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1

Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10{sup 8} CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale.

Giralt, Jordi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jgiralt@vhebron.net; Regadera, Jose Perez [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Verges, Ramona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Romero, Jesus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, Isabel de la [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Biete, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Villoria, Jesus [Medicest S. L. Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Cobo, Jose Maria [Red INDE, Barcelona (Spain); Guarner, Francisco [Department of Gastroenterology, Ciberehd, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)

2008-07-15

2

Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children. Subjects/Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3–6 years old in daycare/schools. The intervention was a fermented dairy drink containing a specific probiotic strain or matching placebo with no live cultures for 90 consecutive days. Two primary outcomes were assessed: incidence of CIDs and change of behavior because of illness (both assessed by parental report). Results: The rate of change of behavior because of illness was similar among active and control groups. However, the incidence rate for CIDs in the active group (0.0782) is 19% lower than that of the control group (0.0986) (incidence rate ratio=0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 099) P=0.046. Conclusions: Daily intake of a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 showed some promise in reducing overall incidence of illness, but was primarily driven by gastrointestinal infections and there were no differences in change of behavior. PMID:20485304

Merenstein, D; Murphy, M; Fokar, A; Hernandez, R K; Park, H; Nsouli, H; Sanders, M E; Davis, B A; Niborski, V; Tondu, F; Shara, N M

2010-01-01

3

Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Ameliorates Colitis by Strengthening the Gut Barrier Function and Changing the Gut Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Background Probiotic bacteria can be used for the prevention and treatment of human inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the nature of active components and exact mechanisms of this beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate if lysate of probiotic bacterium L. casei DN-114 001 (Lc) could decrease the severity of intestinal inflammation in a murine model of IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings The preventive effect of oral administration of Lc significantly reduces the severity of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c but not in SCID mice. In order to analyze how this beneficial effect interferes with well-known phases of intestinal inflammation pathogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we evaluated intestinal permeability using the FITC-labeled dextran method and analysed tight junction proteins expression by immunofluorescence and PCR. We also measured CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells proportion by FACS analysis, microbiota composition by pyrosequencing, and local cytokine production by ELISA. Lc leads to a significant protection against increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction shown by preserved ZO-1 expression. We found that the Lc treatment increases the numbers of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IFN-?, and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in Peyer's patches and large intestine, and changes the gut microbiota composition. Moreover, Lc treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? expression in RAW 264.7 cell line by down-regulating the NF-?B signaling pathway. Conclusion/Significance Our study provided evidence that even non-living probiotic bacteria can prevent the development of severe forms of intestinal inflammation by strengthening the integrity of intestinal barrier and modulation of gut microenvironment. PMID:22132181

Zakostelska, Zuzana; Kverka, Miloslav; Klimesova, Klara; Rossmann, Pavel; Mrazek, Jakub; Kopecny, Jan; Hornova, Michaela; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hudcovic, Tomas; Ridl, Jakub; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

2011-01-01

4

Pentitol metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus casei capable of growing on either ribitol or xylitol carry out a heterolactic fermentation producing ethanol, acetate, and a mixture of D- and L-lactate. Following conversion of the pentitols to ribulose 5-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate via enzymatic steps unique to these organisms, the intermediate products are further metabolized by enzymes of the pentose pathway. The initial enzymes of the pathway, i.e., pentitol:phosphoenolypyruvate phosphotransferase and penititol phosphate dehydrogenase, do not appear to be stringently regulated by glucose or intermediate products of glycolysis. PMID:118163

London, J; Chace, N M

1979-01-01

5

Production and Regeneration of Lactobacillus casei Protoplasts  

PubMed Central

Methods for the production and regeneration of Lactobacillus casei protoplasts are described. Protoplasts of L. casei strains were obtained by treatment with mutanolysin or with mutanolysin and lysozyme together in a protoplast formation buffer containing 0.02 M HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N?-2-ethanesulfonic acid) (pH 7.0), 1 mM MgCl2, 0.5% gelatin, and 0.3 M raffinose. Cells were regenerated on a complex medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, MgCl2, CaCl2, gelatin, and raffinose. Lengthy digestion with lytic enzymes inhibited the capacity of protoplasts to regenerate. The optimum conditions of protoplast formation varied from strain to strain. Using predetermined optimal conditions it was possible to prepare protoplasts of several L. casei strains and regenerate them with 10 to 40% efficiency. The methods were applicable to other species of lactobacilli as well. Images PMID:16346670

Lee-Wickner, Lyang-Ja; Chassy, Bruce M.

