These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.

Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

2014-10-01

2

[Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians].  

PubMed

Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica. PMID:3962529

Vykhrestiuk, N P; Burenina, E A; Iarygina, G V

1986-01-01

3

The Contribution of Electrostatic and van der Waals Interactions to the Stereospecificity of the Reaction Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Continuum electrostatic calculations in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the source of the stereospecificity in the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These studies show that favorable electrostatic interactions between the carboxamide group of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and protein residues of the active site of LDH can account for much if not all of the stereospecificity of the LDH-catalyzed reaction, with A-side hydride transfer more than 107 times greater than B-side transfer. Unfavorable steric interactions within the binding complex for B-side transfer are not found. ImagesFIGURE 2 PMID:9017191

van Beek, Jeroen; Callender, Robert; Gunner, M. R.

1997-01-01

4

Genetics Home Reference: Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

5

Selective oxidation and reduction reactions with cofactor regeneration mediated by galactitol-, lactate-, and formate dehydrogenases immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Rapid immobilization with the one-pot purification of galactitol dehydrogenase (GatDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is achieved by using iminodiacetic acid (IDA) with chelated Co(2+) modified magnetic nanoparticles as a carrier. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from recombinant Escherichia coli and FDH commencing Candida methylica were used as an auxiliary enzyme for the regeneration of NADH/NAD(+) with a representative synthesis of (S)-1,2-propanediol and l-tagatose starting from hydroxyacetone and galactitol. The affinity magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the purity of GatDH and FDH was assayed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The immobilized two-enzyme system, reflecting the pH dependence of its constituent enzymes, showed optimal activity at pH 7 and 8 for (S)-1,2-propanediol and l-tagatose production, respectively. The immobilized enzyme system retained up to 70% of its activity after one week of repeated use. The use of affinity magnetic nanoparticles offers the advantage of a one-pot purification of His(6)-tagged GatDH and FDH followed by the production of rare sugar and chiral diol. PMID:21392547

Demir, Ayhan S; Talpur, Farah N; Betul Sopaci, S; Kohring, Gert-W; Celik, Ayhan

2011-04-10

6

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, and myocardial infarction. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

7

Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m) of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:19924225

Brown, Stacie A; Whiteley, Marvin

2009-01-01

8

21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

9

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

10

Refolding of denatured lactate dehydrogenase by Escherichia coli ribosomes.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli ribosomes were used to refold denatured lactate dehydrogenase from porcine muscle. This activity of ribosomes, unlike most of the chaperons, did not require the presence of ATP. The molar concentration of ribosomes required for this refolding was comparable with that of the enzyme. Restoration of the enzyme activity was demonstrated using assays for both the forward and backward reactions. Binding of the denatured enzyme to ribosomes and its refolding were fairly rapid processes as revealed by the time course of the reaction and inhibition of folding when the denatured enzyme was allowed to refold spontaneously for short times before the addition of ribosomes. This protein-folding activity was detected in 70 S ribosomes as well as its RNA, in 50 S particles and in 23 S rRNA. However, 30 S particles failed to refold the enzyme. PMID:8010952

Chattopadhyay, S; Das, B; Bera, A K; Dasgupta, D; Dasgupta, C

1994-01-01

11

Some Lactobacillus l-Lactate Dehydrogenases Exhibit Comparable Catalytic Activities for Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate  

PubMed Central

The nonallosteric and allosteric l-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. casei, respectively, exhibited broad substrate specificities, giving virtually the same maximal reaction velocity and substrate Km values for pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Replacement of Pro101 with Asn reduced the activity of the L. pentosus enzyme toward these alternative substrates to a greater extent than the activity toward pyruvate. PMID:11114942

Arai, Kazuhito; Kamata, Takeo; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2001-01-01

12

Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to  

E-print Network

Activity, Stability and Structural Studies of Lactate Dehydrogenases Adapted to Extreme Thermal LDHs adapted to function over a large temperature range. The enzymes were from Champsocephalus gunnari glycolysis. In the present study, we present a comparative biochemical and structural analysis of various

Glover, Mark

13

Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Patterns of Human Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human dental pulps from deciduous teeth and normal and impacted permanent teeth were studied by means of cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A dominance of the LDH-3 and LDH-4 isoenzymes was observed. This result is further evidence for the presence of a prominent anaerobic metabolism in this tissue.

Anders Linde; Anna Ljunggren

1970-01-01

14

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(?)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L-1 of optically pure D(?)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min-1 (mg protein)-1. By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(?) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2011-01-01

15

Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40?°C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50?°C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 ?moles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50?°C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-11-22

16

Phylogenetic Analysis of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Multigene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences\\u000a were found to be larger for a human–killifish pair than a human–lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence\\u000a may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions\\u000a separately for several species

Yi-Ju Li; Stephen C.-M. Tsoi

2002-01-01

17

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-X by imino-derivatives of gossypol:structure activity relationship.  

PubMed

Six imino-derivatives (II, III, IV, V, VI, VII) of gossypol (I) have been synthesized, and their effects were evaluated on the purified mouse lactate dehydrogenase-X. Three of these derivatives (V, VI, VII) with aldehyde groups substituted with hydrophobic functionalities showed equivalent or more inhibitory effects on lactate dehydrogenase-X than gossypol, whereas three other derivatives (II, III, IV) with aldehyde groups substituted with hydrophilic functional groups lost the ability to inhibit lactate dehydrogenase-X. It is suggested that two aldehyde groups of gossypol are not essential to inhibit lactate dehydrogenase-X. Furthermore, the hydrophobic property of the gossypol molecule seems to play a more important role in inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase-X. Therefore, lactate dehydrogenase-X inhibition by gossypol may not be associated with its antifertility mechanism, because the aldehyde group of gossypol is known to be required for its antifertility effect. PMID:3608484

Kim, I; Marcelle, G B; Waller, D P; Cordell, G A; Fong, H H

1987-03-01

18

Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis  

PubMed Central

Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD+/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis. PMID:24898534

Acharya, Abhinav P.; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C.; Gardner, Austin B.; Murthy, Niren

2014-01-01

19

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

20

Purification and kinetic properties of skeletal muscle lactate dehydrogenase from the lizard Agama stellio stellio.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-5 (M4) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of lizard Agama stellio stellio as a poikilothermic animal, using colchicine-Sepharose chromatography and heat inactivation. The purified enzyme showed a single band after SDS-PAGE, corresponding to a molecular weight of 36 kD. The Km values for pyruvate, NADH, lactate, and NAD+ were 0.020, 0.040, 8.1, and 0.02 mM, respectively. Pyruvate showed maximum activity at about 180 microM, with a decline at higher concentrations. The enzyme was stable at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was rapidly inactivated at 90 degrees C. The optimum pH for the forward reaction (pyruvate to lactate) was 7.5, and for the reverse reaction (lactate to pyruvate) was 9.2. Oxalate, glutamate, Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ were inhibitory in both forward and reverse reactions. PMID:12139477

Al-Jassabi, S

2002-07-01

21

Label-free high-throughput assays to screen and characterize novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Catalytic turnover of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is critical in maintaining an intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD?) pool for continuous fueling of the glycolytic pathway. In this article, we describe two label-free high-throughput assays (a kinetic assay detecting the intrinsic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence and a mass spectrometric assay monitoring the conversion of pyruvate to lactate) that were designed to effectively identify LDH inhibitors, characterize their different mechanisms of action, and minimize potential false positives from a small molecule compound library screen. Using a fluorescence kinetic image-based reader capable of detecting NADH fluorescence in the ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) work flow, the enzyme activity was measured as the rate of NADH conversion to NAD?. Interference with NADH fluorescence by library compounds was readily identified during the primary screen. The mass spectrometric assay quantitated the lactate and pyruvate levels simultaneously. The multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometric method accurately detected each of the two small organic acid molecules in the reaction mixture. With robust Z' scores of more than 0.7, these two high-throughput assays for LDH are both label free and complementary to each other in the HTS workflow by monitoring the activities of the compounds on each half of the LDH redox reaction. PMID:23871998

Vanderporten, Erica; Frick, Lauren; Turincio, Rebecca; Thana, Peter; Lamarr, William; Liu, Yichin

2013-10-15

22

Conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

A series of isotope edited IR measurements, both static as well as temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy, are performed on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to determine the ensemble of structures available to its Michaelis complex. There clearly has been a substantial reduction in the number of states available to the pyruvate substrate (as modeled by the substrate mimic, oxamate) and NADH when bound to protein compared to dissolved in solution, as determined by the bandwidths and positions of the critical C2=O band of bound substrate mimic and the C4-H stretch of NADH reduced nicotinamide group. Moreover, it is found that a strong ionic bond (characterized by a signature IR band discovered in this study) is formed between the carboxyl group of bound pyruvate with (presumably) Arg171, forming a strong ‘anchor’ within the protein matrix. However, conformational heterogeneity within the Michaelis complex is found that has an impact on both catalytic efficiency and thermodynamics of the enzyme. PMID:21568287

Deng, Hua; Vu, Dung V.; Clinch, Keith; Desamero, Ruel; Dyer, R. Brian; Callender, Robert

2011-01-01

23

D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(-)-lactate and D(+)-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by multiple events of gene duplication in both vertebrates and invertebrates, a shared evolutionary history of this gene in the two groups is apparent. Moreover, the high degree of sequence similarity among D-LDH amino acid sequences suggests that they share a common evolutionary history. PMID:18828920

2008-01-01

24

Production of L-lactate in Leuconostoc citreum via heterologous expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

D-form lactate is often found in fermented foods and excessive dietary intake of D-lactate may cause metabolic stress in both infants and patients. Leuconostoc citreum is a major lactic acid bacterium that produces D-lactate in fermented foods. The aim of this study was to change the pyruvate carbon flux in L. citreum from D-lactate into L-lactate by heterologous expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) gene. For this, ldhL from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and introduced into L. citreum using a shuttle vector pLeuCM. In the transformant, ldhL was successfully transcribed and L-lactate dehydrogenase was expressed. As a consequence of transformation, the ratio between D- and L-isomers was changed due to the increment of L-lactate and the decrement of D-lactate, but no significant differences were found in total lactate concentration between the host and transformant cells. This is the first report of metabolic engineering in Leuconostoc by modulating the central carbon flux into health-favored way. PMID:19699768

Jin, Qing; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Yu Jin; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Tae-Jip; Han, Nam Soo

2009-10-26

25

Critical role for lactate dehydrogenase A in aerobic glycolysis that sustains pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells possess both highly proliferative and angiogenic capacities, yet it is unclear how these cells sustain the metabolic requirements essential for such growth. Rapidly proliferating cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to sustain growth, which is characterized by glucose consumption, glucose fermentation to lactate, and lactic acidosis, all in the presence of sufficient oxygen concentrations. Lactate dehydrogenase A converts pyruvate to lactate necessary to sustain rapid flux through glycolysis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells express lactate dehydrogenase A necessary to utilize aerobic glycolysis and support their growth. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) growth curves were conducted over a 7-day period. PMVECs consumed glucose, converted glucose into lactate, and acidified the media. Restricting extracellular glucose abolished the lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth, as did replacing glucose with galactose. In contrast, slow-growing pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) minimally consumed glucose and did not develop a lactic acidosis throughout the growth curve. Oxygen consumption was twofold higher in PAECs than in PMVECs, yet total cellular ATP concentrations were twofold higher in PMVECs. Glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A were all upregulated in PMVECs compared with their macrovascular counterparts. Inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase A activity and expression prevented lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth. Thus PMVECs utilize aerobic glycolysis to sustain their rapid growth rates, which is dependent on lactate dehydrogenase A. PMID:20675437

Parra-Bonilla, Glenda; Alvarez, Diego F.; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr; Alexeyev, Mikhail

2010-01-01

26

Cytochemical localization of lactate dehydrogenase in muscular dystrophy of the mouse.  

PubMed

By use of phenazine methosulfate and the "ncubation mixture film method," lactate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the dystrophic muscle fibers of strain 129 mice. The results indicate that for demonstration of lactate dehydrogenase activity in dystrophic muscle fibers phenazine methosulfate is necessary. This finding is typical for the "white" muscle fibers in the normal muscle and suggests that the dystrophy affects primarily the "white" muscle fibers. PMID:4161197

Fahimi, H D; Troy, P

1966-06-24

27

Pressure-adaptive differences in lactate dehydrogenases of three hagfishes: Eptatretus burgeri, Paramyxine atami and Eptatretus okinoseanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of abyssal pressures likely depends on adaptive modifications of fish proteins. However, structural modifications\\u000a of proteins which allow functioning at high pressure remain unclear. We compared the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),\\u000a an important enzyme in glycolytic reaction, in three hagfishes inhabiting different depths under increased pressure. LDH in\\u000a Eptatretus okinoseanus, found at a depth of 1,000 m, was

Yoshikazu Nishiguchi; Tetsuya Miwa; Fumiyoshi Abe

2008-01-01

28

Cloning and Polymorphisms of Yak Lactate Dehydrogenase b Gene  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1) gene in yak (Bos grunniens). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit) in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S) of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak. PMID:23739677

Wang, Guosheng; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhong, Juming; Cao, Meng; He, Qinghua; Liu, Zhengxin; Lin, Yaqiu; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai

2013-01-01

29

Modulation of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes by modified base queuine.  

PubMed

The modified base queuine is a nutrient factor for lower and higher eukaryotes except yeast. It is synthesized in eubacteria and inserted into the wobble position of specific tRNAs (tRNA(GUN)) in exchange of guanine at position 34. The tRNAs of Q family are completely modified in terminally differentiated somatic cells. However, mainly free queuine is present in embryonic and fast proliferating cells, tRNA remains Q deficient. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A mRNA and LDH A protein is known to increase when cells are grown in hypoxic conditions. In the present study, the level of LDH isozymes is analyzed in different tissues of normal and cancerous (DLA) mice and the effect of queuine treatment on LDH isozyme is observed. LDH A isozyme is shown to increase in serum and liver of DLA mice. The level and activity of LDH A decreases on queuine treatment. In skeletal muscle and heart, LDH A isozyme decreases while LDH B increases in DLA mice. Queuine administration leads to change back towards normal. In case of brain, LDH A increases but LDH B decreases in DLA mice. Queuine treatment leads to decrease in A4 anaerobic isozymes of LDH. The results suggest that queuine suppresses anaerobic glycolytic pathway, which leads to tumor suppression of DLA mice. PMID:16172920

Pathak, C; Vinayak, Manjula

2005-09-01

30

Functional characterization of an alternative [lactate dehydrogenase-like] malate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The catalysis of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in Plasmodium falciparum (pfMDH) which involves NAD/NADH coupling is crucial for the parasite's pathogenicity. Primers were designed based on the P. falciparum genome resource, and these facilitated the cloning of a gene coding for pfMDH from a local clinical isolate. The DNA sequence of the cloned gene revealed an open-reading frame that encodes a protein of 313 amino acids. After induction in Escherichia coli BL21, enzyme assays of the expressed pfMDH purified by affinity chromatography exhibited significant enzyme activity of about 50 U/mg, where one unit (U) of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme oxidising 1 microol NADH/min. Based on its phylogenetic status amongst MDHs and lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs), the cloned gene was clearly defined as belonging to the NADH-dependent [LDH-like] MDHs. It is noteworthy that pfMDH harbours unique structural characteristics potentially useful for screening drugs specific for disabling parasitic enzymes. PMID:14598170

Chan, M; Sim, T S

2004-01-01

31

Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.  

PubMed

The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis. PMID:25389710

Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

2014-12-01

32

Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene families.  

PubMed

In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences were found to be larger for a human-killifish pair than a human-lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions separately for several species pairs and found that the transitions tend to be saturated in the distantly related species pair, while transversions are increasing. We conclude that transversions maintain a conservative rate through the evolutionary time. Kimura's two-parameter model for multiple-hit correction on transversions only was used to derive a distance measure and then construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Three findings were revealed from the NJ tree: (i) the branching order of the tree is consistent with the common branch pattern of major vertebrates; (ii) Ldh-A and Ldh-B genes were duplicated near the origin of vertebrates; and (iii) Ldh-C and Ldh-A in mammals were produced by an independent gene duplication in early mammalian history. Furthermore, a relative rate test showed that mammalian Ldh-C evolved more rapidly than mammalian Ldh-A. Under a two-rate model, this duplication event was calibrated to be approximately 247 million years ago (mya), dating back to the Triassic period. Other gene duplication events were also discovered in Xenopus, the first duplication occurring approximately 60-70 mya in both Ldh-A and Ldh-B, followed by another recent gene duplication event, approximately 20 mya, in Ldh-B. PMID:11965434

Li, Yi-Ju; Tsoi, Stephen C-M; Mannen, Hideyuka; Shoei-lung Li, Steven

2002-05-01

33

Enzymatic production of D-3-phenyllactic acid by Pediococcus pentosaceus D-lactate dehydrogenase with NADH regeneration by Ogataea parapolymorpha formate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Enzymatic production of PLA can be carried out from phenylpyruvic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); however, the enzymatic reaction is accompanied by NADH oxidation that inhibits PLA biotransformation. Here, NADH regeneration was achieved using the formate dehydrogenase from Ogataea parapolymorpha and introduced into the D-PLA production process using the D-LDH from Pediococcus pentosaceus. Optimum PLA production by dual enzyme treatment was at pH 6.0 and 50 °C with both enzymes at 0.4 ?M. Using 0.2 mM NADH, D-PLA production by NADH regeneration system reached 5.5 mM, which was significantly higher than that by a single-enzyme reaction. PMID:24249102

Yu, Shuhuai; Zhu, Lanjun; Zhou, Chen; An, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

2014-03-01

34

Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm?1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

Reddish, Michael; Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Panwar, Kunal S.; Callender, Robert; Dyer, R. Brian

2014-01-01

35

Affinity isolation of a cold-adapted enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

A simple, economical and rapid affinity chromatography procedure with dyes as the ligand has been described for the one-step purification of a cold-adapted lactate dehydrogenase. Non-specific elution of Procion blue H-ERD-modified Sepharose yielded homogeneous preparations of lactate dehydrogenase both in column based procedures and in batch wise operations. Low operational temperatures resulted in the enhanced binding of the enzyme to the blue dye. The dissociation constants of the enzyme-dye complexes were 7.2 +/- 0.2 microM and 11.2 +/- 0.2 microM at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C respectively. PMID:10643641

Nandakumar, R; Mattiasson, B

1999-01-01

36

Catalytic Properties of Three L-Lactate Dehydrogenases From Saffron Corms ( Crocus Sativus L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three L-lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were detected in saffron corms, using potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor. Their pH optima were 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. All three dehydrogenases were substrate-inhibited by ferricyanide, but at different concentrations; maximum enzymatic activity was observed for 250, 100 and 600 µM ferricyanide, at pH 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. Catalytic efficiency, calculated per mg

Ezzatollah Keyhani; Naghmeh Sattarahmady

2002-01-01

37

D-Lactate dehydrogenase as a marker gene allows positive selection of transgenic plants.  

PubMed

D-Lactate negatively affects Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development in a concentration-dependent manner. At media D-lactate concentrations greater than 5-10mM the development of wild-type plants is arrested shortly after germination whereas plants overexpressing the endogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) detoxify D-lactate to pyruvate and survive. When the transgenic plants are further transferred to normal growth conditions they develop indistinguishably from the wild type. Thus, D-LDH was successfully established as a new marker in A. thaliana allowing selecting transgenic plants shortly after germination. The selection on D-lactate containing media adds a new optional marker system, which is especially useful if the simultaneous selection of multiple constructs is desired. PMID:22155004

Wienstroer, Judith; Engqvist, Martin K M; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Maurino, Veronica G

2012-01-01

38

Resting Oxygen Consumption Varies among Lactate Dehydrogenase Genotypes in the Sow Bug, Porcellio scaber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of

Jeffry B. Mitton; Patrick A. Carter; Adam Digiacomo

1997-01-01

39

Mammalian d-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase. Effect of inhibitors and reaction sequence  

PubMed Central

1. The reaction of d-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase with d-lactate and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCIP) at pH8.6 yields reciprocal plots of 1/rate versus 1/[d-lactate], at different DCIP concentrations, which appear to be parallel. However, at pH7.55, or in the presence of the competitive inhibitor oxalate at pH8.6, the plots are convergent. This is inconsistent with the mechanism previously proposed for this enzyme. 2. The pattern of inhibition by the product, pyruvate, is consistent with either an Ordered mechanism or an Iso Theorell–Chance mechanism. 3. The observation that the enzyme forms a complex with d-lactate favours the Ordered reaction. In this, first d-lactate and then DCIP bind to the enzyme to form a ternary complex, from which pyruvate and reduced DCIP dissociate in that order. PMID:5528639

Cammack, R.

1970-01-01

40

A role for lactate dehydrogenases in the survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cervical epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Lactate is an abundant metabolite, produced by host tissues and commensal organisms, and it represents an important potential carbon source for bacterial pathogens. In the case of Neisseria spp., the importance of the lactate permease in colonization of the host has been demonstrated, but there have been few studies of lactate metabolism in pathogenic Neisseria in the postgenomic era. We describe herein the characterization of genome-annotated, respiratory, and substrate-level lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) from the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biochemical assays using N. gonorrhoeae 1291 wild type and isogenic mutant strains showed that cytoplasmic LdhA (NAD(+)-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase) and the membrane-bound respiratory enzymes, LdhD (D-lactate dehydrogenase) and LldD (L-lactate dehydrogenase) are correctly annotated. Mutants lacking LdhA and LdhD showed greatly reduced survival in neutrophils compared with wild type cells, highlighting the importance of D-lactate metabolism in gonococcal survival. Furthermore, an assay of host colonization using the well-established human primary cervical epithelial cell model revealed that the two respiratory enzymes make a significant contribution to colonization of and survival within the microaerobic environment of the host. Taken together, these data suggest that host-derived lactate is critical for the growth and survival of N. gonorrhoeae in human cells. PMID:24737798

Atack, John M; Ibranovic, Ines; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; Chen, Nathan H; Vanden Hoven, Rachel; Jennings, Michael P; Edwards, Jennifer L; McEwan, Alastair G

2014-10-15

41

The preparation and kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase attached to water-insoluble particles and sheets  

PubMed Central

1. The preparation of lactate dehydrogenase covalently attached to anion-exchange cellulose particles and sheets by use of a dichloro-sym-triazinyl dyestuff, Procion brilliant orange MGS, is described. 2. The stability and kinetic properties of these preparations were investigated. 3. An equation is derived to describe the change in concentration of a substrate when passed through a uniform bed of a substrate-inhibited enzyme. A number of theoretical curves are shown to illustrate the system. 4. A titrimetric assay for lactate dehydrogenase is described, and shown to be stoicheiometric over the range pH5·0–9·2. 5. The results are discussed in relation to previous work, and the effects of charged groups on the support, and of the diffusion film surrounding any particle in suspension, are treated qualitatively. PMID:5673529

Wilson, R. J. H.; Kay, G.; Lilly, M. D.

1968-01-01

42

Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating  

E-print Network

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

Collins, Sharen Sue

1987-01-01

43

A Kinetic Analysis of the Endogenous Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity of Duck Lens ?-Crystallin in Reverse Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Crystallin is a structural protein in duck lenses with endogenous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. When entrapped in an aerosol-OT (AOT)\\/isooctane\\/H2O reverse micellar system, ?-crystallin preserves this endogenous enzymatic activity. The catalytic constant (kcat) of ?-crystallin exhibited multiple peaks at varying degrees of system hydration ([H2O]\\/[AOT]), thereby suggesting that ?-crystallin exists as various oligomers in reverse micelles and that each oligomer

Hwei-Jen Lee; Gu-Gang Chang

1998-01-01

44

A testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase in the pipid frog, Hymenochirus boettgeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactate dehydrogenase zymograms of mature testes ofHymenochirus boettgeri show in addition to the five isozymes composed of LDH-A and LDH-B subunits, a second 5-band system which is due to isozymes formed between LDH-A and a third subunit, LDH-C. These testis-specific LDH-C isozymes appear around 6 months after metamorphosis indicating that their expression is correlated with sexual maturity as is

J. Wolff; H. R. Kobel

1985-01-01

45

Regulation of the ldhA gene, encoding the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentative lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Escherichia coli is induced by low pH under anaerobic conditions. Both translational and transcriptional gene fusions to ldhA, which encodes the fermentative LDH, have now been made. Both types of ldhA-lacZ fusion were induced by low pH, but only in the absence of air. However, the translational fusions were consistently expressed at a five-

Gene Ruijun Jiang; Sonia Nikolova; David P. Clark

2001-01-01

46

L-mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: comparisons with the L-lactate dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome b2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L-mandelate dehydrogenase (L-MDH) from Rhodotorula graminis are both flavocytochromes b2. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been compared using steady-state kinetic methods. The most striking difference between the two enzymes is found by comparing their substrate specificities. L-LDH and L-MDH have mutually exclusive primary substrates, i.e. the substrate for one enzyme is a potent competitive inhibitor for the other. Molecular-modelling studies on the known three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae L-LDH suggest that this enzyme is unable to catalyse the oxidation of L-mandelate because productive binding is impeded by steric interference, particularly between the side chain of Leu-230 and the phenyl ring of mandelate. Another major difference between L-LDH and L-MDH lies in the rate-determining step. For S. cerevisiae L-LDH, the major rate-determining step is proton abstraction at C-2 of lactate, as previously shown by the 2H kinetic-isotope effect. However, in R. graminis L-MDH the kinetic-isotope effect seen with DL-[2-2H]mandelate is only 1.1 +/- 0.1, clearly showing that proton abstraction at C-2 of mandelate is not rate-limiting. The fact that the rate-determining step is different indicates that the transition states in each of these enzymes must also be different. PMID:8439280

Smékal, O; Yasin, M; Fewson, C A; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1993-02-15

47

Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

1995-01-01

48

Induction of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes by Oxygen Deficit in Barley Root Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in attached roots of barley and other cereals increased up to 20-fold during several days of severe hypoxia, reaching a maximum of about 2 micromoles per minute per gram fresh weight. In barley, induction of LDH activity was significant at 2.6% O2 and greatest at 0.06%, the lowest O2 concentration tested. Upon return to aerobic conditions, induced LDH activity declined with an apparent half-life of 2 days. The isozyme profile of barley LDH comprised 5 bands, consistent with a tetrameric enzyme with subunits encoded by two different Ldh genes. Changes in staining intensity of the isozymes as a function of O2 level suggested that one Ldh gene was preferentially expressed in severe hypoxia. When tracer [U-14C]glucose was supplied to induced roots under hypoxic conditions, lactate acquired label, but much less than either ethanol or alanine. Most of the [14C] lactate was secreted into the medium, whereas most other labeled anionic products were retained in the root. Neither hypoxic induction of LDH, nor lactate secretion by induced roots, is predicted from the Davies-Roberts hypothesis, which holds that lactate glycolysis ceases soon after the onset of hypoxia due to acidosis brought about by lactate accumulation in the cytoplasm. These results imply a functional significance for LDH beyond that assigned it in this hypothesis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665087

Hoffman, Neil E.; Bent, Andrew F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

1986-01-01

49

Lactate dehydrogenase ontogeny, paternal gene activation, and tetramer assembly in embryos of brook trout, lake trout, and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of lactate dehydrogenase in reciprocal hybrids of trout during development revealed that a maternal effect was involved in the regulation of enzyme levels until resorption of the yolk sac was completed. Malate dehydrogenase specific activities were the same in these embryos and larvae. The more negatively charged B subunits of LDH predominated during early stages of embryogenesis in lake

Erwin Goldberg; J. P. Cuerrier; J. C. Ward

1969-01-01

50

Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 ?M, while at 2.5 ?M, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

2014-01-01

51

Lactate dehydrogenase 5: An old friend and a new hope in the war on cancer.  

PubMed

A hallmark of most cancer cells is an altered metabolism involving a shift to aerobic glycolysis with lactate production coupled with a higher uptake of glucose as the main source of energy. Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate by NADH to form lactate, thus determining the availability of NAD(+) to maintain the continuity of glycolysis. It is therefore an important control point in the system of cellular energy release. Its upregulation is common in many malignant tumors. Inhibiting LDH-5 activity has an anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. It may reverse their resistance to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent research has renewed interest in LDH-5 as an anticancer drug target. This review summarizes recent studies exploring the role of LDH-5 in cancer growth, its utility as a tumor marker, and developments made in identifying and designing anti-LDH-5 therapeutic agents. PMID:25528630

Augoff, Katarzyna; Hryniewicz-Jankowska, Anita; Tabola, Renata

2015-03-01

52

Warburg effect in chemosensitivity: Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A re-sensitizes Taxol-resistant cancer cells to Taxol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taxol is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Despite impressive clinical responses initially, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to Taxol. Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is one of the predominant isoforms of LDH expressed in breast tissue, which controls the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and plays an important role

Ming Zhou; Yuhua Zhao; Yan Ding; Hao Liu; Zixing Liu; Oystein Fodstad; Adam I Riker; Sushama Kamarajugadda; Jianrong Lu; Laurie B Owen; Susan P Ledoux; Ming Tan

2010-01-01

53

Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

Ma, L.

2000-09-12

54

Binding ligands and cofactor to L-lactate dehydrogenase from human skeletal and heart muscles.  

PubMed

Binding affinities of cofactor and ligands to the active site of two different isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), heart and skeletal muscles (H4 and M4, respectively), can be used for medical and biological applications. Herein, a hybrid QM/MM computational approach based on free energy perturbation methods has been carried out to estimate binding affinities and binding isotope effects (BIEs) for NADH/NAD(+) and oxamate, pyruvate, L-lactate, and D-lactate ligands to the M4 and H4 isoforms of L-LDH. Here, we show that determining how cofactor and ligands interact with the active site of LDH isoforms advanced the still open discussion on the intracellular lactate shuttle hypothesis. In our discussion we deny the key concept of this hypothesis showing, based on interaction energy values, that there is no evidence that the M4 type of LDH in the skeletal muscles cells served as a catalyst of the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Additionally, theoretical determination of BIEs for H4 and M4 types of LDH shows that there is a way of using the BIEs as a tool capable to distinguish these isoforms, and for this purpose D-lactate labeled with deuterium in positions 11 or 7, 8, 9 ([11-2H]-BIE and [7,8,9-2H3]-BIE) or L-lactate labeled only in position 11 ([11-2H]-BIE) could be used. We propose the BIEs as a useful tool which can be applied in order to experimentally determine the types of LDH. PMID:21526780

?widerek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

2011-05-19

55

L-mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: comparisons with the L-lactate dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome b2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L-mandelate dehydrogenase (L-MDH) from Rhodotorula graminis are both flavocytochromes b2. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been compared using steady-state kinetic methods. The most striking difference between the two enzymes is found by comparing their substrate specificities. L-LDH and L-MDH have mutually exclusive primary substrates, i.e. the substrate for one enzyme is a potent competitive inhibitor for the other. Molecular-modelling studies on the known three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae L-LDH suggest that this enzyme is unable to catalyse the oxidation of L-mandelate because productive binding is impeded by steric interference, particularly between the side chain of Leu-230 and the phenyl ring of mandelate. Another major difference between L-LDH and L-MDH lies in the rate-determining step. For S. cerevisiae L-LDH, the major rate-determining step is proton abstraction at C-2 of lactate, as previously shown by the 2H kinetic-isotope effect. However, in R. graminis L-MDH the kinetic-isotope effect seen with DL-[2-2H]mandelate is only 1.1 +/- 0.1, clearly showing that proton abstraction at C-2 of mandelate is not rate-limiting. The fact that the rate-determining step is different indicates that the transition states in each of these enzymes must also be different. Images Figure 1 PMID:8439280

Smékal, O; Yasin, M; Fewson, C A; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1993-01-01

56

Cationic Surfactant-Based Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase, a Biomarker for Malaria, Using the Specific DNA Aptamer  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the malarial biomarkers Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum LDH (PfLDH) was demonstrated using the pL1 aptamer as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes. The proposed method is based on the aggregation of AuNPs using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The AuNPs exhibited a sensitive color change from red to blue, which could be seen directly with the naked eye and was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. PvLDH and PfLDH were discernible with a detection limit of 1.25 pM and 2.94 pM, respectively. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was also examined in commercially available human serum. PMID:24992632

Lee, Seonghwan; Manjunatha, D H; Jeon, Weejeong; Ban, Changill

2014-01-01

57

Identification of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A series of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones were identified as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Structure activity relationships were explored and a series of 6,6-spiro analogs led to improvements in LDHA potency (IC50 <350nM). An X-ray crystal structure of an improved compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and it illustrated additional opportunities to enhance the potency of these compounds, resulting in the identification of 51 (IC50=30nM). PMID:25467161

Fauber, Benjamin P; Dragovich, Peter S; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Labadie, Sharada; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhou, Aihe

2014-12-15

58

Resting oxygen consumption varies among lactate dehydrogenase genotypes in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of the common Ldh homozygote exceeded the respiration rate of the heterozygote by more than 50 per cent. The differences in respiration rates are consistent with previously reported viability differentials at the Ldh polymorphism.

Mitton, J. B.; Carter, P. A.; DiGiacomo, A.

1997-01-01

59

Dual Targeting of the Warburg Effect with a Glucose-Conjugated Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Glucose transporters and the glycolysis enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) are both overexpressed in cancer cells, two proliferation tactics that underlie the phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Herein we report the development and activity of a glucose-conjugated LDH-A inhibitor designed to target both of these tumor-promoting facets. In addition to the promise of this conjugate, dual targeting of the Warburg effect using glycoconjugation as an anticancer strategy could be applied to inhibitors of many of the enzymes involved in glycolysis or tumor metabolism. PMID:24174263

Calvaresi, Emilia C.; Granchi, Carlotta; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Huigens, Robert W.; Lee, Hyang Yeon; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Macchia, Marco; Martinelli, Adriano

2014-01-01

60

Characterization of D-lactate dehydrogenase producing D-3-phenyllactic acid from Pediococcus pentosaceus.  

PubMed

D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25745 was found to produce D-3-phenyllactic acid from phenylpyruvate. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)), turnover number (k(cat)), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) values for the substrate phenylpyruvate were estimated to be 1.73 mmol/L, 173 s(-1), and 100 (mmol/L)(-1) s(-1) respectively. PMID:22484960

Yu, Shuhuai; Jiang, Houyi; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

2012-01-01

61

Characterization of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Pediococcus acidilactici that converts phenylpyruvic acid into phenyllactic acid.  

PubMed

The gene coding for D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. It converted phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) to 3-phenyllactic acid maximally at 30°C and pH 5.5 with a specific activity of 140 and 422 U/mg for PPA and pyruvate, respectively. The K(m), turnover number (k(cat)), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for PPA were 2.9 mM, 305 s(-1), and 105 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. PMID:22261863

Mu, Wanmeng; Yu, Shuhuai; Jiang, Bo; Li, Xingfeng

2012-05-01

62

Diverse allosteric and catalytic functions of tetrameric d-lactate dehydrogenases from three Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases (d-LDHs) reduce pyruvate into d-lactate with oxidation of NADH into NAD(+). Although non-allosteric d-LDHs from Lactobacilli have been extensively studied, the catalytic properties of allosteric d-LDHs from Gram-negative bacteria except for Escherichia coli remain unknown. We characterized the catalytic properties of d-LDHs from three Gram-negative bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum (FNLDH), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PALDH), and E. coli (ECLDH) to gain an insight into allosteric mechanism of d-LDHs. While PALDH and ECLDH exhibited narrow substrate specificities toward pyruvate like usual d-LDHs, FNLDH exhibited a broad substrate specificity toward hydrophobic 2-ketoacids such as 2-ketobutyrate and 2-ketovalerate, the former of which gave a 2-fold higher k cat/S0.5 value than pyruvate. Whereas the three enzymes consistently showed hyperbolic shaped pyruvate saturation curves below pH 6.5, FNLDH and ECLDH, and PALDH showed marked positive and negative cooperativity, respectively, in the pyruvate saturation curves above pH 7.5. Oxamate inhibited the catalytic reactions of FNLDH competitively with pyruvate, and the PALDH reaction in a mixed manner at pH 7.0, but markedly enhanced the reactions of the two enzymes at low concentration through canceling of the apparent homotropic cooperativity at pH 8.0, although it constantly inhibited the ECLDH reaction. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and certain divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) also markedly enhanced the reactions of FNLDH and PALDH, but none of them enhanced the reaction of ECLDH. Thus, our study demonstrates that bacterial d-LDHs have highly divergent allosteric and catalytic properties. PMID:25401076

Furukawa, Nayuta; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Togawa, Misato; Nakajima, Masahiro; Taguchi, Hayao

2014-01-01

63

Prostate cancer cells metabolize d-lactate inside mitochondria via a D-lactate dehydrogenase which is more active and highly expressed than in normal cells.  

