+. 2. Reaction with arsenite and with cyanide, in each case first-order with respect to enzyme, resulted in characteristic alterations in the visible absorption spectrum of the enzyme. The rate of spectral change on reaction with either agent paralleled the rate of loss of enzyme activity. 3. Cyanide inactivation was accompanied by elimination from the enzyme of sulphur as thiocyanate. Partial restoration of activity was effected by incubation with sulphide or with selenide. The results suggest that turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase, like milk xanthine oxidase (Massey & Edmonson, 1970), contains at the active centre a cyanolysable persulphide group essential to catalytic activity and that selenium may replace sulphur in this group to give an active enzyme. 4. Incubation of the native enzyme with sulphide or with selenide resulted in the rapid loss of half of the xanthine-oxidizing activity, apparently by disrupting the molybdenum and (Fe/S)II loci. This may indicate non-equivalence of the intramolecular electron-transfer systems. PMID:4462558

  6. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Plant Nitrogen Metabolism 12

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sharon A.; Slade, Annette P.; Fox, Gary G.; Phillips, Richard; Ratcliffe, R. George; Stewart, George R.

    1991-01-01

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vitro gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and automated 15N/13C mass spectrometry have been used to demonstrate that glutamate dehydrogenase is active in the oxidation of glutamate, but not in the reductive amination of 2-oxogiutarate. In cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay), primary assimilation of ammonium occurs via the glutamate synthase pathway. Glutamate dehydrogenase is derepressed in carbonlimited cells and in such cells the function of glutamate dehydrogenase appears to be the oxidation of glutamate, thus ensuring sufficient carbon skeletons for effective functioning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This catabolic role for glutamate dehydrogenase implies an important regulatory function in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16668014

  7. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dehydrogenase in serum. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disorders such as cirrhosis or acute hepatitis. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1565 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1380 Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (such as hepatitis) and anemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (such as hepatitis) and anemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...serum and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary disease such as pulmonary infarction...

  13. Effect of Hormonal Treatments Prior to Lactation on Hormones in Blood Plasma, Milk, and Urine during Early Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Erb; B. P. Chew; H. F. Keller; P. V. Malven

    1977-01-01

    Hormonal changes in blood plasma, colostrum, milk, and urine were studied through day 25 of lactation in 6, 6, and 2 Holsteins, respectively, to compare nor- mal calving, premature calving induced with 25 mg of dexamethasone and estra- dio1-173, and lactation induced with ex- ogenous estradiol-173 and progesterone. Treatments had no effect on concentra- tions of prolactin in plasma, but

  14. Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in the longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M. Starzyk; Robert B. Merritt

    1980-01-01

    The interspecies homology of dace supernatant (A2, AB, B2) and mitochondrial (C2) malate dehydrogenase isozymes has been established through cell fractionation and tissue distribution studies. Isolated supernatant malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) isozymes show significant differences in Michaelis constants for oxaloacetate and in pH optima. Shifts in s-MDH isozyme pH optima with temperature may result in immediate compensation for increase in ectotherm

  15. Redox properties of quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutaka Fujieda; Megumi Mori; Kenji Kano; Tokuji Ikeda

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccus denitrificans produces two primary enzymes for the amine oxidation, tryptophan-tryptophylquinone (TTQ)-containing methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenase (QH-AmDH). QH-AmDH has a novel cofactor, cysteine tryptophylquinone (CTQ) and two hemes c. In this work, the redox potentials of three redox centers in QH-AmDH were determined by a mediator-assisted continuous-flow column electrolytic spectroelectrochemical technique. Kinetics of the electron transfer from

  16. Imine Reductases: A Comparison of Glutamate Dehydrogenase to Ketimine Reductases in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jamie, Joanne F.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2013-01-01

    A key intermediate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-catalyzed reaction is an imine. Mechanistically, therefore, GDH exhibits similarities to the ketimine reductases. In the current review, we briefly discuss (a) the metabolic importance of the GDH reaction in liver and brain, (b) the mechanistic similarities between GDH and the ketimine reductases, (c) the metabolic importance of the brain ketimine reductases, and (d) the neurochemical consequences of defective ketimine reductases. Our review contains many historical references to the early work on amino acid metabolism. This work tends to be overlooked nowadays, but is crucial for a contemporary understanding of the central importance of ketimines in nitrogen and intermediary metabolism. The ketimine reductases are important enzymes linking nitrogen flow among several key amino acids, yet have been little studied. The cerebral importance of the ketimine reductases is an area of biomedical research that deserves far more attention. PMID:23314864

  17. Menaquinone-7 Is Specific Cofactor in Tetraheme Quinol Dehydrogenase CymA

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Duncan G. G.; Marritt, Sophie J.; Butt, Julea N.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about enzymatic quinone-quinol interconversions in the lipid membrane when compared with our knowledge of substrate transformations by globular enzymes. Here, the smallest example of a quinol dehydrogenase in nature, CymA, has been studied. CymA is a monotopic membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome belonging to the NapC/NirT family and central to anaerobic respiration in Shewanella sp. Using protein-film electrochemistry, it is shown that vesicle-bound menaquinone-7 is not only a substrate for this enzyme but is also required as a cofactor when converting other quinones. Here, we propose that the high concentration of quinones in the membrane negates the evolutionary pressure to create a high affinity active site. However, the instability and reactivity of reaction intermediate, semiquinone, might require a cofactor that functions to minimize damaging side reactions. PMID:22393052

  18. The ALD6 gene product is indispensable for providing NADPH in yeast cells lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota; Chelstowska, Anna

    2003-04-18

    Reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH are essential for many enzymatic steps involved in the biosynthesis of cellular macromolecules. An adequate level of NADPH is also required to protect cells against oxidative stress. The major enzymatic source of NADPH in the cell is the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. Disruption of the ZWF1 gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in methionine auxotrophy and increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents. It is assumed that both phenotypes are due to an NADPH deficiency in the zwf1Delta strain. We used a Met(-) phenotype displayed by the zwf1Delta strain to look for multicopy suppressors of this deletion. We found that overexpression of the ALD6 gene coding for cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which utilizes NADP(+) as its cofactor, restores the Met(+) phenotype of the zwf1Delta strain. Another multicopy suppressor identified in our screen, the ZMS1 gene encoding a putative transcription factor, regulates the level of ALD6 expression. A strain bearing a double ZWF1 ALD6 gene disruption is not viable. Thus, our results indicate the reaction catalyzed by Ald6p as an important source of reducing equivalents in the yeast cells. PMID:12584194

  19. Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP).

    PubMed

    Combs, C A; Balaban, R S

    2001-04-01

    Reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key metabolite involved in cellular energy conversion and many redox reactions. We describe the use of confocal microscopy in conjunction with enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH as a topological assay of NADH generation capacity within living cardiac myocytes. Quantitative validation of this approach was performed using a dehydrogenase system, in vitro. In intact cells the NADH ED-FRAP was sensitive to temperature (Q(10) of 2.5) and to dehydrogenase activation by dichloroacetate or cAMP (twofold increase for each). In addition, NADH ED-FRAP was correlated with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD(+)) fluorescence. These data, coupled with the cellular patterns of NADH ED-FRAP changes with dehydrogenase stimulation, suggest that NADH ED-FRAP is localized to the mitochondria. These results suggest that ED-FRAP enables measurement of regional dynamics of mitochondrial NADH production in intact cells, thus providing information regarding region-specific intracellular redox reactions and energy metabolism. PMID:11259315

  20. Lactational effects of adding a fi brolytic enzyme complex to the concentrate of lactating dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. González; G. Caja; E. Albanell; C. Flores; R. Casals

    Twenty-four multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation (wk 8 to 30) were used in a single cross-over design to evaluate the effects of supplementation with an exogenous fi brolytic enzyme preparation, characterized by cellulase and xylanase activities, on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and liveweight and body condition changes. Goats received ad libitum a basal total mixed ration composed

  1. Salinity induced behavioural changes in malate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in rice seedlings of differing salt tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritambhara G Kumar; Kavita Shah; R. S Dubey

    2000-01-01

    The activities of malate dehydrogenase in whole tissue extract (NAD+-MDH) as well as in mitochondrial (NAD+-MDH) and chloroplastic (NADP+-MDH) preparations of aminating (NADH-GDH) and deaminating(NAD+-GDH) glutamate dehydrogenases were studied in two sets of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance grown under moderate (7 dS m?1) and high (14 dS m?1) NaCl salinity levels. A contrasting response to salinity on enzyme

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily: the 2000 update.

    PubMed

    Sophos, N A; Pappa, A; Ziegler, T L; Vasiliou, V

    2001-01-30

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily represents a group of NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. With the advent of megabase genome sequencing, the ALDH superfamily is expanding rapidly on many fronts. As expected, ALDH genes are found in virtually all genomes analyzed to date, indicating the importance of these enzymes in biological functions. Complete genome sequences of various species have revealed additional ALDH genes. As of July 2000, the ALDH superfamily consists of 331 distinct genes, of which eight are found in archaea, 165 in eubacteria, and 158 in eukaryota. The number of ALDH genes in some species with their genomes completely sequenced and annotated, Escherichia coli and Caenorhabditis elegans, ranges from 10 to 17. In the human genome, 17 functional genes and three pseudogenes have been identified to date. Divergent evolution, based on multiple alignment analysis of 86 eukaryotic ALDH amino-acid sequences, was the basis of the standardized ALDH gene nomenclature system (Pharmacogenetics 9: 421-434, 1999). Thus far, the eukaryotic ALDHs comprise 20 gene families. A complete list of all ALDH sequences known to date is presented here along with the evolution analysis of the eukaryotic ALDHs. PMID:11306055

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily: the 2002 update.