1984-01-01

6

Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the effect of chain length of inulins on the characteristics of fat-free plain yogurt manufactured with Lactobacillus casei. Probiotic fat-free plain yogurts were manufactured using Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. casei. The treatments were inulins of short (P95), medium (GR) and long (HP) chain lengths. The inulins were incorporated at a concentration of 1.5g\\/100g

Kayanush J. Aryana; Paula McGrew

2007-01-01

7

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

8

Inducible Promoter-Repressor System from the Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to extend the presently available inducible gene expression systems for lactobacilli, we have isolated a thermoinducible promoter-repressor cassette from the temperate Lactobacillus casei phage FSW-TI in Escherichia coli. The FSW-TI promoter fragment was abutted to the plasmid-borne promoterless -glu- curonidase (gusA) reporter gene and shown to direct its transcription in L. casei. In addition, the functionality of

Phage FSW; Bernhard Binishofer; Isabella Moll; Bernhard Henrich; Udo Blasi

2002-01-01

9

Oral immunoadjuvant activity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei in dextran-fed layer chickens.  

PubMed

We recently reported that synbiotic Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei together with specific substrate dextran elicited an enhancement in humoral immune response against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. The present study was designed to evaluate the oral immunoadjuvant effects of the synbiotic in layer chickens. Using a PCR assay, L. casei subsp. casei was detected specifically in the intestinal chyme of chickens (10 d of age, Julia strain) fed ad libitum on a diet supplemented with 75 mg dextran/kg (dextran-supplemented diet, DSD) and administered orally with 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) L. casei subsp. casei in 0.1 ml PBS with the aid of an intubation needle at 1, 2 and 3 d of age. Furthermore, oral administration of 10(7) CFU L. casei subsp. casei at 1-3 d of age significantly enhanced the production of anti-BSA antibody in DSD-fed chickens (60 d of age) administered orally with 1 mg BSA at 32 and 33 d of age and subcutaneously with 5 microg BSA at 33 d of age. In addition, among bacterial numbers tested, 10(6) CFU L. casei subsp. casei together with dextran induced an effective increase in humoral immune response to mixed inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease and avian infectious bronchitis, and the treatment may be advantageous in protecting against these infectious diseases in chickens in actual application. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. casei subsp. casei with dextran leads to immunomodulation of humoral immune responses. PMID:16469163

Ogawa, Tomohiko; Asai, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yasuda, Kenji

2006-02-01

10

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

11

Purification and characterization of a prolidase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei IFPL 731.  

PubMed Central

A peptidase showing a high level of specificity towards dipeptides of the X-Pro type was purified to homogeneity from the cell extract of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei IFPL 731. The enzyme was a monomer having a molecular mass of 41 kDa. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 to 7.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Metal chelating agents completely inhibited enzyme activity, indicating that the prolidase was a metalloenzyme. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) and Vmax for several proline-containing dipeptides were determined. PMID:8979358

Fernández-Esplá, M D; Martín-Hernández, M C; Fox, P F

1997-01-01

12

Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of l-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a d-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes

Rosa Viana; María Jesús Yebra; José Luis Galán; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

13

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage se- quences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described

Marco Ventura; Carlos Canchaya; Valentina Bernini; Eric Altermann; Rodolphe Barrangou; Stephen McGrath; Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carey D. Walker; Ralf Zink; Erasmo Neviani; Jim Steele; Jeff Broadbent; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Paul W. O'Toole; Douwe van Sinderen

2006-01-01

14

Lactobacillus casei suppresses experimental arthritis by down-regulating T helper 1 effector functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics on wide variety of diseases have been shown, little is known about how probiotics modulate the immune system. In this study we elucidated the underlying mechanisms how Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) protects against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression by investigating the effector functions of CD4+ T cells. Oral administration of L. casei suppressed collagen-induced arthritis

Jae-Seon So; Ho-Keun Kwon; Choong-Gu Lee; Hwa-Jung Yi; Jin-A. Park; So-Yeon Lim; Ki-Chul Hwang; Young Ho Jeon; Sin-Hyeog Im