PubMed

Although D-lactate metabolism has been shown to occur in a variety of mitochondria, the metabolic fate of D-lactate in cancer cells has never been investigated, as it is believed to be exported to the extracellular phase. We show that mitochondria from both cancer (PC-3) and normal (PNT1A) prostate cells can metabolize D-lactate in an energy competent manner. This is due to the mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase, a membrane flavoprotein, the activity and protein level of which are higher in PC-3 than in PNT1A cells, as detected by both kinetic and immunological analysis. D-Lactate can enter prostate mitochondria and cause the export of newly synthesized malate in a carrier-mediated manner, with the rate of malate efflux from mitochondria twofold higher in cancer. PMID:23333299

de Bari, Lidia; Moro, Loredana; Passarella, Salvatore

2013-03-01

64

The distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (Lactate tetrazolium reductase) in the hippocamal region of the rat. A reinvestigation with the polyvinyl alcohol method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histochemical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the hippocampal region of the rat was studied using a viscous incubation medium with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to reduce diffusion from fresh frozen sections. A relatively high concentration of Nitro blue tetrazolium was used, and the sections were incubated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS) to render the LDH demonstration independent of endogenous diaphorase

Svein Ivar Mellgren

1971-01-01

65

Characterization of Enterobacter cloacae and E. sakazakii by electrophoretic polymorphism of acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 34 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 22 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by isoelectrofocusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. The two species could be separated on the basis of distinct electrophoretic patterns of all enzymes analysed. Glutamate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase were detected exclusively in E. cloacae, whereas esterase bands were more intensively stained in E. sakazakii. For each species, two zymotypes could be distinguished, on the basis of electrophoretic mobilities of malate dehydrogenase and banding patterns of esterase for E. cloacae, and by both isoelectric point and electrophoretic mobilities of an esterase and of lactate and malate dehydrogenases for E. sakazakii. The high degree of enzyme polymorphism within the two species permitted precise identification of strains. The variations in electrophoretic patterns might therefore provide useful epidemiological markers. PMID:3625169

Goullet, P; Picard, B

1986-11-01

66

Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.

1988-12-01

67

Multiplex Fluorescent Immunoassay for Detection of Mice Infected with Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating Virus  

PubMed Central

Commercially available diagnostic tools for the detection of lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) infection have been restricted to measurement of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity levels and detection of the viral genome by RT-PCR assays. Serologic diagnosis of LDV infection has not been widely adopted due to the belief that the formation of antigen–antibody complexes and B-cell polyclonal activation may confound interpretation of results. In the current study, we inoculated BALB/c, C57BL/6, and Swiss Webster mice with LDV to compare the diagnostic reliability of a commercially available multiplex fluorescent immunoassay for the detection of antiLDV antibodies with that of the LDH enzyme assay. The serologic assay was vastly more sensitive and specific than was the LDH enzyme assay. Moreover, the serologic assay detected antiviral antibodies throughout the 3-mo time course of this study. These results suggest that antigen–antibody complex formation and polyclonal B-cell activation had little effect on assay performance. PMID:23849407

Adams, Veronica; Myles, Matthew H

2013-01-01

68

The primary structure of the psychrophilic lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

L-lactate dehydrogenase of the psychrophilic bacterium B. psychrosaccharolyticus was isolated by a three-step procedure and its total amino-acid sequence determined by automated Edman degradation. The protein consists of 318 amino-acid residues and its calculated molecular mass is 35,254 Da. Most of the primary structure could be established by sequencing large peptide fragments obtained by chemical cleavages, namely with BNPS-skatole and with CNBr. Further fragmentations of two tryptophan peptides with the endoproteinase Lys-C and with diluted HCl resulted in shorter overlapping peptides, the analysis of which completed the sequence. The C-terminal sequence Glu-Gln was established by carboxypeptidase A experiments and was then verified by the analysis of short C-terminal tryptic and chymotryptic peptides. The first lactate dehydrogenase sequenced so far of a psychrophilic bacillus shows sequence homologies between 60% and 75% to the enzymes from the mesophilic B. megaterium and B. subtilis and the thermophilic B. stearothermophilus, B. caldolyticus and B. caldotenax. Within the 50 N-terminal residues, three additional sequences could be included in our comparisons. In this part of the molecule, sequence homologies between 56% and 74% were calculated. PMID:3435642

Schlatter, D; Kriech, O; Suter, F; Zuber, H

1987-11-01

69

Structures of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in apo, ternary and inhibitor-bound forms.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an essential metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate using NADH/NAD(+) as a co-substrate. Many cancer cells exhibit a glycolytic phenotype known as the Warburg effect, in which elevated LDH levels enhance the conversion of glucose to lactate, making LDH an attractive therapeutic target for oncology. Two known inhibitors of the human muscle LDH isoform, LDHA, designated 1 and 2, were selected, and their IC50 values were determined to be 14.4 ± 3.77 and 2.20 ± 0.15?µM, respectively. The X-ray crystal structures of LDHA in complex with each inhibitor were determined; both inhibitors bind to a site overlapping with the NADH-binding site. Further, an apo LDHA crystal structure solved in a new space group is reported, as well as a complex with both NADH and the substrate analogue oxalate bound in seven of the eight molecules and an oxalate only bound in the eighth molecule in the asymmetric unit. In this latter structure, a kanamycin molecule is located in the inhibitor-binding site, thereby blocking NADH binding. These structures provide insights into LDHA enzyme mechanism and inhibition and a framework for structure-assisted drug design that may contribute to new cancer therapies. PMID:25664730

Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Shen, David L; Mosi, Renee; Sun, Jianyu; McEachern, Ernest J; Vocadlo, David J; Craig, Lisa

2015-02-01

70

Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

Abboud, Jean

2013-01-01

71

Effects of temperature acclimation on lactate dehydrogenase of cod (Gadus morhua): genetic, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of seasonal temperature variation on the functional properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from white muscle and liver of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) and the possible relevance of LDH allelic variability for thermal acclimation. Two groups of fishes were acclimated to 4 degrees C or 12 degrees C for one year. Polymorphism was observed in only one (Ldh-B) of the three Ldh loci expressed in cod liver and/or muscle. Isozyme expression remained unchanged regardless of acclimation temperature (T(A)). The products of locus Ldh-B comprise only 14-19% (depending on the tissue) of total LDH activities and, consequently, differences between phenotypes are negligible in terms of their effect on LDH total performance. No kinetic (, V(max)) or thermodynamic (E(a), DeltaG) differences were found among Ldh-B phenotypes. Clear kinetic differences were observed between LDH isoforms in the two tissues. However, the Arrhenius activation energy (E(a)) for pyruvate reduction was the same for both tissues (E(a)=47 kJ mol(-1)) at T(A)=12 degrees C. Factors T(A), tissue and phenotype did not reveal a significant effect on the Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG) of the reaction (55.5 kJ mol(-1)). However, at T(A)=4 degrees C, the E(a) was increased (E(a)=53-56 kJ mol(-1)) and the temperature dependence of the constant of substrate inhibition for pyruvate () decreased in both muscle and liver. In conclusion, the strategies of LDH adjustment to seasonal temperature variations in cod involve changes in LDH concentration (quantitative), adjustment of thermodynamic (E(a)) and kinetic () properties of the LDH (modulative) but not the expression of alternative isoforms (qualitative). We assume that the observed increase in E(a) and the decrease of temperature dependence of at low T(A) is the result of structural changes of the LDH molecule (temperature-driven protein folding). We propose a new mechanism of metabolic compensation of seasonal temperature variations - cold acclimation results in changes in the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of LDH in a way that favours aerobic metabolism through reduction of the competition of LDH for pyruvate in normoxic conditions. PMID:14638837

Zakhartsev, Maxim; Johansen, Torild; Pörtner, Hans O; Blust, Ronny

2004-01-01

72

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

73

Probing lactate dehydrogenase activity in tumors by measuring hydrogen/deuterium exchange in hyperpolarized l-[1-(13)C,U-(2)H]lactate.  

PubMed

(13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging measurements of hyperpolarized (13)C label exchange between exogenously administered [1-(13)C]pyruvate and endogenous lactate, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), has proved to be a powerful approach for probing tissue metabolism in vivo. This experiment has clinical potential, particularly in oncology, where it could be used to assess tumor grade and response to treatment. A limitation of the method is that pyruvate must be administered in vivo at supra-physiological concentrations. This problem can be avoided by using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate, which can be used at physiological concentrations. However, sensitivity is limited in this case by the relatively small pyruvate pool size, which would result in only low levels of labeled pyruvate being observed even if there was complete label equilibration between the lactate and pyruvate pools. We demonstrate here a more sensitive method in which a doubly labeled lactate species can be used to measure LDH-catalyzed exchange in vivo. In this experiment exchange of the C2 deuterium label between injected hyperpolarized l-[1-(13)C,U-(2)H]lactate and endogenous unlabeled lactate is observed indirectly by monitoring phase modulation of the spin-coupled hyperpolarized (13)C signal in a heteronuclear (1)H/(13)C spin-echo experiment. PMID:22316419

Kennedy, Brett W C; Kettunen, Mikko I; Hu, De-En; Brindle, Kevin M

2012-03-14

74

Comparative electrophoretic profiles of esterases, and of glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases, from Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria.  

PubMed

Esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 64 Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria strains, were analysed by polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by thin layer isoelectrofocusing. On the basis of the isoelectric points of malate dehydrogenase from the three species and the mobility of lactate dehydrogenase from A. sobria, 8 species specific zymotypes were defined: three for A. hydrophila strains, three for A. caviae strains and two for A. sobria strains. These zymotypes correlated with previously established DNA hybridization groups. The other electrophoretic data were found to be less useful for distinction between A. hydrophila and A. sobria strains, but supported differentiation into zymotypes for A. caviae strains. The two-dimensional electrophoretic profile established by plotting isoelectric point against electrophoretic mobility of the major esterase illustrated the degree of enzyme polymorphism among the strains of the three species. Variation in electrophoretic patterns within A. hydrophila and A. caviae might provide useful epidemiological markers. PMID:3831235

Picard, B; Goullet, P

1985-12-01

75

Structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with NAD(+) and lactic acid (or pyruvate).  

PubMed

The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus (aq_727) was determined to 2.12 A resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.94, b = 94.43, c = 188.85 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the coenzyme-binding domain of Lactobacillus helveticus D-lactate dehydrogenase and contained two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Each subunit of the homodimer was found to be in a ;closed' conformation with the NADH cofactor bound to the coenzyme-binding domain and with a lactate (or pyruvate) molecule bound at the interdomain active-site cleft. PMID:20054113

Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Strange, Richard W; Ellis, Mark J; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Inoue, Yumiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hasnain, S Samar

2009-12-01

76

Administration of tomato juice ameliorates lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase responses to anaerobic training.  

PubMed

Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are important biological markers of various myocardial disorders and exercise-induced muscle damage. Lycopene, on the other side, is a natural anti-oxidant with protective action against cardiovascular risk. Fifteen anaerobically trained athletes with elevated LDH and CPK baseline levels were enrolled in this study after undergoing thorough biochemical and cardiovascular evaluation with echocardiocraphy. In nine athletes tomato juice, a lycopene plain juice, was administered during and after exercise, replacing the carbohydrate supplementation beverages commonly used during training for over a 2-month period. Tomato juice administration significantly reduced LDH and CPK levels, which returned back to almost normal levels. At the same time homocysteine and C-reactive protein were also attenuated. No changes were observed in the control group, where the usual carbohydrate supplementation had been followed. PMID:23291317

Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Rentoukas, Elias; Koudounakos, Aris; Papalexis, Peter; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Jamurtas, Athanasios

2013-11-01

77

Difference spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes.  

PubMed

Difference spectroscopy and enzyme kinetics were employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle with the azo-dye Procion Red HE-3B and two of its structural variants in order to follow the significance of the sulphonated terminal rings for the strength and specificity of binding. Procion Red HE-3B possesses a significantly higher affinity to LDH compared to the dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A, a well characterized pseudo-biospecific ligand of dehydrogenases. Moreover, Procion Red HE-3B showed competition towards the cofactor NAD+/NADH. The enzyme-dye complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, but other binding forces cannot be excluded. LDH possesses one dye-binding site per subunit. As a binding region the active center of LDH, preferentially the hydrophobic nicotinamide pocket is involved. Removal of the negatively charged sulphonic acid group from the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B decreases the affinity to LDH significantly but does not change the type of binding. Addition of an anilino group to the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B does not affect the affinity to the active site significantly but enables the binding on other sites with lower affinity in dependence on the dye concentration. PMID:1824535

Cadelis, F; Kirchberger, J; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Kopperschläger, G

1991-01-01

78

Addressable self-immobilization of lactate dehydrogenase across multiple length scales.  

PubMed

Successful nanobiotechnology implementation largely depends on control over the interfaces between inorganic materials and biological molecules. Controlling the orientations of biomolecules and their spatial arrangements on the surface may transform many technologies including sensors, to energy. Here, we demonstrate the self-organization of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which exhibits enhanced enzymatic activity and stability on a variety of gold surfaces ranging from nanoparticles to electrodes, by incorporating a gold-binding peptide tag (AuBP2) as the fusion partner for Bacillus stearothermophilus LDH (bsLDH). Binding kinetics and enzymatic assays verified orientation control of the enzyme on the gold surface through the genetically incorporated peptide tag. Finally, redox catalysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy systems as the anodic counterpart. Our results demonstrate that the LDH enzyme can be self-immobilized onto different gold substrates using the short peptide tag under a biologically friendly environment. Depending on the desired inorganic surface, the proposed peptide-mediated path could be extended to any surface to achieve single-step oriented enzyme immobilization for a wide range of applications. PMID:23386458

Cetinel, Sibel; Caliskan, H Burak; Yucesoy, Deniz T; Donatan, A Senem; Yuca, Esra; Urgen, Mustafa; Karaguler, Nevin G; Tamerler, Candan

2013-02-01

79

Structural characterization of the apo form and NADH binary complex of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme in anaerobic respiration that is predominantly found in skeletal muscle and catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the presence of NADH. LDH-A is overexpressed in many tumours and has therefore emerged as an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery. Crystal structures of human LDH-A in the presence of inhibitors have been described, but currently no structures of the apo or binary NADH-bound forms are available for any mammalian LDH-A. Here, the apo structure of human LDH-A was solved at a resolution of 2.1 Ĺ in space group P4122. The active-site loop adopts an open conformation and the packing and crystallization conditions suggest that the crystal form is suitable for soaking experiments. The soaking potential was assessed with the cofactor NADH, which yielded a ligand-bound crystal structure in the absence of any inhibitors. The structures show that NADH binding induces small conformational changes in the active-site loop and an adjacent helix. A comparison with other eukaryotic apo LDH structures reveals the conservation of intra-loop interactions. The structures provide novel insight into cofactor binding and provide the foundation for soaking experiments with fragments and inhibitors. PMID:24816116

Dempster, Sally; Harper, Stephen; Moses, John E; Dreveny, Ingrid

2014-05-01

80

Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization.  

PubMed

Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface. PMID:25108848

Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras

2015-05-15

81

Reactions upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate drive Corynebacterium glutamicum (D)-lactate productivity under oxygen deprivation.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated the simplicity of oxygen-deprived Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce D-lactate, a primary building block of next-generation biodegradable plastics, at very high optical purity by introducing heterologous D-ldhA gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Here, we independently evaluated the effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production in C. glutamicum. We consequently show that while the reactions catalyzed by glucokinase (GLK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and bisphosphate aldolase had positive effects on D-lactate productivity by increasing 98, 39, 15, 13, and 10 %, respectively, in 10 h reactions in minimal salts medium, the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase had large negative effect by decreasing 70 %. The other glycolytic enzymes did not affect D-lactate productivity when each of encoding genes was overexpressed. It is noteworthy that all reactions associated with positive effects are located upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate in the glycolytic pathway. The D-lactate yield also increased by especially overexpressing TPI encoding gene up to 94.5 %. Interestingly, overexpression of PFK encoding gene reduced the yield of succinate, one of the main by-products of D-lactate production, by 52 %, whereas overexpression of GAPDH encoding gene increased succinate yield by 26 %. Overexpression of GLK encoding gene markedly increased the yield of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by 10- and 5.8-fold in exchange with decreasing the D-lactate yield. The effect of overexpressing glycolytic genes was also evaluated in 80 h long-term reactions. The variety of effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production is discussed. PMID:23712891

Tsuge, Yota; Yamamoto, Shougo; Suda, Masako; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

2013-08-01

82

Development of an enzymatic chromatography strip with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium coupling reactions for quantitative l-lactate analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, a dry assay of l-lactate via the enzymatic chromatographic test (ECT) was developed. An l-lactate dehydrogenase plus a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration reaction were applied simultaneously. Various tetrazolium salts were screened to reveal visible color intensities capable of determining the lactate concentrations in the sample. The optimal analysis conditions were as follows. The diaphorase (0.5?l, 2(-6)U/?l) was immobilized in the test line of the ECT strip. Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (5?l, 12mM), l-lactate dehydrogenase (1?l, 0.25U/?l), and NAD(+) (2?l, 1.5×10(-5)M) were added into the mobile phase (100?l) composed of 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20 in 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), and the process was left to run for 10min. This detection had a linear range of 0.039 to 5mM with a detection limit of 0.047mM. This quantitative analysis process for l-lactate was easy to operate with good stability and was proper for the point-of-care testing applications. PMID:25454507

Kan, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lan, Min-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lai, Wei-Shiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsiung, Kuang-Pin; Liu, Yung-Chuan

2015-02-15

83

Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

Fenglei Li

2006-08-09

84

Genome-wide analysis of redox reactions reveals metabolic engineering targets for D-lactate overproduction in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Most current metabolic engineering applications rely on the inactivation of unwanted reactions and the amplification of product-oriented reactions. All of the biochemical reactions involved with cellular metabolism are tightly coordinated with the electron flow, which depends on the cellular energy status. Thus, the cellular metabolic flux can be controlled either by modulation of the electron flow or the regulation of redox reactions. This study analyzed the genome-wide anaerobic fermentation products of 472 Escherichia coli single gene knockouts, which comprised mainly of dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, and redox-related proteins. Many metabolic pathways that were located far from anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation significantly affected the profiles of lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Unexpectedly, D-lactate overproduction was determined by a single gene deletion in dehydrogenases (e.g., guaB, pyrD, and serA) involved with nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the combined knockouts of guaB, pyrD, serA, fnr, arcA, or arcB genes, which are involved with anaerobic transcription regulation, enhanced D-lactate overproduction. These results suggest that the anaerobic fermentation profiles of E. coli can be tuned via the disruption of peripheral dehydrogenases in anaerobic conditions. PMID:23563322

Kim, Hyun Ju; Hou, Bo Kyeng; Lee, Sung Gun; Kim, Joong Su; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

2013-07-01

85

Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.  

PubMed

Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3. PMID:24841241

Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

2014-09-01

86

Interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes using affinity partitioning and affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of dextran and dye-liganded polyethylene glycol was employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle (E.C. 1.1.1.27) with Procion Red HE-3B and four structurally related derivatives of this dye in order to follow the significance of the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B for the strength of interaction. The study revealed that the arrangement of the two 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid rings seems to be a prerequisite for the interaction of azonaphthol dyes with LDH. The negatively charged sulfonic acid group at the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B enhances the affinity of the ligand for LDH significantly. The removal of this sulphonic acid group or splitting off the complete terminal rings decreases the affinity to LDH and improves the competitive effect of NAD+. The results of affinity partitioning are compared with those of affinity chromatography and kinetic data. The usefulness and the choice of parameters of affinity partitioning as an analytical tool to predict the chromatographic behaviour of dye ligands are discussed. PMID:2625437

Kirchberger, J; Cadelis, F; Kopperschläger, G; Vijayalakshmi, M A

1989-12-01

87

An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

2014-01-01

88

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

89

Gene Expression Variation in Duplicate Lactate dehydrogenase Genes: Do Ecological Species Show Distinct Responses?  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been shown to play an important role in adaptation of several aquatic species to different habitats. The genomes of Daphnia pulex, a pond species, and Daphnia pulicaria, a lake inhabitant, encode two L-LDH enzymes, LDHA and LDHB. We estimated relative levels of Ldh gene expression in these two closely related species and their hybrids in four environmental settings, each characterized by one of two temperatures (10°C or 20°C), and one of two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 6.5–7 mg/l or 2–3 mg/l). We found that levels of LdhA expression were 4 to 48 times higher than LdhB expression (p<0.005) in all three groups (the two parental species and hybrids). Moreover, levels of LdhB expression differed significantly (p<0.05) between D. pulex and D. pulicaria, but neither species differed from the hybrid. Consistently higher expression of LdhA relative to LdhB in both species and the hybrid suggests that the two isozymes could be performing different functions. No significant differences in levels of gene expression were observed among the four combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (p>0.1). Given that Daphnia dwell in environments characterized by fluctuating conditions with long periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration, we suggest that these species could employ regulated metabolic depression to survive in such environments. PMID:25080082

Cristescu, Melania E.; Demiri, Bora; Altshuler, Ianina; Crease, Teresa J.

2014-01-01

90

The promoting vibration in human heart lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred vibrational channel  

PubMed Central

We examine if the rate promoting vibration of lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred axis of thermal energy transfer. While it seems plausible that such a mechanistically important motion is also a favored direction of energy transfer, none of the previous studies of rate promoting vibrations in enzymatic catalysis have addressed this question. It is equally likely that the promoting vibration, though catalytically important, has no different properties than any other axis in the protein. Resolution of this issue is important for two reasons: First, if energy is transferred along this axis in a preferred fashion, it shows that the protein is engineered in a way that transfers thermal energy into a motion that is coupled to the chemical step. Second, the discovery of a preferred direction of thermal transfer provides a potential route to experimental verification of the promoting vibration concept. Our computational experiments are specifically designed to mimic potential laser experiment with the deposition of thermal energy in an active site chromophore with subsequent measurement of temperature at various points in the protein. Our results indicate that the promoting vibration is indeed a preferred channel of energy transfer. In addition, we study the vibrational structure of the protein via the dynamical structure factor to show preferred vibrational motion along the promoting vibration axis is an inherent property of the protein structure via thermal fluctuations. PMID:22077414

Davarifar, Ardy; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

2011-01-01

91

Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Marker in Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aims at analyzing the changes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity during orthodontic movement. Methods: Twenty patients all requiring first premolar extractions were selected and treated with conventional straight wire mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 125 g Nitinol closed coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side served as the experimental site while the contralateral canine served as the control. GCF was collected from the canines before initiation of retraction, then 1 hour after initiating canine retraction, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. GCF LDH levels were estimated and compared with the control site. Results The results revealed significantly higher LDH levels on the 7th, 14th and 21st day at the sites where orthodontic force had been applied. The levels also showed a significant increase from 0 hour to the 21st day. Peak levels were seen on 14th and 21st day following initiation of retraction. Conclusions: The study showed that LDH could be successfully estimated in the GCF and its increased levels could indicate active tooth movement, which could aid the clinician in monitoring active orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:21760863

Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

2011-01-01

92

Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Organisms inhabiting submarine canyons can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW Mediterranean canyon (i.e. Blanes canyon) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the canyon (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside canyon (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the canyon. PMID:24296242

Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat

2014-03-01

93

Estrogen-Related Receptor Alpha Modulates Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in Thyroid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Metabolic modifications of tumor cells are hallmarks of cancer. They exhibit an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates in hostile environment outside the cell. In thyroid tumors, the expression of the estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?), a major factor of metabolic adaptation, is closely related to the oxidative metabolism and the proliferative status of the cells. To elucidate the role played by ERR? in the glycolytic adaptation of tumor cells, we focused on the regulation of lactate dehydrogenases A and B (LDHA, LDHB) and the LDHA/LDHB ratio. Our study included tissue samples from 10 classical and 10 oncocytic variants of follicular thyroid tumors and 10 normal thyroid tissues, as well as samples from three human thyroid tumor cell lines: FTC-133, XTC.UC1 and RO82W-1. We identified multiple cis-acting promoter elements for ERR?, in both the LDHA and LDHB genes. The interaction between ERR? and LDH promoters was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and in vitro analysis for LDHB. Using knock-in and knock-out cellular models, we found an inverse correlation between ERR? expression and LDH activity. This suggests that thyroid tumor cells may reprogram their metabolic pathways through the up-regulation of ERR? by a process distinct from that proposed by the recently revisited Warburg hypothesis. PMID:23516535

Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine; Le Pennec, Soazig; Jacques, Caroline; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Gueguen, Naig; Boutet-Bouzamondo, Nathalie; Donnart, Audrey; Malthičry, Yves; Savagner, Frédérique

2013-01-01

94

[C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase as single prognostic factors of severity in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Ranson and Glasgow scores are routinely used for prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis. We undertook a prospective study to investigate the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential single predictors of severity in acute pancreatitis. In our study we included 100 patients with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis admitted to our hospital during last two years. The inclusion criteria consisted of a combination of clinical features, a typical case history, elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes and diagnosis confirmed by imaging studies (ultrasound or computerised tomography). We used Ranson score for assesment of severity and compared it with single parameters as LDH and CRP on the first and the third day after admission. Cut off values for predicting local and systemic complications were > or =3 for Ranson score, 320 IU for LDH and 5 mg/L for CRP. Ranson score showed highest sensitivity in the prediction of local and systemic complication of acute pancreatitis. Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were highest for LDH on the first day (67.74; 57%). Diagnostic accuracy for Ranson score and CRP on the third day after admission was around 50%. We can conclude that LDH and CRP are available, simple and economical biochemical parameters that can help us predict complications of acute pancreatitis in the early phase of the disease. They showed similar diagnostic accuracy as the far more clinically used Ranson score. PMID:17489509

Zrni?, Irena Krznari?; Mili?, Sandra; Fisi?, Elizabeta; Radi?, Mladen; Stimac, Davor

2007-01-01

95

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.  

PubMed

Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. PMID:24835193

Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

2014-09-01

96

Regulation of liver lactate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in response to anoxia in a freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis and key to hypoxia/anoxia survival by most animals. In this study, the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 7°C in nitrogen-bubbled water) were assessed on LDH from liver of an anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Liver LDH from aerobic and anoxic turtles was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The kinetic properties and thermal stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing significant differences between the two enzyme forms in V(max), K(m) pyruvate, and I(50) pyruvate as well as melting temperature determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms of LDH was visualized by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining, the results indicating that the anoxic form had a higher phosphorylation state. Incubation studies that promoted protein kinase versus protein phosphatase actions showed that changes in the phosphorylation state of aerobic and anoxic forms mimicked the anoxia-responsive changes in K(m) pyruvate and I(50) pyruvate. The high phosphate form of liver LDH that occurs in anoxic turtles appears to be a less active form. Turtle liver LDH was also subject to another form of posttranslational modification, protein acetylation, with a 70% higher content of acetylated lysine residues on anoxic versus aerobic LDH. This is the first study to show that LDH function in an anoxia-tolerant animal can be differentially modified between aerobic and anoxic states via the mechanism of posttranslational modification. PMID:22735190

Xiong, Zi Jian; Storey, Kenneth B

2012-10-01

97

The application and mechanisms of polyethylene glycol 8000 on stabilizing lactate dehydrogenase during lyophilization.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application and mechanisms of polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000) on stabilizing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during lyophilization. In earlier freeze-thawing experiments, different molecular weights and concentrations of PEGs were formulated with LDH, and ultraviolet (UV) enzymatic activity and circular dichroism (CD) wavelength scanning studies were conducted. In lyophilization studies, different molecular weights of saccharides, e.g., glucose, sucrose, dextran 37,000 (D 37K), and dextran 160,000 (D 160K), with or without PEG 8000, were formulated with LDH at various molar ratios. UV assays, size exclusion chromatography -high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), CD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted for LDH. Upon lyophilization, enzymatic activity and tetrameric structure recoveries of LDH-saccharide formulations reached over 90% with PEG 8000 vs. 60-80% without PEG 8000. LDH-PEG 8000-saccharide formulations shifted the melting temperature (Tm) to higher temperatures than did LDH-saccharide formulations. Most LDH-PEG 8000-saccharide formulations at 1:100:1000 molar ratio showed better preservation of LDH secondary structures than did LDH-saccharide formulations at 1:1000 molar ratio. Since PEG 8000 was confirmed an effective cryoprotectant, saccharides were assumed to be protecting LDH from destabilization during drying. However, LDH-PEG 8000-dextran formulations preserved more LDH secondary structure than did LDH-dextran formulations, but preserved less LDH secondary structures than did LDH-PEG 8000 formulations. This indicated that dextrans not only did not stabilize LDH during drying, but they disrupted the stabilization effect of PEG 8000 on LDH during freezing. After reconstitution, CD wavelength scanning showed that some of the unfolded or denatured structures of LDH were refolded. Based on the steric hindrance of the bulky dextrans and the "water replacement mechanism", sucrose with PEG 8000 had synergistic protective effects, and dextrans with PEG 8000 had antagonistic effects, on stabilization of LDH during lyophilization. PMID:15368989

Mi, Yanli; Wood, George

2004-01-01

98

Management of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: utility of measuring serum lactate dehydrogenase level.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that cytokines are associated with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, and steroid administration is reported to be effective in this situation. In order to elucidate the characteristics of refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia, we analyzed five pediatric patients with refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia, which was defined as showing prolonged fever and deterioration of clinical and radiological findings despite administration of appropriate antibiotics, compared with 15 pediatric patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia who responded to treatment promptly (control group). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and interleukin (IL)-18 levels were significantly higher in the refractory group than in the control group at the initiation of corticosteroid use (LDH: 571 vs 292 IU/L, p = 0.0129; ALT: 25 vs 11 IU/L, p = 0.0143; AST: 41 vs 26 IU/L, p = 0.0404; IL-18: 579 vs 365 pg/mL, p = 0.0402). Significant correlation was found between serum values of IL-18 and LDH (r(2) = 0.504, p = 0.0433). The administration of corticosteroids to patients in the refractory group resulted in the rapid improvement of symptoms and decrease in serum LDH levels in all patients. A serum LDH level of ?410 IU/L, which was calculated from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, seemed to be an appropriate criterion for the initiation of steroid therapy. In conclusion, serum IL-18 and LDH levels can be used as parameters to determine which patients are candidates for corticosteroid therapy. In addition, serum LDH levels seem to be a useful marker for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID:24486173

Inamura, Norikazu; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Kato, Atsushi; Fukuda, Yoko; Saitoh, Aki; Kondo, Eisuke; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Akaike, Hiroto; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ogita, Satoko; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

2014-04-01

99

Effects of rigid lens extended wear on lactate dehydrogenase activity and isozymes in rabbit tears.  

PubMed

Effects of and recovery from continuous wear of four rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses was assessed by noninvasive measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and isozyme pattern in rabbit tears. Oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) of lenses used was 27, 44, 84, and 97 x 10(-9) (cm/s)(ml O2/ml mm Hg); lens thickness (0.15 mm) and diameter (14.0 mm) were standardized. Lenses were worn continuously for 90 days; recovery was assessed 30 days after cessation of lens wear. LDH activity was measured by UV rate assay; isozyme subtypes were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Light and scanning electron microscopy (LM, SEM) were used with the determination of total protein as additional measures of lens effects. LDH levels were inversely correlated with lens Dk/L values; low Dk/L values increased the anaerobic (LDH4,5)/aerobic (LDH1,2,3) subtypen ratio indicating in vivo metabolic shift. SEM observations were consistent with these results. There was no significant difference in the total cell content of tears or total tear protein levels between control and RGP test-wear groups. Measurement of tear LDH activity and isozyme ratios appears to provide a sensitive, noninvasive assessment of the effects of RGP lens-induced hypoxia over time on the corneal surface. A level of Dk/L of > or = 84 appears best for maintaining corneal physiology during extended wear. Recovery from chronic lens-induced hypoxia is characterized by a return to normal tear LDH levels and isozyme subtypes. PMID:7995067

Ichijima, H; Cavanagh, H D

1994-09-01

100

Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C) is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR) and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001), although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients. PMID:24453390

Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Zarei, Mohmmad-Reza; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Aliabadi, Elham; Hosseini, Ahmad; Jaberipour, Mansooreh

2014-01-01

101

Identification of substituted 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidines as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A novel 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-containing inhibitor of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was identified by high-throughput screening (IC50=8.1 ?M). Biochemical, surface plasmon resonance, and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments indicated that the compound specifically associated with human LDHA in a manner that required simultaneous binding of the NADH co-factor. Structural variation of the screening hit resulted in significant improvements in LDHA biochemical inhibition activity (best IC50=0.48 ?M). A crystal structure of an optimized compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and explained many of the observed structure-activity relationships. PMID:23628333

Dragovich, Peter S; Fauber, Benjamin P; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ge, HongXiu; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hunsaker, Thomas; Labadie, Sharada; Liu, Yichin; Malek, Shiva; Pan, Borlan; Peterson, David; Pitts, Keith; Purkey, Hans E; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; VanderPorten, Erica; Wei, BinQing; Xu, Qing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Xuying

2013-06-01

102

Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain  

PubMed Central

Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification. Results In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation. Knock out of ldhA had little influence on the yield of 2,3-BD, whereas knock out of adhE or pta significantly improved the formation of 2,3-BD. The accumulation of the intermediate of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, acetoin, was decreased in all the mutants. The mutants were then tested in five different carbon sources and increased 2,3-BD was observed. Also a double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA was constructed which resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. In fed-batch culture this strain achieved more than 100 g/L 2,3-BD from glucose with a relatively high yield of 0.49 g/g. Conclusion 2,3-BD production was dramatically improved with the inactivation of adhE and pta. The inactivation of ldhA could advance faster cell growth and shorter fermentation time. The double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. These results provide new insights for industrial production of 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae. PMID:24669952

2014-01-01

103

Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Important for NADH/NAD+ Redox Homeostasis in Cancer Cells ?  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes an increase in aerobic glycolysis and enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) regulates the last step of glycolysis that generates lactate and permits the regeneration of NAD+. LDH-A gene expression is believed to be upregulated by both HIF and Myc in cancer cells to achieve increased lactate production. However, how oncogenic signals activate LDH-A to regulate cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 directly phosphorylates LDH-A. Phosphorylation at Y10 and Y83 enhances LDH-A activity by enhancing the formation of active, tetrameric LDH-A and the binding of LDH-A substrate NADH, respectively. Moreover, Y10 phosphorylation of LDH-A is common in diverse human cancer cells, which correlates with activation of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, cancer cells with stable knockdown of endogenous LDH-A and rescue expression of a catalytic hypomorph LDH-A mutant, Y10F, demonstrate increased respiration through mitochondrial complex I to sustain glycolysis by providing NAD+. However, such a compensatory increase in mitochondrial respiration in Y10F cells is insufficient to fully sustain glycolysis. Y10 rescue cells show decreased cell proliferation and ATP levels under hypoxia and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances LDH-A enzyme activity to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth by regulating the NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis, representing an acute molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced lactate production in cancer cells. PMID:21969607

Fan, Jun; Hitosugi, Taro; Chung, Tae-Wook; Xie, Jianxin; Ge, Qingyuan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Boggon, Titus J.; Lonial, Sagar; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

2011-01-01

104

Efficient Production of (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-Phenylbutyric Acid by Using a Coupled Reconstructed d-Lactate Dehydrogenase and Formate Dehydrogenase System  

PubMed Central

Background (R)-2-Hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. Methodology/Principal Findings The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA). The mutant d-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R)-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized. Conclusions/Significance Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R)-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99%) and productivity (47.9 mM h?1), the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R)-HPBA production. PMID:25089519

Sheng, Binbin; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lv, Min; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

105

Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in serum and cerebral cortex of immature and mature rats after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

In our previous studies we have found both an increase of lipid peroxidation damage (expressed as levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) in brain and plasma lactate concentration in 21-day-old rats after a 30-min exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Pretreatment of rats with L-carnitine decreased both parameters. The aim of our present study was to determine if the L-carnitine-dependent decrease of plasma lactate could be due to a modification of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. We followed brain and blood serum LDH activity of 14-, 21- and 90-day-old Wistar rats. We found an increase of brain LDH activity with age. However, we did not observe any significant differences in LDH activity after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or L-carnitine pretreatment. In contrast to brain, serum LDH activity did not show any clear age-dependence. The hypoxia exposure increased LDH activity of 21-day-old rats only. Pretreatment of rats with L-carnitine decreased serum LDH activity of 21- and 90-day-old rats probably due to membrane stabilizing role of L-carnitine. In conclusions, acute hypobaric hypoxia and/or L-carnitine pretreatment modified serum but not brain LDH activity. PMID:16804754

Koudelová, Jitka; Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina

2006-07-01

106

Changes in milk L-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin, and IgG during milk ejection and their association with somatic cell count.  