    PubMed

    Sophos, Nickolas A; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2003-02-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily represents a divergently related group of enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. With the advent of megabase genome sequencing, the ALDH superfamily is continuously expanding on many fronts. The presence of ALDH encoding genes in the vast majority of archaeal, eubacterial and eukaryotic genomes supports the notion that these enzymes are important components of metabolic processes in living organisms and that the ALDH superfamily is ancient in origin. As of July 2002, the ALDH superfamily consists of 555 distinct genes: 32 in archaea, 351 in eubacteria, and 172 in eukaryota. Complete sequencing of individual genomes reveals the number of ALDH genes found per organism ranges from 1 to 5 in archaeal species, 1-26 genes in eubacterial species, and 8-17 genes in eukaryotic species. In the human genome, 17 functional genes and 3 pseudogenes have been identified to date. A standardized ALDH gene nomenclature system has been developed based on multiple alignment analysis of eukaryotic ALDH amino acid sequences. Both Human and Mouse Genome Projects have accepted this nomenclature system. In this report, we present a complete listing of all ALDH sequences known to date, along with the evolutionary analysis of the eukaryotic ALDHs. Thus far, the eukaryotic ALDHs comprise 20 gene families. Detailed information on ALDH gene superfamily is also available at http://www.uchsc.edu/sp/sp/alcdbase/aldhcov.html. PMID:12604184

  4. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit1. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor2 of Adh1 and Adh2, called AdhA. The kinetic behavior of AdhA suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used AdhA to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  5. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2005-06-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor of Adh1 and Adh2, called Adh(A). The kinetic behavior of Adh(A) suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used Adh(A) to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  6. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  7. Effects of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and/or lactation on colostrum synthesis and immunological parameters in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Katsafadou, A; Kotsampasi, B; Michailidis, G; Mountzouris, K C; Kalogiannis, D; Christodoulou, V

    2014-08-01

    The emerging immune system is vulnerable to insult not only during fetal life, but also through colostrum transfer of maternal factors with immunomodulatory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and/or lactation on colostrum and milk synthesis, as well as on immunological parameters in offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed to 100% of nutrient requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation (Control) or to 50% during lactation (R1) or during the last 20 days of pregnancy and lactation (R2). Colostrum samples were collected 3 and 18h after parturition and thymus glands were obtained from 5-month-old offspring. Lamb birthweight did not differ between groups, whereas growth rate was significantly lower in males in the R1 group and in females in both undernourished groups. There was a significant reduction in lactose percentage in the 18-h colostrum of the R2 group. The IgG concentration, as a percentage of protein, was significantly increased in 3-h colostrum samples of the R2 group. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the thymus gland of female lambs in both undernourished groups. In conclusion, early life nutritional imbalances may impact on immune system function in later life due to programming effects. PMID:25082148

  8. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women. PMID:24961655

  9. Engineering of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase To Reduce Acetoin Formation by Glycerol-Overproducing, Low-Alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Fernández, Maria R.; Biosca, Josep A.; Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing GPD1, which codes for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lacking the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald6 display large-scale diversion of the carbon flux from ethanol toward glycerol without accumulating acetate. Although GPD1 ald6 strains have great potential for reducing the ethanol contents in wines, one major side effect is the accumulation of acetoin, having a negative sensory impact on wine. Acetoin is reduced to 2,3-butanediol by the NADH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Bdh1. In order to investigate the influence of potential factors limiting this reaction, we overexpressed BDH1, coding for native NADH-dependent Bdh1, and the engineered gene BDH1221,222,223, coding for an NADPH-dependent Bdh1 enzyme with the amino acid changes 221 EIA 223 to 221 SRS 223, in a glycerol-overproducing wine yeast. We have shown that both the amount of Bdh1 and the NADH availability limit the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase reaction. During wine fermentation, however, the major limiting factor was the level of synthesis of Bdh1. Consistent with this finding, the overproduction of native or engineered Bdh1 made it possible to redirect 85 to 90% of the accumulated acetoin into 2,3-butanediol, a compound with neutral sensory characteristics. In addition, the production of diacetyl, a compound causing off-flavor in alcoholic beverages, whose production is increased in glycerol-overproducing yeast cells, was decreased by half. The production of higher alcohols and esters, which was slightly decreased or unchanged in GPD1 ald6 cells compared to that in the control cells, was not further modified in BDH1 cells. Overall, rerouting carbons toward glycerol and 2,3-butanediol represents a new milestone in the engineering of a low-alcohol yeast with desirable organoleptic features, permitting the decrease of the ethanol contents in wines by up to 3°. PMID:19329666

  10. Cerebral lactate dynamics across sleep/wake cycles

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Michael J.; Wisor, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram (EEG), increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA) was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method) to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated. PMID:25642184

  11. Cerebral lactate dynamics across sleep/wake cycles.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Michael J; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram (EEG), increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA) was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method) to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated. PMID:25642184

  12. Mechanistic basis for the enantioselectivity of the anaerobic hydroxylation of alkylaromatic compounds by ethylbenzene dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Szaleniec, Maciej; Dudzik, Agnieszka; Kozik, Bart?omiej; Borowski, Tomasz; Heider, Johann; Witko, Ma?gorzata

    2014-10-01

    The enantioselectivity of reactions catalyzed by ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, a molybdenum enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-independent hydroxylation of many alkylaromatic and alkylheterocyclic compounds to secondary alcohols, was studied by chiral chromatography and theoretical modeling. Chromatographic analyses of 22 substrates revealed that this enzyme exhibits remarkably high reaction enantioselectivity toward (S)-secondary alcohols (18 substrates converted with >99% ee). Theoretical QM:MM modeling was used to elucidate the structure of the catalytically active form of the enzyme and to study the reaction mechanism and factors determining its high degree of enantioselectivity. This analysis showed that the enzyme imposes strong stereoselectivity on the reaction by discriminating the hydrogen atom abstracted from the substrate. Activation of the pro(S) hydrogen atom was calculated to be 500 times faster than of the pro(R) hydrogen atom. The actual hydroxylation step (i.e., hydroxyl group rebound reaction to a carbocation intermediate) does not appear to be enantioselective enough to explain the experimental data (the calculated rate ratios were in the range of only 2-50 for pro(S): pro(R)-oriented OH rebound). PMID:24950385

  13. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  14. The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Alasdair J

    2002-01-01

    Background L-threonine is an indispensable amino acid. One of the major L-threonine degradation pathways is the conversion of L-threonine via 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate to glycine. L-threonine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.103) is the first enzyme in the pathway and catalyses the reaction: L-threonine + NAD+ = 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate + NADH. The murine and porcine L-threonine dehydrogenase genes (TDH) have been identified previously, but the human gene has not been identified. Results The human TDH gene is located at 8p23-22 and has 8 exons spanning 10 kb that would have been expected to encode a 369 residue ORF. However, 2 cDNA TDH transcripts encode truncated proteins of 157 and 230 residues. These truncated proteins are the result of 3 mutations within the gene. There is a SNP, A to G, present in the genomic DNA sequence of some individuals which results in the loss of the acceptor splice site preceding exon 4. The acceptor splice site preceding exon 6 was lost in all 23 individuals genotyped and there is an in-frame stop codon in exon 6 (CGA to TGA) resulting in arginine-214 being replaced by a stop codon. These truncated proteins would be non-functional since they have lost part of the NAD+ binding motif and the COOH terminal domain that is thought to be involved in binding L-threonine. TDH mRNA was present in all tissues examined. Conclusions The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene having lost the splice acceptor site preceding exon 6 and codon arginine-214 (CGA) is mutated to a stop codon (TGA). PMID:12361482

  15. Asymmetric reduction of ketones and ?-keto esters by (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase from denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Dudzik, A; Snoch, W; Borowiecki, P; Opalinska-Piskorz, J; Witko, M; Heider, J; Szaleniec, M

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed enantioselective reductions of ketones and keto esters have become popular for the production of homochiral building blocks which are valuable synthons for the preparation of biologically active compounds at industrial scale. Among many kinds of biocatalysts, dehydrogenases/reductases from various microorganisms have been used to prepare optically pure enantiomers from carbonyl compounds. (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase (PEDH) was found in the denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum (strain EbN1) and belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. It catalyzes the stereospecific oxidation of (S)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone during anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization, but also the reverse reaction, i.e., NADH-dependent enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to (S)-1-phenylethanol. In this work, we present the application of PEDH for asymmetric reduction of 42 prochiral ketones and 11 ?-keto esters to enantiopure secondary alcohols. The high enantioselectivity of the reaction is explained by docking experiments and analysis of the interaction and binding energies of the theoretical enzyme-substrate complexes leading to the respective (S)- or (R)-alcohols. The conversions were carried out in a batch reactor using Escherichia coli cells with heterologously produced PEDH as whole-cell catalysts and isopropanol as reaction solvent and cosubstrate for NADH recovery. Ketones were converted to the respective secondary alcohols with excellent enantiomeric excesses and high productivities. Moreover, the progress of product formation was studied for nine para-substituted acetophenone derivatives and described by neural network models, which allow to predict reactor behavior and provides insight on enzyme reactivity. Finally, equilibrium constants for conversion of these substrates were derived from the progress curves of the reactions. The obtained values matched very well with theoretical predictions. PMID:25549618