2008-01-01

15

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yogurts and fermented milk drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective medium (LC agar) was developed for enumeration of Lactobacillus casei populations from commercial yogurts and fermented milk drinks that may contain strains of yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria) and L. casei. Appropriate dilutions were pour-plated in specially formulated LC agar acidified to pH 5.1 and the plates incubated

Ramakanth R. Ravula; Nagendra P. Shah

1998-01-01

16

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

17

Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei

Sophie Coudeyras; Helene Marchandin; Celine Fajon; Christiane Forestier

2008-01-01

18

Cell-Free Supernatants from Probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Invasion In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

Juanita Escamilla; Vatsala Maitin

2012-01-01

19

Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, Francois P.; Ribbera, Angela; Jarvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietila, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

2013-01-01

20

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23?  

PubMed Central

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Maze, Alain; Boel, Gregory; Zuniga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noemie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casaregola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Perez-Martinez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-01-01

21

Growth Response of Lactobacillus Casei (Atcc 7469) to Riboflavin, Fmn, and Fad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growth responses, measured turbidimetrically, of Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) to riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide differ significantly from each other. In the assay of acid extracts of tissues for flavin content, t...

B. W. Langer, S. Charoensiri

1966-01-01

22

Comparative Sequence Analyses of the Genes Coding for 16s rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-Related Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the 16s rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lacto- bacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhumnosus were different. The K,,, values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the K,,, values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness

KATSUMI MORI; KOJI YAMAZAKI; TOMOHARU ISHIYAMA; KAYO KOBAYASH; HARUO SHINAN

1997-01-01

23

Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

2014-01-01

24

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

25

Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei\\/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase\\/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC\\/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L.

Christine Bäuerl; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; Fang Yan; D. Brent Polk; Vicente Monedero

2010-01-01

26

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

27

Enhancement of host resistance against Listeria infection by Lactobacillus casei: Role of macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Among the 10 species of the genus Lactobacillus, L. casei showed the strongest protective action against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. The activity of L. casei differed with regard to the dose of administration. The anti-L. monocytogenes resistance in mice intravenously administered 5.5 X 10(7), 2.8 X 10(8), or 1.1 X 10(9) L. casei cells was most manifest at ca. 2, 2 and 13, and 3 to 21 days after its administration, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in the liver of mice injected with L. casei (10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) cells) 48 h after infection was suppressed, particularly when 10(8) or 10(9) L. casei cells were given 2 or 13 days before the induced infection, respectively. This suppression of L. monocytogenes growth was overcome by carrageenan treatment or X-ray irradiation. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into the liver DNA increased 13 days after administration of L. casei, and augmentation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation during 6 to 48 h after infection was dependent on the dose of L. casei. Peritoneal macrophage accumulation observed 1 to 5 days after intraperitoneal injection of UV-killed L. monocytogenes was markedly enhanced when the mice were treated with L. casei cells 13 days before macrophage elicitation. Therefore, the enhanced host resistance by L. casei to L. monocytogenes infection may be mediated by macrophages migrating from the blood stream to the reticuloendothelial system in response to L. casei injection before or after L. monocytogenes infection.

Sato, K.

1984-05-01

28

Effect of curing conditions and Lactobacillus casei CRL705 on the hydrolysis of meat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. F ADDA, G. V IGNOLO, M.-C. A RISTOY, G. O LIVER A ND F. T OLDRA ´ . 2001. Aims: The effect of the common curing conditions used during the manufacture of dry fermented sausage on the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus casei CRL705 against meat proteins was investigated. Methods and Results: Hydrolysis of pork muscle sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins

S. Fadda; G. Vignolo; M.-C. Aristoy; G. Oliver; F. Toldra

2001-01-01

29

The Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei Induces Activation of the Gut Mucosal Immune System through Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria affect the immune system are unknown yet, but many of them are attributed to an increase in the innate or in the acquired immune response. To study the influence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei in the expression of receptors involved in the innate immune response, this bacterium was orally administered to BALB\\/c mice.