PubMed

In both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS), sensitive and reliable mastitis detection is important for profitable milk production. Mastitis detection parameters must be able to detect mastitis when the somatic cell count (SCC) is only slightly elevated. Owing to the pre-milking teat cleaning process in AMS, sampling cannot take place before the occurrence of alveolar milk ejection and importantly, this can affect the ability of parameters to detect mastitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of alveolar milk ejection on l-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin (SA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with SCC, a commonly used indicator of mastitis. In this experiment, milk samples were collected every 20 s from one quarter during a 120-s manual teat stimulation in ten cows. Samples were analysed for SCC, l-lactate, LDH, SA and IgG. Quarters were grouped by low (<5·0 log10 cells/ml), mid (5·0-5·7 log10 cells/ml), and high (>5·7 log10 cells/ml) SCC using the sample at t=0 s. Neither l-lactate nor LDH could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC quarters, but there were a significant difference in levels between the high-SCC quarters and low and mid-SCC quarters. SA could not differentiate between the low and mid-SCC quarters, but the SA levels for the high SCC quarters remained statistically different compared with low and mid-SCC quarters throughout the experiment. IgG could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC, although the high-SCC quarters were not statistically different from the mid-SCC quarters after 60 s. In the high-SCC quarters, a decrease was shown in all parameters during milk ejection, after t=60 s. In conclusion, alveolar milk ejection reduces the effectiveness of detection parameters when compared with SCC. With the exception of IgG, the ability of other tested parameters was not satisfactory to differentiate between quarters with low to mid-SCC levels. PMID:25467384

Lehmann, Mirjam; Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-12-01

107

Importance of lactate dehydrogenase for the regulation of glycolytic flux and insulin secretion in insulin-producing cells.  

PubMed Central

The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the generation of the metabolic signal for insulin secretion was studied after stable overexpression in INS-1 and RINm5F insulin-producing cells. INS-1 cells with a 25-fold overexpression of LDH-A, the highest level achieved, showed a 20-30% decrease in the glucose oxidation rate at glucose concentrations above 5 mM when compared with control cells, whereas values were unchanged at lower glucose concentrations. Lactate release increased in parallel with a decrease in the glucose oxidation rate. However, the INS-1 cell glucose-induced insulin secretory response, together with the rate of glucose utilization, were not significantly affected by LDH-A overexpression. Despite 3-fold overexpression of LDH-A in glucose-unresponsive RINm5F cells, there was no change in insulin secretion, glucose metabolism or lactate production in these cells. Exogenously added pyruvate and lactate potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, an effect that was abolished after LDH-A overexpression. Both compounds significantly decreased glucose oxidation rates in control cells. After overexpression of LDH-A in INS-1 cells, the effects of pyruvate and lactate on glucose oxidation were diminished. On the other hand, after LDH-A overexpression, both glycolytic metabolites decreased the glucose utilization rate at 5 mM glucose. The present data suggest that the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is critical for correct channelling of pyruvate towards mitochondrial metabolism. Interestingly, glucokinase-mediated glycolytic flux was decreased after LDH-A overexpression. Thus preferential channelling of glucose towards aerobic metabolism by glucokinase may be determined, at least in part, by the low level of constitutive expression of LDH-A in pancreatic beta-cells. In conclusion, the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is an important determinant of the physiological insulin-secretory capacity, and also determines how pyruvate and lactate affect insulin secretion. PMID:11085930

Alcazar, O; Tiedge, M; Lenzen, S

2000-01-01

108

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2012-01-01

109

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell  

E-print Network

with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers Philippe Connes1,2,3* , Yann Lamarre1,2 , Marie-Ă -Pitre, Guadeloupe Abstract Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79680. doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

[Electrophoretic polymorphism of lactate, malate and glutamate dehydrogenases, acid phosphatase and esterases of Providencia alcalifaciens, P. stuartii and P. rustigianii].  

PubMed

The polymorphism of glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases, of acid phosphatase and of esterases of 27 strains of Providencia alcalifaciens, 35 strains of P. stuartii and 17 strains of P. rustigianii was investigated by conventional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide agarose gel and by isoelectric focusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. For each enzyme analysed, the three species were characterized by a distinct electrophoretic pattern. The number of allozymes detected by conventional electrophoresis was greater than that detected by isoelectric focusing. The use of these two techniques in parallel led to improved detection of polymorphism of esterase alpha beta from P. alcalifaciens. A two-dimensional profile obtained by plotting isoelectric points against electrophoretic mobilities for malate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and beta-A esterase showed a molecular relationship between the diverse allozymes and demonstrated their taxonomic values. Polymorphism varied considerably according to the enzyme and species analysed and was correlated with DNA heterogeneity. The strains of P. alcalifaciens exhibited the greatest enzyme polymorphism and were classified into two main zymotypes reflecting genetic divergence within this species, whereas the strains of P. stuartii were electrophoretically less variable. PMID:4051454

Goullet, P; Picard, B

1985-01-01

111

Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

112

Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of D-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

An NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type D-nLDH, the Y52L mutant D-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

113

Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

2013-01-01

114

Enzymes Related to Lactate Metabolism in Green Algae and Lower Land Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained two enzymes capable of oxidizing d-lactate; these were glycolate dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase. The two enzymes could be distinguished by differential centrifugation, glycolate dehydrogenase being largely particulate and NAD+-d-lactate dehydrogenase being soluble. The reduction of pyruvate by NADH proceeded more rapidly than the reverse reaction, and the apparent Michaelis constants for pyruvate and NADH were lower than for d-lactate and NAD+. These data indicated that under physiological conditions, the NAD+-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase probably functions to produce d-lactate from pyruvate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity dependent on NAD+ was found in a number of other green algae and in the green tissues of a few lower land plants. When present in species which contain glycolate oxidase rather than glycolate dehydrogenase, the enzyme was specific for l-lactate rather than d-lactate. A cyclic system revolving around the production and utilization of d-lactate in some species and l-lactate in certain others is proposed. PMID:16658670

Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen; Tolbert, N. E.

1974-01-01

115

Lactation  

PubMed Central

Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum period when the use of artificial teats and dummies (pacifiers) may condition the infant to different oral actions that are inappropriate for breast-feeding. Comparisons of breast milk and cow's milk fail to describe the many important differences between them, e.g., the structural and qualitative differences in proteins and fats, and the bioavailability of minerals. The protection against infection and allergies conferred on the infant, which is impossible to attain through any other feeding regimen, is one of breast milk's most outstanding qualities. The maximum birth-spacing effect of lactation is achieved when an infant is fully, or nearly fully, breast-fed and the mother consequently remains amenorrhoeic. PMID:20604468

1989-01-01

116

Comparative structural analysis and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenases from the four species of human malarial parasites.  

PubMed

Parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a potential drug target for new antimalarials owing to parasite dependence on glycolysis for ATP production. The pLDH from all four species of human malarial parasites were cloned, expressed, and analyzed for structural and kinetic properties that might be exploited for drug development. pLDH from Plasmodium vivax, malariae, and ovale exhibit 90-92% identity to pLDH from Plasmodium falciparum. Catalytic residues are identical. Resides I250 and T246, conserved in most LDH, are replaced by proline in all pLDH. The pLDH contain the same five-amino acid insert (DKEWN) in the substrate specificity loops. Within the cofactor site, pLDH from P. falciparum and P. malariae are identical, while pLDH from P. vivax and P. ovale have one substitution. Homology modeling of pLDH from P. vivax, ovale, and malariae with the crystal structure of pLDH from P. falciparum gave nearly identical structures. Nevertheless, the kinetic properties and sensitivities to inhibitors targeted to the cofactor binding site differ significantly. Michaelis constants for pyruvate and lactate differ 8-9-fold; Michaelis constants for NADH, NAD(+), and the NAD(+) analogue 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide differ up to 4-fold. Dissociation constants for the inhibitors differ up to 21-fold. Molecular docking studies of the binding of the inhibitors to the cofactor sites of all four pLDH predict similar orientations, with the docked ligands positioned at the nicotinamide end of the cofactor site. pH studies indicate that inhibitor binding is independent of pH in the pH 6-8 range, suggesting that differences in dissociation constants for a specific inhibitor are not due to altered active site pK values among the four pLDH. PMID:15147206

Brown, W Michael; Yowell, Charles A; Hoard, Anna; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Deck, Lorraine M; Royer, Robert E; Piper, Robert C; Dame, John B; Makler, Michael T; Vander Jagt, David L

2004-05-25

117

Structure and function of L-lactate dehydrogenases from thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, IX. Identification, isolation and nucleotide sequence of two L-lactate dehydrogenase genes of the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

Two genes encoding for L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus (DSM 6) were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined using a pEMBL vector and gene hybridization probes. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the gene from clone pLDH(X), which is located on a 5.87-kb HindIII-fragment, shows an identity of 86% as compared with the sequence of the wildtype LDH(P) from B. psychrosaccharolyticus and consists of 319 amino acids. Clone pLDH(P) contained a gene on a 4-kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment, of which the amino-acid sequence is identical with the enzyme isolated from B. psychrosaccharolyticus. The nucleotide sequences of LDH(P) and LDH(X) show 77% identity. Both genes are expressed in E. coli and the proteins could be isolated as shown by enzyme activity tests and determination of the N-terminal amino-acid sequence. However no expression of LDH(X) could be detected in B. psychrosaccharolyticus itself under the conditions chosen for oxygen induction of LDH. The function of the additional, non-expressed enzyme is not known. PMID:2334516

Vckovski, V; Schlatter, D; Zuber, H

1990-02-01

118

The interaction of solutes and temperature on A4-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of temperature and stabilizing solutes on A4-lactate dehydrogenase (A4-LDH) from warm- and cold-adapted fishes, to determine how extrinsic stabilizers affect orthologs with different intrinsic stabilities. Conformational changes during substrate binding are rate- limiting for A4-LDH, thus stabilization due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors leads to decreased activity. A4-LDH from a warm-temperate goby (Gillichthys mirabilis ), which

Peter A. Fields; Benjamin D. Wahlstrand; George N. Somero

119

Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) con- generic perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which exhibits tempera- ture-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the

Richard C. Edmunds; Lynne van Herwerden; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

120

Lactate dehydrogenase genes of caiman and Chinese soft-shelled turtle, with emphasis on the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cDNAs encoding for LDH-A4 (muscle) and LDH-B4 (heart) isozymes from caiman (Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) belonging to the order Crocodilia and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) belonging to the order Chelonia were sequenced. The phylogenetic relationships of the newly determined cDNA and their deduced protein sequences, as well as the previously published sequences of vertebrate LDH isozymes, were

Chen-Hua Liao; Wan-Zo Ho; Hung-Wen Huang; Chien-Hsien Kuo; Sin-Che Lee; Steven S.-L Li

2001-01-01

121

Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed in terms of redox balance. PMID:2661531

Gupta, S; Clark, D P

1989-01-01

122

Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients. PMID:24789077

Hua, Guojun; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Xiangyong; Xu, Peirong; Luo, Yuchun

2014-06-01

123

Transcriptome, Proteome, and Metabolite Analyses of a Lactate Dehydrogenase-Negative Mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583 ? †  

PubMed Central

A constructed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-negative mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583 grows at the same rate as the wild type but ferments glucose to ethanol, formate, and acetoin. Microarray analysis showed that LDH deficiency had profound transcriptional effects: 43 genes in the mutant were found to be upregulated, and 45 were found to be downregulated. Most of the upregulated genes encode enzymes of energy metabolism or transport. By two-dimensional (2D) gel analysis, 45 differentially expressed proteins were identified. A comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data suggested that for several proteins the level of expression is regulated beyond the level of transcription. Pyruvate catabolic genes, including the truncated ldh gene, showed highly increased transcription in the mutant. These genes, along with a number of other differentially expressed genes, are preceded by sequences with homology to binding sites for the global redox-sensing repressor, Rex, of Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate that the genes are transcriptionally regulated by the NADH/NAD ratio and that this ratio plays an important role in the regulatory network controlling energy metabolism in E. faecalis. PMID:21296946

Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Jönsson, Maria; Fergestad, Ellen M.; Mathiesen, Geir; Nes, Ingolf F.; Holo, Helge

2011-01-01

124

Galloflavin prevents the binding of lactate dehydrogenase A to single stranded DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis in cultured cells.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) binds single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and stimulates cell transcription. Binding is prevented by NADH, suggesting that the coenzyme site is involved in the interaction LDH-A/ssDNA. We recently identified an inhibitor of LDH-A enzymatic activity (Galloflavin, GF) which occupies the NADH site. In the experiments reported here we studied whether GF can also hinder the binding of LDH-A to ssDNA and investigated its effects on RNA synthesis in cultured cells. Using a filter binding assay we observed that 4 ?M GF inhibited the binding of human LDH-A to a single stranded [(3)H]DNA sample by 50%. After only 0.5-1h, 50-100 ?M GF inhibited RNA synthesis in SW620 cells maintained in a medium in which galactose substituted glucose. In these culture conditions, SW620 cells did not produce lactic acid and effects caused by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of LDH-A could be excluded. Novel LDH-A inhibitors which hinder aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells are at present actively searched. Our results suggest that: (i) inhibitors which bind the NADH site can exert their antiproliferative activity not only by blocking aerobic glycolysis but also by causing an inhibition of RNA synthesis independent from the effect on glycolysis; (ii) GF can be a useful tool to study the biological role of LDH-A binding to ssDNA. PMID:23237800

Fiume, Luigi; Vettraino, Marina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Arfilli, Valentina; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Brigotti, Maurizio

2013-01-11

125

Purification of a recombinant histidine-tagged lactate dehydrogenase from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, and characterization of its properties.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), serves as a drug target and immunodiagnostic marker. The LDH cDNA generated from total RNA of a clinical isolate of the parasite was cloned into pRSETA plasmid. Recombinant his-tagged PvLDH was over-expressed in E. coli Rosetta2DE3pLysS and purified using Ni(2+)-NTA resin giving a yield of 25-30 mg/litre bacterial culture. The recombinant protein was enzymatically active and its catalytic efficiency for pyruvate was 5.4 × 10(8) min(-1) M(-1), 14.5 fold higher than a low yield preparation reported earlier to obtain PvLDH crystal structure. The enzyme activity was inhibited by gossypol and sodium oxamate. The recombinant PvLDH was reactive in lateral flow immunochromatographic assays detecting pan- and vivax-specific LDH. The soluble recombinant PvLDH purified using heterologous expression system can facilitate the generation of vivax LDH-specific monoclonals and the screening of chemical compound libraries for PvLDH inhibitors. PMID:25048245

Sundaram, Balamurugan; Varadarajan, Nandan Mysore; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun

2014-12-01

126

Differences in Rat Tissue Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Caused by Giberellic Acid and Homobrassinolide (Giberellik Asit ve Homobrassinolit Uygulamasi ile Siçan Doku Laktat Dehidrogenaz Aktivitesinde Gözlenen De?i?iklikler) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, a tissue marker for cardiac disorders, reversibly forms pyruvate from lactate in all animal tissues. Low-dose effect of dietary plant hormones homobrassinolide and gibberellic acid on this enzyme ac- tivity was therefore investigated in normal rat tissues. Methods: Hormones were administered intradermally to male albino wistar rat groups (100-120 g) at 10, 50 and 250 µg,

Jeyaraman Vikramathithan; Gopalarau Gautami; Irissappan Ganesh; Kotteazeth Srikumar

127

Effect of proline on lactate dehydrogenase activity: testing the generality and scope of the compatibility paradigm.  

PubMed

The k(cat) and K(m) kinetic parameters of the labile enzyme rabbit muscle lactic dehydrogenase were determined as a function of the concentration of proline, a solute (osmolyte) accumulated in the cells of many organisms to protect them against environmental stresses. Proline is believed to protect against the stress(es) without altering the functional activity of cellular macromolecules, a property defining it as a "compatible osmolyte." In the range of 0-2 M proline, K(cat) and K(m) values for both substrates are essentially unchanged, but between 2 M and 4 M proline, k(cat) decreases by a factor of 3 to 4, whereas K(m) values are only modestly changed, if at all. These results are consistent with the proposal that compatible osmolytes do not affect functional activity, that the property of compatibility expressed by such osmolytes is generic without regard to the evolutionary history of the protein, and that the organic osmolyte concentration range over which compatibility is exhibited is extensive. In short, the results are in full accord with the principal hypothesis of "compatible osmolytes" in detail and scope. PMID:8889186

Wang, A; Bolen, D W

1996-10-01

128

Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD(+). The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) K m for L-lactate and a higher V max value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the K m of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the K m of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

129

Purification and Properties of White Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase from the Anoxia-Tolerant Turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans  

PubMed Central

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C. 1.1.1.27) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy metabolism in muscle, facilitating the production of ATP via glycolysis during oxygen deprivation by recycling NAD+. The present study investigated purified LDH from the muscle of 20?h anoxic and normoxic T. s. elegans, and LDH from anoxic muscle showed a significantly lower (47%) Km for L-lactate and a higher Vmax value than the normoxic form. Several lines of evidence indicated that LDH was converted to a low phosphate form under anoxia: (a) stimulation of endogenously present protein phosphatases decreased the Km of L-lactate of control LDH to anoxic levels, whereas (b) stimulation of kinases increased the Km of L-lactate of anoxic LDH to normoxic levels, and (c) dot blot analysis shows significantly less serine (78%) and threonine (58%) phosphorylation in anoxic muscle LDH as compared to normoxic LDH. The physiological consequence of anoxia-induced LDH dephosphorylation appears to be an increase in LDH activity to promote the reduction of pyruvate in muscle tissue, converting the glycolytic end product to lactate to maintain a prolonged glycolytic flux under energy-stressed anoxic conditions. PMID:23533717

Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

130

Renal Cortical Lactate Dehydrogenase: A Useful, Accurate, Quantitative Marker of In Vivo Tubular Injury and Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Studies of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) are critically dependent on having precise methods for assessing the extent of tubular cell death. However, the most widely used techniques either provide indirect assessments (e.g., BUN, creatinine), suffer from the need for semi-quantitative grading (renal histology), or reflect the status of residual viable, not the number of lost, renal tubular cells (e.g., NGAL content). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release is a highly reliable test for assessing degrees of in vitro cell death. However, its utility as an in vivo AKI marker has not been defined. Towards this end, CD-1 mice were subjected to graded renal ischemia (0, 15, 22, 30, 40, or 60 min) or to nephrotoxic (glycerol; maleate) AKI. Sham operated mice, or mice with AKI in the absence of acute tubular necrosis (ureteral obstruction; endotoxemia), served as negative controls. Renal cortical LDH or NGAL levels were assayed 2 or 24 hrs later. Ischemic, glycerol, and maleate-induced AKI were each associated with striking, steep, inverse correlations (r, ?0.89) between renal injury severity and renal LDH content. With severe AKI, >65% LDH declines were observed. Corresponding prompt plasma and urinary LDH increases were observed. These observations, coupled with the maintenance of normal cortical LDH mRNA levels, indicated the renal LDH efflux, not decreased LDH synthesis, caused the falling cortical LDH levels. Renal LDH content was well maintained with sham surgery, ureteral obstruction or endotoxemic AKI. In contrast to LDH, renal cortical NGAL levels did not correlate with AKI severity. In sum, the above results indicate that renal cortical LDH assay is a highly accurate quantitative technique for gauging the extent of experimental acute ischemic and toxic renal injury. That it avoids the limitations of more traditional AKI markers implies great potential utility in experimental studies that require precise quantitation of tubule cell death. PMID:23825563

Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali C. M.; Becker, Kirsten

2013-01-01

131

Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ? We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ? LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ? Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China) [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-01

132

Changes of cytokines and IgG antibody in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of cytokines and specific serum IgG in chickens following vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding either Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigen or LDH and chicken IL-2 or IFN-?. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental group of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccines while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or sterile water. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The LDH-specific IgG antibody response was measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunization. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization (P<0.05) and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. The systemic and local cytokine mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR 7 days post-second immunization. The specific IgG antibody levels against LDH of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines were increased compared to those of sterile water (H(2)O) and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of IFN-?, IL-2, TNFSF15, IL-17D as well as TGF-?4 in both spleen and cecal tonsil were also increased in experimental chickens. In contrast, the only significant change of IL-4 mRNA level was observed in spleen of chickens immunized with pVAX-LDH-IL-2 compared with pVAX-LDH and control groups (P<0.05). These results suggested that DNA vaccines could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. PMID:20650568

Song, Hongyan; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Li, Xiangrui

2010-10-29

133

Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase at posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome onset in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is incompletely understood; however, an underlying state of immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction has been proposed. We examined alterations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, relative to the development of PRES in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective Institutional Review Board approved database of 88 PRES patients was examined. PRES diagnosis was confirmed by congruent clinical diagnosis and MRI. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Serum LDH values were collected at three time points: prior to, at the time of, and following PRES diagnosis. Student's t-test was employed. LDH values were available during the course of treatment in 12 patients (nine women; mean age 57.8 years [range 33-75 years]). Chemotherapy-associated PRES patients were more likely to be normotensive (25%) versus the non-chemotherapy group (9%). LDH levels at the time of PRES diagnosis were higher than those before and after (p=0.0263), with a mean difference of 114.8 international units/L. Mean time intervals between LDH measurement prior to and following PRES diagnosis were 44.8 days and 51.4 days, respectively. Mean elapsed time between last chemotherapy administration and PRES onset was 11.1days. In conclusion, serum LDH, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, shows statistically significant elevation at the onset of PRES toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Our findings support a systemic process characterized by endothelial injury/dysfunction as a factor, if not the prime event, in the pathophysiology of PRES. PMID:24780237

Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Wright, Steven M; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Van Hemert, Rudy; Brown, Aliza T; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

2014-09-01

134

Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.  

PubMed Central

The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

Savijoki, K; Palva, A

1997-01-01

135

Exposing local adaptation: synergistic stressors elicit population-specific lactate dehydrogenase-B ( ldh - b ) expression profiles in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular response of fish to independently and\\/or concurrently applied ecological stressors (e.g. thermal and\\/or aerobic\\u000a stress) can be quantified at the level of transcript abundance (i.e. gene expression). In temperate fish, the expression of\\u000a the metabolic candidate gene lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b) responds to both aerobic swimming challenge and extended acclimation to various ecologically relevant temperatures. We examined\\u000a hepatic ldh-b

Richard C. Edmunds; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Lynne van Herwerden; Christopher J. Fulton; Dean R. Jerry

136

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix.  

PubMed

A dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 119.4, c = 70.2 Ĺ, ? = 112.0°, and diffracted to 2.0 Ĺ resolution on the BL26B1 beamline at SPring-8. The overall R(merge) was 4.5% and the completeness was 99.8%. PMID:22102248

Shibahara, Takenori; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

2011-11-01

137

Cloning of the Staphylococcus aureus ddh gene encoding NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase and insertional inactivation in a glycopeptide-resistant isolate.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of low-level glycopeptide resistance among staphylococci is not known. A cytoplasmic protein, provisionally called Ddh (W. M. Milewski, S. Boyle-Vavra, B. Moreira, C. C. Ebert, and R. S. Daum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:166-172, 1996), and the RNA transcript that contains the ddh gene, which encodes Ddh, are present in increased amounts in a vancomycin-resistant isolate, 523k, compared with the susceptible parent isolate, 523. Sequence analysis had previously revealed that Ddh is related to NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) and VanH. This latter protein is essential for high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis by synthesizing the D-lactate needed for biosynthesis of D-lactate-terminating peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity for vancomycin. We now provide the direct evidence that the ddh gene product is Staphylococcus aureus D-nLDH and hereafter refer to the protein as D-nLDH. However, overproduction of this protein in isolate 523k did not result in production of D-lactate-containing peptidoglycan precursors, and susceptibility testing of ddh mutants of 523k demonstrated that S. aureus D-nLDH is not necessary for glycopeptide resistance in this isolate. We conclude that the mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in this isolate is distinct from that in enterococci. PMID:9352927

Boyle-Vavra, S; de Jonge, B L; Ebert, C C; Daum, R S

1997-01-01

138

A novel polyclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for detection of Plasmodium vivax developed from two lactate dehydrogenase protein segments  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays for Plasmodium detection are, presently, most frequently based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), which are cheaper to develop and manufacture, are much less frequently used. In the present study we describe a sandwich ELISA assay which is capable of detecting P. vivax Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in clinical blood samples, without cross reacting with those infected with P. falciparum. Methods Two recombinant proteins were produced from different regions of the P. vivax LDH gene. Two sandwich ELISA assay were then designed: One which uses mouse anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs as primary antibodies (“Test 1”) and another which uses anti-LDH 35-305aa PAbs (“Test 2”) as the primary antibodies. Rabbit anti-LDH 1-43aa PAbs were used as capture antibodies in both ELISA assays. Blood samples taken from P. vivax and P. falciparum infected patients (confirmed by light microscopy) were analysed using both tests. Results “Test 2” performed better at detecting microscopy-positive blood samples when compared to “Test 1”, identifying 131 of 154 positive samples (85%); 85 positives (55%) were identified using “test 1”. “Test 1” produced one false positive sample (from the 20 malaria-free control) blood samples; “test 2” produced none. Kappa coefficient analysis of the results produced a value of 0.267 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with “test 1”, but 0.734 when microscope-positive blood smears were compared with the results from “test 2”. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were observed to be 98% and 22% respectively, for “Test 1”, and 99% and 45%, for “test 2”. No cross reactivity was detected with P. falciparum positive blood samples (n?=?15) with either test assay. Conclusion Both tests detected P. vivax infected blood and showed no evidence of cross-reacting with P. falciparum. Further studies will need to be conducted to establish the full potential of this technique for malaria diagnostics. As well as representing a promising new cost-effective novel technique for P. vivax diagnosis and research, the method for developing this assay also highlights the potential for PAb-based strategies for diagnostics in general. PMID:24475751

2014-01-01

139

The reaction of mitochondrial l-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase with various electron acceptors  

PubMed Central

1. The kinetics of the reaction of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase with a variety of electron acceptors have been investigated. 2. In all cases the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free modified-enzyme intermediate. 3. With some electron acceptors, the maximum velocity of the reaction and the Km for glycerophosphate are independent of the nature of the electron acceptor, whereas in other cases this is not so. 4. The reaction mechanism of the enzyme extracted with phospholipase A instead of with Triton X-100 is of a similar type. PMID:5810061

Dawson, A. P.; Thorne, C. J. R.

1969-01-01

140

The mechanism of the quinone reductase reaction of pig heart lipoamide dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the NADH:lipoamide reductase and NADH:quinone reductase reactions of pig heart lipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.4.3) was investigated. At pH 7.0 the catalytic constant of the quinone reductase reaction (kcat.) is 70 s-1 and the rate constant of the active-centre reduction by NADH (kcat./Km) is 9.2 x 10(5) M-1.s-1. These constants are almost an order lower than those for the lipoamide reductase reaction. The maximal quinone reductase activity is observed at pH 6.0-5.5. The use of [4(S)-2H]NADH as substrate decreases kcat./Km for the lipoamide reductase reaction and both kcat. and kcat./Km for the quinone reductase reaction. The kcat./Km values for quinones in this case are decreased 1.85-3.0-fold. NAD+ is a more effective inhibitor in the quinone reductase reaction than in the lipoamide reductase reaction. The pattern of inhibition reflects the shift of the reaction equilibrium. Various forms of the four-electron-reduced enzyme are believed to reduce quinones. Simple and 'hybrid ping-pong' mechanisms of this reaction are discussed. The logarithms of kcat./Km for quinones are hyperbolically dependent on their single-electron reduction potentials (E1(7]. A three-step mechanism for a mixed one-electron and two-electron reduction of quinones by lipoamide dehydrogenase is proposed. PMID:2375745

Vienozinskis, J; Butkus, A; Cenas, N; Kulys, J

1990-01-01

141

Ontogenesis of Oxidative Reaction of 17?-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase and 11?-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in Rat Leydig Cells, a Histochemical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is required for the synthesis and 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the regulation of androgens in rat Leydig cells. This histochemical study describes ontogenetic changes in distribution and intensity of these enzymes in Leydig cells from postnatal day (pnd) 1–90. Using NAD or NADP as the cofactor, 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (substrate: 5-androstene-3, 17-diol) peaks were observed on pnd 16

Barbara A. Schäfers; Britta G. Schlutius; Syed G. Haider

2001-01-01

142

Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria  

PubMed Central

Background In areas where non-falciparum malaria is common rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) capable of distinguishing malaria species reliably are needed. Such tests are often based on the detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods In Dawei, southern Myanmar, three pLDH based RDTs (CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan), CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, Pf) and OptiMAL-IT®)were evaluated in patients presenting with clinically suspected malaria. Each RDT was read independently by two readers. A subset of patients with microscopically confirmed malaria had their RDTs repeated on days 2, 7 and then weekly until negative. At the end of the study, samples of study batches were sent for heat stability testing. Results Between August and November 2007, 1004 patients aged between 1 and 93 years were enrolled in the study. Slide microscopy (the reference standard) diagnosed 213 Plasmodium vivax (Pv) monoinfections, 98 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) mono-infections and no malaria in 650 cases. The sensitivities (sens) and specificities (spec), of the RDTs for the detection of malaria were- CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan) test: sens 89.1% [CI95 84.2-92.6], spec 97.6% [CI95 96.5-98.4] OptiMal-IT®: Pf+/- other species detection: sens 95.2% [CI95 87.5-98.2], spec 94.7% [CI95 93.3-95.8]; non-Pf detection alone: sens 89.6% [CI95 83.6-93.6], spec 96.5% [CI95 94.8-97.7] CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan, Pf): Pf+/- other species: sens 93.5% [CI9585.4-97.3], spec 97.4% [95.9-98.3]; non-Pf: sens 78.5% [CI9571.1-84.4], spec 97.8% [CI95 96.3-98.7] Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all tests (kappa > 0.9). The median time for the RDTs to become negative was two days for the CareStart™ Malaria tests and seven days for OptiMAL-IT®. Tests were heat stable up to 90 days except for OptiMAL-IT® (Pf specific pLDH stable to day 20 at 35°C). Conclusion None of the pLDH-based RDTs evaluated was able to detect non-falciparum malaria with high sensitivity, particularly at low parasitaemias. OptiMAL-IT® performed best overall and would perform best in an area of high malaria prevalence among screened fever cases. However, heat stability was unacceptable and the number of steps to perform this test is a significant drawback in the field. A reliable, heat-stable, highly sensitive RDT, capable of diagnosing all Plasmodium species has yet to be identified. PMID:19860920

Ashley, Elizabeth A; Touabi, Malek; Ahrer, Margareta; Hutagalung, Robert; Htun, Khayae; Luchavez, Jennifer; Dureza, Christine; Proux, Stephane; Leimanis, Mara; Lwin, Myo Min; Koscalova, Alena; Comte, Eric; Hamade, Prudence; Page, Anne-Laure; Nosten, François; Guerin, Philippe J

2009-01-01

143

Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.  

PubMed

The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. PMID:23932744

Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

2013-10-01

144

Modulation in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and level of c-Myc and c-Fos by modified base queuine in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, which results from unlimited proliferation and disturbs various cellular activities. Queuine is a highly modified base analogue of guanine found at first anti-codon position of specific tRNAs i.e. tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). These tRNAs are known as Q-family of tRNA. The tRNAs of Q-family are completely modified to Q-tRNAs in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNA is closely associated with cell proliferation and malignancy. Queuosine modification of tRNAs may be essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Physiological role of queuine remains ill defined but direct or indirect evidences suggest that queuine or Q-tRNA participates in many cellular functions such as regulation of cell proliferation, control of glycolytic metabolism, alteration in expression of proto-oncogenes, modulation of signal transduction pathways but the mechanism is not well known. Increase in LDH-A expression regulated by c-myc is well documented in a variety of tumor cells. Overexpression of proto-oncogenes cause deregulated cellular responses which may lead to development of cancer. The cellular proto-oncogenes like c-myc and c-fos have important role in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. The present study is aimed to investigate queuine mediated modulation in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and expression of proto-oncogenes like c-myc and c-fos in T-cell lymphoma (DLAT) induced cancerous mouse. The results indicate that elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity is brought down by queuine treatments and the elevated levels of c-Myc and c-Fos in DLAT cancerous mouse are down-regulated, suggesting that queuine inhibits anaerobic metabolism and cell proliferation. PMID:18347422

Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

2008-01-01

145

Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD+, which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in Vmax (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

146

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of l-­lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD+ and the crystal diffracted to 2.38?Ĺ resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27?Ĺ. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD+, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49?Ĺ resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34?Ĺ and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09?Ĺ, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals. PMID:22232174

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

147

Oxamate-mediated inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells: Involvement of the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Cancer cells produce a substantial amount of energy through aerobic glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a key regulator of glycolysis, reversibly catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Recently, oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH, has been shown to be a promising anticancer agent. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oxamate inhibits the viability of human gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with oxamate induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited by chloroquine or Beclin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhances oxamate-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition. Further study has shown that oxamate treatment significantly augments reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, cells pretreated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor, display significantly reduced ROS production and attenuated oxamate-induced autophagy. Finally, functional studies reveal that the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, a major negative regulator of autophagy, is inhibited by oxamate. Together, our results provide new insights regarding the biological and anti-proliferative activities of oxamate against gastric cancer, and may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:25524555

Zhao, Zhi; Han, Fanghai; Yang, Shibin; Wu, Jianhai; Zhan, Wenhua

2015-03-01

148

Efficient Production of l-Lactic Acid by Metabolically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a Genome-Integrated l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene  

PubMed Central

We developed a metabolically engineered yeast which produces lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant strain, the coding region for pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) on chromosome XII is substituted for that of the l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) through homologous recombination. The expression of mRNA for the genome-integrated LDH is regulated under the control of the native PDC1 promoter, while PDC1 is completely disrupted. Using this method, we constructed a diploid yeast transformant, with each haploid genome having a single insertion of bovine LDH. Yeast cells expressing LDH were observed to convert glucose to both lactate (55.6 g/liter) and ethanol (16.9 g/liter), with up to 62.2% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid under neutralizing conditions. This transgenic strain, which expresses bovine LDH under the control of the PDC1 promoter, also showed high lactic acid production (50.2 g/liter) under nonneutralizing conditions. The differences in lactic acid production were compared among four different recombinants expressing a heterologous LDH gene (i.e., either the bovine LDH gene or the Bifidobacterium longum LDH gene): two transgenic strains with 2?m plasmid-based vectors and two genome-integrated strains. PMID:15812027

Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Matsuyama, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

2005-01-01

149

Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism.  

PubMed

The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD(+), which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24?h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in V max (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

150

Direct production of allitol from D-fructose by a coupling reaction using D-tagatose 3-epimerase, ribitol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Allitol was produced from D-fructose via a new NADH-regenerating enzymatic reaction system using D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE), ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH). D-fructose was epimerized to D-psicose by the D-TE of Pseudomonas cichorii ST-24 and the D-psicose was subsequently reduced to allitol by the RDH of an RDH-constitutive mutant, X-22, derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 3321. NADH regeneration for the reduction of D-psicose by the RDH was achieved by the irreversible formate dehydrogenase reaction, which allowed the D-psicose produced from d-fructose to be successively transformed to allitol with a production yield from D-fructose of almost 100%. The reactions progressed without any by-product formation. After separation of the product from the reaction mixture by a simple procedure, a crystal of allitol was obtained in a yield exceeding 90%. This crystal was characterized and determined to be allitol by HPLC analysis, its IR and NMR spectra, its melting point, and optical rotation measurement. PMID:16232907

Takeshita, K; Ishida, Y; Takada, G; Izumori, K

2000-01-01

151

Meso-alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelate D-dehydrogenase: distribution and the reaction product.  

PubMed Central

A high activity of meso-alpha-epsilon-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase was found in extracts of Bacillus sphaericus, Brevibacterium sp., Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Proteus vulgaris among bacteria tested. B. sphaericus IFO 3525, in which the enzyme is most abundant, was chosen to study the enzyme reaction. The enzyme was not induced by the addition of meso-alpha-epsilon-diaminopimelate to the growth medium. The reaction product was isolated and identified as alpha-amino-epsilon-ketopimelate by a comparison of the properties of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone with those of an authentic sample in silica gel thin-layer chromatography, absorption, infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and elemental analyses. The alpha-amino-epsilon-ketopimelate formed enzymatically was decarboxylated by H2O2 to yield L-alpha-aminoadipate. This suggests that the amino group with D-configuration in the substrate is oxidatively deaminated; the enzyme is a D-amino acid dehydrogenase. L-alpha-Amino-epsilon-ketopimelate undergoes spontaneous dehydration to the cyclic delta1-piperideine-2,6-dicarboxylate. The enzyme reaction is reversible, and meso-alpha-epsilon-diaminopimelate was formed in the reductive amination of L-alpha-epsilon-ketopimelate. PMID:762012

Misono, H; Togawa, H; Yamamoto, T; Soda, K

1979-01-01

152

Catalytic reaction of cytokinin dehydrogenase: preference for quinones as electron acceptors.  