  16. Succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations in cardiac paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Victoria L; Emaminia, Abbas; Del Rivero, Jaydira; Lechan, Ronald M; Magoon, Bindiya T; Galia, Analyza; Fojo, Tito; Leung, Steve; Lorusso, Roberto; Jimenez, Camilo; Shulkin, Barry L; Audibert, Jennifer L; Adams, Karen T; Rosing, Douglas R; Vaidya, Anand; Dluhy, Robert G; Horvath, Keith A; Pacak, Karel

    2015-06-15

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are chromaffin cell tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells. At least 1/3 of paragangliomas are related to germline mutations in 1 of 17 genes. Although these tumors can occur throughout the body, cardiac paragangliomas are very rare, accounting for <0.3% of mediastinal tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with cardiac paragangliomas, particularly focusing on their genetic backgrounds. A retrospective chart analysis of 15 patients with cardiac paragangliomas was performed to determine clinical presentation, genetic background, diagnostic workup, and outcomes. The average age at diagnosis was 41.9 years. Typical symptoms of paraganglioma (e.g., hypertension, sweating, palpitations, headache) were reported at initial presentation in 13 patients (86.7%); the remaining 2, as well as 4 symptomatic patients, initially presented with cardiac-specific symptoms (e.g., chest pain, dyspnea). Genetic testing was done in 13 patients (86.7%); 10 (76.9%) were positive for mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) subunits B, C, or D. Thirteen patients (86.7%) underwent surgery to remove the paraganglioma with no intraoperative morbidity or mortality; 1 additional patient underwent surgical resection but experienced intraoperative complications after removal of the tumor due to co-morbidities and did not survive. SDHx mutations are known to be associated with mediastinal locations and malignant behavior of paragangliomas. In this report, the investigators extend the locations of predominantly SDHx-related paragangliomas to cardiac tumors. In conclusion, cardiac paragangliomas are frequently associated with underlying SDHx germline mutations, suggesting a need for genetic testing of all patients with this rare tumor. PMID:25896150

  17. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; D?uga, Joanna; Socha, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  18. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. Lactate and ornithine improve substrate hydrogen supply in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pohl, K; Letko, G; Bohnensack, R

    1990-01-01

    The influence of lactate and ornithine on the mitochondrial redox state as indicated by the 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio was studied in isolated hepatocytes. The load on the hepatic energy metabolism when lactate and/or ornithine are additionally present can be higher than in the sole presence of octanoic acid. This was revealed by enhanced oxidative turnover rates and higher 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios at identical rates of respiration. During gluconeogenesis from lactate, such an improved energy supply takes place through more intense oxidation of octanoic acid in the citric-acid cycle. In addition to octanoate oxidation, however, ornithine supplies substrate hydrogen through its catabolism to glutamate as was demonstrated by comparative studies in isolated rat liver mitochondria. The ambivalent character of lactate and ornithine with regard to loading and supplying the energy metabolism seems to substantially account for energetic homoeostasis of the liver. PMID:2360907

  20. Influence of supplemental monensin on gestating and lactating ewes 

    E-print Network

    Peel, Richard Kraig

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-five multiparous Rambouillet ewes were used to determine the effects of feeding monensin during late gestation and early lactation on prepartum and postpartum ewe body weight, milk production, blood glucose levels, and lamb production. Ewes...

  1. Needle Enzyme Electrode for Lactate Measurement In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zimei Rong; Eugenia Leitao; Jonathan Popplewell; BurÇak Alp; Pankaj Vadgama

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical lactate needle enzyme electrodes were fabricated based on lactate oxidase with a conventional hydrogen peroxide detection regimen with a linear range up to 7 mM, response time ~ 3 min, and sensitivity ~ 1 nA\\/mM. A negatively charged inner (sulphonated polyether ether sulphone-polyether sulphone) membrane was applied for ensuring selectivity by limiting oxidazible anion diffusion to the Pt working

  2. Lactate: a substrate for reptilian muscle gluconeogenesis following exhaustive exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd T. Gleeson; Paula M. Dalessio

    1990-01-01

    The pattern of lactate and glycogen metabolism in red and white muscle fibers was examined in fasted, cannulated lizards (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) run on a treadmill to exhaustion. The white and red portions of the iliofibularis (wIF, rIF) muscle of the hindlimb were analyzed post-exercise and at intervals over 120 min of recovery for lactate and glycogen changes. Five min of

  3. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a novel enzyme of pentitol metabolism: D-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Povelainen, Mira; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ivanen, Dina R; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Neustroev, Kirill N; Miasnikov, Andrei N

    2003-01-01

    An enzyme with a specificity that has not been described previously, D-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase (APDH), has been purified from cell lysate of Enterococcus avium. SDS/PAGE indicated that the enzyme had a molecular mass of 41+/-2 kDa, whereas a molecular mass of 160+/-5 kDa was observed under non-denaturing conditions, implying that the APDH may exist as a tetramer with identical subunits. Purified APDH was found to have a narrow substrate specificity, converting only D-arabitol 1-phosphate and D-arabitol 5-phosphate into xylulose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate, respectively, in the oxidative reaction. Both NAD(+) and NADP(+) were accepted as cofactors. Based on the partial protein sequences, the APDH gene was cloned. Homology comparisons place APDH within the medium-range dehydrogenase family. Unlike most members of this family, APDH requires Mn(2+) but no Zn(2+) for enzymic activity. The DNA sequence surrounding the gene suggests that it belongs to an operon that also contains several components of phosphotransferase system. Both biochemical evidence and protein sequence homology comparisons indicate that similar enzymes are widespread among the Gram-positive bacteria. Their apparent biological role is to participate in arabitol catabolism via the 'arabitol phosphate route', similar to the ribitol and xylitol catabolic routes described previously. PMID:12467497

  4. Absence of type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme in koala liver.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sandra; McKinnon, Ross A; Mojarrabi, Behnaz; Stupans, Ieva

    2002-01-01

    The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) interconvert 11beta-hydroxysteroids such as cortisol into 11-oxosteroids such as cortisone. In most mammals, 11beta-HSD 1 is expressed predominantly in the liver and is active in both the oxidative (cortisol to cortisone) and dehydrogenase (cortisone to cortisol) directions, whilst 11beta-HSD 2 is expressed predominantly in the kidney and functions as a pure oxidative enzyme. We have investigated 11beta-HSD 1 activity in the Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and have found no activity (either reductive or oxidative) in hepatic microsomes. Immunoblot analysis of koala hepatic microsomes, using an 11beta-HSD 1 antibody raised against the mouse enzyme, failed to identify immunoreactive protein. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of koala liver mRNA and genomic PCR using primers designed against highly conserved regions of 11beta-HSD 1 nucleotide sequences were also negative. Furthermore, Southern and Northern blot analysis of koala genomic DNA and mRNA, respectively, confirmed that the koala lacks the 11beta-HSD 1 gene and gene transcript. These results support the fact that the lack of hepatic 11beta-HSD 1 activity in the koala is due to the absence of the 11beta-HSD 1 gene, and this absence is novel among mammalian species studied to date. PMID:11796324

  5. Polyol specificity of recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana sorbitol dehydrogenase studied by enzyme kinetics and in silico modeling

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, M. Francisca; Cáceres, Juan Carlos; Fuentealba, Matías; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Stange, Claudia; Cabrera, Ricardo; Handford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Polyols are enzymatically-produced plant compounds which can act as compatible solutes during periods of abiotic stress. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, E. C. 1.1.1.14) from Arabidopsis thaliana L. sorbitol dehydrogenase (AtSDH) is capable of oxidizing several polyols including sorbitol, ribitol, and xylitol. In the present study, enzymatic assays using recombinant AtSDH demonstrated a higher specificity constant for xylitol compared to sorbitol and ribitol, all of which are C2 (S) and C4 (R) polyols. Enzyme activity was reduced by preincubation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, indicating a requirement for zinc ions. In humans, it has been proposed that sorbitol becomes part of a pentahedric coordination sphere of the catalytic zinc during the reaction mechanism. In order to determine the validity of this pentahedric coordination model in a plant SDH, homology modeling, and Molecular Dynamics simulations of AtSDH ternary complexes with the three polyols were performed using crystal structures of human and Bemisia argentifolii (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) SDHs as scaffolds. The results indicate that the differences in interaction with structural water molecules correlate very well with the observed enzymatic parameters, validate the proposed pentahedric coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in a plant SDH, and provide an explanation for why AtSDH shows a preference for polyols with a chirality of C2 (S) and C4 (R). PMID:25755662

  6. Properties of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lan-Fun; Ljungdahl, Lars; Wood, Harland G.

    1966-01-01

    Li, Lan-Fun (Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio), Lars Ljungdahl, and Harland G. Wood. Properties of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum. J. Bacteriol. 92: 405–412. 1966.—A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-dependent formate dehydrogenase has been isolated from C. thermoaceticum. The enzyme is very sensitive to oxygen and requires sulfhydryl compounds for activity. The apparent Km at 50 C and pH 7.0 for NADP is 5.9 × 10?5m and for formate, 2.2 × 10?4m. The enzyme is most active at about 60 C and at pH values between 7.0 and 9.0. The enzyme catalyzes an exchange between C14O2 and formate, which requires NADP, but net synthesis of formate from CO2 and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate could not be demonstrated. The reaction does not involve ferredoxin. PMID:16562128

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Alzheimer's disease: Partners in crime? The hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ulusu, N Nuray

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifaceted brain disorder which involves various coupled irreversible, progressive biochemical reactions that significantly reduce quality of life as well as the actual life expectancy. Aging, genetic predispositions, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deficiencies in insulin signaling, dysfunction of mitochondria-associated membranes, cerebrovascular changes, high cholesterol level, increased oxidative stress and free radical formation, DNA damage, disturbed energy metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction, high blood pressure, obesity, dietary habits, exercise, social engagement, and mental stress are noted among the risk factors of this disease. In this hypothesis review I would like to draw the attention on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its relationship with Alzheimer's disease. This enzymopathy is the most common human congenital defect of metabolism and defined by decrease in NADPH+H(+) and reduced form of glutathione concentration and that might in turn, amplify oxidative stress due to essentiality of the enzyme. This most common enzymopathy may manifest itself in severe forms, however most of the individuals with this deficiency are not essentially symptomatic. To understand the sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the writer of this paper thinks that, looking into a crystal ball might not yield much of a benefit but glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could effortlessly give some clues. PMID:26004559

  8. NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from a facultative methylotroph, Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1.