C. Maldonado Galdeano; G. Perdigon

2006-01-01

30

Growth Inhibition of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Huh7 Cells by Lactobacillus casei Extract  

PubMed Central

Purpose Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) is known to exert anti-proliferation effects on many types of cancer cells. However, the effect of L. casei on liver cancer has not been reported. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the anti-cancer effect of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells. Materials and Methods L. casei ATCC393 extract was prepared and purified. After the treatment of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells, cell viability, cell cycle arrest and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 1 (TNFR1) and death receptor 3 (DR3) mRNA related with extrinsic apoptosis were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins as well as Caspase-3, -8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins were analyzed by western blot analysis. To determine the effect of L. casei extract on cancer stem-like cells, we analyzed changes in side population fraction through flow cytometry. Results The cell viability of Huh7 cells treated with L. casei extract was decreased by 77%, potentially owing to increases in the rates of Huh7 cells arrested in the G2/M phase (3% increase) and that underwent apoptosis (6% increase). The expression levels of TNFR1 and DR3 mRNA, as well as P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins, were increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of caspase-8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 proteins decreased. However, in the case of side population cells, no remarkable changes were observed. Conclusion L. casei extract exerts a potent anti-tumor effect on the viability of liver cancer cells, although not on cancer stem-like cells. PMID:23918568

Han, Dae Jong; Kim, Jong Bin; Park, Seo Young; Yang, Man Gil

2013-01-01

31

Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.  

PubMed

Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-05-01

32

Sorbitol synthesis by an engineered Lactobacillus casei strain expressing a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene within the lactose operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is claimed to have important health-promoting effects and Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium relevant as probiotic and used as a cheese starter culture. A sorbitol-producing L. casei strain might therefore be of considerable interest in the food industry. A recombinant strain of L. casei was constructed by the integration of a d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene (gutF) in the

Lorenzo Nissen; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

33

Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen. PMID:23183972

Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves

2013-01-01

34

Chromosomal Insertions in the Lactobacillus casei upp Gene That Are Useful for Vaccine Expression  

PubMed Central

To develop a stable and marker-free Lactobacillus strain useful for the expression of vaccines, we developed a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing an HCE promoter, a PgsA anchor, the alpha-toxin gene, and an rrnB T1T2 terminator (PP?T) that uses a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) counterselectable marker for Lactobacillus casei. Three strains containing the correct PP?T expression cassettes were produced via the selective pressure of 5-FU screening. We confirmed that the upp gene was deleted and that the PP?T expression cassettes were inserted into the upp site of L. casei ATCC 393 by genomic PCR amplification and sequencing. 5-FU resistance in recombinant bacteria could be stably inherited for as long as 40 generations following insertion. However, bacteria containing the integrated DNA grew more slowly than wild-type L. casei. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis demonstrated that the alpha-toxin gene was expressed. Also, we visualized expression of the protein on the surface of L. casei cells using laser confocal microscopy. These results taken together demonstrate that these recombinant bacteria should provide a safe tool for effective vaccine production. PMID:24657853

Song, Bai-fen; Ju, Long-zhu

2014-01-01

35

Nucleotide Sequencing, Purification, and Biochemical Properties of an Arylesterase from Lactobacillus casei LILA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase gene, designated estB, was isolated from a genomic library of Lactobacillus casei LILA. Nucleo- tide sequencing of the estB gene revealed a 954-bp open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 35.7 kDa. The deducedamino acid sequenceof EstBcontained the characteristicGXSXGactive-siteserinemotifidentified in most lipases and esterases. An EstB fusion protein containingaC-terminal6-histidinetagwasconstructed and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography.

K. M. Fenster; K. L. Parkin; J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

36

Intracellular Esterase from Lactobacillus casei LILA: Nucleotide Sequencing, Purification, and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase gene (estC) was isolated from a genomic library of Lactobacillus casei LILA. The estC gene con- sisted of a 777 bp open reading frame encoding a puta- tive peptide of 28.9 kDa. A recombinant EstC fusion protein containing a C-terminal six-histidine tag was constructed and purified to electrophoretic homogene- ity. Characterization of EstC revealed that it was a

K. M. Fenster; K. L. Parkin; J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

37

Peptidoglycan Structure of Lactobacillus casei, a Species Highly Resistant to Glycopeptide Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the peptidoglycan of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, a species highly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics, was examined. After digestion, 23 muropeptides were identified; monomers represented 44.7% of all muropeptides, with monomer tetrapeptides being the major ones. Fifty-nine percent of the peptidoglycan was O-acetylated. The cross-bridge between D-alanine and L-lysine consisted of one asparagine, although aspartate could be found