PubMed Central

The catalytic reaction of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.12) was studied in detail using the recombinant flavoenzyme from maize. Determination of the redox potential of the covalently linked flavin cofactor revealed a relatively high potential dictating the type of electron acceptor that can be used by the enzyme. Using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone or 1,4-naphthoquinone as electron acceptor, turnover rates with N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine of approx. 150 s(-1) could be obtained. This suggests that the natural electron acceptor of the enzyme is quite probably a p-quinone or similar compound. By using the stopped-flow technique, it was found that the enzyme is rapidly reduced by N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine (k(red)=950 s(-1)). Re-oxidation of the reduced enzyme by molecular oxygen is too slow to be of physiological relevance, confirming its classification as a dehydrogenase. Furthermore, it was established for the first time that the enzyme is capable of degrading aromatic cytokinins, although at low reaction rates. As a result, the enzyme displays a dual catalytic mode for oxidative degradation of cytokinins: a low-rate and low-substrate specificity reaction with oxygen as the electron acceptor, and high activity and strict specificity for isopentenyladenine and analogous cytokinins with some specific electron acceptors. PMID:14965342

Frébortová, Jitka; Fraaije, Marco W; Galuszka, Petr; Sebela, Marek; Pec, Pavel; Hrbác, Jan; Novák, Ondrej; Bilyeu, Kristin D; English, James T; Frébort, Ivo

2004-01-01

153

Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

2014-01-01

154

Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid. PMID:24731822

Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

2014-05-10

155

Osmoregulation in Dunaliella . Catalysis of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in a chloroplast-enriched fraction of Dunaliella tertiolecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD-dependent) reaction was studied in a chloroplast-enriched fraction fromDunaliella tertiolecta. The reaction has widely separated pH optima for each direction. Reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate proceeded with Michaelis-Menten kinetics but sigmoidal double reciprocal plots were obtained with glycerol phosphate as variable substrate. NADP served as an alternative substrate but it was somewhat less effective than NAD. The reaction

Thérčse Marengo; R. McC Lilley; A. D. Brown

1985-01-01

156

Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions  

SciTech Connect

The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2 {angstrom} resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg{sup 2+} and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. However, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate intermediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH.

Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2010-10-28

157

Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.  

PubMed

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+)--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Daničle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressičres, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

158

Decreased Hematocrit-To-Viscosity Ratio and Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase Level in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia and Recurrent Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+) - but with no leg ulcers at the time of the study – were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994

Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Daničle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressičres, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

2013-01-01

159

Depressive symptoms of female nursing staff working in stressful environments and their association with serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase – a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background The activity of creatine kinase (CK) in serum has recently been reported to be potentially associated with several types of depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether serum enzymes, including CK, vary even in a healthy population with depressive symptoms caused by work-related stress. We gave questionnaires and blood examinations to 93 healthy female nursing home workers and did an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of CK isozyme muscle-type M chain (CK-MM) in serum. Findings Depressive symptoms were determined using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and compared with the results of the blood examination and serum CK-MM levels. The CES-D results showed significant negative correlations with total CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and CK-MM level (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0062; r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.0065; r?=?-0.33, p?=?0.0016, respectively). Conclusions Total CK and LDH activities and serum CK-MM level appear to be associated with the depressive symptoms of healthy nurses working in stressful environments, although the significance level was relatively low. The simultaneous detection of serum CK and LDH activities or serum CK-MM level and LDH activity may be useful as an indicator of depressive symptoms, at least for female nursing staff with work-related stress. PMID:25243019

2014-01-01

160

Lactate and succinate oxidoreductases in marine invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen species of littoral marine invertebrates, representing Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, and Arthropoda, were studied with respect to the ability of tissue extracts to catalyze the lactate and succinate dehydrogenase reactions in both directions. Pyruvate reductase (PR) activity varied tremendously with species, from 0.014 µmole\\/min\\/g of tissue in the etenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to 145 µ-moles\\/min in leg muscle of

C. S. Hammen

1969-01-01

161

Biocatalytic carbon capture via reversible reaction cycle catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The practice of carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide from its gaseous mixtures such as flue gas, followed by releasing it as a pure gas which can be subsequently compressed and injected into underground storage sites. This has been mostly achieved via reversible thermochemical reactions which are generally energy-intensive. The current work examines a biocatalytic approach for carbon capture using an NADP(H)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which catalyzes reversibly carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Different from chemical carbon capture processes that rely on thermal energy to realize purification of carbon dioxide, the biocatalytic strategy utilizes pH to leverage the reaction equilibrium, thereby realizing energy-efficient carbon capture under ambient conditions. Results showed that over 25 mol of carbon dioxide could be captured and purified from its gas mixture for each gram of ICDH applied for each carboxylation/decarboxylation reaction cycle by varying pH between 6 and 9. This work demonstrates the promising potentials of pH-sensitive biocatalysis as a green-chemistry route for carbon capture. PMID:25152403

Xia, Shunxiang; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zhao, Xueyan; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

2014-09-12

162

A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124. PMID:24861375

Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

2014-07-01

163

Some effects of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of Sigma type II LDH (containing all LDH isoenzymes), type VII (LDH 1) and type V (LDH 5) has been evaluated in 0.1 M phosphate buffer and 0.4 M tris-HCl buffer, both at pH 7.4, before and after addition of PVP and PVA. A slight reduction of reaction velocity occurred when PVP and PVA were added, probably because

Hans A. Dahl

1971-01-01

164

A study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma by gel electrophoresis method  

PubMed Central

Context: The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is found in almost all the cells of body tissues, can be separated into five fractions and the isoenzyme pattern is believed to vary according to the metabolic requirement of each tissue. LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be considered to be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate salivary LDH isoenzyme pattern in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate between LDH isoenzyme levels and histopathologic grading in selected cases of OL and OSCC. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed 30 cases each of OL and OSCC were selected for the study and 30 healthy individuals of comparable age served as control. Unstimulated whole saliva was aseptically collected and was processed immediately for LDH isoenzymes measurement by agarose gel electrophoresis. Biopsy specimen obtained was processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Sections of OL and OSCC cases were scrutinized histopathologically and appropriately graded for epithelial dysplasia and differentiation of carcinoma respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two sample t test for testing the significance of difference between two group means was used. Results and Conclusion: The present salivary analysis for LDH isoenzyme reveals an overall increased salivary LDH isoenzyme level in OL and OSCC cases and a significant correlation between levels of salivary LDH isoenzymes and histopathologic grades of dysplasia in OL and OSCC. Salivary analysis of LDH will definitely provide the clinician and/or the patient himself with an efficient, non invasive and friendly new tool for diagnosis and monitoring of oral precancer and cancer. PMID:25364177

Joshi, Priya Shirish; Golgire, Someshwar

2014-01-01

165

Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antigens in the proven malaria cases. Methods: The antibodies were raised against two epitopes of PfHRP2 protein and three unique and unexplored epitopes of PfLDH protein. These antibodies were able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens in culture supernatant and parasitized RBC lysate of P. falciparum, respectively up to 50 parasites/?l. The in-house reagents were tested in 200 P. falciparum positive patients residing in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Results: Microsphere (PLGA) with CpG ODN were used to generate high titre and high affinity antibodies against selected peptides of PfHRP-2 and pLDH antigen in mice and rabbit. The peptide specific peak titre varied from 12,800 - 102,400 with an affinity ranging 0.73 - 3.0 mM. The indigenously developed reagents are able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens as low as 75 parasites/?l of blood with a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (100%). Interpretation & conclusions: The study highlight the identification of unique epitopes of PfHRP2 and PfLDH, and the generated antibodies against these antigens were used for quantitative estimation of these two antigens using sandwich ELISA. No corresreactivity with P. vivax infected patients was observed with the sera. PMID:24521645

Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D.N.

2013-01-01

166

Production of natural antimicrobial compound D-phenyllactic acid using Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 whole cells involving highly active D-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound naturally synthesized in various fermented foods and its D-form of PLA is known to be more active than the L-isomer. In this study, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293 cells, elaborating D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-ldh) were used to produce D-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). When cultured in the presence of PPA (?50 mmol l(-1)), growing cells produced a maximum yield of 35 mmol l(-1) of D-PLA, and the yields were between 75·2 and 83·3%. Higher conversion yields were obtained at pH 6·0-7·0 when growing cells were used, while the optimum pH range was broader for resting cells. The time required for the complete conversion of PPA into PLA could be shortened to 3 h using resting cells. D-ldh, an enzyme encoded by the LEUM_1756 gene of Leuc. mesenteroides ATCC 8293, was found to be responsible for the conversion of PPA into PLA. The Km and kcat values of the enzyme for PPA were found to be 15·4 mmol l(-1) and 5645 s(-1), respectively. The conditions required for the efficient production of D-PLA were optimized for both growing and resting cells of Leuc. mesenteroides, with special emphasis on achieving high stereoselectivity and conversion yield. Significance and impact of the study: This is the first study on the production of D-phenyllactic acid, which is a natural antimicrobial compound, from phenylpyruvate using Leuconostoc mesenteroides cells. The strain, ATCC 8293, that was used in the study, possesses high stereoselectivity and delivers a high yield. Therefore, it might be a promising candidate for use in large-scale production facilities and in fermented foods. PMID:24888766

Li, L; Shin, S-Y; Lee, K W; Han, N S

2014-10-01

167

Bioactivity-Guided Identification and Cell Signaling Technology to Delineate the Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibition Effects of Spatholobus suberectus on Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1? and subsequent accelerated HIF-1? proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1?/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

2013-01-01

168

Regression of Dalton’s lymphoma in vivo via decline in lactate dehydrogenase and induction of apoptosis by a ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N -ethylbenzamide as ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A novel ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide (Ru(II)-CNEB) was found to interact with and inhibit M4-lactate dehydrogenase (M4-LDH), a tumor growth supportive\\u000a enzyme, at the tissue level. The present article describes modulation of M4-LDH by this compound in a T-cell lymphoma (Dalton’s\\u000a Lymphoma: DL) vis a vis regression of the tumor in vivo. The compound showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity to

Raj K. Koiri; Surendra K. Trigun; Lallan Mishra; Kiran Pandey; Deobrat Dixit; Santosh K. Dubey

2009-01-01

169

Kinetics of the coupled reaction catalysed by a fusion protein of beta-galactosidase and galactose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The mechanistic implications of the kinetic behaviour of a fusion protein of beta-galactosidase and galactose dehydrogenase have been analysed in view of predictions based on experimentally determined kinetic parameter values for the galactosidase and dehydrogenase activities of the protein. The results show that the time course of galactonolactone formation from lactose in the coupled reaction catalysed by the fusion protein can be most satisfactorily accounted for in terms of a free-diffusion mechanism when consideration is given to the mutarotation of the reaction intermediate galactose. It is concluded that no tenable kinetic evidence is available to support the proposal that the fusion protein catalyses galactonolactone formation from lactose by a mechanism involving channelling of galactose. PMID:11690652

Pettersson, H; Pettersson, G

2001-10-18

170

Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth  

PubMed Central

L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ?ldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L-LDH can be effectively used as a factor to regulate a metabolic pathway and its metabolic flux for efficient L-lactate production. Highlights The enzymatic thermodynamics was used as a tool for metabolic regulation. ? minimizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase in growth phase improved biomass accumulation. ? maximizing the activity of L-lactate dehydrogenase improved lactate productivity in production phase. PMID:24884499

2014-01-01

171

Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana with catalytic capacities to participate in the last reactions of the methylglyoxal and beta-oxidation pathways.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis thaliana locus At5g06580 encodes an ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae d-lactate dehydrogenase (AtD-LDH). The recombinant protein is a homodimer of 59-kDa subunits with one FAD per monomer. A substrate screen indicated that AtD-LDH catalyzes the oxidation of d- and l-lactate, d-2-hydroxybutyrate, glycerate, and glycolate using cytochrome c as an electron acceptor. AtD-LDH shows a clear preference for d-lactate, with a catalytic efficiency 200- and 2000-fold higher than that for l-lactate and glycolate, respectively, and a K(m) value for d-lactate of approximately 160 microm. Knock-out mutants showed impaired growth in the presence of d-lactate or methylglyoxal. Collectively, the data indicated that the protein is a d-LDH that participates in planta in the methylglyoxal pathway. Web-based bioinformatic tools revealed the existence of a paralogous protein encoded by locus At4g36400. The recombinant protein is a homodimer of 61-kDa subunits with one FAD per monomer. A substrate screening revealed highly specific d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG) conversion in the presence of an organic cofactor with a K(m) value of approximately 580 microm. Thus, the enzyme was characterized as a d-2HG dehydrogenase (AtD-2HGDH). Analysis of knock-out mutants demonstrated that AtD-2HGDH is responsible for the total d-2HGDH activity present in A. thaliana. Gene coexpression analysis indicated that AtD-2HGDH is in the same network as several genes involved in beta-oxidation and degradation of branched-chain amino acids and chlorophyll. It is proposed that AtD-2HGDH participates in the catabolism of d-2HG most probably during the mobilization of alternative substrates from proteolysis and/or lipid degradation. PMID:19586914

Engqvist, Martin; Drincovich, María F; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Maurino, Verónica G

2009-09-11

172

Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A sup 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance study  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The {sup 19}F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes.

Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Rule, G.S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1990-04-03

173

Glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression associated with NADPH-dependent reactions in cerebellar neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the variation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in the main neurons of the molecular\\u000a and granular layers as well as in the deep nuclei of the cerebellum as observed so far by optical and electron microscopy\\u000a studies. Light microscopy and semiquantitative microphotometry of histochemical staining showed that the highest G6PD activity\\u000a was expressed by Purkinje cells and

Enrica Biagiotti; Loretta Guidi; Paolo Del Grande; Paolino Ninfali

2003-01-01

174

Fiber optic biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and L-lactate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical fiber biosensor for the selective determination of hydrogen peroxide has been developed as the base sensor for the construction of multienzyme optodes involving lactate converting enzymes for the analysis of lactic acid. The optode uses the H2O2 dependent oxidation of homovanillic acid by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the sensing reaction. The fluorescence of the dimeric product formed is used as the measuring signal related to the concentration of H2O2. HRP was immobilized on a membrane and combined with a bifurcated fiber optic probe. Under optimized conditions the sensor responds linearly to hydrogen peroxide between 1 micrometers ol/l and 0.12 mmol/l and exhibits a half life of 90 days. Using a lactate oxidase-HRP membrane, the sensor is suitable for lactate measurement with a linear range of 3 micrometers ol/l-0.2 mmol/l. To increase the sensitivity for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase was coimmobilized on the sensor membrane. In the presence of NADH the signal for lactate is amplified fourfold through the internal analyte recycling accomplished by the lactate-converting enzymes.

Schubert, Florian; Rinneberg, Herbert H.; Wang, Fang

1995-02-01

175

Kinetic Modeling of Hyperpolarized 13C Label Exchange between Pyruvate and Lactate in Tumor Cells*  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the kinetics of hyperpolarized 13C label exchange between [1-13C]pyruvate and lactate in suspensions of intact and lysed murine lymphoma cells, and in cells in which lactate dehydrogenase expression had been modulated by inhibition of the PI3K pathway, were used to determine quantitatively the role of enzyme activity and membrane transport in controlling isotope flux. Both steps were shown to share in the control of isotope flux in these cells. The kinetics of label exchange were well described by a kinetic model that employed rate constants for the lactate dehydrogenase reaction that had been determined previously from steady state kinetic studies. The enzyme showed pyruvate inhibition in steady state kinetic measurements, which the kinetic model predicted should also be observed in the isotope exchange measurements. However, no such pyruvate inhibition was observed in either intact cells or cell lysates and this could be explained by the much higher enzyme concentrations present in the isotope exchange experiments. The kinetic analysis presented here shows how lactate dehydrogenase activity can be determined from the isotope exchange measurements. The kinetic model should be useful for modeling the exchange reaction in vivo, particularly as this technique progresses to the clinic. PMID:21596745

Witney, Timothy H.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Brindle, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

176

Elucidating the reaction mechanism of the benzoate oxidation pathway encoded aldehyde dehydrogenase from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400  

PubMed Central

Oxidation of cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde to cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA by the aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDHC (EC.1.2.1.77), is an essential step in the metabolism of benzoate in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In a previous study, we established a structural blueprint for this novel group of ALDH enzymes. Here, we build significantly on this initial work and propose a detailed reaction mechanism for ALDHC based on comprehensive structural and functional investigations of active site residues. Kinetic analyses reveal essential roles for C296 as the nucleophile and E257 as the associated general base. Structural analyses of E257Q and C296A variants suggest a dynamic charge repulsion relationship between E257 and C296 that contributes to the inherent flexibility of E257 in the native enzyme, which is further regulated by E496 and E167. A proton relay network anchored by E496 and supported by E167 and K168 serves to reset E257 for the second catalytic step. We also propose that E167, which is unique to ALDHC and its homologs, serves a critical role in presenting the catalytic water to the newly reset E257 such that the enzyme can proceed with deacylation and product release. Collectively, the reaction mechanism proposed for ALDHC promotes a greater understanding of these novel ALDH enzymes, the ALDH super-family in general, and benzoate degradation in B. xenovorans LB400. PMID:21495107

Bains, Jasleen; Leon, Rafael; Temke, Kevin G; Boulanger, Martin J

2011-01-01

177

Novel employment of lactate dehydrogenase release from porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as a quantitative marker of cytotoxic activity in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from human faecal isolates, poultry and environmental sources.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to employ a novel cytotoxicity assay based on primary porcine aortic endothelial cells in combination with a lactate dehydrogenase release assay to quantitatively determine differences in cytotoxin production between Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC), isolated from human faeces, animals and environmental sources. Campylobacter isolates totalling 34 and comprising of C. jejuni (n = 24) C. coli (n = 5) and UPTC (n = 4) and C. lari (n = 1) were analysed. The cytotoxic response ranged from 32.15 to 64.47% and 33.08 to 59.41%, for C. jejuni from chicken and human isolates, respectively and there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in cytotoxic response between C. jejuni isolated from humans and chicken isolates (50.78% versus 50.55% cytotoxicity, respectively). However, there was a difference in response between C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from chickens (50.78% versus 33.22% cytotoxicity, respectively). The greatest cytotoxic response was obtained with the UPTC group of organisms examined (n = 4 isolates) (mean cytotoxic response = 57.11% cytotoxicity. Employment of this cytotoxin assay may help identify virulent strains in poultry that could potentially proceed to cause clinical problems for humans and thus intervention measures targeted at the reduction or elimination of such specific strains, may be sought. PMID:14628998

Millar, B C; McCarron, M; Murphy, P G; Moore, J E

2003-08-01

178

The Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Some Specific Proteins in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Before and After Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to measure serum C reactive protein, ?2 microglobulin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and transferrin levels in patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma before and after treatment, and to determine whether any differences occur with treatment, investigate relationship between these parameters and systemic symptoms, and to determine whether they could be used as tumor markers. Materials and Methods: The parameters listed above were studied before and after treatment in sera of 27 patients with the diagnosis of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma who admitted to our department. Of the patients, 10 (37%) were females and 17 (63%) were males. Mean age was 57.7 ± 16.5 (19–82) years. The subjects were newly diagnosed and treatment. Results: Post-treatment serum ferritin and CRP levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with NHL compared to pre-treatment levels (p=0.009 and p=0.015, respectively). In addition, ferritin levels measured before treatment were significantly lower in subjects with B symptoms than those without B symptoms (p=0.02). IgA levels of patients with B symptom were significantly increased compared to those without B symptoms following treatment (p=0.03). Conclusions: We are in the opinion that serum ferritin and CRP parameters may be used as tumor markers and may be indicators in the efficacy evaluation of treatment in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

Yildirim, Rahsan; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Erdem, Fuat; Kiki, lhami; Bilici, Mehmet

2009-01-01

179

13C NMR Characterization of an Exchange Reaction between CO and CO2 Catalyzed by Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel?iron?sulfur cluster (the C-cluster). CO oxidation follows a ping-pong mechanism involving two-electron reduction of the C-cluster followed by electron transfer through an internal electron transfer chain to external electron acceptors. We describe 13C NMR studies demonstrating a CODH-catalyzed steady-state exchange reaction between CO and CO2 in the absence of external electron acceptors. This reaction is characterized by a CODH-dependent broadening of the 13CO NMR resonance; however, the chemical shift of the 13CO resonance is unchanged, indicating that the broadening is in the slow exchange limit of the NMR experiment. The 13CO line broadening occurs with a rate constant (1080 s?1 at 20 °C) that is approximately equal to that of CO oxidation. It is concluded that the observed exchange reaction is between 13CO and CODH-bound 13CO2 because 13CO line broadening is pH-independent (unlike steady-state CO oxidation), because it requires a functional C-cluster (but not a functional B-cluster) and because the 13CO2 line width does not broaden. Furthermore, a steady-state isotopic exchange reaction between 12CO and 13CO2 in solution was shown to occur at the same rate as that of CO2 reduction, which is approximately 750-fold slower than the rate of 13CO exchange broadening. The interaction between CODH and the inhibitor cyanide (CN?) was also probed by 13C NMR. A functional C-cluster is not required for 13CN? broadening (unlike for 13CO), and its exchange rate constant is 30-fold faster than that for 13CO. The combined results indicate that the 13CO exchange includes migration of CO to the C-cluster, and CO oxidation to CO2, but not release of CO2 or protons into the solvent. They also provide strong evidence of a CO2 binding site and of an internal proton transfer network in CODH. 13CN? exchange appears to monitor only movement of CN? between solution and its binding to and release from CODH. PMID:18589895

2008-01-01

180

Effects of cadmium exposure on the ultrastructural pathology of different pulmonary cells, leukocyte count, and activity of glutathione peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase in relation to free radical production in Uromastyx aegyptius.  

PubMed

Animal studies on the toxicity of heavy metals have been widely used as model to simulate the impacts of environmental pollution on the human health. In the present study the authors hypothesized that cadmium exposure inducts changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. The pathological changes of different pulmonary cells of ROS-cadmium-dependent effects were investigated in relation to the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Twelve animals were randomly assigned to two groups, control and experimental. The experimental group underwent ingestion of cadmium mixed with diet (200 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. Following the treatment conditions for each group, blood samples were collected and animals were sacrificed and the lung was isolated. Ultrastructure examination showed that cadmium resulted in desquamated pneumocyte type II with degenerated surfactant materials, thickened alveolar wall, and thickening of alveolar septum due to proliferation of endothelial cells lining the pulmonary capillaries as a result of an active transmigration. t-test results showed that cadmium caused a significant (p < .05) rise in leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes, which was a sign for chemotactic activity that enhanced transmigration from pulmonary microcirculation into inflammated tissue. In addition, lung tissue FR production, LDH, and GPx activities increased significantly (p < .05) from the baseline control of 88.17+/-17.70, 183.49+/-29.50, and 4466.79+/-1190.32 to 129.67+/-14.49.14 (Carr U), 339.17+/-75.28 (U/L), and 5943.08+/-695 (U/L) respectively, in the cadmium-treated group. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that long-term cadmium exposure (ingestion mixed with food) results in cadmium deposition in the tissue of the vasculature of the lungs, such as pulmonary capillary endothelial, which induced the buildup of ROS, a possible proposed new mechanism that explains lung inflammation. PMID:19274579

Al-Johany, A M; Haffor, A S

2009-01-01

181

Regression of Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via decline in lactate dehydrogenase and induction of apoptosis by a ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide as ligand.  

PubMed

A novel ruthenium(II)-complex containing 4-carboxy N-ethylbenzamide (Ru(II)-CNEB) was found to interact with and inhibit M4-lactate dehydrogenase (M4-LDH), a tumor growth supportive enzyme, at the tissue level. The present article describes modulation of M4-LDH by this compound in a T-cell lymphoma (Dalton's Lymphoma: DL) vis a vis regression of the tumor in vivo. The compound showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity to DL cells in vitro. When a non toxic dose (10 mg/kg bw i.p.) of Ru(II)-CNEB was administered to DL bearing mice, it also produced a significant decline in DL cell viability in vivo. The DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice showed a significant decline in the level of M4-LDH with a concomitant release of this protein in the cell free ascitic fluid. A significant increase of nuclear DNA fragmentation in DL cells from Ru(II)-CNEB treated DL mice also coincided with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in those DL cells. Importantly, neither blood based biochemical markers of liver damage nor the normal patterns of LDH isozymes in other tissues were affected due to the treatment of DL mice with the compound. These results were also comparable with the effects of cisplatin (an anticancer drug) observed simultaneously on DL mice. The findings suggest that Ru(II)-CNEB is able to regress Dalton's lymphoma in vivo via declining M4-LDH and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction-apoptosis pathway without producing any toxicity to the normal tissues. PMID:19043664

Koiri, Raj K; Trigun, Surendra K; Mishra, Lallan; Pandey, Kiran; Dixit, Deobrat; Dubey, Santosh K

2009-12-01

182

On the reaction mechanism of l-lactate oxidase: Quantitative structure-activity analysis of the reaction with para-substituted?l-mandelates  

PubMed Central

The rate constants for reduction of the flavoenzyme, l-lactate oxidase, and a mutant (in which alanine 95 is replaced by glycine), by a series of para-substituted mandelates, in both the 2-1H- and 2-2H- forms, have been measured by rapid reaction spectrophotometry. In all cases, significant isotope effects (1H/2H = 3–7) on the rate constants of flavin reduction were found, indicating that flavin reduction is a direct measure of ?-C-H bond breakage. The rate constants show only a small influence of the electronic characteristics of the substituents, but show a good correlation when combined with some substituent volume parameters. A surprisingly good correlation is found with the molecular mass of the substrate. The results are compatible with any mechanism in which there is little development of charge in the transition state. This could be a transfer of hydride to the flavin N(5) position or a synchronous mechanism in which the ?-C-H is formally abstracted as a H+ while the resulting charge is simultaneously neutralized by another event. PMID:9275167

Yorita, Kazuko; Janko, Karl; Aki, Kenji; Ghisla, Sandro; Palfey, Bruce A.; Massey, Vincent

1997-01-01

183

Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyses the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NADP(H). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is a compulsory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. The kinetic mechanisms of the NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent reactions were examined by steady-state kinetic methods and by dinucleotide binding experiments. The double-reciprocal patterns obtained for initial velocity with NAD(P)(+) and for product and dead-end inhibition establish that both mechanisms are steady-state random. However, quantitative analysis of the inhibitions, and comparison with binding data, suggest a preferred route of addition of substrates and release of products in which NAD(P)(+) binds first and NAD(P)H leaves last, particularly in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. Abortive binding of the dinucleotides, or their analogue ADP, in the betaine aldehyde site was inferred from total substrate inhibition by the dinucleotides, and parabolic inhibition by NADH and ADP. A weak partial uncompetitive substrate inhibition by the aldehyde was observed only in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. The kinetics of P. aeruginosa BADH is very similar to that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that both enzymes fulfil a similar amphibolic metabolic role when the bacteria grow in choline and when they grow in glucose. PMID:11104673

Velasco-García, R; González-Segura, L; Muńoz-Clares, R A

2000-01-01

184

Combining Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase-Based and Histidine-Rich Protein 2-Based Rapid Tests To Improve Specificity for Diagnosis of Malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and Other Plasmodium Species in Sabah, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with “species-specific” parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P. falciparum because of P. knowlesi cross-reactivity and cautions against their use alone in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. Sensitive P. knowlesi-specific RDTs and/or alternative molecular diagnostic tools are needed in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. PMID:24696029

William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E.; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2014-01-01

185

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production  

PubMed Central

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

186

Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production.  

PubMed

As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important l-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (l-lactate and l-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination. PMID:25373400

Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Zhang, Yingxin; Xiao, Xieyue; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Chunhui; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

187

Lactate and acetate production in Listeria innocua.  

PubMed

Listeria innocua NCTC 11289 was grown aerobically in continuous culture in defined media at 30 degrees C. Both acetate and lactate were produced, the proportion of acetate decreased with increasing dilution rate. Enzymatic analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase was activated 10-fold by fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate. The presence of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase but not pyruvate oxidase was detected, suggesting the sequential action of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase to produce acetate from acetyl CoA via acetylphosphate. PMID:8987454

Kelly, A F; Patchett, R A

1996-08-01

188

Towards catalyst compartimentation in combined chemo- and biocatalytic processes: immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases for the diastereoselective reduction of a ?-hydroxy ketone obtained from an organocatalytic aldol reaction.  

PubMed

The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from Lactobacillus kefir and Rhodococcus sp., which earlier turned out to be suitable for a chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis with organocatalysts, were immobilized with their cofactors on a commercially available superabsorber based on a literature known protocol. The use of the immobilized ADH from L. kefir in the reduction of acetophenone as a model substrate led to high conversion (>95%) in the first reaction cycle, followed by a slight decrease of conversion in the second reaction cycle. A comparable result was obtained when no cofactor was added although a water rich reaction media was used. The immobilized ADHs also turned out to be suitable catalysts for the diastereoselective reduction of an organocatalytically prepared enantiomerically enriched aldol adduct, leading to high conversion, diastereomeric ratio and enantioselectivity for the resulting 1,3-diols. However, at a lower catalyst and cofactor amount being still sufficient for biotransformations with "free" enzymes the immobilized ADH only showed high conversion and >99% ee for the first reaction cycle whereas a strong decrease of conversion was observed already in the second reaction cycle, thus indicating a significant leaching effect of catalyst and/or cofactor. PMID:24036136

Rulli, Giuseppe; Heidlindemann, Marcel; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

2013-11-01

189

A novel d-mandelate dehydrogenase used in three-enzyme cascade reaction for highly efficient synthesis of non-natural chiral amino acids.  

PubMed

A novel NAD(+)-dependent D-mandelate dehydrogenase was identified from Lactobacillus brevis (LbDMDH). After purified to homogeneity, the optimum pH and temperature for oxidation of D-mandelate were pH 10.0 and 40°C, and the Km and kcat were 1.1mM and 355s(-1) respectively. Employing the LbDMDH together with a mandelate racemase from Pseudomonas putida and a leucine dehydrogenase (EsLeuDH) from Exiguobacterium sibiricum, we established a three-step one-pot domino reaction system for preparing chiral L-phenylglycine from racemic mandelic acid with internal cofactor recycling. Under the optimum conditions, 30.4g rac-mandelic acid (0.2M) at 1L scale had been converted into chiral L-phenylglycine, with 96.4% conversion, 86.5% isolation yield, >99% eep and 50.4gL(-1)d(-1) space-time yield. PMID:25449542

Fan, Chang-Wei; Xu, Guo-Chao; Ma, Bao-Di; Bai, Yun-Peng; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jian-He

2015-02-10

190

IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase accord.  

PubMed

This paper is the seventh in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Procedures for the Measurement of Catalytic Activity Concentrations of Enzymes; Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. The certification of the catalytic activity concentrations as determined by the recently elaborated IFCC primary reference methods at 37 degrees C of four enzyme preparations, namely IRMM/IFCC 452 (gamma-glutamyltransferase), IRMM/IFCC 453 (lactate dehydrogenase 1), IRMM/IFCC 454 (alanine aminotransferase) and IRMM/IFCC 455 (creatine kinase) is described. Homogeneity data were derived from previous results. Stability was assessed using recently obtained data as well as data from previous stability studies. The collaborative study for value assignment was performed under a strict quality control scheme to ensure traceability to the primary reference method. Uncertainty of the materials was assessed in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The certified values obtained at 37 degrees C are 1.90 microkat/l +/- 0.04 microkat/l (114.1 U/l +/- 2.4 U/l), for gamma-glutamyltransferase, 8.37 microkat/l +/- 0.12 microkat/l (502 U/l +/- 7 U/l), for lactate dehydrogenase 1, 3.09 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat/l (186 U/l +/- 4 U/l), for alanine aminotransferase and 1.68 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat/l (101 U/l +/- 4 U/l), for creatine kinase. The materials are intended for internal quality control as well as for the evaluation of test systems as required by recent European Union legislation. Furthermore, the materials can be used to transfer accuracy from a reference method to a routine procedure provided the procedures exhibit the same analytical specificity and the certified materials are commutable. PMID:12241024

Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jřrgensen, Poul Jřrgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

2002-07-01

191

Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa  

E-print Network

in the staining solution for 20 hours 49 51 17 Temperature effects of MDH activity of bovine sperm cells 52 r. INTRODUCTION I Malate dehydrogenase, widely distributed in mammalian , tissues, is an enzyme associated with the tricarboxylic ' acid cycle... acceptor which is reduced to an insoluble formazan iat the site of the enzyme-substrate reaction. Cytochemical demonstration of succinic dehydrogenase in intact rabbit spermatozoa had been studied by Edwards and Valentine (1962). They reported...

Lin, Hozong Robert

1973-01-01

192

Pyruvate into lactate and back: From the Warburg effect to symbiotic energy fuel exchange in cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells fuel their metabolism with glucose and glutamine to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferation. Hypoxia and oncogenic mutations drive glycolysis, with the pyruvate to lactate conversion being promoted by increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The NAD+ pool is consecutively regenerated and supports the high glycolytic flux required to produce anabolic

Olivier Feron

2009-01-01

193

The ylo-1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase responsible for the last reaction in the Neurospora carotenoid pathway.  

PubMed

The accumulation of the apocarotenoid neurosporaxanthin and its carotene precursors explains the orange pigmentation of the Neurospora surface cultures. Neurosporaxanthin biosynthesis requires the activity of the albino gene products (AL-1, AL-2 and AL-3), which yield the precursor torulene. Recently, we identified the carotenoid oxygenase CAO-2, which cleaves torulene to produce the aldehyde beta-apo-4'-carotenal. This revealed a last missing step in Neurospora carotenogenesis, namely the oxidation of the CAO-2 product to the corresponding acid neurosporaxanthin. The mutant ylo-1, which exhibits a yellow colour, lacks neurosporaxanthin and accumulates several carotenes, but its biochemical basis is unknown. Based on available genetic data, we identified ylo-1 in the Neurospora genome, which encodes an enzyme representing a novel subfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases, and demonstrated that it is responsible for the yellow phenotype, by sequencing and complementation of mutant alleles. In contrast to the precedent structural genes in the carotenoid pathway, light does not induce the synthesis of ylo-1 mRNA. In vitro incubation of purified YLO-1 protein with beta-apo-4'-carotenal produced neurosporaxanthin through the oxidation of the terminal aldehyde into a carboxyl group. We conclude that YLO-1 completes the set of enzymes needed for the synthesis of this major Neurospora pigment. PMID:18627463

Estrada, Alejandro F; Youssar, Loubna; Scherzinger, Daniel; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

2008-09-01

194

Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

2012-03-20

195

Metabolic control exerted by the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction: a cross-kingdom comparison of the crossroad between energy production and nitrogen assimilation.  

PubMed

Mechanism-based inhibitors and both forward and reverse genetics have proved to be essential tools in revealing roles for specific enzymatic processes in cellular function. Here, we review experimental studies aimed at assessing the impact of OG (2-oxoglutarate) oxidative decarboxylation on basic cellular activities in a number of biological systems. After summarizing the catalytic and regulatory properties of the OGDHC (OG dehydrogenase complex), we describe the evidence that has been accrued on its cellular role. We demonstrate an essential role of this enzyme in metabolic control in a wide range of organisms. Targeting this enzyme in different cells and tissues, mainly by its specific inhibitors, effects changes in a number of basic functions, such as mitochondrial potential, tissue respiration, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, nitrogen metabolism, glutamate signalling and survival, supporting the notion that the evolutionary conserved reaction of OG degradation is required for metabolic adaptation. In particular, regulation of OGDHC under stress conditions may be essential to overcome glutamate excitotoxicity in neurons or affect the wound response in plants. Thus, apart from its role in producing energy, the flux through OGDHC significantly affects nitrogen assimilation and amino acid metabolism, whereas the side reactions of OGDHC, such as ROS production and the carboligase reaction, have biological functions in signalling and glyoxylate utilization. Our current view on the role of OGDHC reaction in various processes within complex biological systems allows us a far greater fundamental understanding of metabolic regulation and also opens up new opportunities for us to address both biotechnological and medical challenges. PMID:19698086

Bunik, Victoria I; Fernie, Alisdair R

2009-09-15

196

Characterization of the major dehydrogenase related to d-lactic acid synthesis in Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to d-(-)-lactic acid by using d-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for d-lactic acid formation in this organism and to characterize the enzyme to facilitate the production of optically pure d-lactic acid. A genomic analysis of L. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 revealed that 7 genes encode lactate-related dehydrogenase. According to transcriptomic, proteomic, and phylogenetic analyses, LEUM_1756 was the major gene responsible for the production of d-lactic acid. The LEUM_1756 gene, of 996bp and encoding 332 amino acids (36.5kDa), was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star from an inducible pET-21a(+) vector. The enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and showed a specific activity of 4450U/mg, significantly higher than those of other previously reported ldhDs. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the purified enzyme exists as tetramers in solution and this was the first report among lactic acid bacteria. The pH and temperature optima were pH 8.0 and 30°C, respectively, for the pyruvate reduction reaction, and pH 11.0 and 20°C, respectively, for the lactate oxidation reaction. The K(m) kinetic parameters for pyruvate and lactate were 0.58mM and 260mM, respectively. In addition, the k(cat) values for pyruvate and lactate were 2900s(-1) and 2280s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), or urea, but was inhibited by 1mM Zn(2+) and 1mM SDS. PMID:22975125

Li, Ling; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Jung-Mi; Seo, Eunyoung; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

2012-10-10

197

A reappraisal of the reaction of butyrylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase with phenylmercuric acetate. Evidence that de-greening involves a reaction of the tightly bound thioester  

PubMed Central

Phenylmercuric acetate reversibly de-greens butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Megasphaera elsdenii, abolishing the absorption band at 710nm. The view that this is a result of modification of a protein thiol group is re-examined in the light of the following new observations. (i) After treatment with phenylmercuric acetate, the enzyme's ability to be re-greened by addition of thiols was not decreased by gel filtration or precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. (ii) Phenylmercuric acetate caused the same extent of de-greening whether added in a few large amounts or many small ones. The overall time taken for de-greening was, however, greatly extended when many small additions were made. (iii) In Tris/acetate buffer, pH7.5, 3.5mol of phenylmercuric acetate/mol of enzyme subunit was required for complete de-greening, compared with only 2.5mol/mol in phosphate buffer, pH7. (iv) None of the groups that react with phenylmercuric acetate is accessible to iodoacetate or iodoacetamide. (v) On a molar basis dithiothreitol, mercaptoethanol and CoA are equally effective in re-greening the enzyme. (vi) Provided that phenylmercuric acetate is not present in excess, the de-greened enzyme forms normal and stable complexes with crotonyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. (vii) When a small excess of phenylmercuric acetate is present, full stable development of the enzyme–acetoacetyl-CoA complex requires addition of several mol of acetoacetyl-CoA/mol of enzyme subunit. (viii) The ability of de-greened enzyme to be immediately re-greened by an excess of thiol declines with time, more rapidly at pH6 than at pH7 or 8, but at all three pH values the instantaneous re-greening was followed by a slow phase of further increase in A710. This further recovery was most extensive and most rapid at pH8. These findings are reminiscent of the previously described reversible decline in the re-greening capacity of a protein-free acid extract of green butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. It is concluded that the likely cause of de-greening is chemical modification of the tightly bound thioester rather than a protein thiol group. The reversibility would be explained if the thioester exists on the surface of the enzyme in equilibrium with free CoA and a lactone, or if the acyl group is readily and reversibly transferred from the thiol of CoA to a protein side chain. PMID:25661

Engel, Paul C.; Jones, Janet B.