    PubMed Central

    Bellion, E; Tan, F

    1984-01-01

    The NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.4.) elaborated by the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 when growing on succinate and ammonium chloride was studied. The enzyme, which has a pH optimum of 9.0, was purified 140-fold and shown to have Km values of 20.2 mM, 0.76 mM, 0.033 mM, and 31.6 mM for ammonia, alpha-ketoglutarate, NADPH, and glutamate, respectively. The native molecular weight was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 190,000, and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a minimum molecular weight of 50,000. The enzyme was highly specific; NADH was unable to replace NADPH in the reaction, various alpha-keto acids could not replace alpha-ketoglutarate, and neither methylamine nor hydroxylamine could substitute for ammonia. Glutamate dehydrogenase was synthesized by the bacteria only when ammonia was its nitrogen source and was repressed if methylamine or nitrate were provided as sources of nitrogen instead of ammonia. PMID:6693348

  9. Foraging decisions in a capital breeder: trade-offs between mass gain and lactation.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-08-01

    The high energetic costs of lactation can lead to fundamental trade-offs in life-history traits, particularly in young females that reproduce before completing body growth. We assessed whether lactating female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) used behavioural tactics at fine spatio-temporal scales to increase energy intake to compensate for the costs of lactation. Lactating females increased bite rate and chewing rate compared with non-lactating females, but selected similar foraging sites in terms of plant quality and abundance. At peak lactation, forage intake of lactating females was >40% greater than that of non-lactating females. For females that had reached asymptotic body mass (i.e. > or =6 years old), summer mass gain of lactating females was similar to that of non-lactating females. At 4 and 5 years of age, however, daily mass gain of lactating females was about 20% lower than that of non-lactating females. We conclude that increased foraging may allow fully-grown lactating females to compensate for the energetic costs of lactation, but that there is a major trade-off between mass gain and lactation for younger females. PMID:19488787

  10. Clostridium acidurici Electron-Bifurcating Formate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cell extracts of uric acid-grown Clostridium acidurici catalyzed the coupled reduction of NAD+ and ferredoxin with formate at a specific activity of 1.3 U/mg. The enzyme complex catalyzing the electron-bifurcating reaction was purified 130-fold and found to be composed of four subunits encoded by the gene cluster hylCBA-fdhF2. PMID:23872566

  11. Hypergravity effects on succinate dehydrogenase reactivity in fish vestibular ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, J.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    2006-01-01

    Larval cichlid fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) were kept at 3 g hypergravity (centrifuge) for 14 or 21 days. Subsequently, succinate dehydrogenase reactivity was histochemically demonstrated and densitometrically determined in the gangliones utricularis and saccularis as well as (for control) in the diencephalic, non-vestibular Nucleus glomerulosus posterioris. It was found that succinate dehydrogenase reactivity within the ganglion utricularis was significantly increased in experimental animals as compared to the 1 g controls ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 after 14 and 21 days of hypergravity, respectively), whereas hypergravity had no effect on succinate dehydrogenase reactivity in the ganglion saccularis and in the Nucleus glomerulosus posterioris. This result clearly indicates that hypergravity exclusively affects the metabolic activity of a ganglion, which is directly involved in the transmission of gravity inputs.

  12. Hypergravity Effects on Succinate Dehydrogenase Reactivity in Fish Vestibular Ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, J.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    Larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were kept at 3g hypergravity (centrifuge) for 14 or 21 days. Subsequently, succinate dehydrogenase was histochemically demonstrated and densitometrically determined in the gangliones utricularis and saccularis as well as (for control) in the diencephalic, non-vestibular Nucleus glomerulosus posterioris. It was found that succinate dehydrogenase reactivity within the ganglion utricularis was significantly increased in experimental animals as compared to the 1g controls (p<0.05 and p<0.01 after 14 and 21 days of hypergravity, respectively), whereas hypergravity had no effect on succinate dehydrogenase reactivity in the ganglion saccularis and in the Nucleus glomerulosus posterioris. This result clearly indicates that hypergravity exclusively affects the metabolic activity of a ganglion, which is directly involved in the transmission of gravity inputs. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  13. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Patel, Mulchand S., E-mail: mspatel@buffalo.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  14. Use of primary deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects to deduce the relative rates of steps in the mechanisms of alanine and glutamate dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.M.; Chen, C.Y.; Cleland, W.W.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-06-28

    The authors have used deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects to study the relative rates of the steps in the mechanisms of alanine and glutamate dehydrogenases. The proposed chemical mechanisms for these enzymes involve carbinolamine formation, imine formation, and reduction of the imine to the amino acid. These steps are almost equally rate limiting for V/K/sub ammonia/ with alanine dehydrogenase, while with glutamate dehydrogenase carbinolamine formation, imine formation, and release of glutamate after hydride transfer provide most of the rate limitation of V/K/sub ammonia/. Release of oxidized nucleotide is largely rate limiting for V/sub max/ for both enzymes. When ..beta..-hydroxypyruvate replaces pyruvate, or 3-acetylpyridine NADH (Acpyr-NADH) or thio-NADH replaces NADH with alanine dehydrogenase, nucleotide release no longer limits V/sub max/, and hydride transfer becomes more rate limiting. With glutamate dehydrogenase, replacement of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by ..cap alpha..-ketovalerate makes hydride transfer more rate limiting. Use of Acpyr-NADPH has a minimal effect with ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate but causes an 8-fold decrease in V/sub max/ with ..cap alpha..-ketovalerate, with hydride transfer the major rate-limiting step. In contrast, thio-NADPH with either ..cap alpha..-keto acid causes carbinolamide formation to become almost completely rate limiting. These studies show the power of multiple isotope effects in deducing details of the chemistry and changes in rate-limiting step(s) in complicated reaction mechanisms such as those of alanine and glutamate dehydrogenases.

  15. [Lactation after breast plastic surgery: literature review].

    PubMed

    Bouhassira, J; Haddad, K; Burin des Roziers, B; Achouche, J; Cartier, S

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of lactation is a rare complication of breast plastic surgery. During the course of his practice, the plastic surgeon will probably encounter this complication. The goal of this article is to carry out a literature review of all published galactorrhea and/or galactocele cases following a breast-reduction or a breast-augmentation, representing a total of 34 cases reported in 21 articles. The physiopathology of this complication is linked to an inappropriate secretion of prolactin in a surgical context. The factors favoring this complication would be the number of pregnancies, a history of recent and extensive nursing, and the intake of certain medicines such as an oestro-progestative pill. The main symptom of this complication is the occurrence of a uni- or bilateral galactorrhea, on average 12.6 days after the surgery. The main differential diagnosis is a postoperative infection. The explorations presented a hyperprolactinemia in 69% of cases. No biological inflammatory syndrome was reported. A fluid collection evoking a galactocele was visible on the ultrasound in 65% of cases. One case of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was reported. Depending on the case, the treatment varied from a simple surveillance to the association of a dopamine agonist, an antibiotic therapy, and a surgical revision. A diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy is proposed. PMID:25147123

  16. Blood lactate during leg exercise in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamparo, P.; Capelli, C.; Antonutto, G.

    Venous blood lactate concentration ([La] b) was measured in five male subjects (age: 30-50 years; BW: 72-84 kg, V?O max2:2.2-3.6 l ?min -1) during cycloergometric exercise in microgravity obtained by parabolic fligth maneuvers of ˜25 s duration. The subject(s) exercised at 30, 60, 90 and 120 W (60 RPM) for at least 7 min at each intensity. Three consecutive parabolas with ˜3 min interval were performed at each workload. [La] b was determined at rest and Immediately after 60, 90 and 120 W exercise. The day after the flight experiments, the subject(s) underwent the same experimental protocol on the ground and the blood samples were taken at the very same time intervals as on the aircraft. [La] b in flight and control didn't show any appreciable difference once the values are plotted as a function of the relative exercise intensities expressed as a percent of the individual V?O max2 corrected for the moderate hypoxia prevailing inside the aircraft (cabin barometric pressure = 590 mmHg).