DANIELE BILLOT-KLEIN; RAYMOND LEGRAND; BERNARD SCHOOT; JEAN VAN HEIJENOORT

1997-01-01

38

Application of the acetolactate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus casei for accelerated maturation of beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetolactate decarboxylase produced by Lactobacillus casei DSM 2547 has been tested as an aid for accelerated removal\\u000a of the diacetyl precursor acetolactic acid from beer. Addition of the enzyme to freshly fermented beer has been shown to effect\\u000a efficient removal of the diacetyl precursor while addition of the decarboxylase to wort prior to pitching was found to lead\\u000a to

Sven Erik Godtfredsen; Anne Munk Rasmussen; Martin Ottesen; Thomas Mathiasen; Bent Ahrenst-Larsen

1984-01-01

39

Interrelationships of Microorganisms in Cream. II. Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus lactis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus casei were inoculated individually and in combination with Streptococcus lactis into sterile cream which was incubated at different temperatures and analyzed for protein and fat de- composition, pH, growth and flavor changes. Editor. Measurements of proteolysis by the tryptophan determination of Duggan (8) and water-insoluble acids (W.I.A.) by the Hillig (11) method have been used by

L. G. Harmon; F. E. Nelson

1957-01-01

40

Culture conditions for the production of esterase from Lactobacillus casei CL96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture conditions in growth and esterase production by a newly isolated Lactobacillus casei CL96 were investigated using a dextrose-free MRS medium supplemented with different sugars in a 2 l fermentor at different pHs (4.0-9.0) and temperatures (20-50°C). The optimal growth was obtained in basal MRS medium containing 1% (w\\/v) lactose at pH 7.0 and 30°C. The maximal esterase production was

Y.-J. Choi; B. Lee

2001-01-01

41

Evaluation of immunomodulation by Lactobacillus casei Shirota: Immune function, autoimmunity and gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are claimed to have immunomodulating effects. Stimulation as well as suppression of T helper (Th)1 mediated immune responses, have been described for various strains. Experiments involving Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) detected mainly enhancement of innate immune responses and promotion of Th1 mediated immune reactivity. To confirm and further investigate modulation of Th1 responses and development of autoimmune

Kirsten A. Baken; Janine Ezendam; Eric R. Gremmer; Arja de Klerk; Jeroen L. A. Pennings; Bianca Matthee; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk van Loveren

2006-01-01

42

Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

2014-01-01

43

Genome –Scale Reconstruction of Metabolic Networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications. PMID:25365062

Vinay-Lara, Elena; Hamilton, Joshua J.; Stahl, Buffy; Broadbent, Jeff R.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Steele, James L.

2014-01-01

44

Assessment of aerobic and respiratory growth in the Lactobacillus casei group.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

2014-01-01

45

Lactobacillus casei reduces susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via microbiota-mediated body chloride ion influx  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota mediated low-grade inflammation is involved in the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we used a high fat sucrose (HFS) diet-induced pre-insulin resistance and a low dose-STZ HFS rat models to study the effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in protecting against T2DM onset. Hyperglycemia was favorably suppressed by L. casei Zhang treatment. Moreover, the hyperglycemia was connected with type 1 immune response, high plasma bile acids and urine chloride ion loss. This chloride ion loss was significantly prevented by L. casei via upregulating of chloride ion-dependent genes (ClC1-7, GlyR?1, SLC26A3, SLC26A6, GABAA?1, Bestrophin-3 and CFTR). A shift in the caecal microflora, particularly the reduction of bile acid 7?-dehydroxylating bacteria, and fecal bile acid profiles also occurred. These change coincided with organ chloride influx. Thus, we postulate that the prevention of T2DM onset by L. casei Zhang may be via a microbiota-based bile acid-chloride exchange mechanism. PMID:25133590

Zhang, Yong; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Jianlin; He, Qiuwen; Li, He; Song, Yuqin; Zhang, Heping