1978-01-01

198

Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the lct locus at min 80 on the chromosome map is associated with ability to grow on L-lactate and to synthesize a substrate-inducible flavin-linked dehydrogenase. Similar to that of the glpD-encoded aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of induced enzyme activity is elevated by aerobiosis. Both of these controls are mediated by the two-component signal transduction system ArcB/ArcA, although sensitivity to the control is much more striking for L-lactate dehydrogenase. This study disclosed that the lct locus contained three overlapping genes in the clockwise order of lctD (encoding a flavin mononucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase), lctR (encoding a putative regulator), and lctP (encoding a permease) on the chromosomal map. These genes, however, are transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. No homology in amino acid sequence was found between aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. A phi (lctD-lac) mutant was inducible by L-lactate but not D-lactate. Although the mutant lost the ability to grow on L-lactate, growth on D-lactate, known to depend on a different enzyme, remained normal. Images PMID:8407843

Dong, J M; Taylor, J S; Latour, D J; Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

1993-01-01

199

Reactions of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase sulfhydryl groups with bis-electrophiles produce DNA-protein cross-links but not mutations.  

PubMed

The environmental contaminant 1,2-dibromoethane and diepoxybutane, an oxidation product of the important industrial chemical butadiene, are bis-functional electrophiles and are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. One mechanism by which bis-electrophiles can exert their toxic effects is through the induction of genotoxic and mutagenic DNA-peptide cross-links. This mechanism has been shown in systems overexpressing the DNA repair protein O6 -alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) or glutathione S-transferase and involves reactions with nucleophilic cysteine residues. The hypothesis that DNA-protein cross-link formation is a more general mechanism for genotoxicity by bis-electrophiles was investigated by screening nuclear proteins for reactivity with model monofunctional electrophiles. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as a candidate because of the nucleophilicity of two cysteine residues (Cys152 and Cys246) in reaction screens with model electrophiles (Dennehy, M. K. et al. (2006) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 20-29). Incubation of GAPDH with bis-electrophiles resulted in inhibition of its catalytic activity, but only at high concentrations of diepoxybutane. In vitro assays indicated DNA-GAPDH cross-link formation in the presence of diepoxybutane, and bis-electrophile reactivity at Cys246 was confirmed using mass spectral analysis. In contrast to AGT, overexpression of human GAPDH in Escherichia coli did not enhance mutagenesis by diepoxybutane. We propose that the lack of mutational enhancement is in part due to the inherently lower reactivity of GAPDH toward bis-electrophiles as well as the reduced DNA binding ability relative to AGT, preventing the in vivo formation of DNA-protein cross-links and enhanced mutagenesis. PMID:18163542

Loecken, Elisabeth M; Guengerich, F Peter

2008-02-01

200

Comprehensive review on lactate metabolism in human health.  

PubMed

Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Monocarboxylate transporters are being investigated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy of these and other disorders. Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption. Lactate removal takes place via its oxidation to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate may be either oxidized to carbon dioxide producing energy or transformed into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation requires oxygen supply and the cooperation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. Congenital or acquired deficiency on gluconeogenesis or pyruvate oxidation, including tissue hypoxia, may induce lactate accumulation. Both obese individuals and patients with diabetes show elevated plasma lactate concentration compared to healthy subjects, but there is no conclusive evidence of hyperlactatemia causing insulin resistance. Available evidence suggests an association between defective mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the pancreatic ?-cells and diminished insulin secretion that may trigger the development of diabetes in patients already affected with insulin resistance. Several mutations in the mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus, although the pathogenesis remains unsettled. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. d-lactate is a lactate enantiomer normally formed during glycolysis. Excess d-lactate is generated in diabetes, particularly during diabetic ketoacidosis. d-lactic acidosis is typically associated with small bowel resection. PMID:24929216

Adeva-Andany, M; López-Ojén, M; Funcasta-Calderón, R; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, E; Donapetry-García, C; Vila-Altesor, M; Rodríguez-Seijas, J

2014-07-01

201

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-30

202

Control of lactate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a bacterial LDH gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential industrial applications for lactate, such as the production of chemicals, has led to interest in producing this organic acid by metabolically engineered yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Such microorganisms are more acid tolerant than lactic acid bacteria. This paper deals with the potential of the genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain K1-LDH (the lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum has

S Dequin; J. M Sablayrolles

2003-01-01

203

[High-efficiency L-lactate production from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

High-efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate is beneficial for the development of both oil hydrolysis industry and biodegradable materials manufacturing industry. In order to construct an L-lactate producer, we first cloned a coding region of gene BcoaLDH encoding an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans CICIM B1821 and the promoter sequence (P(ldhA)) of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhA) from Escherichia coli CICIM B0013. Then we assembled these two DNA fragments in vitro and yielded an expression cassette, P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH. Then, the cassette was chromosomally integrated into an ldhA mutant strain, Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-080C, by replacing lldD encoding an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. An L-lactate higher-producer strain, designated as E. coli B0013-090B, possessing genotype of lldD::P(ldhA)-BcoaLDH, deltaack-pta deltapps deltapflB deltadld deltapoxB deltaadhE deltafrdA and deltaldhA, was generated. Under the optimal condition, 132.4 g/L L-lactate was accumulated by B0013-090B with the lactate productivity of 4.90 g/Lh and the yield of 93.7% in 27 h from glycerol. The optical purity of L-lactate in broth is above 99.95%. PMID:24409690

Tian, Kangming; Shi, Guiyang; Lu, Fuping; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-09-01

204

Biochemical characterization of proline dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis mitochondria.  

PubMed

Proline has multiple functions in plants. Besides being a building block for protein biosynthesis proline plays a central role in the plant stress response and in further cellular processes. Here, we report an analysis on the integration of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) into mitochondrial metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. An experimental system to induce ProDH activity was established using cell cultures. Induction of ProDH was measured by novel photometric activity assays and by a ProDH in gel activity assay. Effects of increased ProDH activity on other mitochondrial enzymes were systematically investigated. Activities of the protein complexes of the respiratory chain were not significantly altered. In contrast, some mitochondrial dehydrogenases had markedly changed activities. Activity of glutamate dehydrogenase substantially increased, indicating upregulation of the entire proline catabolic pathway, which was confirmed by co-expression analyses of the corresponding genes. Furthermore, activity of d-lactate dehydrogenase was increased. d-lactate was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of ProDH in plants. We suggest that induction of d-lactate dehydrogenase activity allows rapid upregulation of ProDH activity during the short-term stress response in plants. PMID:24751239

Schertl, Peter; Cabassa, Cécile; Saadallah, Kaouthar; Bordenave, Marianne; Savouré, Arnould; Braun, Hans-Peter

2014-06-01

205

A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.  

PubMed

The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress. PMID:25214213

Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

2014-12-01

206

1H-NMR and Hyperpolarized 13C-NMR Assays of Pyruvate-Lactate Exhange: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate-lactate exchange is mediated by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and is central to the altered energy metabolism in cancer cells. Measurement of exchange kinetics using hyperpolarized 13C NMR has provided a biomarker of response to novel therapeutics. In this study we investigated an alternative in vitro 1H assay, using [3-13C]pyruvate, and compared the measured kinetics with a hyperpolarized 13C-NMR assay, using [1-13C]pyruvate, under the same conditions in human colorectal carcinoma SW1222 cells. The apparent forward reaction rate constants (kPL) derived from the two assays showed no significant difference, and both assays had similar reproducibility (kPL = 0.506 ± 0.054 and kPL = 0.441 ± 0.090 nmol/s/106 cells, (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3); 1H, 13C assays respectively). The apparent backward reaction rate constant (kLP) could only be measured with good reproducibility using the 1H-NMR assay (kLP = 0.376 ± 0.091 nmol/s/106 cells, (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3)). The 1H-NMR assay has adequate sensitivity to measure real-time pyruvate-lactate exchange kinetics in vitro, offering a complementary and accessible assay of apparent LDH activity. PMID:23712817

Orton, Matthew R.; Tardif, Nicolas; Parkes, Harold G.; Robinson, Simon P.; Leach, Martin O.; Chung, Yuen-Li; Eykyn, Thomas R.

2015-01-01

207

Production of optically pure d-lactate from glycerol by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.  

PubMed

In this study, glycerol was used to produce optically pure d-lactate by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. In the recombinant strain, d-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA was overexpressed, and two genes, dhaT and yqhD for biosynthesis of main byproduct 1,3-propanediol, were knocked out. To further improve d-lactate production, the culture condition was optimized and the results demonstrated that aeration rate played an important role in d-lactate production. In microaerobic fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain accumulated 142.1g/L optically pure d-lactate with a yield of 0.82g/g glycerol, which represented the highest d-lactate production from glycerol so far. This study showed that K. pneumoniae strain has high efficiency to convert glycerol into d-lactate and high potentiality in utilization of crude glycerol from biodiesel industry. PMID:25270041

Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Xian, Mo; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Rubing; Zhao, Guang

2014-11-01

208

Involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in product formation in pyruvate-limited anaerobic chemostat cultures of Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with pyruvate as the energy source. At low culture pH values, high in vivo and in vitro activities were found for both pyruvate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. At high culture pH values the carbon flux was shifted towards pyruvate formate lyase. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this metabolic switch are

Jacky L. Snoep; M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos; Pieter W. Postma; Oense M. Neijssel

1990-01-01

209

Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

210

Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

211

Homofermentative lactate production cannot sustain anaerobic growth of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: possible consequence of energy-dependent lactate export.  

PubMed

Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

van Maris, Antonius J A; Winkler, Aaron A; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

2004-05-01

212

Hematite nanoparticles larger than 90 nm show no sign of toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase release, nitric oxide generation, apoptosis, and comet assay in murine alveolar macrophages and human lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Three hematite samples were synthesized by precipitation from a FeCl? solution under controlled pH and temperature conditions in different morphology and dimensions: (i) microsized (average diameter 1.2 ?m); (ii) submicrosized (250 nm); and (iii) nanosized (90 nm). To gain insight into reactions potentially occurring in vivo at the particle-lung interface following dust inhalation, several physicochemical features relevant to pathogenicity were measured (free radical generation in cell-free tests, metal release, and antioxidant depletion), and cellular toxicity assays on human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) were carried out (LDH release, apoptosis detection, DNA damage, and nitric oxide synthesis). The decrease in particles size, from 1.2 ?m to 90 nm, only caused a slight increase in structural defects (disorder of the hematite phase and the presence of surface ferrous ions) without enhancing surface reactivity or cellular responses in the concentration range between 20 and 100 ?g cm?˛. PMID:22324577

Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Bonelli, Barbara; Tomatis, Maura; Ghiazza, Mara; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Garrone, Edoardo; Fubini, Bice

2012-04-16

213

Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

l-lactate formation occurs via the reduction of pyruvate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase. l-lactate removal takes place via its oxidation into pyruvate, which may be oxidized or converted into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation involves the cooperative effort of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. In addition, pyruvate may undergo reversible transamination to alanine by alanine aminotransferase. Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism are crucial to diabetes pathophysiology and therapy. Elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase concentration has been associated with insulin resistance. Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene have been associated with fasting glucose concentration and insulin secretion. In diabetes patients, pyruvate dehydrogenase is down-regulated and the activity of pyruvate carboxylase is diminished in the pancreatic islets. Inhibitors of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase are being investigated as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In addition, enzymes implicated in l-lactate metabolism have revealed to be important in cancer cell homeostasis. Many human tumors have higher LDH5 levels than normal tissues. The LDHC gene is expressed in a broad range of tumors. The activation of PDH is a potential mediator in the body response that protects against cancer and PDH activation has been observed to reduce glioblastoma growth. The expression of PDK1 may serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. Genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase have tumor suppressor functions and consequently mutations in these genes may cause a variety of tumors. PMID:24029012

Adeva, M; González-Lucán, M; Seco, M; Donapetry, C

2013-11-01

214

Cellobiose dehydrogenase, an active agent in cellulose depolymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of cellobiose dehydrogenase purified from Phanerochaete chrysosporium to modify a Douglas fir kraft pulp was assessed. Although the addition of cellobiose dehydrogenase alone had little effect, supplemen- tation with cellobiose and iron resulted in a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization of the pulp cellulose. When the reaction was monitored over time, a progressive depolymerization of the

SHAWN D. MANSFIELD; ED DE JONG; JOHN N. SADDLER

1997-01-01

215

The d-2-Hydroxyacid Dehydrogenase Incorrectly Annotated PanE Is the Sole Reduction System for Branched-Chain 2-Keto Acids in Lactococcus lactis? †  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases of lactic acid bacteria, which catalyze the stereospecific reduction of branched-chain 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids, are of interest in a variety of fields, including cheese flavor formation via amino acid catabolism. In this study, we used both targeted and random mutagenesis to identify the genes responsible for the reduction of 2-keto acids derived from amino acids in Lactococcus lactis. The gene panE, whose inactivation suppressed hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase activity, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant His-tagged fusion protein was purified and characterized. The gene annotated panE was the sole gene responsible for the reduction of the 2-keto acids derived from leucine, isoleucine, and valine, while ldh, encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase, was responsible for the reduction of the 2-keto acids derived from phenylalanine and methionine. The kinetic parameters of the His-tagged PanE showed the highest catalytic efficiencies with 2-ketoisocaproate, 2-ketomethylvalerate, 2-ketoisovalerate, and benzoylformate (Vmax/Km ratios of 6,640, 4,180, 3,300, and 2,050 U/mg/mM, respectively), with NADH as the exclusive coenzyme. For the reverse reaction, the enzyme accepted d-2-hydroxyacids but not l-2-hydroxyacids. Although PanE showed the highest degrees of identity to putative NADP-dependent 2-ketopantoate reductases (KPRs), it did not exhibit KPR activity. Sequence homology analysis revealed that, together with the d-mandelate dehydrogenase of Enterococcus faecium and probably other putative KPRs, PanE belongs to a new family of d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which is unrelated to the well-described d-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase family. Its probable physiological role is to regenerate the NAD+ necessary to catabolize branched-chain amino acids, leading to the production of ATP and aroma compounds. PMID:19047348

Chambellon, Emilie; Rijnen, Liesbeth; Lorquet, Frédérique; Gitton, Christophe; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Yvon, Mireille

2009-01-01

216

Identification of the genes that contribute to lactate utilization in Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137-0139 (lldEFG), hp0140-0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137-0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140-0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137-0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140-0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

217

Identification of the Genes That Contribute to Lactate Utilization in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacteria etiologically related to gastric cancer. Lactate utilization has been implicated although no corresponding genes have been identified in the H. pylori genome. Here, we report that gene products of hp0137–0139 (lldEFG), hp0140–0141 (lctP), and hp1222 (dld) contribute to D- and L-lactate utilization in H. pylori. The three-gene unit hp0137–0139 in H. pylori 26695 encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in an NAD-dependent manner. Isogenic mutants of these genes were unable to grow on L-lactate-dependent medium. The hp1222 gene product functions as an NAD-independent D-LDH and also contributes to the oxidation of L-lactate; the isogenic mutant of this gene failed to grow on D-lactate-dependent medium. The parallel genes hp0140–0141 encode two nearly identical lactate permeases (LctP) that promote uptake of both D- and L-lactate. Interestingly an alternate route must also exist for lactate transport as the knockout of genes did not completely prevent growth on D- or L-lactate. Gene expression levels of hp0137–0139 and hp1222 were not enhanced by lactate as the carbon source. Expression of hp0140–0141 was slightly suppressed in the presence of L-lactate but not D-lactate. This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. PMID:25078575

Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Reddy, Rita; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

218

The reactions of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with thiols and the holoenzyme of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and of inorganic phosphate with the acyl-holoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate forms adducts with thiols. These adducts, which are presumed to be hemithioacetals, equilibrate rapidly with the unhydrated form of the aldehyde, which is the subtrate for D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The adduct provides a substrate buffer system whereby a constant low free aldehyde concentration can be maintained during the oxidation of aldehyde by the enzyme and NAD+. With this system, the kinetics of the association of the aldehyde with the enzyme were examined. The rate profile for this reaction is a single exponential process, showing that all four active sites of the enzyme have equivalent and independent reactivity towards the aldehyde, with an apparent second-order rate constant of 5 X 10(7)M-1-S-1 at pH8.0 and 21 degrees C. The second-order rate constant becomes 8 X 10(7)M-1-S-1 when account is taken of the forward and reverse catalytic rate constants of the dehydrogenase. The pH-dependence of the observed rate constant is consistent with a requirement for the unprotonated form of a group of pK 6.1, which is the pK observed for second ionization of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The rate of phosphorolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate during the steady-state oxidative phosphorylation of the aldehyde was studied, and is proportional to the total Pi concentration up to at least 1 mM-Pi at pH 7.5. The pH-dependence of the rate of NADH generation under these conditions can be explained by the rate law d[NADA]/dt = k[acy] holoenzyme][PO4(3-)-A1, where thioester bond, although kinetically indistinguishable rate equations for the reaction are possible. The rates of the phosphorolysis reaction and of the aldehyde-association reaction decrease with increasing ionic strength, suggesting that the active site of the enzyme has cationic groups which are involved in the reaction of the enzyme with anionic substrates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:12740

Armstrong, J M; Trentham, D R

1976-01-01

219

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2011-04-01

220

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2010-04-01

221

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2014-04-01

222

21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction, and tumors of the lung or kidneys. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2012-04-01

223

Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

Meany, J. E.

2007-01-01

224

The Partial Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several advantages over other possibilities as the enzyme of choice for a student's first exposure to a purification scheme. Uses equipment and materials normally found in biochemistry laboratories. Incorporates several important biochemical techniques including spectrophotometry, chromatography, centrifugation, and electrophoresis. (MVL)

Wolf, Edward C.

1988-01-01

225

Homofermentative Production of d- or l-Lactate in Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli RR1  

PubMed Central

We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure d- or l-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to d-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce d-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of d-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of d-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous l-lactate pathway, an l-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and d-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to l-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of l-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of d-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of l-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product. PMID:10103226

Chang, Dong-Eun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Pan, Jae-Gu

1999-01-01

226

Physiology of lactation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

227

Intracellular Shuttle: The Lactate Aerobic Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that can be used as a fuel by several cells of the human body, particularly during physical exercise. Traditionally, it has been believed that the first step of lactate oxidation occurs in cytosol; however, this idea was recently challenged. A new hypothesis has been presented based on the fact that lactate-to-pyruvate conversion cannot occur in cytosol, because the LDH enzyme characteristics and cytosolic environment do not allow the reaction in this way. Instead, the Intracellular Lactate Shuttle hypothesis states that lactate first enters in mitochondria and only then is metabolized. In several tissues of the human body this idea is well accepted but is quite resistant in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we will present not only the studies which are protagonists in this discussion, but the potential mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and also a link between lactate and mitochondrial proliferation. This new perspective brings some implications and comes to change our understanding of the interaction between the energy systems, because the product of one serves as a substrate for the other. PMID:22593684

Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; Penteado Dos Santos, Rafael; Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira, Mariana; Caputo, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

228

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

229

Mixed glucose and lactate uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum through metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

The Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 lysC(fbr) strain was engineered to grow fast on racemic mixtures of lactate and to secrete lysine during growth on lactate as well as on mixtures of lactate and glucose. The wild-type C. glutamicum only grows well on L-lactate. Overexpression of D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld) achieved by exchanging the native promoter of the dld gene for the stronger promoter of the sod gene encoding superoxide dismutase in C. glutamicum resulted in a duplication of biomass yield and faster growth without any secretion of lysine. Elementary mode analysis was applied to identify potential targets for lysine production from lactate as well as from mixtures of lactate and glucose. Two targets for overexpression were pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme. The overexpression of these genes using again the sod promoter resulted in growth-associated production of lysine with lactate as sole carbon source with a carbon yield of 9% and a yield of 15% during growth on a lactate-glucose mixture. Both substrates were taken up simultaneously with a slight preference for lactate. As surmised from the elementary mode analysis, deletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase resulted in a decreased production of lysine on the mixed substrate. Elementary mode analysis together with suitable objective functions has been found a very useful tool guiding the design of strains producing lysine on mixed substrates. PMID:21370474

Neuner, Andreas; Heinzle, Elmar

2011-03-01

230

[Temperature-switched high-efficiency D-lactate production from glycerol].  

PubMed

Glycerol from oil hydrolysis industry is being considered as one of the abundent raw materials for fermentation industry. In present study, the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and growth properties on glycerol by Esherichia coli CICIM B0013-070, a D-lactate over-producing strain constructed previously, at different temperatures were investigated, followed by a novel fermentation process, named temperature-switched process, was established for D-lactate production from glycerol. Under the optimal condition, lactate yield was increased from 64.0% to 82.6%. Subsequently, the yield of D-lactate from glycerol was reached up to 88.9% while a thermo-inducible promoter was used to regulate D-lactate dehydrogenase transcription. PMID:23631124

Tian, Kangming; Zhou, Li; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Shi, Guiyang; Singh, Suren; Lu, Fuping; Wang, Zhengxiang

2013-01-01

231

Evaluation of genetic manipulation strategies on D-lactate production by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In order to rationally manipulate the cellular metabolism of Escherichia coli for D: -lactate production, single-gene and multiple-gene deletions with mutations in acetate kinase (ackA), phosphotransacetylase (pta), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (pps), pyruvate formate lyase (pflB), FAD-binding D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE), and fumarate reductase (frdA) were tested for their effects in two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production). Lactate yield and productivity could be improved by single-gene deletions of ackA, pta, pflB, dld, poxB, and frdA in the wild type E. coli strain but were unfavorably affected by deletions of pps and adhE. However, fermentation experiments with multiple-gene mutant strains showed that deletion of pps in addition to ackA-pta deletions had no effect on lactate production, whereas the additional deletion of adhE in E. coli B0013-050 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB) increased lactate yield. Deletion of all eight genes in E. coli B0013 to produce B0013-070 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA) increased lactate yield and productivity by twofold and reduced yields of acetate, succinate, formate, and ethanol by 95, 89, 100, and 93%, respectively. When tested in a bioreactor, E. coli B0013-070 produced 125 g/l D-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 0.61 g/g h (2.1-fold greater than E. coli B0013). These kinetic properties of D-lactate production are among the highest reported and the results have revealed which genetic manipulations improved D-lactate production by E. coli. PMID:21086129

Zhou, Li; Zuo, Zhi-Rui; Chen, Xian-Zhong; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Prior, Bernard A; Shen, Wei; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2011-03-01

232

A thiamin-bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit induces large scale disorder-to-order transformations in the enzyme and reveals novel structural features in the covalently bound adduct.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the E1 component from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) has been determined with phosphonolactylthiamin diphosphate (PLThDP) in its active site. PLThDP serves as a structural and electrostatic analogue of the natural intermediate alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), in which the carboxylate from the natural substrate pyruvate is replaced by a phosphonate group. This represents the first example of an experimentally determined, three-dimensional structure of a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme containing a covalently bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue and should serve as a model for the corresponding intermediates in other ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. Regarding the PDHc-specific reaction, the presence of PLThDP induces large scale conformational changes in the enzyme. In conjunction with the E1-PLThDP and E1-ThDP structures, analysis of a H407A E1-PLThDP variant structure shows that an interaction between His-407 and PLThDP is essential for stabilization of two loop regions in the active site that are otherwise disordered in the absence of intermediate analogue. This ordering completes formation of the active site and creates a new ordered surface likely involved in interactions with the lipoyl domains of E2s within the PDHc complex. The tetrahedral intermediate analogue is tightly held in the active site through direct hydrogen bonds to residues His-407, Tyr-599, and His-640 and reveals a new, enzyme-induced, strain-related feature that appears to aid in the decarboxylation process. This feature is almost certainly present in all ThDP-dependent decarboxylases; thus its inclusion in our understanding of general thiamin catalysis is important. PMID:16531404

Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Brunskill, Andrew; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Nemeria, Natalia; Zhang, Sheng; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

2006-06-01

233

Lactate-Induced Release of GABA in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Contributes to Counterregulatory Failure in Recurrent Hypoglycemia and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Suppression of GABAergic neurotransmission in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is crucial for full activation of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and increased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) output contributes to counterregulatory failure in recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) and diabetic rats. The goal of this study was to establish whether lactate contributes to raising VMH GABA levels in these two conditions. We used microdialysis to deliver artificial extracellular fluid or l-lactate into the VMH and sample for GABA. We then microinjected a GABAA receptor antagonist, an inhibitor of lactate transport (4CIN), or an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, oxamate (OX), into the VMH prior to inducing hypoglycemia. To assess whether lactate contributes to raising GABA in RH and diabetes, we injected 4CIN or OX into the VMH of RH and diabetic rats before inducing hypoglycemia. l-lactate raised VMH GABA levels and suppressed counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. While blocking GABAA receptors did not prevent the lactate-induced rise in GABA, inhibition of lactate transport or utilization did, despite the presence of lactate. All three treatments restored the counterregulatory responses, suggesting that lactate suppresses these responses by enhancing GABA release. Both RH and diabetic rats had higher baseline GABA levels and were unable to reduce GABA levels sufficiently to fully activate counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. 4CIN or OX lowered VMH GABA levels in both RH and diabetic rats and restored the counterregulatory responses. Lactate likely contributes to counterregulatory failure in RH and diabetes by increasing VMH GABA levels. PMID:23939392

Chan, Owen; Paranjape, Sachin A.; Horblitt, Adam; Zhu, Wanling; Sherwin, Robert S.

2013-01-01

234

Arginine catabolism in lactating porcine mammary tissue.  

PubMed

In vivo studies have shown that the uptake of plasma arginine by the lactating porcine mammary gland greatly exceeds the output of arginine in milk, but little is known about the metabolic fate of arginine in this organ. The objective of this study was to quantify arginine catabolism via arginase and nitric oxide synthase pathways in the mammary tissue of sows on d 28 of lactation. Mammary tissue slices (approximately 60 mg) were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in 2 mL of Krebs bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 or 2 mM L-[U-14C]arginine, and arginine metabolites were measured using HPLC and radiochemical techniques. Rates of arginine utilization were similar to rates of urea production. Proline, ornithine, urea, glutamate, glutamine, CO2 and polyamines (putrescine + spermidine + spermine) were formed from arginine, accounting for 46, 31, 17, 2.3, 1.5, 0.22, and 0.30%, respectively, of the metabolized arginine carbons. Relatively small amounts of arginine were utilized for nitric oxide and citrulline synthesis, with citrulline accounting for 2% of the metabolized arginine carbons. Production of all arginine metabolites increased with increasing extracellular arginine concentrations from 0.5 to 2 mM, indicating a high capacity for arginine degradation. Consistent with the metabolic findings, the activities of arginases, ornithine aminotransferase, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase were high, whereas those of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, ornithine decarboxylase, and nitric oxide synthases were relatively low, and there was no proline oxidase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase or pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase activity in the mammary tissue. Our results demonstrate for the first time that proline, ornithine, and urea were the major products of arginine catabolism via the arginase pathway in lactating porcine mammary tissue and provide a biochemical basis to explain a relative enrichment of proline but a relative deficiency of arginine in sow's milk. PMID:11881931

O'Quinn, P R; Knabe, D A; Wu, G

2002-02-01

235

Properties of formate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium formicicum  

SciTech Connect

Soluble formate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum was purified 71-fold with a yield of 35%. Purification was performed anaerobically in the presence of 10 mM sodium azide which stabilized the enzyme. The purified enzyme reduced, with formate, 50..mu..mol of methyl viologen per min per mg of protein and 8.2 ..mu..mol of coenzyme F/sub 420/ per min per mg of protein. The apparent K/sub m/ for 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin, a hydrolytic derivative of coenzyme F/sub 420/, was 10-fold greater (63 ..mu..M) than for coenzyme F/sub 420/ (6 ..mu..M). The purified enzyme also reduced flavin mononucleotide (K/sub m/ = 13 ..mu..M) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (K/sub m/ = 25 ..mu..M) with formate, but did not reduce NAD/sup +/ or NADP/sup +/. The reduction of NADP/sup +/ with formate required formate dehydrogenase, coenzyme F/sub 420/, and coenzyme F/sub 420/:NADP/sup +/ oxidoreductase. The formate dehydrogenase had an optimal pH of 7.9 when assayed with the physiological electron acceptor coenzyme F/sub 420/. The optimal reaction rate occurred at 55/sup 0/C. The molecular weight was 288,000 as determined by gel filtration. The purified formate dehydrogenase was strongly inhibited by cyanide (K/sub i/ = 6 ..mu..M), azide (K/sub i/ = 39 ..mu..M),..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-dipyridyl, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Denaturation of the purified formate dehydrogenase with sodium dodecyl sulfate under aerobic conditions revealed a fluorescent compound. Maximal excitation occurred at 385 nm, with minor peaks at 277 and 302 nm. Maximal fluorescence emission occurred at 455 nm.

Schauer, N.L.; Ferry, J.G.

1982-04-01

236

Re-design of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flavocytochrome b2: introduction of L-mandelate dehydrogenase activity.  

PubMed Central

Flavocytochrome b2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an l-lactate dehydrogenase which exhibits only barely detectable activity levels towards another 2-hydroxyacid, l-mandelate. Using protein engineering methods we have altered the active site of flavocytochrome b2 and successfully introduced substantial mandelate dehydrogenase activity into the enzyme. Changes to Ala-198 and Leu-230 have significant effects on the ability of the enzyme to utilize l-mandelate as a substrate. The double mutation of Ala-198-->Gly and Leu-230-->Ala results in an enzyme with a kcat value (25 degrees C) with L-mandelate of 8.5 s-1, which represents an increase of greater than 400-fold over the wild-type enzyme. Perhaps more significantly, the mutant enzyme has a catalytic efficiency (as judged by kcat/Km values) that is 6-fold higher with l-mandelate than it is with L-lactate. Closer examination of the X-ray structure of S. cerevisiae flavocytochrome b2 led us to conclude that one of the haem propionate groups might interfere with the binding of L-mandelate at the active site of the enzyme. To test this idea, the activity with l-mandelate of the independently expressed flavodehydrogenase domain (FDH), was examined and found to be higher than that seen with the wild-type enzyme. In addition, the double mutation of Ala-198-->Gly and Leu-230-->Ala introduced into FDH produced the greatest mandelate dehydrogenase activity increase, with a kcat value more than 700-fold greater than that seen with the wild-type holoenzyme. In addition, the enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km) of this mutant enzyme was more than 20-fold greater with L-mandelate than with l-lactate. We have therefore succeeded in constructing an enzyme which is now a better mandelate dehydrogenase than a lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:9639570

Sinclair, R; Reid, G A; Chapman, S K

1998-01-01

237

Blocking Lactate Export by Inhibiting the Myc Target MCT1 Disables Glycolysis and Glutathione Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Myc oncoproteins induce genes driving aerobic glycolysis, including lactate dehydrogenase-A that generates lactate. Here we report that Myc controls transcription of the lactate transporter SLC16A1/MCT1, and that elevated MCT1 levels are manifest in premalignant and neoplastic E?-Myc transgenic B cells and in human malignancies with MYC or MYCN involvement. Notably, disrupting MCT1 function leads to an accumulation of intracellular lactate that rapidly disables tumor cell growth and glycolysis, provoking marked alterations in glycolytic intermediates, and reductions in glucose transport, and in levels of ATP, NADPH and glutathione. Reductions in glutathione then lead to increases in hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial damage and, ultimately, cell death. Finally, forcing glycolysis by metformin treatment augments this response and the efficacy of MCT1 inhibitors, suggesting an attractive combination therapy for MYC/MCT1-expressing malignancies. PMID:24285728

Doherty, Joanne R.; Yang, Chunying; Scott, Kristen E. N.; Cameron, Michael D.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Li, Weimin; Hall, Mark A.; Amelio, Antonio L.; Mishra, Jitendra K.; Li, Fangzheng; Tortosa, Mariola; Genau, Heide Marika; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Lu, Yunqi; Dang, Chi. V.; Kumar, K. Ganesh; Butler, Andrew A.; Bannister, Thomas D.; Hooper, Andrea T.; Unsal-Kacmaz, Keziban; Roush, William R.; Cleveland, John L.

2014-01-01

238

Two respiratory enzyme systems in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 contribute to growth on L-lactate.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne intestinal pathogen, preferentially utilizes a few specific amino acids and some organic acids such as pyruvate and L- and D-lactate as carbon sources, which may be important for growth in the avian and mammalian gut. Here, we identify the enzymatic basis for C. jejuni growth on L-lactate. Despite the presence of an annotated gene for a fermentative lactate dehydrogenase (cj1167), no evidence for lactate excretion could be obtained in C. jejuni NCTC 11168, and inactivation of the cj1167 gene did not affect growth on lactate as carbon source. Instead, L-lactate utilization in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was found to proceed via two novel NAD-independent L-LDHs; a non-flavin iron-sulfur containing three subunit membrane-associated enzyme (Cj0075c-73c), and a flavin and iron-sulfur containing membrane-associated oxidoreductase (Cj1585c). Both enzymes contribute to growth on L-lactate, as single mutants in each system grew as well as wild-type on this substrate, while a cj0075c cj1585c double mutant showed no L-lactate oxidase activity and did not utilize or grow on L-lactate; D-lactate-dependent growth was unaffected. Orthologues of Cj0075c-73c (LldEFG/LutABC) and Cj1585c (Dld-II) were recently shown to represent two novel families of L- and D-lactate oxidases; this is the first report of a bacterium where both enzymes are involved in L-lactate utilization only. The cj0075c-73c genes are located directly downstream of a putative lactate transporter gene (cj0076c, lctP), which was also shown to be specific for L-lactate. The avian and mammalian gut environment contains dense populations of obligate anaerobes that excrete lactate; our data indicate that C. jejuni is well equipped to use L- and D-lactate as both electron-donor and carbon source. PMID:20653766

Thomas, Marie T; Shepherd, Mark; Poole, Robert K; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Kelly, David J; Pearson, Bruce M

2011-01-01

239

Immunological Relationships Among Lactic Dehydrogenases in the Genera Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc  

PubMed Central

Antisera were prepared against pure nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent d-lactic dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus leichmannii, L. jensenii, and L. fermenti. When tested against these three antisera, crude extracts of almost all species of Lactobacillus containing a d-lactic dehydrogenase give cross-reactions. Extensive pairwise comparisons between cross-reacting crude extracts by double diffusion experiments permit the recognition of groups of identical antigenic specificity among the lactic dehydrogenases of the various nomenspecies of Lactobacillus. The same groups are revealed by each of the three antisera. By analyses of spur formation, the groups of identical antigenic specificity can be arranged in order of decreasing similarity to the homologous d-lactic dehydrogenase used as the reference point. From the combined results obtained with the three antisera, a map of the antigenic relationships among the d-lactic dehydrogenases of lactobacilli can be constructed. Microcomplement fixation experiments with two of the three anti-d-lactic dehydrogenases antisera support the conclusions drawn from double diffusion experiments and provide a quantitative estimation of the antigenic relationships among the various d-lactic dehydrogenases. An antiserum was also prepared against the pure l-lactic dehydrogenase of L. acidophilus group III. It cross-reacts with extracts of almost all lactobacilli containing an l-lactic dehydrogenase. With respect to species that contain both d- and l-lactic dehydrogenases, this antiserum reveals the same groups of identical antigenic specificity as do the antisera directed against d-lactic dehydrogenases. Other than the genus Lactobacillus, only extracts of Leuconostoc cross-react with anti-d-lactic dehydrogenase. No extrageneric cross-reactions were obtained with the anti-l-lactic dehydrogenase. Images PMID:4323961

Gasser, F.; Gasser, Charlotte

1971-01-01

240

Lactation and infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Lactation is of great importance to infant nutritional needs. It is difficult to generalize about infant growth expectations since there are variations among communities and since there may be some modification of infant feeding practices. The choice of an appropriate standard is even more difficult to estimate since they are interdependent on energy intakes. However, the balance between energy and protein content in breastmilk appears to be fairly constant through lactation and among communities. It is likely that for normally growing children exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to result in a serious mineral or nutrient deficiency. Discussion is included about measurement of breastmilk output and the various means to do so in order to calculate energy and nutrient requirements. Currently, controversy surrounds the timing of milk supplements for those infants being breastfed. A general guideline seems to be that weaning should be avoided before age 4 months in industrialized countries. The various problems which are reiterated are: growth targets, nutritional requirements, optimization of lactation, and the weanling dilemma. A rational public health target should be normal growth and the maintenance of a normal nutritional status. Nutritional requirements must be sensibly set because if the target is too high it will be dismissed as impractical; if it is too low, it will fail to meet the needs of a substantial portion of the population. It seems wise to concentrate on achieving an optimal start to lactation in the early weeks when it appears likely that the breastfeeding potential is being determined. Since normal growth in infancy is an appropriate health goal, breastfeeding should perhaps be utilized to the maximum and be backed by systematic supplementation at a time when growth would likely falter. More attention must be directed toward prevalent weaning strategies. PMID:7020870

Rowland, M G; Paul, A A; Whitehead, R G

1981-01-01

241

Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: a 13C-NMR study.  