  17. Immunology, biosynthesis and in vivo assembly of the branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex from bovine kidney.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, G H; Lindsay, J G

    1991-02-26

    Specific, polyclonal antisera have been raised to the native branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCOADC) from bovine kidney and each of its three constituent enzymes: E1, the substrate-specific 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase; E2, the multimeric dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase 'core' enzyme and E3, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Purified BCOADC, isolated by selective poly(ethyleneglycol) precipitation and hydroxyapatite chromatography, contains only traces of endogenous E3 as detected by a requirement for this enzyme in assaying overall complex activity and by immunoblotting criteria. A weak antibody response was elicited by the E1 beta subunit relative to the E2 and E1 alpha polypeptides employing either purified E1 or BCOADC as antigens. Anti-BCOADC serum showed no cross-reaction with high levels of pig heart E3 indicating the absence of antibody directed against this component. However, immunoprecipitates of mature BCOADC from detergent extracts of NBL-1 (bovine kidney) or PK-15 (porcine kidney) cell lines incubated for 3-4 h in the presence of [35S]methionine contained an additional 55,000-Mr species which was identified as E3 on the basis of immunocompetition studies. Accumulation of newly synthesised [35S]methionine-labelled precursors for E2, E1 alpha and E3 was achieved by incubation of PK-15 cells for 4 h in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Pre-E2 exhibited an apparent Mr value of 56,500, pre-E1 alpha, 49,000 and pre-E3, 57,000 compared to subunit Mr values of 50,000, 46,000 and 55,000, respectively, for the mature polypeptides. Thus, like the equivalent lipoate acyltransferases of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDC) complexes, pre-E2 of BCOADC characteristically contains an extended presequence. In NBL-1 cells, pre-E2 was found to be unstable since no cytoplasmic pool of this precursor could be detected; moreover, processed E1 alpha was not assembled into intact BCOADC as evidenced by the absence of E2 or E3 in immunoprecipitates with anti-(BCOADC) serum after a 45-min 'chase' period in the absence of uncoupler. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), in its precursor state, was not present in immune complexes with anti-(BCOADC) serum, indicating that its co-precipitation with mature complex is by virtue of its high affinity for assembled complex in vivo whereas no equivalent interaction of pre-E3 with its companion precursors occurs prior to mitochondrial import. PMID:2001711

  18. The Role of Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Cerebral Ammonia Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS), which is located predominantly in astrocytes, is largely responsible for the removal of both blood-derived and metabolically generated ammonia. Thus, studies with [13N]ammonia have shown that about 25% of blood-derived ammonia is removed in a single pass through the rat brain and that this ammonia is incorporated primarily into glutamine (amide) in astrocytes. Major pathways for cerebral ammonia generation include the glutaminase reaction and the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) reaction. The equilibrium position of the GDH-catalyzed reaction in vitro favors reductive amination of ?-ketoglutarate at pH 7.4. Nevertheless, only a small amount of label derived from [13N]ammonia in rat brain is incorporated into glutamate and the ?-amine of glutamine in vivo. Most likely the cerebral GDH reaction is drawn normally in the direction of glutamate oxidation (ammonia production) by rapid removal of ammonia as glutamine. Linkage of glutamate/?-ketoglutarate-utilizing aminotransferases with the GDH reaction channels excess amino acid nitrogen toward ammonia for glutamine synthesis. At high ammonia levels and/or when GS is inhibited the GDH reaction coupled with glutamate/?-ketoglutarate-linked aminotransferases may, however, promote the flow of ammonia nitrogen toward synthesis of amino acids. Preliminary evidence suggests an important role for the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) as an additional source of ammonia in neurons (Net reaction: L-Aspartate + GTP + H2O ? Fumarate + GDP + Pi + NH3) and in the beat cycle of ependyma cilia. The link of the PNC to aminotransferases and GDH/GS and its role in cerebral nitrogen metabolism under both normal and pathological (e.g. hyperammonemic encephalopathy) conditions should be a productive area for future research. PMID:22618691

  19. Blood metabolites as indicators of nutrient utilization in fasting, lactating phocid seals: does depletion of nutrient reserves terminate lactation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Mellish; S. J. Iverson

    2001-01-01

    Metabolites of lipid (free fatty acids (FFA) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HBA)) and protein (blood urea nitrogen (BUN)) oxidation were measured during lactation in 18 female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 6 female hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) as indicators of nutrient depletion and possible cues for pup weaning. FFA levels were high during lactation in both grey seals (51.2 ± 2.3 mg·dL-1)

  20. Impact of Early Lactation Somatic Cell Count in Heifers on Somatic Cell Counts Over the First Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Vliegher; H. W. Barkema; H. Stryhn; G. Opsomer; A. de Kruif

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of somatic cell count in early lactation (SCCel) from Belgian dairy heifers on test-day somatic cell count (SCC) in first lactation. Geometric mean SCCel (5 to 14 d in milk (DIM)) of the 14,766 available samples was 104,000 cells\\/mL, and decreased from 178,000 at 5 DIM to 74,000 cells\\/mL at

  1. Demonstration of a specific mitochondrial isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia.

    PubMed Central

    Rhead, W J; Tanaka, K

    1980-01-01

    To study the enzymatic basis of isovaleric acidemia, we have developed assay methods for isovaleryl-CoA and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases that measure the amount of tritium released from the respective [2,3-3H]acyl CoAs. Because assay of these enzymes in human fibroblast homogenates was subject to interference by nonspecific reactions, we have isolated mitochondria from cultured skin fibroblasts by protease treatment, homogenization, and differential centrifugation. By using this assay method with these isolated mitochondria, we have demonstrated a specific deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase [isovaleryl-CoA: (acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.10] activity in cultured skin fibroblasts from five patients with isovaleric acidemia. In contrast, mitochondrial butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase [butyryl-CoA: (acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.2] activity in these cells was preserved at normal levels. These results have been reproduced by using the conventional dye reduction assays. These observations give further support to the hypothesis that isovaleryl CoA is dehydrogenated by a specific enzyme and that isovaleric acidemia is due to a deficiency of this enzyme. PMID:6928646

  2. Hydrogen-driven asymmetric reduction of hydroxyacetone to (R)-1,2-propanediol by Ralstonia eutropha transformant expressing alcohol dehydrogenase from Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of industrial processes to more nature-friendly modes is a crucial subject for achieving sustainable development. Utilization of hydrogen-oxidation reactions by hydrogenase as a driving force of bioprocess reaction can be an environmentally ideal method because the reaction creates no pollutants. We expressed NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Kluyveromyces lactis in a hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium: Ralstonia eutropha. This is the first report of hydrogen-driven in vivo coupling reaction of the alcohol dehydrogenase and indigenous soluble NAD-reducing hydrogenase. Asymmetric reduction of hydroxyacetone to (R)-1,2-propanediol, which is a commercial building block for antibacterial agents, was performed using the transformant as the microbial cell catalyst. Results The two enzymes coupled in vitro in vials without a marked decrease of reactivity during the 20 hr reaction because of the hydrogenase reaction, which generates no by-product that affects enzymes. Alcohol dehydrogenase was expressed functionally in R. eutropha in an activity level equivalent to that of indigenous NAD-reducing hydrogenase under the hydrogenase promoter. The hydrogen-driven in vivo coupling reaction proceeded only by the transformant cell without exogenous addition of a cofactor. The decrease of reaction velocity at higher concentration of hydroxyacetone was markedly reduced by application of an in vivo coupling system. Production of (R)-1,2-propanediol (99.8% e.e.) reached 67.7 g/l in 76 hr with almost a constant rate using a jar fermenter. The reaction velocity under 10% PH2 was almost equivalent to that under 100% hydrogen, indicating the availability of crude hydrogen gas from various sources. The in vivo coupling system enabled cell-recycling as catalysts. Conclusions Asymmetric reduction of hydroxyacetone by a coupling reaction of the two enzymes continued in both in vitro and in vivo systems in the presence of hydrogen. The in vivo reaction system using R. eutropha transformant expressing heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase showed advantages for practical usage relative to the in vitro coupling system. The results suggest a hopeful perspective of the hydrogen-driven bioprocess as an environmentally outstanding method to achieve industrial green innovation. Hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria can be useful hosts for the development of hydrogen-driven microbial cell factories. PMID:23305396

  3. Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in the longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, R M; Merritt, R B

    1980-08-01

    The interspecies homology of dace supernatant (A2,AB,B2) and mitochondrial (C2) malate dehydrogenase isozymes has been established through cell fractionation and tissue distribution studies. Isolated supernatant malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) isozymes show significant differences in Michaelis constants for oxaloacetate and in pH optima. Shifts in s-MDH isozyme pH optima with temperature may result in immediate compensation for increase in ectotherm body pH with decrease in temperature, but duplicate s-MDH isozymes are probably maintained through selection for tissue specific regulation of metabolism. PMID:7470020

  4. Antenatal expression of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vianey-Saban; R. Bouvier; P. Cochat; A. Buenerd; P. Divry; R. Dumoulin; M. P. Cordier

    2000-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD) de—ciency or glutaric aciduria type II (McKusick 231680) is due to inherited defects of electron transfer —avoprotein (ETF) or of ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) also called ETF-dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). ETF and ETF-QO mediate electron transfer from nine acyl-CoA dehy- drogenases to the respiratory chain. They are involved in fatty acid oxidation (very long-chain, long-chain, medium-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA

  5. Characterization of Mannitol-2-Dehydrogenase in Saccharina japonica: Evidence for a New Polyol-Specific Long-Chain Dehydrogenases/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhanru; Zhang, Pengyan; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Xiuliang; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    Mannitol plays a crucial role in brown algae, acting as carbon storage, organic osmolytes and antioxidant. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharina japonica revealed that the relative genes involved in the mannitol cycle are existent. Full-length sequence of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) gene was obtained, with one open reading frame of 2,007 bp which encodes 668 amino acids. Cis-regulatory elements for response to methyl jasmonic acid, light and drought existed in the 5?-upstream region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SjM2DH has an ancient prokaryotic origin, and is probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer event. Multiple alignment and spatial structure prediction displayed a series of conserved functional residues, motifs and domains, which favored that SjM2DH belongs to the polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase (PSLDR) family. Expressional profiles of SjM2DH in the juvenile sporophytes showed that it was influenced by saline, oxidative and desiccative factors. SjM2DH was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the cell-free extracts with recombinant SjM2DH displayed high activity on D-fructose reduction reaction. The analysis on SjM2DH gene structure and biochemical parameters reached a consensus that activity of SjM2DH is NADH-dependent and metal ion-independent. The characterization of SjM2DH showed that M2DH is a new member of PSLDR family and play an important role in mannitol metabolism in S. japonica. PMID:24830763