2014-01-01

46

Screening of Lactobacillus casei strains for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding or degrading foodborne carcinogens would reduce human exposure to these deleterious compounds. In the present study, the ability of eight strains of Lactobacillus casei to bind aflatoxin B1 in aqueous solution was investigated. Additionally, the effect of addition of bile salts to the growth medium on aflatoxin B1 binding was assessed. The eight strains tested were obtained from different ecological niches (cheese, corn silage, human feces, fermented beverage). The strains exhibited different degrees of aflatoxin binding; the strain with the highest AFB1 binding was L. casei L30, which bound 49.2% of the available aflatoxin (4.6 microg/mL). In general, the human isolates bound the most aflatoxin B1 and the cheese isolates the least. Stability of the bacterial-aflatoxin complex was assessed by repeated washings. Binding was to a limited degree (0.6-9.2% release) reversible; the L. casei 7R1-aflatoxin B1 complex exhibited the greatest stability. L. casei L30, a human isolate, was the strain least sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bile salts. Exposure of the bacterial cells to bile significant increased aflatoxin B1 binding and the differences between the strains was reduced. PMID:19425181

Hernandez-Mendoza, A; Garcia, H S; Steele, J L

2009-06-01

47

Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei d-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid Dehydrogenase in Cheddar Cheese†  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that ?-keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by aminotransferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor compounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable ?-keto acids to more-stable ?-hydroxy acids via the action of ?-keto acid dehydrogenases such as d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase. To further characterize the role of this enzyme in cheese flavor, the Lactobacillus casei d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase gene was cloned into the high-copy-number vector pTRKH2 and transformed into L. casei ATCC 334. Enzyme assays confirmed that ?-keto acid dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in pTRKH2:dhic transformants than in wild-type cells. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were made with Lactococcus lactis starter only, starter plus L. casei ATCC 334, and starter plus L. casei ATCC 334 transformed with pTRKH2:dhic. After 3 months of aging, the cheese chemistry and flavor attributes were evaluated instrumentally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by descriptive sensory analysis. The culture system used significantly affected the concentrations of various ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters and one sulfur compound in cheese. Results further indicated that enhanced expression of d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase suppressed spontaneous degradation of ?-keto acids, but sensory work indicated that this effect retarded cheese flavor development. PMID:15294819

Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Gummalla, Sanjay; Hughes, Joanne E.; Johnson, Mark E.; Rankin, Scott A.; Drake, Mary Anne

2004-01-01

48

Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by ?-acetolactate synthase and ?-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio

2013-01-01

49

Lactobacillus casei improves resistance to pneumococcal respiratory infection in malnourished mice.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 used as a supplement in a repletion diet on the resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory infection in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after they consumed a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 d. Malnourished mice were fed a balanced conventional diet (BCD) with or without supplemental L. casei for 7, 14, or 21 consecutive days, or BCD for 7 d with L. casei supplementation on d 6 and 7 (7dBCD+2dLc). The malnourished control (MNC) group was fed only the PFD, whereas well-nourished control (WNC) mice consumed the BCD ad libitum. Mice were challenged with S. pneumoniae at the end of each dietary treatment. Lung colonization and bacteremia were significantly greater in MNC than in WNC. Normalization of the immune response occurred in malnourished mice fed the BCD for 21 d. L. casei supplementation reduced the time required for a normal response from 21 to 7 d. Mice administered the 7dBCD+2dLc repletion treatment had a more effective pathogen clearance from blood and significantly lower lung damage than MNC. This treatment improved both the number of leukocytes and neutrophils in blood and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and the bactericidal function of phagocytic cells to levels that did not differ from those of WNC. In the 7dBCD+2dLc mice, antipneumococcal IgA in BAL was higher than in WNC, whereas antipneumococcal IgG in serum and BAL did not differ. This study suggests that the addition of L. casei to the repletion diet has a beneficial effect because it accelerates the recovery of the innate immune response and improves the specific immune mechanisms against an S. pneumoniae respiratory infection in malnourished mice. PMID:15930453

Villena, Julio; Racedo, Silvia; Agüero, Graciela; Bru, Elena; Medina, Marcela; Alvarez, Susana

2005-06-01

50

Radioprotection of mice by a single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei after irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of whole-body gamma-irradiated mice with a preparation of Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018) immediately after irradiation caused a sustained increase in serum colony-stimulating activity which was followed by an enhanced repopulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells in the femoral marrow and spleen. Numbers of blood leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets were increased earlier in the treated mice than in the controls, and the survival rate was elevated significantly. The radioprotective effect was dependent on the dose of LC 9018 as well as on the dose of radiation. These results demonstrate the value of LC 9018 for the treatment of myelosuppression after radiotherapy or radiation accidents.