PubMed

As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-13C]-, or L-[2-13C]-, or L-[3-13C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice. PMID:19747499

Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnčs

2010-01-01

242

Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

2007-07-01

243

Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 ?M as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

2014-01-01

244

Injected Progestogen and Lactation  

PubMed Central

Norethisterone ethanate (200 mg every 84 days) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (150 mg every three months) were found to be completely effective in fertility control when started in the puerperium. Neither agent had any ill effect on the amount of milk or the duration of lactation. From the third month onward the three-hourly available milk and the infant weight gain per month were statistically higher in treated groups than in controls. Milk proteins showed a slight decrease in most groups, including the controls, owing to the low-protein diet. No important side effect was produced by these agents other than amenorrhoea. PMID:5099971

Karim, M.; Ammar, R.; El Mahgoub, S.; El Ganzoury, B.; Fikri, F.; Abdou, I.

1971-01-01

245

Amperometric detection of L-lactate using nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes modified with lactate oxidase.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) provide a simple, robust, and unique platform for biosensing. Their catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and subsequent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) disproportionation creates a sensitive electrochemical response to enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) on the N-CNT surface, eliminating the need for additional peroxidases or electron-transfer mediators. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with 7.4 atom % N-CNTs, lactate oxidase (LOx), and a tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr)-modified Nafion binder. The resulting amperometric l-lactate biosensors displayed a sensitivity of 0.040 ± 0.002 A M(-1) cm(-2), a low operating potential of -0.23 V (vs Hg/Hg(2)SO(4)), a repeatability of 1.6% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 200 ?M samples of lactate, a fabrication reproducibility of 5.0% (RSD), a limit of detection of 4.1 ± 1.6 ?M, and a linear range of 14-325 ?M. Additionally, over a 90 day period, the repeatability for 200 ?M samples of lactate remained below 3.4% (RSD). Direct electron transfer was observed between the LOx redox-active center and the N-CNTs with the electroactive surface coverage determined to be 0.27 nmol cm(-2). PMID:21942440

Goran, Jacob M; Lyon, Jennifer L; Stevenson, Keith J

2011-11-01

246

Contraception and lactation.  

PubMed

Lactation's contraceptive effect cannot be relied upon for more than 6 weeks postpartum, and ovulation often occurs in advance of the 1st postpartum menstrual period. Although breastfeeding mothers should adopt a contraceptive method, care must be taken to select a method that will not adversely affect the production and composition of breast milk. Of greatest concern is the effect of synthetic hormones transmitted via breast milk on the developing infant. Possible alternatives are the Billings ovulation detection natural family planning method, diaphragms and caps, IUDs, and sexual sterilization. While combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are contraindicated because of their harmful effects on the fat and protein composition of breast milk and on milk production, the progestogen-only OC does not appear to interfere with the quality of breast milk and less than 0.1% of the progestogen passes on to the infant. Depo-Provera, and other injectable progestogens, appear to be appropriate for breastfeeding women, although the 1st injection should be postponed until 6 weeks postpartum to reduce the likelihood of heavy bleeding. Under investigation is a nasal spray containing buserelin, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, that shows promise as a reliable, acceptable, and easily administered nonsteroidal contraceptive that does not interfere with lactation. A biodegradable buserelin implant, which would last as least 3 months, also is being developed and would be especially useful in developing countries where storage of a nasal spray might be problematic. PMID:3650668

Dewart, P J; Loudon, N B

1987-08-01

247

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 ( PDP1 ) null mutation produces a lethal infantile phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency has previously only been confirmed at the molecular level in two brothers and\\u000a two breeds of dog with exercise intolerance. A female patient, who died at 6 months, presented with lactic acidemia in the\\u000a neonatal period with serum lactate levels ranging from 2.5 to 17 mM. Failure of dichloroacetate to activate the PDH complex\\u000a in skin fibroblasts was

J. M. Cameron; M. Maj; V. Levandovskiy; C. P. Barnett; S. Blaser; N. MacKay; J. Raiman; A. Feigenbaum; A. Schulze; B. H. Robinson

2009-01-01

248

Amino acid dehydrogenases from thermotolerant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated many thermotolerant bacteria from soil samples and selected the bacteria, which showed phenylalanine dehydrogenase and lysine dehydrogenase activities. Phenylalanine dehydrogenase can be useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-phenylalanine and its derivatives and for the enzymatic assay of phenylketoneurea syndrome. Lysine dehydrogenase is useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-?- aminoadipate, which is a useful material for the

Kanoktip PACKDIBAMRUNG; Siriporn SITTIPRANEED; Shinji NAGATA; Haruo MISONO

249

Mechanism of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate and other halogenated carboxylic acids  

PubMed Central

1. Monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate, 2,2?-dichloropropionate and 3-chloropropionate were inhibitors of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Dichloroacetate was also shown to inhibit rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The inhibition was mainly non-competitive with respect to ATP. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was approx. 100?m for the three chloroacetates, difluoroacetate and 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate. Dichloroacetamide was not inhibitory. 2. Dichloroacetate had no significant effect on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase when this was maximally activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. 3. Dichloroacetate did not increase the catalytic activity of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase. 4. Dichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate and 2,2?-dichloropropionate increased the proportion of the active (dephosphorylated) form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria with 2-oxoglutarate and malate as respiratory substrates. Similar effects of dichloroacetate were shown with kidney and fat-cell mitochondria. Glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetamide were inactive. 5. Dichloroacetate increased the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in the perfused rat heart, isolated rat diaphragm and rat epididymal fat-pads. Difluoroacetate and dichloroacetamide were also active in the perfused heart, but glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and trichloroacetate were inactive. 6. Injection of dichloroacetate into rats starved overnight led within 60 min to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts from heart, psoas muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and liver. The blood concentration of lactate fell within 15 min to reach a minimum after 60 min. The blood concentration of glucose fell after 90 min and reached a minimum after 120 min. There was no significant change in plasma glycerol concentration. 7. In epididymal fatpads dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]fructose and from [U-14C]lactate into CO2 and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound. PMID:4478069

Whitehouse, Sue; Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.

1974-01-01

250

Synthesis of Triptorelin Lactate Catalyzed by Lipase in Organic Media  

PubMed Central

Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in the reaction for about 48 h. PMID:22949842

Zhuang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Hong; Xun, Erna; Chen, Ge; Yue, Hong; Tang, Ning; Wang, Lei

2012-01-01

251

Kinetic mechanism of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The kinetic behaviour of chicken-liver xanthine dehydrogenase (xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.2.1.37) has been studied. Steady-state results, obtained from a wide range of concentrations of substrates and products, were fitted by rational functions of degree 1:1, 1:2, 2:2 and 3:3 with respect to substrates, and 0:1, 1:1, 0:2 and 1:2 with regard to products, using a non-linear regression program which guarantees the fit. The goodness of fit was improved using a computer program that combines model discrimination, parameter refinement and sequential experimental design. The AIC and F tests were also used for model discrimination. For comparative purposes, the xanthine/oxygen oxidoreductase reaction was also studied. From the functions which give the maximum improvement, the complete rate equation was deduced. The significance of the terms was stated by the above methods. It was concluded that xanthine dehydrogenase requires a minimum mechanism of degree 1:1 for xanthine, 2:2 for NAD+, 1:1 for uric acid and 1:2 for NADH in the xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase reaction. These are the minimum degrees required but a rate equation of higher degree is not excluded. PMID:3422556

Bruguera, P; Lopez-Cabrera, A; Canela, E I

1988-01-01

252

Molybdenum and tungsten-dependent formate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

The prokaryotic formate metabolism is considerably diversified. Prokaryotes use formate in the C1 metabolism, but also evolved to exploit the low reduction potential of formate to derive energy, by coupling its oxidation to the reduction of numerous electron acceptors. To fulfil these varied physiological roles, different types of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) enzymes have evolved to catalyse the reversible 2-electron oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide. This review will highlight our present knowledge about the diverse physiological roles of FDH in prokaryotes, their modular structural organisation and active site structures and the mechanistic strategies followed to accomplish the formate oxidation. In addition, the ability of FDH to catalyse the reverse reaction of carbon dioxide reduction, a potentially relevant reaction for carbon dioxide sequestration, will also be addressed. PMID:25476858

Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G; Moura, Isabel

2014-12-01

253

Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.  

PubMed

The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant ?cyb2. The ?cyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the ?cyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The ?cyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata. PMID:21931845

Ueno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Uno, Jun; Sasamoto, Kaname; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kinjo, Yuki; Chibana, Hiroji

2011-01-01

254

21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6 H10 FeO6 , CAS Reg. No. 5905-52-2) in the trihydrate form is a greenish-white powder or crystalline mass. It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate,...

2010-04-01

255

Lactate Utilization Is Regulated by the FadR-Type Regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an l-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a d-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses d-iLDH and l-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldRM, lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. l-Lactate and d-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, l-iLDH and d-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of l-lactate or d-lactate. PMID:22408166

Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min

2012-01-01

256

Lactate utilization is regulated by the FadR-type regulator LldR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH) and NAD-independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-iLDH) activities are induced coordinately by either enantiomer of lactate in Pseudomonas strains. Inspection of the genomic sequences of different Pseudomonas strains revealed that the lldPDE operon comprises 3 genes, lldP (encoding a lactate permease), lldD (encoding an L-iLDH), and lldE (encoding a D-iLDH). Cotranscription of lldP, lldD, and lldE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain XMG starts with the base, C, that is located 138 bp upstream of the lldP ATG start codon. The lldPDE operon is located adjacent to lldR (encoding an FadR-type regulator, LldR). The gel mobility shift assays revealed that the purified His-tagged LldR binds to the upstream region of lldP. An XMG mutant strain that constitutively expresses D-iLDH and L-iLDH was found to contain a mutation in lldR that leads to an Ile23-to-serine substitution in the LldR protein. The mutated protein, LldR(M), lost its DNA-binding activity. A motif with a hyphenated dyad symmetry (TGGTCTTACCA) was identified as essential for the binding of LldR to the upstream region of lldP by using site-directed mutagenesis. L-Lactate and D-lactate interfered with the DNA-binding activity of LldR. Thus, L-iLDH and D-iLDH were expressed when the operon was induced in the presence of L-lactate or D-lactate. PMID:22408166

Gao, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Jiang, Tianyi; Dou, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Che, Bin; Wang, Yujiao; Lv, Min; Xu, Ping

2012-05-01

257

Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity due to increased lipid oxidation during strenuous exercise.  

PubMed

A large percentage of energy produced during high-intensity exercise depends on the aerobic glycolytic pathway. Maintenance of a cytoplasmic redox balance ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio) by the glycerophosphate shuttle involves sustained aerobic glycolysis. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) catalyzes an oxidation reaction in the glycerophosphate shuttle. In this study, we examined whether GPD1 deficiency decreases exercise capacity due to impairment of aerobic glycolysis by using the GPD1 null mouse model BALB/cHeA (HeA). Unexpectedly, we found that exercise endurance was significantly higher in HeA mice than in BALBc/By (By) mice used as controls. Furthermore, aerobic glycolysis in HeA mice was not impaired. During exercise, lipid oxidation was significantly higher in HeA mice than in By mice, concomitant with an increase in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HeA mice also showed a delay in the onset of muscle glycogen usage and lactate production during exercise. These data suggest that contribution of lipid oxidation as a fuel source for exercise is increased in HeA mice, and GPD1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity by increasing lipid oxidation, probably due to activation of AMPK. We propose that GPD1 deficiency induces an adaptation that enhances lipid availability in the skeletal muscle during exercise. PMID:25603051

Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

2015-02-20

258

Elusive transition state of alcohol dehydrogenase unveiled  

PubMed Central

For several decades the hydride transfer catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase has been difficult to understand. Here we add to the large corpus of anomalous and paradoxical data collected for this reaction by measuring a normal (> 1) 2° kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the reduction of benzaldehyde. Because the relevant equilibrium effect is inverse (< 1), this KIE eludes the traditional interpretation of 2° KIEs. It does, however, enable the development of a comprehensive model for the “tunneling ready state” (TRS) of the reaction that fits into the general scheme of Marcus-like models of hydrogen tunneling. The TRS is the ensemble of states along the intricate reorganization coordinate, where H tunneling between the donor and acceptor occurs (the crossing point in Marcus theory). It is comparable to the effective transition state implied by ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory. Properties of the TRS are approximated as an average of the individual properties of the donor and acceptor states. The model is consistent with experimental findings that previously appeared contradictory; specifically, it resolves the long-standing ambiguity regarding the location of the TRS (aldehyde-like vs. alcohol-like). The new picture of the TRS for this reaction identifies the principal components of the collective reaction coordinate and the average structure of the saddle point along that coordinate. PMID:20457944

Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon

2010-01-01

259

Fecal lactate and ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Impaired metabolism of short-chain fatty acids, as well as a modified fecal ionogram, have been reported in ulcerative colitis. Fecal water samples from 62 patients with ulcerative colitis were analyzed in the present investigation to evaluate changes in SCFAs and lactic acid in relation to activity and severity of disease. Short-chain fatty acid levels were high in quiescent and mild disease (162.6 +/- 63.6 and 147.8 +/- 63.2 mM/L, respectively), but significantly decreased in the severe form (64.7 +/- 46.9 mM/L). Lactate showed a progressive increase from mild colitis (3.0 +/- 1.8 mM/L) to severe colitis (21.4 +/- 18.6 mM/L). It thus appears that mild colitis displayed a fecal pattern characterized by normal pH and bicarbonate, slightly impaired electrolyte handling, high short-chain fatty acid values, and only moderately increased lactate. Severe colitis, on the other hand, was characterized by low fecal pH, bicarbonate, and potassium, high sodium and chloride, low short-chain fatty acid levels, and very high lactate levels. A critical lowering of intraluminal pH, which shifts bacterial metabolism from short-chain fatty acid to lactate production, may be responsible for the intraluminal pooling of lactate. PMID:3181680

Vernia, P; Caprilli, R; Latella, G; Barbetti, F; Magliocca, F M; Cittadini, M

1988-12-01

260

Boosting D-lactate production in engineered cyanobacteria using sterilized anaerobic digestion effluents.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an environmentally friendly approach to waste treatment, which can generate N and P-rich effluents that can be used as nutrient sources for microalgal cultivations. Modifications of AD processes to inhibit methanogenesis leads to the accumulation of acetic acid, a carbon source that can promote microalgal biosynthesis. This study tested different AD effluents from municipal wastes on their effect on D-lactate production by an engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (carrying a novel lactate dehydrogenase). The results indicate that: (1) AD effluents can be supplemented into the modified BG-11 culture medium (up to 1:4 volume ratio) to reduce N and P cost; (2) acetate-rich AD effluents enhance D-lactate synthesis by ? 40% (1.2g/L of D-lactate in 20 days); and (3) neutral or acidic medium had a deleterious effect on lactate secretion and biomass growth by the engineered strain. This study demonstrates the advantages and guidelines in employing wastewater for photomixotrophic biosynthesis using engineered microalgae. PMID:25084044

Hollinshead, Whitney D; Varman, Arul M; You, Le; Hembree, Zachary; Tang, Yinjie J

2014-10-01

261

Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance.  

PubMed

Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1). This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne; Weber, Jean-Michel

2014-10-15

262

L-lactate utilization by dairy goats  

SciTech Connect

Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

Rodriguez, N.R.

1984-01-01

263

The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants  

PubMed Central

Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

1973-01-01

264

Lactate dehydrogenase regulation of the metmyoglobin reducing system to improve color stability of bovine muscles through lactate enhancement  

E-print Network

in highoxygen modified atmosphere package, irradiated, stored in the dark at 1°C for 14 days. Instrumental color, TRA, lipid oxidation, and NADH were measured. LD remained the most red, whereas PM was most discolored. LD had a significantly higher level of LDH-1...

Kim, Yuan Hwan

2009-05-15

265

PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS, LONGER LACTATIONS, AND CALF VALUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longer lactations are more profitable than in the past, and daughter pregnancy rate evaluations now allow separate selection for cow fertility and longevity. Measures of productive life were compared and updated life expectancy factors were derived to replace those estimated in 1993. Extra credits f...

266

21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

267

Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities. PMID:22110522

Sadeghi, H Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R; Aghaabdollahian, S; Mofid, M R; Ghaemi, Y; Abedi, D

2011-01-01

268

Cell–cell and intracellular lactate shuttles  

PubMed Central

Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. ‘Cell–cell’ and ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell–cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

Brooks, George A

2009-01-01

269

HOPE, a New Lactate Editing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for localized editing of weakly homonuclear coupled AX3systems as, for example, lactate. It is based on the volume-selective PRESS sequence, using the properties of homonuclear polarization transfer. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by measurements on different phantoms containing lactate and acetic acid or fat. Lactate and lipid proton signals can be well discriminated

Michael Bunse; Wulf-Ingo Jung; Fritz Schick; Günther J. Dietze; Otto Lutz

1995-01-01

270

Genetically switched D-lactate production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

During a fermentation process, the formation of the desired product during the cell growth phase competes with the biomass for substrates or inhibits cell growth directly, which results in a decrease in production efficiency. A genetic switch is required to precisely separate growth from production and to simplify the fermentation process. The ldhA promoter, which encodes the fermentative D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the lactate producer Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-070 (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA), was replaced with the ? p(R) and p(L) promoters (as a genetic switch) using genomic recombination and the thermo-controllable strain B0013-070B (B0013-070, ldhAp::kan-cI(ts)857-p(R)-p(L)), which could produce two-fold higher LDH activity at 42°C than the B0013-070 strain, was created. When the genetic switch was turned off at 33°C, strain B0013-070B produced 10% more biomass aerobically than strain B0013-070 and produced only trace levels of lactate which could reduce the growth inhibition caused by oxygen insufficiency in large scale fermentation. However, 42°C is the most efficient temperature for switching on lactate production. The volumetric productivity of B0013-070B improved by 9% compared to that of strain B0013-070 when it was grown aerobically at 33°C with a short thermo-induction at 42°C and then switched to the production phase at 42°C. In a bioreactor experiment using scaled-up conditions that were optimized in a shake flask experiment, strain B0013-070B produced 122.8 g/l D-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited productivity of 0.89 g/g·h. The results revealed the effectiveness of using a genetic switch to regulate cell growth and the production of a metabolic compound. PMID:22683845

Zhou, Li; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Chen, Xian-Zhong; Prior, Bernard A; Shen, Wei; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2012-09-01

271

How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.  

PubMed

The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein (E3BP) and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) component enzyme form the structural core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by providing the binding sites for two other component proteins, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases and phosphatases. Despite a high similarity between the primary structures of E3BP and E2, the E3-binding domain of human E3BP is highly specific to human E3, whereas the E1-binding domain of human E2 is highly specific to human E1. In this study, we characterized binding of human E3 to the E3-binding domain of E3BP by x-ray crystallography at 2.6-angstroms resolution, and we used this structural information to interpret the specificity for selective binding. Two subunits of E3 form a single recognition site for the E3-binding domain of E3BP through their hydrophobic interface. The hydrophobic residues Pro133, Pro154, and Ile157 in the E3-binding domain of E3BP insert themselves into the surface of both E3 polypeptide chains. Numerous ionic and hydrogen bonds between the residues of three interacting polypeptide chains adjacent to the central hydrophobic patch add to the stability of the subcomplex. The specificity of pairing for human E3BP with E3 is interpreted from its subcomplex structure to be most likely due to conformational rigidity of the binding fragment of the E3-binding domain of E3BP and its exquisite amino acid match with the E3 target interface. PMID:16263718

Ciszak, Ewa M; Makal, Anna; Hong, Young S; Vettaikkorumakankauv, Ananthalakshmy K; Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Patel, Mulchand S

2006-01-01

272

Inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase by sesquiterpene lactones.  

PubMed

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase had previously been determined to be a likely target enzyme for the sesquiterpene lactones, a class of potential anti-neoplastic drugs. IMP dehydrogenase was purified approx. 770-fold from the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia tumor cell line. The Km values for the substrates, IMP and NAD, were determined to be 12 microM and 25 microM, respectively. Xanthine monophosphate (XMP) was shown to be a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 67 microM. Mycophenolic acid gave mixed-type inhibition with a Ki of 8 nM for the noncompetitive component and a Ki of 2 nM for the competitive component. Dissociation constants (Kd) and rate constants for inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase by nine different sesquiterpene lactones were determined. The highest Kd was seen with 2,3-dihydrohelenalin while the lowest Kd was observed with bis-helenalinyl malonate. Binding of the drugs by IMP dehydrogenase increased as the size of the drug increased. Also, changes in structure at position 6 had a relatively large effect on the Kd. There was no correlation with hydrophobicity, as determined by octanol/water partition. The first-order rate constants for the reaction of the sesquiterpene lactones with IMP dehydrogenase (k1) and the second-order rate constants for the reaction of the sesquiterpene lactones with glutathione (k2) were also determined. The rate constants for most of the sesquiterpene lactones with the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety were similar and were approximately twice as great as the rate constants for those sesquiterpene lactones with only the alpha, beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. Microlenin had approximately 5-times the reactivity of the other sesquiterpene lactones towards IMP dehydrogenase, but had approximately the same reactivity towards glutathione, suggesting that it was bound to the enzyme in a way which facilitated its reaction with one or more essential sulfhydryls. The same procedure was used for a series of N-substituted maleimide compounds with the N-substituent ranging in size from a methyl group to a benzyl group. The binding of the maleimide compounds was generally tighter than for the sesquiterpene lactones and there was an increase in binding with size. PMID:2889474

Page, J D; Chaney, S G; Hall, I H; Lee, K H; Holbrook, D J

1987-11-01

273

Mechanism of Methanol Oxidation by Quinoprotein Methanol Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

At neutral pH, oxidation of CH?OH ? CH?O by an o-quinone requires general-base catalysis and the reaction is endothermic. The $\\\\text{active-site}-{\\\\rm CO}_{2}^{-}$ groups of Glu-171 and Asp-297 (${\\\\rm Glu}\\\\text{-}171-{\\\\rm CO}_{2}^{-}$ and ${\\\\rm Asp}\\\\text{-}297-{\\\\rm CO}_{2}^{-}$) have been considered as the required general base catalysts in the bacterial o-quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) reaction. Based on quantum mechanics\\/molecular mechanics (QM\\/MM) calculations, the free

Xiaodong Zhang; Swarnalatha Y. Reddy; Thomas C. Bruice

2007-01-01

274

Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 to produce optically pure D-lactate in mineral salts medium.  

PubMed

Klebsiella oxytoca strains were constructed to produce optical pure d-lactate by pH-controlled batch fermentation in mineral salts medium. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adhE, and the phospho-transacetylase/acetate kinase A genes, pta-ackA, were deleted from the wild type. KMS002 (?adhE) and KMS004 (?adhE ?pta-ackA) exhibited d-lactate production as a primary pathway for the regeneration of NAD(+). Both strains produced 11-13 g/L of d-lactate in medium containing 2% (w/v) glucose with yields of 0.64-0.71 g/g glucose used. In sugarcane molasses, KMS002 and KMS004 produced 22-24 g/L of d-lactate with yields of 0.80-0.87 g/g total sugars utilized. Both strains also utilized maltodextrin derived from cassava starch and produced d-lactate at a concentration of 33-34 g/L with yields of 0.91-0.92 g/g maltodextrin utilized. These d-lactate yields are higher than those reported for engineered E. coli strains. PMID:22728200

Sangproo, Maytawadee; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

2012-09-01

275

Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.  

PubMed Central

As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure 1 PMID:8244116

Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

1993-01-01

276

Characterization of the second external alternative dehydrogenase from mitochondria of the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.  

PubMed

The mitochondria of the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis are able to reoxidize cytosolic NADPH. Previously, we characterized an external alternative dehydrogenase, KlNde1p, having this activity. We now characterize the second external alternative dehydrogenase of K. lactis mitochondria, KlNde2p. We examined its role in cytosolic NADPH reoxidation by studying heterologous expression of KlNDE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants and by constructing Deltaklnde1 and Deltaklnde2 mutants. KlNde2p uses NADH or NADPH as substrates, its activity in isolated mitochondria is not regulated by exogenously added calcium and it is not down-regulated when the cells grow in glucose versus lactate. KlNde2p shows lower affinity for NADPH than KlNde1p. Both enzymes show similar pH optimum. PMID:17052684

Tarrío, Nuria; Cerdán, M Esperanza; González Siso, M Isabel

2006-11-01

277

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-01

278

Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen limitation, and fumarate respiration conditions.  

PubMed

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor-limited growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under conditions of O(2) limitation but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K

2011-12-01

279

Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2002-01-01

280

Ontogeny of sorbitol dehydrogenases in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that crude extracts of Drosophila melanogaster adults contain three distinctly different enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of d-sorbitol into d-fructose. These include (1) a soluble NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SoDHs), (2) a mitochondrial NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SoDHm), and (3) a soluble NADP-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NADP-SoDH). Developmental studies have shown that the activities of all three of these

William L. Bischoff

1978-01-01

281

Amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on screen-printed carbon electrode containing cobalt phthalocyanine, coated with lactate oxidase-mesoporous silica conjugate layer.  

PubMed

A novel amperometric biosensor for the measurement of L-lactate has been developed. The device comprises a screen-printed carbon electrode containing cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC-SPCE), coated with lactate oxidase (LOD) that is immobilized in mesoporous silica (FSM8.0) using a polymer matrix of denatured polyvinyl alcohol; a Nafion layer on the electrode surface acts as a barrier to interferents. The sampling unit attached to the SPCE requires only a small sample volume of 100 ?L for each measurement. The measurement of l-lactate is based on the signal produced by hydrogen peroxide, the product of the enzymatic reaction. The behavior of the biosensor, LOD-FSM8.0/Naf/CoPC-SPCE, was examined in terms of pH, applied potential, sensitivity and operational range, selectivity, and storage stability. The sensor showed an optimum response at a pH of 7.4 and an applied potential of +450 mV. The determination range and the response time for L-lactate were 18.3 ?M to 1.5 mM and approximately 90s, respectively. In addition, the sensor exhibited high selectivity for L-lactate and was quite stable in storage, showing no noticeable change in its initial response after being stored for over 9 months. These results indicate that our method provides a simple, cost-effective, high-performance biosensor for l-lactate. PMID:22244144

Shimomura, Takeshi; Sumiya, Touru; Ono, Masatoshi; Ito, Tetsuji; Hanaoka, Taka-aki

2012-02-10

282

Determination of enzyme mechanisms by molecular dynamics: Studies on quinoproteins, methanol dehydrogenase, and soluble glucose dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to study the enzymatic mechanisms of quinoproteins, methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), and soluble glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH). The mechanisms of reduction of the orthoquinone cofactor (PQQ) of MDH and sGDH involve concerted base-catalyzed proton abstraction from the hydroxyl moiety of methanol or from the 1-hydroxyl of glucose, and hydride equivalent transfer from the substrate to the quinone carbonyl carbon C5 of PQQ. The products of methanol and glucose oxidation are formaldehyde and glucolactone, respectively. The immediate product of PQQ reduction, PQQH? [?HC5(O?) ?C4( = O) ?] and PQQH [?HC5(OH) ?C4( = O) ?] converts to the hydroquinone PQQH2 [?C5(OH) = C4(OH) ?]. The main focus is on MD structures of MDH • PQQ • methanol, MDH • PQQH?, MDH • PQQH, sGDH • PQQ • glucose, sGDH • PQQH? (glucolactone, and sGDH • PQQH. The reaction PQQ ? PQQH? occurs with Glu 171–CO2? and His 144–Im as the base species in MDH and sGDH, respectively. The general-base-catalyzed hydroxyl proton abstraction from substrate concerted with hydride transfer to the C5 of PQQ is assisted by hydrogen-bonding to the C5 = O by Wat1 and Arg 324 in MDH and by Wat89 and Arg 228 in sGDH. Asp 297–COOH would act as a proton donor for the reaction PQQH? ? PQQH, if formed by transfer of the proton from Glu 171–COOH to Asp 297–CO2? in MDH. For PQQH ? PQQH2, migration of H5 to the C4 oxygen may be assisted by a weak base like water (either by crystal water Wat97 or bulk solvent, hydrogen-bonded to Glu 171–CO2? in MDH and by Wat89 in sGDH). PMID:15273299

Reddy, Swarnalatha Y.; Bruice, Thomas C.

2004-01-01

283

Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

2014-06-01

284

Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

2014-01-01

285

Flavocytochrome b?-based enzymatic method of L-lactate assay in food products.  

PubMed

L-lactate, a key metabolite of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway, plays an important role as a biomarker in medicine, in the nutritional sector and food quality control. For these reasons, there is a need for very specific, sensitive, and simple analytical methods for the accurate L-lactate measuring. A new highly selective enzymatic method for L-lactate determination based on the use of flavocytochrome b 2 (EC 1.1.2.3; FC b 2) isolated from the recombinant strain of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been developed. A proposed enzymatic method exploits an enzymatic oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate coupled with nitrotetrazolium blue (NTZB) reduction to a colored product, formazan. The maximal absorption peak of the colored product is near ? = 525 nm and the linear range is observed in the interval 0.005-0.14 mM of L-lactate. The main advantages of the proposed method when compared to the LDH-based routine approaches are a higher sensitivity (2.0 ?M of L-lactate), simple procedure of analysis, usage of inexpensive, nontoxic reagents, and small amount of the enzyme. Enzymatic oxidation of L-lactate catalyzed by flavocytochrome b 2 and coupled with formazan production from nitrotetrazolium blue was shown to be used for L-lactate assay in food samples. A high correlation between results of the proposed method and reference ones proves the possibility to use flavocytochrome b 2-catalysed reaction for enzymatic measurement of L-lactate in biotechnology and food chemistry. PMID:24223505

Smutok, Oleh; Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Halyna; Gonchar, Mykhailo

2013-01-01

286

Effect of whole body gamma radiation on hepatic LDH activity, lactate, pyruvate concentration and rate of oxygen consumption in Bufo melanostictus.  

PubMed

Whole body Co60 gamma radiation induced changes in lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, pyruvate, lactate content and rate of oxygen (O2) consumption in a tropical hibernating anuran (Bufo melanostictus). In 3.5 and 7 Gy treated groups, a significant increase in LDH activity and lactate/pyruvate ratio was observed, whereas a significant decrease in O2 consumption rate was observed in treated animals on post-irradiation day (PID) 1, 5 and 10. Increase in LDH activity was observed on PID-1 in both the treated groups, reached to a peak on PID-5 in 7 Gy treated group and then declined on PID-10. PMID:13677637

Mishra, J; Mittra, B; Mittra, A

2002-11-01

287

The role of lactation in GDM women.  

PubMed

Lactating women exhibit more favorable blood glucose and insulin profiles, as well as increased insulin sensitivity than nonlactating women. Yet, much less is known about whether these favorable effects on metabolic risk factors persist long-term among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The evidence that lactation reduces incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is limited and inconsistent. Well-controlled, prospective studies that measure lactation intensity and duration, and comprehensively screen for postpartum glucose tolerance are needed to conclusively determine whether lactation can lead to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy. PMID:24100596

Gunderson, Erica P

2013-12-01

288

The Crystal Structure of Aquifex aeolicus Prephenate Dehydrogenase Reveals the Mode of Tyrosine Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

TyrA proteins belong to a family of dehydrogenases that are dedicated to l-tyrosine biosynthesis. The three TyrA subclasses are distinguished by their substrate specificities, namely the prephenate dehydrogenases, the arogenate dehydrogenases, and the cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenases, which utilize prephenate, l-arogenate, or both substrates, respectively. The molecular mechanism responsible for TyrA substrate selectivity and regulation is unknown. To further our understanding of TyrA-catalyzed reactions, we have determined the crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus prephenate dehydrogenase bound with NAD(+) plus either 4-hydroxyphenylpyuvate, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionate, or l-tyrosine and have used these structures as guides to target active site residues for site-directed mutagenesis. From a combination of mutational and structural analyses, we have demonstrated that His-147 and Arg-250 are key catalytic and binding groups, respectively, and Ser-126 participates in both catalysis and substrate binding through the ligand 4-hydroxyl group. The crystal structure revealed that tyrosine, a known inhibitor, binds directly to the active site of the enzyme and not to an allosteric site. The most interesting finding though, is that mutating His-217 relieved the inhibitory effect of tyrosine on A. aeolicus prephenate dehydrogenase. The identification of a tyrosine-insensitive mutant provides a novel avenue for designing an unregulated enzyme for application in metabolic engineering.

Sun, Warren; Shahinas, Dea; Bonvin, Julie; Hou, Wenjuan; Kimber, Matthew S.; Turnbull, Joanne; Christendat, Dinesh; (Guelph); (Toronto); (ConU)

2009-08-14

289

Structural Basis for "Flip-Flop" Action of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a component enzyme of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex that plays a major role in directing energy metabolism in the cell. This cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. In alpha(sub 2)beta(sub 2)-tetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, there are two cofactor binding sites, each of them being a center of independently conducted, although highly coordinated enzymatic reactions. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites can now be understood based on the recently determined crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95A resolution. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase was determined using a combination of MAD phasing and molecular replacement followed by rounds of torsion-angles molecular-dynamics simulated-annealing refinement. The final pyruvate dehydrogenase structure included coordinates for all protein amino acids two cofactor molecules, two magnesium and two potassium ions, and 742 water molecules. The structure was refined to R = 0.202 and R(sub free) = 0.244. Our structural analysis of the enzyme folding and domain assembly identified a simple mechanism of this protein motion required for the conduct of catalytic action.

Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

2003-01-01

290

A Bacillus subtilis malate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed Central

A Bacillus subtilis gene for malate dehydrogenase (citH) was found downstream of genes for citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Disruption of citH caused partial auxotrophy for aspartate and a requirement for aspartate during sporulation. In the absence of aspartate, citH mutant cells were blocked at a late stage of spore formation. PMID:8550482

Jin, S; De Jesús-Berríos, M; Sonenshein, A L

1996-01-01

291

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

1996-01-01

292

Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAVISON, R. C. R., D. COLEMAN, J. BALMER, M. NUNN, S. THEAKSTON, M. BURROWS, and S. BIRD. Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 243-247, 2000. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer compared with

R. C. RICHARD DAVISON; DAMIAN COLEMAN; JAMES BALMER; MAXWELL NUNN; SIMON THEAKSTON; MELONIE BURROWS; STEVE BIRD

2000-01-01

293

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation  

E-print Network

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation S. J. Mabjeesh, Aberdeen AB21 9SB Scotland ABSTRACT An arteriovenous kinetics technique was used to monitor mammary gland of stage of lactation, the absolute and fractional oxidation rates of Lys by the mammary gland increased

Bequette, Brian J.

294

d-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor based on the cell debris of the recombinant yeast Hansenula polymorpha.  