  6. The lipoamide dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis permits the direct observation of flavin intermediates in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Argyrou, Argyrides; Blanchard, John S; Palfey, Bruce A

    2002-12-10

    Lipoamide dehydrogenase catalyses the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of the dihydrolipoyl cofactors that are covalently attached to the acyltransferase components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and glycine reductase multienzyme complexes. It contains a tightly, but noncovalently, bound FAD and a redox-active disulfide, which cycle between the oxidized and reduced forms during catalysis. The mechanism of reduction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoamide dehydrogenase by NADH and [4S-(2)H]-NADH was studied anaerobically at 4 degrees C and pH 7.5 by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. Three phases of enzyme reduction were observed. The first phase, characterized by a decrease in absorbance at 400-500 nm and an increase in absorbance at 550-700 nm, was fast (k(for) = 1260 s(-)(1), k(rev) = 590 s(-)(1)) and represents the formation of FADH(2).NAD(+), an intermediate that has never been observed before in any wild-type lipoamide dehydrogenase. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect [(D)(k(for) + k(rev)) approximately 4.2] was observed on this phase. The second phase, characterized by regain of the absorbance at 400-500 nm, loss of the 550-700 nm absorbance, and gain of 500-550 nm absorbance, was slower (k(obs) = 200 s(-)(1)). This phase represents the intramolecular transfer of electrons from FADH(2) to the redox-active disulfide to generate the anaerobically stable two-electron reduced enzyme, EH(2). The third phase, characterized by a decrease in absorbance at 400-550 nm, represents the formation of the four-electron reduced form of the enzyme, EH(4). The observed rate constant for this phase showed a decreasing NADH concentration dependence, and results from the slow (k(for) = 57 s(-)(1), k(rev) = 128 s(-)(1)) isomerization of EH(2) or slow release of NAD(+) before rapid NADH binding and reaction to form EH(4). The mechanism of oxidation of EH(2) by NAD(+) was also investigated under the same conditions. The 530 nm charge-transfer absorbance of EH(2) shifted to 600 nm upon NAD(+) binding in the dead time of mixing of the stopped-flow instrument and represents formation of the EH(2).NAD(+) complex. This was followed by two phases. The first phase (k(obs) = 750 s(-)(1)), characterized by a small decrease in absorbance at 435 and 458 nm, probably represents limited accumulation of FADH(2).NAD(+). The second phase was characterized by an increase in absorbance at 435 and 458 nm and a decrease in absorbance at 530 and 670 nm. The observed rate constant that describes this phase of approximately 115 s(-)(1) probably represents the overall rate of formation of E(ox) and NADH from EH(2) and NAD(+), and is largely determined by the slower rates of the coupled sequence of reactions preceding flavin oxidation. PMID:12463758

  7. The Saunders-Bell Analysis of Tunnel Effects in Reactions with Kinetic Isotope Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Leskovac; Svetlana Trivic ´; Draginja Peric?in; Julijan Kandra?

    2004-01-01

    Summary. The primary kinetic isotope effects of deuterium were investigated in 22 hydrogen and deuterium transfer reactions, including enzymatic and nonenzymatic hydride transfer reactions, elimination reactions, and reactions catalyzed by enzymes lipooxygenase, amine dehydrogenase, and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. In each case, the Saunders-Bell analysis was applied to calculate the tunnel effects and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The Saunders-Bell analysis was effective

  8. Interaction of isocitrate dehydrogenase with (RS)-3-bromo-2-ketoglutarate. A potential affinity label for. cap alpha. -ketoglutarate binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of oxidize nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (from pig heart) with (RS)-3-bromo-2-ketoglutarate was investigated in an effort to evaluate the reagent's potential as a selective reagent for ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate binding sites. The enzyme is rapidly inactivated by 0.1 mM bromoketoglutarate at pH 7.4. With increasing concentration of reagent, the reaction shows a rate saturation; the minimum inactivation half-time is 3 min and K/sub inact/ for bromoketoglutarate is 250 ..mu..M. Isocitrate and NADP/sup +/ protect against inactivation, while ketoglutarate does not. When tested in the assay that monitors isocitrate oxidation, bromoketoglutarate is a competitive inhibitor (K/sub i/=100 ..mu..M) of the dehydrogenase. As judged by oxidation of NADPH, bromoketoglutarate is also a substrate for isocitrate dehydrogenase, exhibiting a K/sub m/ of 250 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ comparable to that for isocitrate oxidation. The reduction of bromoketoglutarate is competitively inhibited by isocitrate (K/sub i/=3 ..mu..M) and ketoglutarate (K/sub i/=50 ..mu..M). Like the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of isocitrate, the reduction of bromoketoglutarate is stereospecific, requires divalent metal ions, and shows absolute specificity for NADPH. However, since CO/sub 2/ is not required for catalytic turnover of bromoketoglutarate, its reduction is likely comparable to that of oxalosuccinate rather than the reductive carboxylation of ketoglutarate. Although bromoketoglutarate, as a substrate for isocitrate dehydrogenase, clearly has affinity for the active site, the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme by the reagent may result from modification outside the active-site region, since inactivation during catalytic turnover of bromoketoglutarate is not observed.

  9. The shikimate dehydrogenase family: functional diversity within a conserved structural and mechanistic framework.

    PubMed

    Peek, James; Christendat, Dinesh

    2015-01-15

    Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-deydroshikimate to shikimate, an essential reaction in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids and a large number of other secondary metabolites in plants and microbes. The indispensible nature of this enzyme makes it a potential target for herbicides and antimicrobials. SDH is the archetypal member of a large protein family, which contains at least four additional functional classes with diverse metabolic roles. The different members of the SDH family share a highly similar three-dimensional structure and utilize a conserved catalytic mechanism, but exhibit distinct substrate preferences, making the family a particularly interesting system for studying modes of substrate recognition used by enzymes. Here, we review our current understanding of the biochemical and structural properties of each of the five previously identified SDH family functional classes. PMID:25524738

  10. Discovery of a novel class of covalent inhibitor for aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Mary; Chen, Che-Hong; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Parajuli, Bibek; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Kim, Jeewon; Dria, Karl; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Stanford-MED); (Purdue); (UCHSC)

    2012-10-23

    Human aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a family of 17 homologous enzymes that metabolize different biogenic and exogenic aldehydes. To date, there are relatively few general ALDH inhibitors that can be used to probe the contribution of this class of enzymes to particular metabolic pathways. Here, we report the discovery of a general class of ALDH inhibitors with a common mechanism of action. The combined data from kinetic studies, mass spectrometric measurements, and crystallographic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors undergo an enzyme-mediated {beta}-elimination reaction generating a vinyl ketone intermediate that covalently modifies the active site cysteine residue present in these enzymes. The studies described here can provide the basis for rational approach to design ALDH isoenzyme-specific inhibitors as research tools and perhaps as drugs, to address diseases such as cancer where increased ALDH activity is associated with a cellular phenotype.

  11. Spectrophotometric assay of D-isoleucine using an artificially created D-amino acid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Imaizumi, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2014-11-01

    D-isoleucine (D-Ile) can be assayed using chiral chromatography but the availability of that method is limited by the necessity for special expertise and expensive equipment. We therefore developed a simple and specific colorimetric assay system for D-Ile determination using an artificially created NADP(+)-dependent D-amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH). The system consists of two reaction steps: the first is the quantitative conversion of D-Ile to (3R)-2-oxo-3-methyl valerate by DAADH in which NADP(+) is converted to NADPH, while the second is chemical conversion of NADPH to reduced water-soluble Tetrazolium-3 via a redox mediator. D-Ile was determined from 1 to 50 µM, and the assay was unaffected by the presence of any of three other isomers (100 µM), alcohol and organic acids. PMID:24966047

  12. Crystal Structures of Phosphite Dehydrogenase Provide Insights into Nicotinamide Cofactor Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yaozhong; Zhang, Houjin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Johannes, Tyler W.; Woodyer, Ryan; Hung, John E.; Nair, Nikhil; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC); (NWU)

    2012-08-21

    The enzyme phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH) catalyzes the NAD{sup +}-dependent conversion of phosphite to phosphate and represents the first biological catalyst that has been shown to conduct the enzymatic oxidation of phosphorus. Despite investigation for more than a decade into both the mechanism of its unusual reaction and its utility in cofactor regeneration, there has been a lack of any structural data for PTDH. Here we present the cocrystal structure of an engineered thermostable variant of PTDH bound to NAD{sup +} (1.7 {angstrom} resolution), as well as four other cocrystal structures of thermostable PTDH and its variants with different ligands (all between 1.85 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution). These structures provide a molecular framework for understanding prior mutational analysis and point to additional residues, located in the active site, that may contribute to the enzymatic activity of this highly unusual catalyst.