PubMed

A d-lactate-selective biosensor has been developed using cells' debris of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, overproducing d-lactate: cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, d-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), DlDH). The H. polymorpha DlDH-producer was constructed in two steps. First, the gene CYB2 was deleted on the background of the ?-105 (gcr1 catX) strain of H. polymorpha impaired in glucose repression and devoid of catalase activity to avoid specific l-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity. Second, the homologous gene DLD1 coding for DlDH was overexpressed under the control of the strong H. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter in the frame of a plasmid for multicopy integration in the ?cyb2 strain. The selected recombinant strain possesses 6-fold increased DlDH activity as compared to the initial strain. The cells debris was used as a biorecognition element of a biosensor, since DlDH is strongly bound to mitochondrial membranes. The cells' debris, prepared by mechanic disintegration of recombinant cells, was immobilized on a graphite working electrode in an electrochemically generated layer using an Os-complex modified cathodic electrodeposition polymer. Cytochrome c was used as additional native electron mediator to improve electron transfer from reduced DlDH to the working electrode. The constructed d-lactate-selective biosensors are characterized by a high sensitivity (46.3-61.6 A M(-1)m(-2)), high selectivity and sufficient storage stability. PMID:24840438

Smutok, Oleh V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Karkovska, Maria I; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Sibirny, Andriy A

2014-07-01

295

Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

2005-01-01

296

The expression of lactate dehydrogenase in Zea mays seedlings under hypoxic and anoxic conditions  

E-print Network

and style of Plant Physiology. regenerates the NAD' needed to maintain glycolysis and the minimal production . of ATP. Some tissues such as the anoxic leaves of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus maritimus and Typha latifolia (Barclay and Crawford, 1982...

MacAlpine, David Michael

2012-06-07

297

The effect of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone on diffusion artifacts in lactate dehydrogenase histochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), alone and in combination, on diffusion artifacts in histochemical incubations has been investigated using LDH as model enzyme. By measuring the amount of formazan in the medium at the end of the incubation it has been shown that both substances, but especially PVA, are effective in limiting diffusion. The significance

Hans A. Dahl; Svein Ivar Mellgren

1970-01-01

298

Identification of two scyllo-inositol dehydrogenases in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

scyllo-Inositol (SI) is a stereoisomer of inositol whose catabolism has not been characterized in bacteria. We found that Bacillus subtilis 168 was able to grow using SI as its sole carbon source and that this growth was dependent on a functional iol operon for catabolism of myo-inositol (MI; another inositol isomer, which is abundant in nature). Previous studies elucidated the MI catabolic pathway in B. subtilis as comprising multiple stepwise reactions catalysed by a series of Iol enzymes. The first step of the pathway converts MI to scyllo-inosose (SIS) and involves the MI dehydrogenase IolG. Since IolG does not act on SI, we suspected that there could be another enzyme converting SI into SIS, namely an SI dehydrogenase. Within the whole genome, seven genes paralogous to iolG have been identified and two of these, iolX and iolW (formerly known as yisS and yvaA, respectively), were selected as candidate genes for the putative SI dehydrogenase since they were both prominently expressed when B. subtilis was grown on medium containing SI. iolX and iolW were cloned in Escherichia coli and both were shown to encode a functional enzyme, revealing the two distinct SI dehydrogenases in B. subtilis. Since inactivation of iolX impaired growth with SI as the carbon source, IolX was identified as a catabolic enzyme required for SI catabolism and it was shown to be NAD(+) dependent. The physiological role of IolW remains unclear, but it may be capable of producing SI from SIS with NADPH oxidation. PMID:20133360

Morinaga, Tetsuro; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

2010-05-01

299

Cysteine reactivity in Thermoanaerobacter brockii alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

The free cysteine residues in the extremely thermophilic Thermoanaerobacter brockii alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH) were characterized using selective chemical modification with the stable nitroxyl biradical bis(1-oxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline-4-yl)disulfide, via a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction and with 2[14C]iodoacetic acid, via S-alkylation. The respective reactions were monitored by electron paramagenetic resonance (EPR) and by the incorporation of the radioactive label. In native TBADH, the rapid modification of one cysteine residue per subunit by the biradical and the concomitant loss of catalytic activity was reversed by DTT. NADP protected the enzyme from both modification and inactivation by the biradical. RPLC fingerprint analysis of reduced and S-carboxymethylated lysyl peptides from the radioactive alkylated enzyme identified Cys 203 as the readily modified residue. A second cysteine residue was rapidly modified with both modification reagents when the catalytic zinc was removed from the enzyme by o-phenanthroline. This cysteine residue, which could serve as a putative ligand to the active-site zinc atom, was identified as Cys 37 in RPLC. The EPR data suggested a distance of < or 10 A between Cys 37 and Cys 203. Although Cys 283 and Cys 295 were buried within the protein core and were not accessible for chemical modification, the two residues were oxidized to cystine when TBADH was heated at 75 degrees C, forming a disulfide bridge that was not present in the native enzyme, without affecting either enzymatic activity or thermal stability. The status of these cysteine residues was verified by site directed mutagenesis. PMID:9144779

Peretz, M.; Weiner, L. M.; Burstein, Y.

1997-01-01

300

Fine tuning the transcription of ldhA for D-lactate production.  

PubMed

Fine tuning of the key enzymes to moderate rather than high expression levels could overproduce the desired metabolic products without inhibiting cell growth. The aims of this investigation were to regulate rates of lactate production and cell growth in recombinant Escherichia coli through promoter engineering and to evaluate the transcriptional function of the upstream region of ldhA (encoding fermentative lactate dehydrogenase in E. coli). Twelve ldhA genes with sequentially shortened chromosomal upstream regions were cloned in an ldhA deletion, E. coli CICIM B0013-080C (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA ldhA). The varied ldhA upstream regions were further analyzed using program NNPP2.2 (Neural Network Promoter Prediction 2.2) to predict the possible promoter regions. Two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production) of these strains showed that shortening the ldhA upstream sequence from 291 to 106 bp successively reduced aerobic lactate synthesis and the inhibition effect on cell growth during the first phase. Simultaneously, oxygen-limited lactate productivity was increased during the second phase. The putative promoter downstream of the -96 site of ldhA could function as a transcriptional promoter or regulator. B0013-080C/pTH-rrnB-ldhA8, with the 72-bp upstream segment of ldhA, could be grown at a high rate and achieve a high oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 1.09 g g(-1) h(-1). No transcriptional promoting region was apparent downstream of the -61 site of ldhA. We identified the latent transcription regions in the ldhA upstream sequence, which will help to understand regulation of ldhA expression. PMID:22430499

Zhou, Li; Shen, Wei; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Prior, Bernard A; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2012-08-01

301

Adaptations of Maternal Adipose Tissue to Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to store substantial amounts of energy as lipid in adipose tissue has allowed development of a variety of strategies in wild animals to meet the considerable metabolic challenge of lactation. The ability to use adipose tissue energy has also been critical for development of the exceptional rates of milk production achieved in the dairy cow. Lactation thus results

Richard G. Vernon; Caroline M. Pond

1997-01-01

302

21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3 H5 O3 K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid...

2010-04-01

303

Environmental pollutants and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) are a group of steroidogenic enzymes that are involved in the steroid biosynthesis and metabolism. Four classes of HSDs, namely, 3?-, 11?-, 17?-, and 20?-HSDs, are discussed. 3?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of pregnenolone, 17?-hydroxypregnenolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione, respectively. 11?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between active cortisol and inactive cortisone. 17?-HSDs catalyze the interconversion between 17?-hydroxyl steroids and 17-ketoandrogens and estrogens. 20?-HSDs catalyze the conversion of progesterone into 20?-hydroxyprogesterone. Many environmental pollutants directly inhibit one or more enzymes of these HSDs, thus interfering with endogenous active steroid hormone levels. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A, and benzophenone), pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and prochloraz), and plant constituents (genistein, gossypol, and licorice). This chapter reviews these inhibitors targeting on HSDs. PMID:24388197

Ye, Leping; Guo, Jingjing; Ge, Ren-Shan

2014-01-01

304

Lipase-catalyzed ?-butylglucoside lactate synthesis in organic solvent for dermo-cosmetic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Butylglucoside can be used as a vector for lactic acid: ?-butylglucoside lactate synthesis can be achieved through transesterification catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. Synthesis was performed in an inert tertiary alcohol, 2-methyl-2-butanol. The reaction rapidly reached a thermodynamic equilibrium which could be shifted towards synthesis by alcohol product removal under reduced pressure: more than 95% of ?-butylglucoside could be

Marie-Pierre Bousquet; René-Marc Willemot; Pierre Monsan; Emmanuel Boures

1999-01-01

305

Enzymatic characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii glycolate dehydrogenase and its nearest proteobacterial homologue.  

PubMed

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains a unique glycolate dehydrogenase (CrGlcDH) for glycolate oxidation in photorespiration that is different in structure from the GlcDH enzymes of heteroptrophic prokaryotes and the glycolate oxidases of higher plants. Here, we purified the recombinantly overexpressed enzyme and characterized its enzymatic properties. CrGlcDH uses D-lactate, but not l-lactate, as an alternative substrate with similar catalytic efficiency compared to glycolate. Other short-chain organic acids are only very slowly oxidized. Only the artificial electron acceptors DCIP and PMS, but neither flavine mono- or dinucleotides nor nicotinamide dinucleotides or cytochrome c, were used as electron acceptors by the recombinant enzyme. The enzyme is sensitive to CuSO4 suggesting function of reactive sulfhydryl groups in catalysis. Accordingly, mutational analysis of a putative Fe-S cluster indicated an important function of this domain in catalysis. Evolutionary sequence analysis confirmed that CrGlcDH belongs to a so far biochemically uncharacterized group of enzymes that is found in chlorophytes and some proteobacteria. The most related proteobacterial homologue was only active with d-lactate, but not glycolate as a substrate. Our results indicate that in the chlorophytes an existing enzyme changed its substrate specificity to support photorespiratory glycolate oxidation. PMID:24681750

Aboelmy, Mohamed H; Peterhansel, Christoph

2014-06-01

306

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

PubMed Central

Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials. PMID:22081939

2009-01-01

307

Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain, or posing a risk of hypoglycemia1,2. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to T2D patients worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production (EGP), while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown of hepatic mGPD in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decrease in plasma glucose concentrations and inhibition of EGP. These findings were replicated in whole-body mGPD knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin’s blood glucose lowering effects and provide a novel therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:24847880

Madiraju, Anila K.; Erion, Derek M.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Zhang, Xian-Man; Braddock, Demetrios; Albright, Ronald A.; Prigaro, Brett J.; Wood, John L.; Bhanot, Sanjay; MacDonald, Michael J.; Jurczak, Michael; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cline, Gary W.; Samuel, Varman T.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Shulman, Gerald I.

2014-01-01

308

Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase assay microplate format Stock solutions  

E-print Network

Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase assay ­ microplate format Stock solutions 2X buffer: 166 m. Store on ice. This yields a 1 mM CH2-THF stock in 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol. Final volume in each well

309

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Parameters of Enzyme Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of four biology laboratories where students research the properties of a model enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, by using scientifitic method, molecular biology enzyme assay techniques and data analysis using a computer graphing program.

John H. Williamson (Davidson College;); A. Malcolm Campbell (Davidson College;)

1999-01-01

310

Genetics Home Reference: Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... in the production of the protein building block (amino acid) serine. Specifically, the enzyme converts a substance called ... glossary definitions help with understanding phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency? amino acid ; ataxia ; atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; blood-brain barrier ; ...

311

Lactate activates the somatotropic axis in rats.  

PubMed

Under physical activity a wide variety of cellular metabolic products and hormones are altered in the blood stream, including lactate, a metabolite of pyruvate reduction, and growth hormone (GH). Although a positive correlation between lactate and GH seems to exist during exercise, the role of lactate as a mediator of GH production has never been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether lactate could activate the somatotropic axis and stimulate GH synthesis/release, contributing to the enhanced somatotropic activity described in exercise conditions. Male adult Wistar rats were acutely treated with sodium lactate [15 or 150?mols, i.p.] at the beginning of the active period (Zeitgeber time 13-14), and euthanized by decapitation 30, 60 and 120min after the injections. Serum GH concentration were determined using ELISA and Gh and Igf-1 mRNA expressions were quantified by qPCR. Serum GH concentration and Gh mRNA expression were increased 30min after lactate injections for both treatments. However, [15?mols] of lactate injection kept GH serum concentration chronically high throughout the experimental period. Igf-1 mRNA expression was increased only 60min after challenge with [15?mols] of lactate, time point which corresponded to 30min after the serum GH peak. The present results led us to conclude that lactate mediates activation of the somatotropic axis, therefore emphasizing its possible role on GH synthesis/release, and further indicating that it could play a part on the increased GH secretion observed in exercise conditions. PMID:25312793

Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; do Carmo Buonfiglio, Daniella; Peroni, Cibele Nunes; Nunes, Maria Tereza

2014-12-01

312

Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate

Smithgall

1986-01-01

313

IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base  

SciTech Connect

Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additional conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.

Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

2006-01-01

314

INCREASED FOOD AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF LACTATING NORTHERN FUR SEALS,  

E-print Network

lactation by marine mam- mals. Lactation appears to drain the energy reserves of large baleen whales, and size. Brody (1945) also noted that the maintenance requirements of lactating animals are elevated; the blubber of lactating females (e.g., blue, Balaenoptera musculus, and fin, Balaenoptera pkysalus, whales

315

Safety of dermatologic medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part II. Lactation.  

PubMed

Dermatologists are frequently faced with questions from women who are breastfeeding about the safety of commonly prescribed topical and systemic medications during lactation. Safety data in lactation, particularly regarding medications that are unique to dermatology, are limited and can be difficult to locate. We have consolidated the available safety data in a single reference guide for clinicians. We review literature pertaining to the safety of common dermatologic therapies in lactation and offer recommendations based on the available evidence. PMID:24528912

Butler, Daniel C; Heller, Misha M; Murase, Jenny E

2014-03-01

316

L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: purification, partial characterization and identification as a flavocytochrome b.  

PubMed Central

L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the yeast Rhodotorula graminis KGX 39 by a combination of (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and gel filtration. The amino-acid composition and the N-terminal sequence of the enzyme were determined. Comprehensive details of the sequence determinations have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50172 (4 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1993) 289, 9. The enzyme is a tetramer as judged by comparison of its subunit M(r) value of 59,100 and native M(r) of 239,900, estimated by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration respectively. There is one molecule of haem and approx. one molecule of non-covalently bound FMN per subunit. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol, cytochrome c and ferricyanide can all serve as electron acceptors. L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase is stereospecific for its substrate. D(-)-Mandelate and L(+)-hexahydromandelate are competitive inhibitors. The enzyme has maximum activity at pH 7.9 and it has a pI value of 4.4. HgCl2 and 4-chloromercuribenzoate are potent inhibitors, but there is no evidence that the enzyme is subject to feedback inhibition by potential metabolic effectors. The evidence suggests that L(+)-mandelate dehydrogenase from R. graminis is a flavocytochrome b which is very similar to, and probably (at least so far as the haem domain is concerned) homologous with, certain well-characterized yeast L(+)-lactate dehydrogenases, and that the chief difference between them is their mutually exclusive substrate specificities. Images Figure 1 PMID:8343125

Yasin, M; Fewson, C A

1993-01-01

317

L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase from Rhodotorula graminis: purification, partial characterization and identification as a flavocytochrome b.  

PubMed

L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the yeast Rhodotorula graminis KGX 39 by a combination of (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and gel filtration. The amino-acid composition and the N-terminal sequence of the enzyme were determined. Comprehensive details of the sequence determinations have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50172 (4 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1993) 289, 9. The enzyme is a tetramer as judged by comparison of its subunit M(r) value of 59,100 and native M(r) of 239,900, estimated by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration respectively. There is one molecule of haem and approx. one molecule of non-covalently bound FMN per subunit. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol, cytochrome c and ferricyanide can all serve as electron acceptors. L(+)-Mandelate dehydrogenase is stereospecific for its substrate. D(-)-Mandelate and L(+)-hexahydromandelate are competitive inhibitors. The enzyme has maximum activity at pH 7.9 and it has a pI value of 4.4. HgCl2 and 4-chloromercuribenzoate are potent inhibitors, but there is no evidence that the enzyme is subject to feedback inhibition by potential metabolic effectors. The evidence suggests that L(+)-mandelate dehydrogenase from R. graminis is a flavocytochrome b which is very similar to, and probably (at least so far as the haem domain is concerned) homologous with, certain well-characterized yeast L(+)-lactate dehydrogenases, and that the chief difference between them is their mutually exclusive substrate specificities. PMID:8343125

Yasin, M; Fewson, C A

1993-07-15

318

Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase from Perilla can form citral and perillaldehyde.  

PubMed

Studies on the biosynthesis of oil compounds in Perilla will help in understanding regulatory systems of secondary metabolites and in elucidating reaction mechanisms for natural product synthesis. In this study, two types of alcohol dehydrogenases, an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) and a geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH), which are thought to participate in the biosynthesis of perilla essential oil components, such as citral and perillaldehyde, were isolated from three pure lines of perilla. These enzymes shared high amino acid sequence identity within the genus Perilla, and were expressed regardless of oil type. The overall reaction from geranyl diphosphate to citral was performed in vitro using geraniol synthase and GeDH to form a large proportion of citral and relatively little geraniol as reaction products. The biosynthetic pathway from geranyl diphosphate to citral, the main compound of citral-type perilla essential oil, was established in this study. PMID:24864017

Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Ito, Michiho

2014-08-01

319

The deletion of the succinate dehydrogenase gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis does not lead to respiratory deficiency.  

PubMed

We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

2004-06-01

320

The Deletion of the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis Does Not Lead to Respiratory Deficiency  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

2004-01-01

321

LactMed: Drugs and Lactation Database  

MedlinePLUS

TOXNET Home > LactMed LactMed A TOXNET DATABASE Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) SEARCH LACTMED BROWSE LACTMED ADVANCED SEARCH Search Search Term Records with Include Synonyms and CAS Numbers in ...

322

Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

1985-01-01

323

Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Article Body A growing number ... a breastfeeding relationship while further stimulating milk production. Nursing Supplement While there is no way to predict ...

324

Metabolism in 1,3-propanediol fed-batch fermentation by a D-lactate deficient mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae HR526, a new isolated 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) producer, exhibited great productivity. However, the accumulation of lactate in the late-exponential phase remained an obstacle of 1,3-PD industrial scale production. Hereby, mutants lacking D-lactate pathway were constructed by knocking out the ldhA gene encoding fermentative D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of HR526. The mutant K. pneumoniae LDH526 with the lowest LDH activity was studied in aerobic fed-batch fermentation. In experiments using pure glycerol as feedstock, the 1,3-PD concentrations, conversion, and productivity increased from 95.39 g L(-1), 0.48 and 1.98 g L(-1) h(-1) to 102. 06 g L(-1), 0.52 mol mol(-1) and 2.13 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The diol (1,3-PD and 2,3-butanediol) conversion increased from 0.55 mol mol(-1) to a maximum of 0.65 mol mol(-1). Lactate would not accumulate until 1,3-PD exceeded 84 g L(-1), and the final lactate concentration decreased dramatically from more than 40 g L(-1) to <3 g L(-1). Enzymic measurements showed LDH activity decreased by 89-98% during fed-batch fermentation, and other related enzyme activities were not affected. NADH/NAD(+) enhanced more than 50% in the late-exponential phase as the D-lactate pathway was cut off, which might be the main reason for the change of final metabolites concentrations. The ability to utilize crude glycerol from biodiesel process and great genetic stability demonstrated that K. pnemoniae LDH526 was valuable for 1,3-PD industrial production. PMID:19572314

Xu, Yun-Zhen; Guo, Ni-Ni; Zheng, Zong-Ming; Ou, Xian-Jin; Liu, Hong-Juan; Liu, De-Hua

2009-12-01

325

Neural Pathways Underlying Lactate-Induced Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by susceptibility to induction of panic attacks by subthreshold interoceptive stimuli such as 0.5 M sodium lactate infusions. Although studied for four decades, the mechanism of lactate sensitivity in panic disorder has not been understood. The dorsomedial hypothalamus\\/perifornical region (DMH\\/PeF) coordinates rapid mobilization of behavioral, autonomic, respiratory and endocrine responses to stress,

Philip L Johnson; William A Truitt; Stephanie D Fitz; Christopher A Lowry; Anantha Shekhar

2008-01-01

326

Lactation: historical patterns and potential for manipulation.  

PubMed

The advent of biotechnology has made data on undomesticated mammals relevant to dairy science. Such data indicate the potential of lactation for modification, reveal genetic material available for use through bioengineering, help distinguish adaptive features from historical artifacts, and clarify limits on lactational diversity that date from early evolution. Evolutionary analysis indicates that a complex degree of lactation preceded divergence of the extant mammalian lineages during the Mesozoic Era. Although aspects of monotreme lactation appear to be ancestral for extant mammals, the marsupials and eutherians exhibit divergent specializations. Evidence is consistent with the idea that protolacteal glands evolved by combining features of skin gland populations into a new functional complex. Secretions of these ancestral glands may have had antimicrobial properties that protected the eggs or hatchlings and organic components that supplemented offspring nutrition. Following development of highly nutritious milks, evolution produced diversity in milk composition and function, milk output, length of lactation, mammary gland anatomy, and contributions of lactation to offspring nutrition. Certain marsupials are specialized in terms of functional independence and temporal plasticity of mammary tissues. Mammalian diversity indicates that artificial selection and physiological manipulation of domestic artiodactyls has only modestly exploited the potential of mammary glands as a nutritional source for humans. PMID:8227641

Blackburn, D G

1993-10-01

327

Crystal Structure of Uronate Dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens*  

PubMed Central

Uronate dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtUdh) belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and catalyzes the oxidation of d-galacturonic acid and d-glucuronic acid with NAD+ as a cofactor. We have determined the crystal structures of an apo-form of AtUdh, a ternary form in complex with NADH and product (substrate-soaked structure), and an inactive Y136A mutant in complex with NAD+. The crystal structures suggest AtUdh to be a homohexamer, which has also been observed to be the major form in solution. The monomer contains a Rossmann fold, essential for nucleotide binding and a common feature of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family enzymes. The ternary complex structure reveals a product, d-galactaro-1,5-lactone, which is bound above the nicotinamide ring. This product rearranges in solution to d-galactaro-1,4-lactone as verified by mass spectrometry analysis, which agrees with our previous NMR study. The crystal structure of the mutant with the catalytic residue Tyr-136 substituted with alanine shows changes in the position of Ile-74 and Ser-75. This probably altered the binding of the nicotinamide end of NAD+, which was not visible in the electron density map. The structures presented provide novel insights into cofactor and substrate binding and the reaction mechanism of AtUdh. This information can be applied to the design of efficient microbial conversion of d-galacturonic acid-based waste materials. PMID:21676870

Parkkinen, Tarja; Boer, Harry; Jänis, Janne; Andberg, Martina; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu; Rouvinen, Juha

2011-01-01

328

Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases  

SciTech Connect

Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

Bolcsak, L.E.

1982-01-01

329

Structure of the Drosophila melanogaster glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase/octanol dehydrogenase gene (class III alcohol dehydrogenase). Evolutionary pathway of the alcohol dehydrogenase genes.  

PubMed

The glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (gfd) of Drosophila melanogaster encodes an enzyme that is active toward S-hydroxymethylglutathione, an adduct of formaldehyde with glutathione, and also with long-chain primary alcohols, both properties typical of class III alcohol dehydrogenases, gfd hybridizes at the 86D division of the third chromosome, in agreement with the known location of the Drosophila octanol dehydrogenase gene (odh), gfd/odh was isolated from a lambda EMBL-4 genomic library and consists of three exons (with coding segments of 21, 90 and 1029 bp) and two introns (69 bp and 70 bp, respectively). The introns are small in size like the Drosophila interrupting sequences and are located at the 5' end of the coding region. Comparisons with the homologous genes of Saccharomyces, Candida and humans provide information on the evolution of the class III alcohol dehydrogenases. Moreover, results from analysis of exon/intron distributions in eleven dehydrogenases are compatible with the hypothesis of intron loss accounting for aspects of the present structure of these genes. PMID:7957234

Luque, T; Atrian, S; Danielsson, O; Jörnvall, H; Gonzŕlez-Duarte, R

1994-11-01

330

Alteration of substrate specificity of alanine dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The l-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) has a natural history that suggests it would not be a promising candidate for expansion of substrate specificity by protein engineering: it is the only amino acid dehydrogenase in its fold family, it has no sequence or structural similarity to any known amino acid dehydrogenase, and it has a strong preference for l-alanine over all other substrates. By contrast, engineering of the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily members has produced catalysts with expanded substrate specificity; yet, this enzyme family already contains members that accept a broad range of substrates. To test whether the natural history of an enzyme is a predictor of its innate evolvability, directed evolution was carried out on AlaDH. A single mutation identified through molecular modeling, F94S, introduced into the AlaDH from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH) completely alters its substrate specificity pattern, enabling activity toward a range of larger amino acids. Saturation mutagenesis libraries in this mutant background additionally identified a double mutant (F94S/Y117L) showing improved activity toward hydrophobic amino acids. The catalytic efficiencies achieved in AlaDH are comparable with those that resulted from similar efforts in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and demonstrate the evolvability of MtAlaDH specificity toward other amino acid substrates. PMID:25538307

Fernandes, Puja; Aldeborgh, Hannah; Carlucci, Lauren; Walsh, Lauren; Wasserman, Jordan; Zhou, Edward; Lefurgy, Scott T; Mundorff, Emily C

2015-02-01

331

Arabidopsis formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Molecular properties of plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase provide further insights into the origins, structure and function of plant class p and liver class I alcohol dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (class III alcohol dehydrogenase) has been characterized from Arabidopsis thaliana. This plant enzyme exhibits kinetic and molecular properties in common with the class III forms from mammals, with a K(m) for S-hydroxymethylglutathione of 1.4 microM, an anodic electrophoretic mobility (pI: 5.3-5.6) and a cross-reaction with anti-(rat class III alcohol dehydrogenase) antibodies. The enzyme structure, deduced from the cDNA sequence, fits into the complex system of alcohol dehydrogenases and shows that all life forms share the class III protein type. The corresponding mRNA is 1.4 kb and present in all plant organs; a single copy of the gene is found in the genome. The class III structural variability is different from that of the ethanol-active enzyme types in both vertebrates (class I) and plants (class P), although class P conserves more of the class III properties than class I does. Also the enzymatic properties differ between the two ethanol-active classes. Active-site variability and exchanges at essential residues (Leu/Gly57, Asp/Arg115) may explain the distinct kinetics. These patterns are consistent with two different metabolic roles for the ethanol-active enzymes, a more constant function, reduction of acetaldehyde during hypoxia, for class P, and a more variable function, the detoxication of alcohols and participation in metabolic conversions, for class I. A sequence motif, Pro-Xaa-Ile/Val-Xaa-Gly-His-Glu-Xaa-Xaa-Gly, common to all medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases is defined. PMID:8944774

Martínez, M C; Achkor, H; Persson, B; Fernández, M R; Shafqat, J; Farrés, J; Jörnvall, H; Parés, X

1996-11-01

332

PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS AND LONGER LACTATIONS WITH DIMINISHING CREDITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative measures of productive life (PL) were compared and life expectancy factors were updated to replace estimates from 1993. Alternatives were proposed with extra credits for lactations longer than 10 mo and beyond 84 mo of age, and for each calf produced so that an extremely long lactation w...

333

The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats  

E-print Network

The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats J. GRIZARD. N. R. A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat, France. Introduction. Insulin and glucagon may be involved are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to analyse the metabolism of insulin and glucagon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Lactate metabolism in anoxic turtles: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Painted turtles can accumulate lactic acid to extremely high concentrations during long-term anoxic submergence, with plasma lactate exceeding 200 mmol l(-1). The aims of this review are twofold: (1) To summarize aspects of lactate metabolism in anoxic turtles that have not been reviewed previously and (2) To identify gaps in our knowledge of turtle lactate metabolism by comparing it with lactate metabolism during and after exercise in other vertebrates. The topics reviewed include analyses of lactate's fate during recovery, the effects of temperature on lactate accumulation and clearance, the interaction of activity and recovery metabolism, fuel utilization during recovery, stress hormone responses during and following anoxia, and cellular lactate transport mechanisms. An analysis of lactate metabolism in anoxic turtles in the context of the 'lactate shuttle' hypothesis is also presented. PMID:17940776

Warren, Daniel E; Jackson, Donald C

2008-02-01

335

Displacement of equilibrium in electroenzymatic reactor for acetaldehyde production using yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Electrochemical regeneration of NAD was performed in a bench scale reactor in which yeast alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol. By recycling one of the products of the reaction, it was possible to displace the equilibrium and favor the production of acetaldehyde. The flow-through electrode was made of graphite felt and had a specific area of 275 cm(-1). A mathematical model taking into account the enzymatic and electrochemical reaction rates as well as the mass transfer to the electrode was used to analyze the results. The limiting steps in the reactor are the electrochemical reaction for low potentials and the cofactor mass transfer for high potentials. PMID:18600926

Lortie, R; Fassouane, A; Laval, J M; Bourdillon, C

1992-01-20

336

NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants  

PubMed Central

NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

2011-01-01

337

21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dehydrogenase in serum and plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone marrow)...

2010-04-01

338

21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.  

...dehydrogenase in serum and plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone marrow)...

2014-04-01

339

21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dehydrogenase in serum and plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone marrow)...

2013-04-01

340

21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dehydrogenase in serum and plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone marrow)...

2012-04-01

341

21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase are found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of...

2012-04-01

342

21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.  

...DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. (a) Identification...dehydrogenase immunological test system is a device that consists...cancer of the blood-forming organs). However, the...

2014-04-01

343

21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase are found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some...

2010-04-01

344

21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase are found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some...

2011-04-01

345

Alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (insoluble) and lactic dehydrogenase activities in the skeletal muscles of two insects.  

PubMed

The flight muscle preparations of the dragonfly Pantala flavescens and the aquatic beetle Cybister confusus showed extremely low levels of lactic dehydrogenase activity and high levels of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (insoluble) activity. The activities of these two enzymes in the leg muscle of the beetle were approximately the same (1:1), but lactic dehydrogenase activity was several times higher than that in the flight muscles of both Insects. These results have been interpreted as indicating the high energy-yielding demands of the flight muscles during continuous sustained activity, while the leg muscles of the beetle which are involved in swimming activity derive their energy predominantly through anaerobic glycolysis. PMID:54055

Kallapur, V L; George, C J

1975-05-01

346

Ozone Therapy in Induced Endotoxemic Shock. II. The Effect of Ozone Therapy Upon Selected Histochemical Reactions in Organs of Rats in Endotoxemic Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria and lysosomes were evaluated by assessment of changes in activity of selected enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase\\u000a (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), acid phosphatase (AcPase) and ?-glucuronidase (BG)\\u000a in rats under profound hypoxia induced by endotoxemic shock. The study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals\\u000a formed the following four groups of 15 rats each: control animals (C);—rats

Pawe? Madej; Andrzej Plewka; Janusz A. Madej; Danuta Plewka; Wojciech Mroczka; Krzysztof Wilk; Zuzanna Dobrosz

2007-01-01

347

Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain reliable results for the liberation of NADH during the initial-rate phase, the reaction was measured with a sensitive recording filter fluorimeter, and the complexes formed with the different dead-end and product inhibitors have been interpreted on the basis of a full dismutation reaction. The results are only consistent with a compulsory ordered reaction mechanism, with the formation of a dead-end binary enzyme-aldehyde complex. Under initial-velocity conditions, the rate of acetate release was calculated to be larger than 2.5 s-1, which is more than ten times that of NADH. The substrate specificity constant (kcat/Km or 1/phiB) with respect to the oxidation of substrates was propan-2-ol>ethanol>acetaldehyde>trimethylacetaldehyde. PMID:9445383

Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

1998-01-01

348

Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems, we observed changes in the reaction mechanism and altered contributions of the mutated residues to the enzymatic reaction coordinate, but we did not detect a substantial change in the time of barrier crossing. These results confirm the importance of maintaining the dynamics and structural scaffolding of the hhLDH PV in order to facilitate facile barrier passage. We also utilized TPS to investigate the possible role of fast protein dynamics in the enzymatic reaction coordinate of human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR). We found that sub-picosecond dynamics of hsDHFR do contribute to the reaction coordinate, whereas this is not the case in the E. coli version of the enzyme. This result indicates a shift in the DHFR family to a more dynamic version of catalysis. The second inquiry we addressed in this thesis regarding enzymatic barrier passage concerns the variability of paths through reactive phase space for a given enzymatic reaction. We further investigated the hhLDH-catalyzed reaction using a high-perturbation TPS algorithm. Though we saw that alternate reaction paths were possible, the dominant reaction path we observed corresponded to that previously elucidated in prior hhLDH TPS studies. Since the additional reaction paths we observed were likely high-energy, these results indicate that only the dominant reaction path contributes significantly to the overall reaction rate. In conclusion, we show that the enzymes hhLDH and hsDHFR exhibit paths through reactive phase space where fast protein motions are involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate and exhibit a non-negligible contribution to chemical barrier crossing.

Masterson, Jean Emily

349

The hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli has the capacity to synthesise three distinct formate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and three hydrogenase isoenzymes. All six are multisubunit, membrane-associated proteins that are functional in the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. One of the formate dehydrogenase isoenzymes is also synthesised in aerobic cells. Two of the formate dehydrogenase enzymes and two hydrogenases have a respiratory function while the formate

Gary Sawers

1994-01-01

350

Purification and properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from Proteus vulgaris.  

PubMed

NADP-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldehyde : NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.4) was purified from Proteus vulgaris to the stage of homogeneity as judged by ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 130000 by gel filtration. The enzyme which was crystallized from ammonium sulfate solution, lost its activity. The enzyme did not require coenzyme A, and the reaction was completely dependent on ammonium ions which could be partially replaced by Rb+ or K+. The optimum pH was about 9. Broad substrate specificity was observed and Km values for propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and isovaleraldehyde were 1.7 - 10(-5), 4 - 10(-5) and 3 - 10(-5) M, respectively. The physiological role of the enzyme in living cells is obscure, but might account for another degradative pathway of L-leucine in P. vulgaris differing from the established pathway. PMID:13839

Sugawara, Y; Sasaki, S

1977-02-01

351

Purification and some properties of thiosulfate dehydrogenase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Thiosulfate dehydrogenase was purified from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans using three purification steps. The purification procedure involved ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. Specific activity of the purified enzyme (after IEC) was 3.26 nkat/mg, and yield of the enzyme was 78%. The purity of the enzyme was checked by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme is a tetramer composed of four probably identical subunits of relative molecular weight 45,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme reaction in the direction of substrate oxidation was found to be 3.0. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.3. Enzyme activity was found to be particularly sensitive to the histidine-selective reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. Reagents selective for arginine, cysteine, and tryptophane had no effect on enzyme activity. PMID:17454821

Janiczek, O; Zemanova, J; Mandl, M

2007-01-01

352

Protein moonlighting in iron metabolism: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).  

PubMed

Iron is essential for the survival of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. It functions as a cofactor for several vital enzymes and iron deprivation is fatal to cells. However, at the same time, excess amounts of iron are also toxic to cells due to the formation of free radicals via the Fenton reaction. As a consequence of its double-edged behaviour, the uptake and regulation of iron involves an intricate balance of acquisition, trafficking, recycling and shuffling between various tissues and organs. This is accomplished by differential regulation of genes involving numerous proteins and enzymes. Several of the proteins identified in these processes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), aconitase and lactoferrin (Lf), possess multiple functions within the cell. Such proteins are referred to as moonlighting or multifunctional proteins, whereby proteins initially thought to possess a single well-established function have subsequently been discovered to exhibit alternative functions. In many cases, these multiple functions are conserved across species. PMID:25399609

Boradia, Vishant Mahendra; Raje, Manoj; Raje, Chaaya Iyengar

2014-12-01

353

Fabricating polystyrene fiber-dehydrogenase assemble as a functional biocatalyst.  