  13. Discovery of a Novel Class of Covalent Inhibitor for Aldehyde Dehydrogenases*

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, May; Chen, Che-Hong; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Parajuli, Bibek; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Kim, Jeewon; Dria, Karl; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Human aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a family of 17 homologous enzymes that metabolize different biogenic and exogenic aldehydes. To date, there are relatively few general ALDH inhibitors that can be used to probe the contribution of this class of enzymes to particular metabolic pathways. Here, we report the discovery of a general class of ALDH inhibitors with a common mechanism of action. The combined data from kinetic studies, mass spectrometric measurements, and crystallographic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors undergo an enzyme-mediated ?-elimination reaction generating a vinyl ketone intermediate that covalently modifies the active site cysteine residue present in these enzymes. The studies described here can provide the basis for rational approach to design ALDH isoenzyme-specific inhibitors as research tools and perhaps as drugs, to address diseases such as cancer where increased ALDH activity is associated with a cellular phenotype. PMID:22021038

  14. Alteration of the Specificity of Malate Dehydrogenase by Chemical Modulation of an Active Site Arginine*

    E-print Network

    Viola, Ronald

    Alteration of the Specificity of Malate Dehydrogenase by Chemical Modulation of an Active Site the Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 Malate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli of a range of functional groups at the active site of malate dehydrogenase. The introduction of a positively

  15. UDP-Glucose Analogues as Inhibitors and Mechanistic Probes of UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Robert E.

    UDP-Glucose Analogues as Inhibitors and Mechanistic Probes of UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Robert E. Ketone 5 was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the dehydrogenase from Streptococcus pyogenes for the dehydrogenase and was converted into the ketone inhibitor 5. This is consistent with the notion that the pro

  16. Deficiency of skeletal muscle succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase. Pathophysiology of exercise in a novel human muscle oxidative defect.

    PubMed

    Haller, R G; Henriksson, K G; Jorfeldt, L; Hultman, E; Wibom, R; Sahlin, K; Areskog, N H; Gunder, M; Ayyad, K; Blomqvist, C G

    1991-10-01

    We evaluated a 22-yr-old Swedish man with lifelong exercise intolerance marked by premature exertional muscle fatigue, dyspnea, and cardiac palpitations with superimposed episodes lasting days to weeks of increased muscle fatigability and weakness associated with painful muscle swelling and pigmenturia. Cycle exercise testing revealed low maximal oxygen uptake (12 ml/min per kg; healthy sedentary men = 39 +/- 5) with exaggerated increases in venous lactate and pyruvate in relation to oxygen uptake (VO2) but low lactate/pyruvate ratios in maximal exercise. The severe oxidative limitation was characterized by impaired muscle oxygen extraction indicated by subnormal systemic arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-v O2 diff) in maximal exercise (patient = 4.0 ml/dl, normal men = 16.7 +/- 2.1) despite normal oxygen carrying capacity and Hgb-O2 P50. In contrast maximal oxygen delivery (cardiac output, Q) was high compared to sedentary healthy men (Qmax, patient = 303 ml/min per kg, normal men 238 +/- 36) and the slope of increase in Q relative to VO2 (i.e., delta Q/delta VO2) from rest to exercise was exaggerated (delta Q/delta VO2, patient = 29, normal men = 4.7 +/- 0.6) indicating uncoupling of the normal approximately 1:1 relationship between oxygen delivery and utilization in dynamic exercise. Studies of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria in our patient revealed markedly impaired succinate oxidation with normal glutamate oxidation implying a metabolic defect at the level of complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A defect in Complex II in skeletal muscle was confirmed by the finding of deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase as determined histochemically and biochemically. Immunoblot analysis showed low amounts of the 30-kD (iron-sulfur) and 13.5-kD proteins with near normal levels of the 70-kD protein of complex II. Deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase was associated with decreased levels of mitochondrial aconitase assessed enzymatically and immunologically whereas activities of other tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were increased compared to normal subjects. The exercise findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this defect impairs muscle oxidative metabolism by limiting the rate of NADH production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:1918374

  17. Deficiency of skeletal muscle succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase. Pathophysiology of exercise in a novel human muscle oxidative defect.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, R G; Henriksson, K G; Jorfeldt, L; Hultman, E; Wibom, R; Sahlin, K; Areskog, N H; Gunder, M; Ayyad, K; Blomqvist, C G

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated a 22-yr-old Swedish man with lifelong exercise intolerance marked by premature exertional muscle fatigue, dyspnea, and cardiac palpitations with superimposed episodes lasting days to weeks of increased muscle fatigability and weakness associated with painful muscle swelling and pigmenturia. Cycle exercise testing revealed low maximal oxygen uptake (12 ml/min per kg; healthy sedentary men = 39 +/- 5) with exaggerated increases in venous lactate and pyruvate in relation to oxygen uptake (VO2) but low lactate/pyruvate ratios in maximal exercise. The severe oxidative limitation was characterized by impaired muscle oxygen extraction indicated by subnormal systemic arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-v O2 diff) in maximal exercise (patient = 4.0 ml/dl, normal men = 16.7 +/- 2.1) despite normal oxygen carrying capacity and Hgb-O2 P50. In contrast maximal oxygen delivery (cardiac output, Q) was high compared to sedentary healthy men (Qmax, patient = 303 ml/min per kg, normal men 238 +/- 36) and the slope of increase in Q relative to VO2 (i.e., delta Q/delta VO2) from rest to exercise was exaggerated (delta Q/delta VO2, patient = 29, normal men = 4.7 +/- 0.6) indicating uncoupling of the normal approximately 1:1 relationship between oxygen delivery and utilization in dynamic exercise. Studies of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria in our patient revealed markedly impaired succinate oxidation with normal glutamate oxidation implying a metabolic defect at the level of complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A defect in Complex II in skeletal muscle was confirmed by the finding of deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase as determined histochemically and biochemically. Immunoblot analysis showed low amounts of the 30-kD (iron-sulfur) and 13.5-kD proteins with near normal levels of the 70-kD protein of complex II. Deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase was associated with decreased levels of mitochondrial aconitase assessed enzymatically and immunologically whereas activities of other tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were increased compared to normal subjects. The exercise findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this defect impairs muscle oxidative metabolism by limiting the rate of NADH production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Images PMID:1918374

  18. cDNA cloning and primary structure comparison of tauropine dehydrogenase and ?-alanopine dehydrogenase from the limpet Cellana grata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Endo; Hiroto Matsu-ura; Nobuhiro Kan-no

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  The primary structures of ?-alanopine dehydrogenase (?-AlDH) and tauropine dehydrogenase (TaDH) from the limpet Cellana grata were determined by amino acid sequence analysis and complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning. ?-AlDH and TaDH cDNAs comprised 1,479\\u000a nucleotides and 1,444 nucleotides, respectively, and both included an open reading frame of 1,206 nucleotides corresponding\\u000a to 402 amino acids. The enzymes showed very high homology,

  19. Differential alcohol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme expression in long-term callus tissue cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. B. Torquato; A. J. Prioli; M. F. P. S. Machado

    1995-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) isozymes were tested as markers to study the effect of a high kinetin concentration on isozyme phenotypes and on the development ofCereus peruvianus callus tissue culture. Three-year-old callus tissues were used as samples. Callus tissue samples grown on 4.0 mg\\/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and on 4.0 and 8.0 mg\\/LN-(2-furanylmethyl)-1H-purine-6 amine (kinetin) were

  20. Structural and spectroscopic models of the A-cluster of acetyl coenzyme a synthase\\/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase: Nature's Monsanto acetic acid catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd C. Harrop; Pradip K. Mascharak

    2005-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A synthase\\/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (ACS\\/CODH) is a bifunctional enzyme present in a number of anaerobic bacteria. The enzyme catalyzes two separate reactions namely, the reduction of atmospheric CO2 to CO (CODH activity at the C-cluster) and the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (ACS activity at the A-cluster) from CO, CH3 from a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein, and the thiol

  1. Enhanced reactivity of Lys182 explains the limited efficacy of biogenic amines in preventing the inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by methylglyoxal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricio Flores-Morales; Claudio Diema; Marta Vilaseca; Joan Estelrich; F. Javier Luque; Soledad Gutiérrez-Oliva; Alejandro Toro-Labbé; Eduardo Silva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the inactivation of the enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) by methylglyoxal (MG) and the eventual protection exerted by endogenous amines. To determine the protective effect of amines, the rate constant of the reaction of MG with the amino group of N-?-acetyl-lysine, carnosine, spermine and spermidine was measured at pH 7.4, and the behavior of endogenous amines was

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of opine-type secondary amine car?ylic acids by a new enzyme opine dehydrogenase use of recombinant enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kato; Hideaki Yamada; Yasuhisa Asano

    1996-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the recently discovered enzyme, opine dehydrogenase (ODH) fromArthrobacter sp. strain 1C for amino donors in the reaction that forms secondary amines using pyruvate as a fixed amino acceptor is examined. The enzyme was active toward short-chain aliphatic (S)-amino acids and those substituted with acyloxy, phosphonooxy, and halogen groups. The enzyme was named N-[1-(R)-(car?yl)ethyl]-(S)-norvaline: NAD+ oxidoreductase (L-norvaline

  3. Gold nanoparticles\\/water-soluble carbon nanotubes\\/aromatic diamine polymer composite films for highly sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangming Zeng; Zhen Li; Lin Tang; Mengshi Wu; Xiaoxia Lei; Yuanyuan Liu; Can Liu; Ya Pang; Yi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)\\/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)\\/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) films modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated. The effectiveness of the sensor was confirmed by sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) gene which was extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The monomer of 1,5-naphthalenediamine was electropolymerized on the GCE surface with abundant free amino

  4. NAD and NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase activities in normal human skin and in some maculosquamous diseases of the skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hammar

    1973-01-01

    Summary  Activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, ICDH(NAD) and ICDH (NADP), and of fumarate hydratase, FH,. were measured in subcorneal\\u000a and basal epidermal layers in patients with psoriasis, neurodermatitis, lichen planus and pityriasis rosea and in healthy\\u000a controls. Lowry's microtechniques were used. Since NADH formed by the ICDH reaction required high analytical sensitivity,\\u000a this dinucleotide was measured photokinetically with the aid of