PubMed

Immobilization of the enzymes on nano-structured materials is a promising approach to enhance enzyme stabilization, activation and reusability. This study aimed to develop polystyrene fiber-enzyme assembles to catalyze model formaldehyde to methanol dehydrogenation reaction, which is an essential step for bioconversion of CO2 to a renewable bioenergy. We fabricated and modified electrospun polystyrene fibers, which showed high capability to immobilize dehydrogenase for the fiber-enzyme assembles. Results from evaluation of biochemical activities of the fiber-enzyme assemble showed that nitriation with the nitric/sulfuric acid ratio (v/v, 10:1) and silanization treatment delivered desirable enzyme activity and long-term storage stability, showing great promising toward future large-scale applications. PMID:25435501

An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

2015-01-01

354

Aldehyde dehydrogenases and cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) oxidize aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids using either NAD or NADP as a coenzyme. Aldehydes are highly reactive aliphatic or aromatic molecules that play an important role in numerous physiological, pathological, and pharmacological processes. ALDHs have been discovered in practically all organisms and there are multiple isoforms, with multiple subcellular localizations. More than 160 ALDH cDNAs or genes have been isolated and sequenced to date from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants, and animals. The eukaryote ALDH genes can be subdivided into several families; the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Noteworthy is the fact that elevated activity of various ALDHs, namely ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1A7, ALDH2*2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6, and ALDH9A1, has been observed in normal and cancer stem cells. Consequently, ALDHs not only may be considered markers of these cells, but also may well play a functional role in terms of self-protection, differentiation, and/or expansion of stem cell populations. The ALDH3 family includes enzymes able to oxidize medium-chain aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, such as peroxidic and fatty aldehydes. Moreover, these enzymes also have noncatalytic functions, including antioxidant functions and some structural roles. The gene of the cytosolic form, ALDH3A1, is localized on chromosome 17 in human beings and on the 11th and 10th chromosome in the mouse and rat, respectively. ALDH3A1 belongs to the phase II group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the stomach, lung, keratinocytes, and cornea, but poorly, if at all, in normal liver. Cytosolic ALDH3 is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or chlorinated compounds, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in rat liver cells and increases during carcinogenesis. It has been observed that this increased activity is directly correlated with the degree of deviation in hepatoma and lung cancer cell lines, as is the case in chemically induced hepatoma in rats. High ALDH3A1 expression and activity have been correlated with cell proliferation, resistance against aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation, and resistance against drug toxicity, such as oxazaphosphorines. Indeed, cells with a high ALDH3A1 content are more resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of lipidic aldehydes than are those with a low content. A reduction in cell proliferation can be observed when the enzyme is directly inhibited by the administration of synthetic specific inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, or siRNA or indirectly inhibited by the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) with polyunsaturated fatty acids or PPAR? transfection. Conversely, cell proliferation is stimulated by the activation of ALDH3A1, whether by inhibiting PPAR? with a specific antagonist, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, or a medical device (i.e., composite polypropylene prosthesis for hernia repair) used to induce cell proliferation. To date, the mechanisms underlying the effects of ALDHs on cell proliferation are not yet fully clear. A likely hypothesis is that the regulatory effect is mediated by the catabolism of some endogenous substrates deriving from normal cell metabolism, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, which have the capacity to either stimulate or inhibit the expression of genes involved in regulating proliferation. PMID:22206977

Muzio, G; Maggiora, M; Paiuzzi, E; Oraldi, M; Canuto, R A

2012-02-15

355

Preparation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covalently immobilized of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase (SCAD) to magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles via glutaraldehyde coupling reaction was studied. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method using H2O2 as an oxidizer. Functionalization of surface-modified magnetic particles was performed by the covalent binding of chitosan onto the surface. The amino functional group on the magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan particles surface and

Gui Yin Li; Ke Long Huang; Yu Ren Jiang; Dong Liang Yang; Ping Ding

2008-01-01

356

Molecular characterisation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) Ferrara II variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, molecular biological techniques such as cloning and sequencing and, more recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification have led to the identification of the molecular defects responsible for more than fifty glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants. In this paper, we report the identification of the molecular abnormality underlying the G6PD Ferrara II variant, present in the Po

Maria Domenica Cappellini; Franco Martinez Montemuros; Chiara Dotti; Dario Tavazzi; Gemino Fiorelli

1995-01-01

357

Development of urease and glutamic dehydrogenase amperometric assay for heavy metals screening in polluted samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amperometric assay based on urease inactivation has been developed for the screening of heavy metals in environmental samples. The enzyme urease catalyses the hydrolysis of urea and the formation of NH4+ is determined using a NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase coupled reaction system. NADH consumption is monitored amperometrically using screen-printed three electrode configuration and its oxidation current is then correlated to urease

Belen Bello Rodriguez; John A. Bolbot; Ibtisam E. Tothill

2004-01-01

358

Nitrofuran drugs as common subversive substrates of Trypanosoma cruzi lipoamide dehydrogenase and trypanothione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH), trypanothione reductase (TR), and glutathione reductase (GR) catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of disulfide substrates. TR occurs exclusively in trypanosomatids which lack a GR. Besides their physiological reactions, the flavoenzymes catalyze the single-electron reduction of nitrofurans with the concomitant generation of superoxide anions. Here, we report on the interaction of clinically used antimicrobial nitrofurans with LipDH and TR

Klaus Blumenstiel; Ralf Schöneck; Vanessa Yardley; Simon L. Croft; R. Luise Krauth-Siegel

1999-01-01

359

Isolation and identification of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase inhibitory compound from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata blume  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our search for the anticonvulsant constituent ofGastrodia elata repeated column chromatographies guided by activity assay led to isolation of an active compound, which was identified as\\u000a gastrodin on the basis of spectral data. Brain succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) was inactivated by preincubation\\u000a with gastrodin in a time-dependent manner and the reaction was monitored by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods.

Nam-In Baek; Soo Young Choi; Jin Kyu Park; Sung-Woo Cho; Eun-Mi Ahn; Seong Gyu Jeon; Byung Ryong Lee; Jae Hoon Bahn; Yong Kyu Kim; Il Hwan Shon

1999-01-01

360

Kinetic analysis of phenylalanine dehydrogenase mutants designed for aliphatic amino acid dehydrogenase activity with guidance from homology-based modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparison with the high-resolution structure of Clostridium symbiosum glutamate dehydrogenase, the dif- ferent substrate specificities of the homologous enzymes phenylalanine dehydrogenase and leucine dehydrogenase were attributed to two residues, glycine 124 and leucine 307, in Bacillus sphaericus phenylalanine dehydrogenase, which are replaced with alanine and valine in leucine dehydrogen- ases (Britton, K.L., Baker, P.J., Engel, P.C., Rice, D.W. &

Stephen Y. K. Seah; K. Linda Britton; David W. Rice; Yasuhisa Asano; Paul C. Engel

2003-01-01

361

Electrochemical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes as nanometer-sized activators in enzyme-catalyzed reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronoamperometry based on the “controlling-diffusion layer” concept of the convective system was used to assay the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on a bare glassy carbon (GC) electrode and a GC electrode modified by a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) film. The effects of lanthanum ion, oxalic acid, and nicotine on the LDH activity were monitored. Analysis of the experimental results

Zhen-Hai Gan; Qiang Zhao; Zhen-Nan Gu; Qian-Kun Zhuang

2004-01-01

362

Direct Imaging of Dehydrogenase Activity within Living Cells Using Enzyme-Dependent Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (ED-FRAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key metabolite involved in cellular energy conversion and many redox reactions. We describe the use of confocal microscopy in conjunction with enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH as a topological assay of NADH generation capacity within living cardiac myocytes. Quantitative validation of this approach was performed using a dehydrogenase system, in

C. A. Combs; R. S. Balaban

2001-01-01

363

The histochemical localization of lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the rat nephron by means of an improved polyvinyl alcohol method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histochemical localization of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and the prevailing type of isoenzyme in different segments of the nephron in male and female rats are described. Polyvinyl alcohol was added to the incubation medium in order to reduce enzyme diffusion. Localization of the reaction product was further improved by the use of a high concentration of Nitro BT (and

N. O. Jacobsen

1969-01-01

364

Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structureactivity Relationship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the quantitative structure-activity relationship of two series of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors (leflunomide and quinoline carboxylic acid analogues), and to determine the structural requirements for optimum activity of these analogues.

Shijun Ren; Sharon K. Wu; Eric J. Lien

1998-01-01

365

Breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation  

PubMed Central

Breast is a typical female sexual physiologic organ that is influenced by steroid hormone from menarche until menopause. Therefore various diseases can be developed by continuous action of estrogen and progesterone. Breast diseases are mainly categorized as benign and malignant. It is very important to distinguish the malignancy from breast diseases. However, it is very difficult to diagnose malignancy in pregnant and lactating women even though the same breast diseases took place. Therefore, we will review breast diseases such as breast carcinoma during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24327995

Yu, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Hyonil; Liu, Hyun Ju; Han, Sei-Jun

2013-01-01

366

Determination of enzyme mechanisms by molecular dynamics: Studies on quinoproteins, methanol dehydrogenase, and soluble glucose dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to study the enzymatic mechanisms of quinoproteins, methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), and soluble glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH). The mecha- nisms of reduction of the orthoquinone cofactor (PQQ) of MDH and sGDH involve concerted base- catalyzed proton abstraction from the hydroxyl moiety of methanol or from the 1-hydroxyl of glucose, and hydride equivalent transfer from

Swarnalatha Y. Reddy; Thomas C. Bruice

2004-01-01

367

Dichloroacetate enhances apoptotic cell death via oxidative damage and attenuates lactate production in metformin-treated breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The unique metabolism of breast cancer cells provides interest in exploiting this phenomenon therapeutically. Metformin, a promising breast cancer therapeutic, targets complex I of the electron transport chain leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually lead to cell death. Inhibition of complex I leads to lactate production, a metabolic byproduct already highly produced by reprogrammed cancer cells and associated with a poor prognosis. While metformin remains a promising cancer therapeutic, we sought a complementary agent to increase apoptotic promoting effects of metformin while attenuating lactate production possibly leading to greatly improved efficacy. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a well-established drug used in the treatment of lactic acidosis which functions through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) promoting mitochondrial metabolism. Our purpose was to examine the synergy and mechanisms by which these two drugs kill breast cancer cells. Cell lines were subjected to the indicated treatments and analyzed for cell death and various aspects of metabolism. Cell death and ROS production were analyzed using flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and cell counting methods. Images of cells were taken with phase contrast microscopy or confocal microscopy. Metabolism of cells was analyzed using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer, lactate assays, and pH analysis. We show that when DCA and metformin are used in combination, synergistic induction of apoptosis of breast cancer cells occurs. Metformin-induced oxidative damage is enhanced by DCA through PDK1 inhibition which also diminishes metformin promoted lactate production. We demonstrate that DCA and metformin combine to synergistically induce caspase-dependent apoptosis involving oxidative damage with simultaneous attenuation of metformin promoted lactate production. Innovative combinations such as metformin and DCA show promise in expanding breast cancer therapies. PMID:25212175

Haugrud, Allison B; Zhuang, Yongxian; Coppock, Joseph D; Miskimins, W Keith

2014-10-01

368

Determination of NAD Malic Enzyme in Leaves of C(4) Plants : EFFECTS OF MALATE DEHYDROGENASE AND OTHER FACTORS.  

PubMed

Malate dehydrogenase may interfere with the assay of NAD malic enzyme, as NADH is formed during the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate. During the present study, two additional effects of malate dehydrogenase were investigated; they are evident only if the malate dehydrogenase reaction is allowed to reach equilibrium prior to initiating the malic enzyme reaction. One of these (Outlaw, Manchester 1980 Plant Physiol 65: 1136-1138) might cause an underestimation of NAD reduction by malic enzyme due to the oxidation of NADH during reversal of the malate dehydrogenase reaction. A second effect may result in overestimation of malic enzyme activity, as Mn(2+)-catalyzed oxaloacetate decarboxylation causes continuing net NADH formation via malate dehydrogenase. These effects were studied by assaying the activity of a partially purified preparation of Amaranthus retroflexus NAD malic enzyme in the presence or absence of purified NAD malate dehydrogenase.A model was developed which allowed the generation of theoretical curves describing the influence of malate dehydrogenase on the assay of malic enzyme activity. The experimental data obtained agreed closely with these curves. The conditions included 5 millimolar malate, 2 millimolar NAD, and 4 millimolar Mn(2+) (pH 7.2 to 7.8 at 30 degrees C). At low activities of malic enzyme (1 nanomole per minute per milliliter or less), the presence of malate dehydrogenase leads to a substantial overestimation of malic enzyme activity due to the Mn(2+)-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetate having a dominant effect. When the level of malic enzyme is greater than 1 nanomole per minute per milliliter, reversal of malate dehydrogenase has a dominant transient effect, causing a lag of up to several minutes, after which the change in absorbance reflects the true rate of malic enzyme. Independent of this effect is a lag in the activator-dependent rate, which could be eliminated by preincubating the enzyme with activator (coenzyme A).An assay procedure designed to minimize the influence of these effects is described. New data are presented on the activity of NAD malic enzyme in leaves of different subgroups of C(4) plants. PMID:16662234

Hatch, M D; Tsuzuki, M; Edwards, G E

1982-02-01

369

LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

370

Bifunctional isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase: a missing link in the evolution of beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenases comprise 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. They share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and occupy equivalent positions in the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for leucine, glutamate, and lysine, respectively. Therefore, not only the enzymes but also the whole pathways should have evolved from a common ancestral pathway. In Pyrococcus horikoshii, only one pathway of the three has been identified in the genomic sequence, and PH1722 is the sole beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase gene. The organism does not require leucine, glutamate, or lysine for growth; the single pathway might play multiple (i.e., ancestral) roles in amino acid biosynthesis. The PH1722 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the substrate specificity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated. It exhibited activities on isocitrate and homoisocitrate at near equal efficiency, but not on 3-isopropylmalate. PH1722 is thus a novel, bifunctional beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase, which likely plays a dual role in glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in vivo. PMID:15845397

Miyazaki, Kentaro

2005-05-27

371

Pyruvate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis is dependent upon glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.  

PubMed

Modification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from Lactococcus lactis was undertaken during batch fermentation on lactose, by adding various concentrations of iodoacetate (IAA), a compound which specifically inhibits GAPDH at low concentrations, to the culture medium. As IAA concentration is increased, GAPDH activity diminishes, provoking a decrease of both the glycolytic flux and the specific growth rate. This control exerted at the level of GAPDH was due partially to IAA covalent fixation but also to the modified NADH/NAD+ ratio. The mechanism of inhibition by NADH/NAD+ was studied in detail with the purified enzyme and various kinetic parameters were determined. Moreover, when GAPDH activity became limiting, the triose phosphate pool increased resulting in the inhibition of pyruvate formate lyase activity, while the lactate dehydrogenase is activated by the high NADH/NAD+ ratio. Thus, modifying the GAPDH activity provokes a shift from mixed-acid to homolactic metabolism, confirming the important role of this enzyme in controlling both the flux through glycolysis and the orientation of pyruvate catabolism. PMID:10937934

Even, S; Garrigues, C; Loubiere, P; Lindley, N D; Cocaign-Bousquet, M

1999-07-01

372

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression and metabolic changes following dichloroacetate exposure in anoxic human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a small molecule that inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) to constrain the aerobic glycolytic pathway observed in many cancer cells and effectively kill them with limited cytotoxicity on normal cells. We previously showed that DCA induced a cytoprotective effect in different human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines under anoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated the molecular and metabolic changes that may be providing this cytoprotection. The expression profiles of PDK isoforms in SW480 and LS174T cells along with subsequent changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation were assessed following DCA exposure. Changes in mitochondrial activity and subsequent glucose consumption and lactate production were then examined. We show evidence of differential regulation in PDH phosphorylation between different human CRC cells leading to differences in mitochondrial activity following DCA exposure. However, these effects did not lead to significant changes in cellular metabolism nor growth. In conclusion, DCA may only be beneficial in treating a subset of tumor types based on their molecular profiles of different PDK isoforms. PMID:25536473

Ho, Nelson; Coomber, Brenda L

2015-02-01

373

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase as a potential therapeutic target for malignant gliomas.  

PubMed

Metabolic aberrations in the form of altered flux through key metabolic pathways are the major hallmarks of several life-threatening malignancies including malignant gliomas. These adaptations play an important role in the enhancement of the survival and proliferation of gliomas at the expense of the surrounding normal/healthy tissues. Recent studies in the field of neurooncology have directly targeted the altered metabolic pathways of malignant tumor cells for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Aerobic glycolysis due to elevated production of lactate from pyruvate regardless of oxygen availability is a common metabolic alteration in most malignancies. Aerobic glycolysis offers survival advantages in addition to generating substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides required for the rapid proliferation of cells. This review outlines the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in gliomas as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. An in-depth investigation on the key metabolic enzyme PDK may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24904893

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Suk, Kyoungho

2013-10-01

374

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Malignant Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Metabolic aberrations in the form of altered flux through key metabolic pathways are the major hallmarks of several life-threatening malignancies including malignant gliomas. These adaptations play an important role in the enhancement of the survival and proliferation of gliomas at the expense of the surrounding normal/healthy tissues. Recent studies in the field of neurooncology have directly targeted the altered metabolic pathways of malignant tumor cells for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Aerobic glycolysis due to elevated production of lactate from pyruvate regardless of oxygen availability is a common metabolic alteration in most malignancies. Aerobic glycolysis offers survival advantages in addition to generating substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides required for the rapid proliferation of cells. This review outlines the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in gliomas as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. An in-depth investigation on the key metabolic enzyme PDK may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24904893

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar

2013-01-01

375

Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Clinical and biochemical studies in two patients.  

PubMed Central

We describe two patients with short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (SCADH) deficiency. Neonate I excreted large amounts of ethylmalonate and methylsuccinate; ethylmalonate excretion increased after a medium-chain triglyceride load. Neonate II died postnatally and excreted ethylmalonate, butyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, adipate, and lactate. Both neonates' fibroblasts catabolized [1-14C]butyrate poorly (29-64% of control). Neonate I had moderately decreased [1-14C]octanoate catabolism (43-60% of control), while neonate II oxidized this substrate normally; both catabolized radiolabeled palmitate, succinate, and/or leucine normally. Cell sonicates from neonates I and II dehydrogenated [2,3-3H]butyryl-CoA poorly (41 and 53% of control) and [2,3-3H]octanoyl-CoA more effectively (59 and 95% of control). Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ADH) activities with butyryl- and octanoyl-CoAs were 37 and 56% of control in neonate I, and 47 and 81% of control in neonate II, respectively. Monospecific medium-chain ADH (MCADH) antisera inhibited MCADH activity towards both butyryl- and octanoyl-CoAs, revealing SCADH activities to be 1 and 11% of control for neonates I and II, respectively. Fibroblast SCADH and MCADH activities were normal in an adult female with muscular SCADH deficiency. PMID:3571488

Amendt, B A; Greene, C; Sweetman, L; Cloherty, J; Shih, V; Moon, A; Teel, L; Rhead, W J

1987-01-01

376

Americium(iii) and europium(iii) complex formation with lactate at elevated temperatures studied by spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) with lactate were determined with UV-vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in a temperature range between 25 and 70 °C. The reaction enthalpy decreased with increasing ionic strength. ATR FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed structural details of the Eu(iii) lactate 1?:?1 complex: a chelating coordination mode of the lactate with a monodentate binding carboxylate group and the hydroxyl group being deprotonated. PMID:24828353

Barkleit, Astrid; Kretzschmar, Jerome; Tsushima, Satoru; Acker, Margret

2014-08-01

377

Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum as an endotoxin-free platform strain for lactate-based polyester production.  

PubMed

The first biosynthetic system for lactate (LA)-based polyesters was previously created in recombinant Escherichia coli (Taguchi et al. 2008). Here, we have begun efforts to upgrade the prototype polymer production system to a practical stage by using metabolically engineered Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum as an endotoxin-free platform. We designed metabolic pathways in C. glutamicum to generate monomer substrates, lactyl-CoA (LA-CoA), and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA), for the copolymerization catalyzed by the LA-polymerizing enzyme (LPE). LA-CoA was synthesized by D: -lactate dehydrogenase and propionyl-CoA transferase, while 3HB-CoA was supplied by ?-ketothiolase (PhaA) and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhaB). The functional expression of these enzymes led to a production of P(LA-co-3HB) with high LA fractions (96.8 mol%). The omission of PhaA and PhaB from this pathway led to a further increase in LA fraction up to 99.3 mol%. The newly engineered C. glutamicum potentially serves as a food-grade and biomedically applicable platform for the production of poly(lactic acid)-like polyester. PMID:22127753

Song, Yuyang; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Yamada, Miwa; Gohda, Aoi; Brigham, Christopher J; Sinskey, Anthony J; Taguchi, Seiichi

2012-03-01

378

Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

2008-01-01

379

Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

380

HEXONEOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN BREAST DURING LACTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactose is the major osmotic agent in milk. Therefore, lactose synthesis indirectly regulates milk volume. The aim of this study was to determine the source of glucose and galactose in lactose. Six healthy lactating women were studied twice, during a 24 h fast and during ingestion of a mixed macr...

381

Regulation of mammary gland remodelling and lactation  

E-print Network

Session II Regulation of mammary gland remodelling and lactation Dr. Y. Chilliard, Prof. T. Motyl and expression of genes involved in regulation of mammary gland function, genes encoding milk proteins and mammary tissue enzymes; 2. apoptosis as a fundamental process responsible for mammary gland involution; 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters  

PubMed Central

Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-01-01

383

Photo-production of lactate from glyoxylate: how minerals can facilitate energy storage in a prebiotic world.  

PubMed

The reaction of glyoxylate with carbon dioxide to produce lactate is promoted when zinc sulfide is irradiated by ultraviolet light. These results, representing a model for the action of colloidal mineral semiconductors on early Earth, complete a consecutive series that culminates in entry-point molecules of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:20234927

Guzman, Marcelo I; Martin, Scot T

2010-04-01

384

Lactation and reproduction performance of mares fed dietary fat during late gestation and early lactation  

E-print Network

) examined lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue and mammary tissue in pregnant and lactating rats. They reported that lipoprotein lipase activity was high in adipose tissue during pregnancy while the activity was extremely low in the mammary... lipoprotein lipase activity . in the mammar y tissue of rats and their plasma triglycerides during the last two d of pregnancy and throughout lactation was indicated by Hamosh et al. (1970). Termination of suckling for 9 or more h decreased mammary gland...

Elrod, Karen Ann

1986-01-01

385

Lactate metabolism: a new paradigm for the third millennium  

PubMed Central

For much of the 20th century, lactate was largely considered a dead-end waste product of glycolysis due to hypoxia, the primary cause of the O2 debt following exercise, a major cause of muscle fatigue, and a key factor in acidosis-induced tissue damage. Since the 1970s, a ‘lactate revolution’ has occurred. At present, we are in the midst of a lactate shuttle era; the lactate paradigm has shifted. It now appears that increased lactate production and concentration as a result of anoxia or dysoxia are often the exception rather than the rule. Lactic acidosis is being re-evaluated as a factor in muscle fatigue. Lactate is an important intermediate in the process of wound repair and regeneration. The origin of elevated [lactate] in injury and sepsis is being re-investigated. There is essentially unanimous experimental support for a cell-to-cell lactate shuttle, along with mounting evidence for astrocyte–neuron, lactate–alanine, peroxisomal and spermatogenic lactate shuttles. The bulk of the evidence suggests that lactate is an important intermediary in numerous metabolic processes, a particularly mobile fuel for aerobic metabolism, and perhaps a mediator of redox state among various compartments both within and between cells. Lactate can no longer be considered the usual suspect for metabolic ‘crimes’, but is instead a central player in cellular, regional and whole body metabolism. Overall, the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle has expanded far beyond its initial conception as an explanation for lactate metabolism during muscle contractions and exercise to now subsume all of the other shuttles as a grand description of the role(s) of lactate in numerous metabolic processes and pathways. PMID:15131240

Gladden, L B

2004-01-01

386

Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review  

PubMed Central

Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses. PMID:12173504

Pösö, AR

2002-01-01

387

Peculiarities of the inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by thiamine thiazolone diphosphate in vitro and in intact mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

Thiamine thiazolone diphosphate (TTPP) possesses the ability to penetrate through the mitochondrial membrane and inhibit the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in intact mitochondria, TTPP inhibits the activity of the complex of animal origin according to a mixed type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -8/ M) and yeast pyruvate decarboxylase according to a competitive type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -6/ M) with respect to thiamine diphosphate (TPP). Decarboxylation of pyruvate in intact and lysed rat liver and brain mitochondria is inhibited in the presence of TTPP significantly more weakly than the total activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, determined according to the formation of acetyl-CoA. It is suggested that TTPP, as an analog of the transition state, acts only in dehydrogenase reactions but not at the stage of simple decarboxylation of pyruvate.

Yakovleva, G.M.; Strumilo, S.A.; Gorenshtein, B.I.; Ostrovskii, Yu.M.

1986-07-10

388

The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

2002-10-22

389

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes & Proteins In Grapevine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) is a dimeric-zinc enzyme which catalyses the inter-conversion\\u000a of acetaldehyde to ethanol, using NAD\\/NADH as a cofactor. This is the terminal step of glycolysis, leading to fermentative\\u000a metabolism in anaerobic conditions. In this context, the evolution of this enzyme’s activity, and gene expression have been\\u000a widely investigated in response to anaerobiosis in

C. Tesniere; P. Abbal

390

Molecular Size Studies on 6Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

GENETICALLY determined electrophoretic variants of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) have been found in man and rat1, pigeon2, deer mouse3, and the fruit fly4. In all five species the heterozygous phenotype contains the two parental enzyme forms plus a third 6-PGD of intermediate electrophoretic mobility on starch gel. In experiments with partially purified 6-PGD of Drosophila melanogaster we have recovered the intermediate

Haig H. Kazazian

1966-01-01

391

Malate dehydrogenase from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and from the mild thermophile Chlorobium tepidum: molecular cloning, construction of a hybrid, and expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The genes (mdh) encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and the moderate thermophile C. tepidum were cloned and sequenced, and the complete amino acid sequences were deduced. When the region upstream of mdh was analyzed, a sequence with high homology to an operon encoding ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli was found. Each mdh gene consists of a 930-bp open reading frame and encodes 310 amino acid residues, corresponding to a subunit weight of 33,200 Da for the dimeric enzyme. The amino acid sequence identity of the two MDHs is 86%. Homology searches using the primary structures of the two MDHs revealed significant sequence similarity to lactate dehydrogenases. A hybrid mdh was constructed from the 3' part of mdh from C. tepidum and the 5' part of mdh from C. vibrioforme. The thermostabilities of the hybrid enzyme and of MDH from C. vibrioforme and C. tepidum were compared. PMID:8955383

Naterstad, K; Lauvrak, V; Sirevĺg, R

1996-01-01

392

Protein engineering of a thermostable polyol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The polyol dehydrogenase PDH-11300 from Deinococcus geothermalis was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. The enzyme showed the highest activity in the oxidation of xylitol and 1,2-hexanediol and had an optimum temperature of 45 °C. The enzyme exhibited a T????-value of 48.3 °C. The T???? is the temperature where 50% of the initial activity remains after incubation for 1h. In order to elucidate the structural reasons contributing to thermostability, the substrate-binding loop of PDH-11300 was substituted by the loop-region of a homolog enzyme, the galactitol dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (PDH-158), resulting in a chimeric enzyme (PDH-loop). The substrate scope of this chimera basically represented the average of both wild-type enzymes, but surprisingly the T???? was noticeably increased by 7 °C up to 55.3 °C. Further mutations in the active site led to identification of residues crucial for enzyme activity. The cofactor specificity was successfully altered from NADH to NADPH by an Asp55Asn mutation, which is located at the NAD? binding cleft, without influencing the catalytic properties of the dehydrogenase. PMID:22883556

Wulf, H; Mallin, H; Bornscheuer, U T

2012-09-10

393

Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Smithgall, T.E.

1986-01-01

394

Affinity-Based Purification of Dehydrogenase Subproteomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The high cost of drug discovery and development requires more efficient approaches to the identification and inhibition of tractable protein targets. One strategy is to pursue families of proteins that already possess affinity for a drug lead scaffold, where that scaffold plays the dual role of serving: (a) when tethered to a resin, as a ligand to purify a subproteome of interest, and (b) as a lead molecule that has the potential for optimization for a given member of the subproteome. Here, we describe the former application, the purification of a subproteome using a scaffold tailored to the dehydrogenase family of enzymes. Combined with modern LC-MS/MS and subsequent searching of proteome databases, such affinity chromatography strategies can be used to purify and identify any proteins with affinity for the scaffold molecule. The method is exemplified using the CRAA (Catechol Rhodanine Acetic Acid) privileged scaffold, which is tailored to dehydrogenases. CRAA affinity column chromatography, combined with LC-MS/MS, is described as a method for profiling dehydrogenase subproteomes. PMID:22065224

Ge, Xia; Sem, Daniel S.

2014-01-01

395

Lactate Kinetics during Multiple Set Resistance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2), and Leg Extension with 1 or 2 legs (LE1 or LE2). Each set was performed at a standard velocity and at a previously determined 10RM load. Blood lactate samples were taken immediately before and after each set (pre1, post1, pre2, post2, pre3, post3). Maximum [La] was significantly higher after LE2 (6.8 ± 1.6mmol·L-1) and significantly lower after AC1 (2.8 ± 0.7mmol·L-1) in comparison with the other exercise protocols. There was no difference between AC2 (4.3 ± 1.1mmol·L-1) and LE1 (4.4 ± 1.1mmol·L-1). Surprisingly, [La] decreased during the 3rd set (for AC exercise), and during both the 2nd and 3rd sets (for LE exercise) and increased only during the recovery phases. In contrast to our expectations, blood [La] decreased during the 2nd and 3rd exercise sets and further increased only during recovery phases. However, from the increases observed following the first set, we know that lactate was produced and transported to the blood during our exercise protocol. We speculate that lactate is taken up and metabolized by distal muscle fibres or organs. In addition, as the decreases occurred within a short period of time, blood volume shifts and/or the muscle-to-blood gradient may account for the rapid decreases in [La]. Key Points Blood lactate concentration [La] decreases during the 2nd and 3rd set of a resistance exercise program of the leg extensor muscles. [La] decreases during the 3rd set of a resistance exercise program of the arm flexor muscles. A significant increase of [La] only appears during the first set, during rest periods and after the last set. The decline of [La] during sets becomes larger over the course of exercise. PMID:24570608

Wirtz, Nicolas; Wahl, Patrick; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

2014-01-01

396

Comparative studies of Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases for monomethyl branched chain substrates in amino acid metabolism.  

PubMed

Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD), isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IBD) are involved in metabolism of isoleucine, leucine, and valine, respectively. These three enzymes all belong to acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) family, and catalyze the dehydrogenation of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid (mmBCFA) thioester derivatives. In the present work, the catalytic properties of rat SBCAD, IVD, and IBD, including their substrate specificity, isomerase activity, and enzyme inhibition, were comparatively studied. Our results indicated that SBCAD has its catalytic properties relatively similar to those of straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in terms of their isomerase activity and enzyme inhibition, while IVD and IBD are different. IVD has relatively broader substrate specificity than those of the other two enzymes in accommodating various substrate analogs. The present study increased our understanding for the metabolism of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which should also be useful for selective control of a particular reaction through the design of specific inhibitors. PMID:23474214

Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Long; Deng, Guisheng; Chen, Gong; Li, Nan; Chu, Xiusheng; Li, Ding

2013-04-01

397

Lactation Biology Symposium: circadian clocks as mediators of the homeorhetic response to lactation.  

PubMed

The transition from pregnancy to lactation is the most stressful period in the life of a cow. During this transition, homeorhetic adaptations are coordinated across almost every organ and are marked by changes in hormones and metabolism to accommodate the increased energetic demands of lactation. Recent data from our laboratory showed that changes in circadian clocks occur in multiple tissues during the transition period in rats and indicate that the circadian system coordinates changes in the physiology of the dam needed to support lactation. Circadian rhythms coordinate the timing of physiological processes and synchronize these processes with the environment of the animal. Circadian rhythms are generated by molecular circadian clocks located in the hypothalamus (the master clock) and peripherally in every organ of the body. The master clock receives environmental and physiological cues and, in turn, synchronizes internal physiology by coordinating endocrine rhythms and metabolism through peripheral clocks. The effect of the circadian clock on lactation may be inferred by the photoperiod effect on milk production, which is accompanied by coordinated changes in the endocrine system and metabolic capacity of the dam to respond to changes in day length. We have shown that bovine mammary epithelial cells possess a functional clock that can be synchronized by external stimuli, and the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like gene, a positive limb of the core clock, is responsive to prolactin in bovine mammary explants. Others showed that 7% of genes expressed in breasts of lactating women had circadian patterns of expression, and we report that the diurnal variation of composition of bovine milk is associated with changes in expression of mammary core clock genes. Together these studies indicate that the circadian system coordinates the metabolic and hormonal changes needed to initiate and sustain lactation, and we believe that the capacity of the dam to produce milk and cope with metabolic stresses in early lactation is related to her ability to set circadian rhythms during the transition period. PMID:22345106

Casey, T M; Plaut, K

2012-03-01

398

Activity of pyruvate kinase and lactic acid dehydrogenase in mouse lung after transplacental exposure to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.  

PubMed

The carcinogenic urethane (URTH), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and aflatoxin B1 (B1) administered to pregnant CFLP mice increased the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased the ratio of LDH H and M subunits in the lungs of offsprings. However, under the same conditions, the non-carcinogenic phenylurethane (PHUR), ethylformate (EF), chrysene (CHRY), perylene (PER) and pyrene (PYR), as well as the toxic Paraquat (PAR), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2), did not influence the activities of the enzymes tested. PMID:6791312

Rády, P; Arany, I; Uzvölgyi, E; Boján, F

1981-01-01

399

Characterization of shikimate dehydrogenase homologues of Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The function of three Corynebacterium glutamicum shikimate dehydrogenase homologues, designated as qsuD (cgR_0495), cgR_1216, and aroE (cgR_1677), was investigated. A disruptant of aroE required shikimate for growth, whereas a qsuD-deficient strain did not grow in medium supplemented with either quinate or shikimate as sole carbon sources. There was no discernible difference in growth rate between wild-type and a cgR_1216-deficient strain. Enzymatic assays showed that AroE both reduced 3-dehydroshikimate, using NADPH as cofactor, and oxidized shikimate, the reverse reaction, using NADP(+) as cofactor. The reduction reaction was ten times faster than the oxidation. QsuD reduced 3-dehydroquinate using NADH and oxidized quinate using NAD(+) as cofactor. Different from the other two homologues, the product of cgR_1216 displayed considerably lower enzyme activity for both the reduction and the oxidation. The catalytic reaction of QsuD and AroE was highly susceptible to pH. Furthermore, reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate by AroE was inhibited by high concentrations of shikimate, but neither quinate nor aromatic amino acids had any effect on the reaction. Expression of qsuD mRNA was strongly enhanced in the presence of shikimate, whereas that of cgR_1216 and aroE decreased. We conclude that while AroE is the main catalyst for shikimate production in the shikimate pathway, QsuD is essential for quinate/shikimate utilization. PMID:23306642

Kubota, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuya; Hiraga, Kazumi; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

2013-09-01

400

Studying reliability using identical handheld lactate analyzers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections to be made between data collection and analysis. Pairs of student teams tested individual aerobically trained participants exercising to voluntary exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. The analysis of four volunteers' postexercise blood samples revealed lactate data that, although highly correlated, showed small but statistically significant differences between devices. This laboratory activity provides a useful platform for introducing students to the reliability of instrumentation, in particular noting its relevance to designs employing repeated measures.

Mark T Stewart (Willamette University Psychology); Stasinos Stavrianeas (Willamette University)

2008-03-24

401

Chronic pain management in pregnancy and lactation.  

PubMed

During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature. PMID:23857445

Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M

2014-02-01

402

Does the circadian system regulate lactation?  

PubMed

Environmental variables such as photoperiod, heat, stress, nutrition and other external factors have profound effects on quality and quantity of a dairy cow's milk. The way in which the environment interacts with genotype to impact milk production is unknown; however, evidence from our laboratory suggests that circadian clocks play a role. Daily and seasonal endocrine rhythms are coordinated in mammals by the master circadian clock in the hypothalamus. Peripheral clocks are distributed in every organ and coordinated by signals from the master clock. We and others have shown that there is a circadian clock in the mammary gland. Approximately 7% of the genes expressed during lactation had circadian patterns including core clock and metabolic genes. Amplitude changes occurred in the core mammary clock genes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and were coordinated with changes in molecular clocks among multiple tissues. In vitro studies using a bovine mammary cell line showed that external stimulation synchronized mammary clocks, and expression of the core clock gene, BMAL1, was induced by lactogens. Female clock/clock mutant mice, which have disrupted circadian rhythms, have impaired mammary development and their offspring failed to thrive suggesting that the dam's milk production was not adequate enough to nourish their young. We envision that, in mammals, during the transition from pregnancy to lactation the master clock is modified by environmental and physiological cues that it receives, including photoperiod length. In turn, the master clock coordinates changes in endocrine milieu that signals peripheral tissues. In dairy cows, it is clear that changes in photoperiod during the dry period and/or during lactation influences milk production. We believe that the photoperiod effect on milk production is mediated, in part by the 'setting' of the master clock with light, which modifies peripheral circadian clocks including the mammary core clock and subsequently impacts milk yield and may impact milk composition. PMID:22436218

Plaut, K; Casey, T

2012-03-01

403

Use of a Novel Escherichia coli-Leuconostoc Shuttle Vector for Metabolic Engineering of Leuconostoc citreum To Overproduce d-Lactate  

PubMed Central

Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of a cryptic plasmid, pMBLT00, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides KCTC13302 revealed that it contains 20,721 bp, a G+C content of 38.7%, and 18 open reading frames. Comparative sequence and mung been nuclease analyses of pMBLT00 showed that pMBLT00 replicates via the theta replication mechanism. A new, stable Escherichia coli-Leuconosto