  5. Determination of branched-chain L-amino acids by flow-injection analysis with co-immobilized leucine dehydrogenase\\/NADH oxidase and chemiluminescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutoshi Kiba; Akira Kato; Motohisa Furusawa

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of branched-chain L-amino acids in plasma is described. Leucine dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase were co-immobilized on aminated poly(vinyl alcohol) beads and incorporated in a flow-injection system with chemiluminescence detection. 20 ?1 sample solution was injected into the system. The hydrogen peroxide produced was detected chemiluminometrically via a luminol-hexacyanoferrate(III) reaction. The calibration graph was linear for

  6. Determination of Formate Using Immobilized Formate Dehydrogenase in a Flow System and Its Application to Analyze the Formate Content of Foodstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisakazu Mori; Ryoko Ohmori

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of formate was determined us- ing apparatus comprised of a reactor with immobi- lized formate dehydrogenase (FDH) in the flow line. NADH formed by an enzymatic reaction was fluo- rometrically detected. The optimal concentration of NAD+ in the carrier was determined. The maxi- mum peak area due to NADH was observed at pH 7.0 when the pH of

  7. Exercise-induced activation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, A J; Brookes, J H; Coakley, J H; Reilly, T; Edwards, R H

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the metabolic regulation of the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five trained male volunteers were exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% +/- 10% (mean +/- SD) of their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Percutaneous quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained under local anaesthesia at rest and after 30 and 120 min of exercise. In the muscle samples the active and total amount of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex (BC-complex), the regulatory enzyme in the oxidative pathway of the BCAA, were measured. Glycogen content and activity of mitochondrial marker enzymes were also measured. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min for the measurement of metabolites. Heart rate and rated perceived exertion on the Borg scale were recorded every 10 min. At rest 4.0% +/- 2.5% of the BC complex was active, after 30 min of exercise 9.9% +/- 9.0% and after 120 min 17.5% +/- 8.5% (mean +/- SD). Exercise did not change the total activity. The largest activation was seen in two of the subjects who developed higher blood lactates early on during exercise and decreased their muscle glycogen more (indications of anaerobic metabolism). These data demonstrate that in trained individuals significant increases in the activity of the BC-complex occur only after prolonged intense exercise. In spite of the 4-fold activation, the data support the classical view that amino acids and protein do not contribute substantially as an energy source during exercise, since VO2 increased more than 20-fold. PMID:2583157

  8. Exercise-induced AMPK and pyruvate dehydrogenase regulation is maintained during short-term low-grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; van Hauen, Line; Meinertz, Simon; Halling, Jens Frey; Gliemann, Lasse; Plomgaard, Peter; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. Nine young healthy physically inactive male subjects completed two trials. In an LPS trial, the subjects received a single LPS injection (0.3 ng/kg body weight) and blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and 2 h after the LPS injection and immediately after a 10-min one-legged knee extensor exercise bout performed approximately 2½ h after the LPS injection. The exercise bout with muscle samples obtained before and immediately after was repeated in a control trial without LPS injection. The plasma tumor necrosis factor ? concentration increased 17-fold 2 h after LPS relative to before. Muscle lactate and muscle glycogen were unchanged from before to 2 h after LPS and exercise increased muscle lactate and decreased muscle glycogen in the control (P < 0.05) and the LPS (0.05 ? P < 0.1) trial with no differences between the trials. AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and PDH phosphorylation as well as PDHa activity were unaffected 2 h after LPS relative to before. Exercise decreased (P < 0.05) PDH and increased (P < 0.05) AMPK and ACC phosphorylation as well as increased (P < 0.05) PDHa activity similarly in the LPS and control trial. In conclusion, LPS-induced inflammation does not affect resting or exercise-induced AMPK and PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. This suggests that metabolic flexibility during exercise is maintained during short-term low-grade inflammation in humans. PMID:24691558

  9. Properties of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Hayashi

    1961-01-01

    THE enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of purine derivatives xanthine and hypoxanthine to uric acid has been demonstrated in several insects1-5. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, it functions as a dehydrogenase. This inference is based on the fact that the formation of uric acid and oxygen consumption of the fat body homogenates show marked increases only when methylene blue is

  10. Antimitochondrial (pyruvate dehydrogenase) autoantibodies in autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zurgil; R. Bakimer; H. M. Moutsopoulos; A. G. Tzioufas; P. Youinou; D. A. Isenberg; M. Scheinberg; T. Kveder; B. Rozman; C. Luderschmidt; P. L. Meroni; M. M. Kaplan; Y. Shoenfeld

    1992-01-01

    Anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) antibodies were determined in 1451 sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and several autoimmune rheumatic conditions by ELISA and immunoblotting. They were detected in sera of 93% of the patients with PBC (179 of 192 patients) in 60 of 277 (22%) patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SjS), 34 of 437 (8%) patients with scleroderma, 33 of

  11. KINETIC PROPERTIES OF MALIC DEHYDROGENASE FROM THREE CULTIVARS OF RICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature induced changes in the kinetics of the enzyme malic dehydrogenase (MON) were investigated in three cultivars of rice(Oryza sativa L.). Cultivars, included IR74, SWAT2, and N22. Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber for 29 days, at 31 degrees C day/25 d...

  12. Pressure-induced thermostabilization of glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile

    E-print Network

    Vetriani, Costantino

    of the tetrapeptide. For both enzymes, the stabilizing effect of pressure increased with temperature as well ~Yip et al., 1995!. The enzyme has a melting temperature ~Tm! for denaturation of 113 8C ~Klump et al glutamate dehydrogenases ~GDHs!: the native enzyme from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus ~Pf

  13. Alcohol dehydrogenases from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helia Radianingtyas; Phillip C. Wright

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been undertaken to characterise alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, mainly to better understand their activities and thermostability. To date, there are 20 thermophilic archaeal and 17 thermophilic bacterial strains known to have ADHs or similar enzymes, including the hypothetical proteins. Some of these thermophiles are found to have multiple ADHs, sometimes of different types. A

  14. A Methylotrophic Thermotolerant Actinomycete With a NAD+- Dependent Methanol Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Eshraghi; Ian C Hancock; E Williams

    The methylotrophic thermo tolerant actinomycete strain 381, was isolated from a compost sample, assimilated methanol during growth. Methanol dehydrogenase could not be detected in cell extracts using dye-linked assays in the absence of NAD + . Dichlorophenol-indophenol-linked methanol oxidation was detected in broken cell suspensions in the presence of NAD + and the absence of cyanide. Taxonomic studies showed that

  15. Cloning and characterization of histamine dehydrogenase from Nocardioides simplex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Limburg; Minae Mure; Judith P. Klinman

    2005-01-01

    Histamine dehydrogenase (NSHADH) can be isolated from cultures of Nocardioides simplex grown with histamine as the sole nitrogen source. A previous report suggested that NSHADH might contain the quinone cofactor tryptophan tryptophyl quinone (TTQ). Here, the hdh gene encoding NSHADH is cloned from the genomic DNA of N. simplex, and the isolated enzyme is subjected to a full spectroscopic characterization.

  16. Distribution of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The somewhat surprising report that storage proteins and oil are non-uniformly distributed in the cotyledons of developing soybeans prompted us to determine the spatial distribution of the mitochondrial and plastidial forms of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). It has been proposed that pla...

  17. Crystallization and Characterization of Bovine Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E Peterson; Jonathan Pierce; Thomas J Smith

    1997-01-01

    Bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase has been crystallized as an abortive complex with glutamic acid, NADH, and an inhibitor, GTP. Crystals of this complex were grown using the sitting drop vapor diffusion method with PEG 8000 as the precipitant and diffract to better than 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the space group P21with an entire enzyme hexamer in the

  18. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

  19. Succinate Dehydrogenase is the Regulator of Respiration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Travis; Weinrick, Brian; Vilchèze, Catherine; Berney, Michael; Tufariello, Joanne; Cook, Gregory M.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    In chronic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are thought to enter a metabolic program that provides sufficient energy for maintenance of the protonmotive force, but is insufficient to meet the demands of cellular growth. We sought to understand this metabolic downshift genetically by targeting succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme which couples the growth processes controlled by the TCA cycle with the energy production resulting from the electron transport chain. M. tuberculosis contains two operons which are predicted to encode succinate dehydrogenase enzymes (sdh-1 and sdh-2); we found that deletion of Sdh1 contributes to an inability to survive long term stationary phase. Stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that Sdh1 functions as a succinate dehydrogenase during aerobic growth, and that Sdh2 is dispensable for this catalysis, but partially overlapping activities ensure that the loss of one enzyme can incompletely compensate for loss of the other. Deletion of Sdh1 disturbs the rate of respiration via the mycobacterial electron transport chain, resulting in an increased proportion of reduced electron carrier (menaquinol) which leads to increased oxygen consumption. The loss of respiratory control leads to an inability to recover from stationary phase. We propose a model in which succinate dehydrogenase is a governor of cellular respiration in the adaptation to low oxygen environments. PMID:25412183

  20. Physiological significance and bioenergetic aspects of glucose dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oense M. Neijssel; Ronald W. J. Hommes; Pieter W. Postma; David W. Tempest

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of the PQQ-linked glucose dehydrogenase in different organisms is reviewed. It is concluded that this enzyme functions as an auxiliary energy-generating mechanism, because it is maximally synthesized under conditions of energy stress. It is now definitively established that the oxidation of glucose to gluconate generates metabolically useful energy. The magnitude of the contribution of the oxidation of glucose