Nomoto, K.; Yokokura, T.; Tsuneoka, K.; Shikita, M. (Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-03-01

51

Predictive modelling of Lactobacillus casei KN291 survival in fermented soy beverage.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to construct and verify predictive growth and survival models of a potentially probiotic bacteria in fermented soy beverage. The research material included natural soy beverage (Polgrunt, Poland) and the strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - Lactobacillus casei KN291. To construct predictive models for the growth and survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in the fermented soy beverage we design an experiment which allowed the collection of CFU data. Fermented soy beverage samples were stored at various temperature conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20°C) for 28 days. On the basis of obtained data concerning the survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in soy beverage at different temperature and time conditions, two non-linear models (r(2)= 0.68-0.93) and two surface models (r(2)=0.76-0.79) were constructed; these models described the behaviour of the bacteria in the product to a satisfactory extent. Verification of the surface models was carried out utilizing the validation data - at 7°C during 28 days. It was found that applied models were well fitted and charged with small systematic errors, which is evidenced by accuracy factor - Af, bias factor - Bf and mean squared error - MSE. The constructed microbiological growth and survival models of L. casei KN291 in fermented soy beverage enable the estimation of products shelf life period, which in this case is defined by the requirement for the level of the bacteria to be above 10(6) CFU/cm(3). The constructed models may be useful as a tool for the manufacture of probiotic foods to estimate of their shelf life period. PMID:24500482

Zieli?ska, Dorota; Dorota, Zieli?ska; Ko?o?yn-Krajewska, Danuta; Danuta, Ko?o?yn-Krajewska; Goryl, Antoni; Antoni, Goryl; Motyl, Ilona

2014-02-01

52

Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei D-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase in cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that alpha-keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by aminotransferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor compounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable alpha-keto acids to more-stable alpha-hydroxy acids via the action of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases such as d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase. To further characterize the role of this enzyme in cheese flavor, the Lactobacillus casei d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase gene was cloned into the high-copy-number vector pTRKH2 and transformed into L. casei ATCC 334. Enzyme assays confirmed that alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in pTRKH2:dhic transformants than in wild-type cells. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were made with Lactococcus lactis starter only, starter plus L. casei ATCC 334, and starter plus L. casei ATCC 334 transformed with pTRKH2:dhic. After 3 months of aging, the cheese chemistry and flavor attributes were evaluated instrumentally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by descriptive sensory analysis. The culture system used significantly affected the concentrations of various ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters and one sulfur compound in cheese. Results further indicated that enhanced expression of d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase suppressed spontaneous degradation of alpha-keto acids, but sensory work indicated that this effect retarded cheese flavor development. PMID:15294819

Broadbent, Jeffery R; Gummalla, Sanjay; Hughes, Joanne E; Johnson, Mark E; Rankin, Scott A; Drake, Mary Anne

2004-08-01

53

Characterization of a Regulatory Network of Peptide Antibiotic Detoxification Modules in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Two-component systems (TCS) are major signal transduction pathways that allow bacteria to detect and respond to environmental and intracellular changes. A group of TCS has been shown to be involved in the response against antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These TCS are characterized by the possession of intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases, and they are usually associated with ABC transporters of the peptide-7 exporter family (Pep7E). Lactobacillus casei BL23 encodes two TCS belonging to this group (TCS09 and TCS12) that are located next to two ABC transporters (ABC09 and ABC12), as well as a third Pep7E ABC transporter not genetically associated with any TCS (orphan ABC). This study addressed the involvement of modules TCS09/ABC09 and TCS12/ABC12 in AMP resistance. Results showed that both systems contribute to L. casei resistance to AMPs, and that each TCS constitutes a functional unit with its corresponding ABC transporter. Analysis of transcriptional levels showed that module 09 is required for the induction of ABC09 expression in response to nisin. In contrast, module 12 controls a wider regulon that encompasses the orphan ABC, the dlt operon (d-alanylation of teichoid acids), and the mprF gene (l-lysinylation of phospholipids), thereby controlling properties of the cell envelope. Furthermore, the characterization of a dltA mutant showed that Dlt plays a major role in AMP resistance in L. casei. This is the first report on the regulation of the response of L. casei to AMPs, giving insight into its ability to adapt to the challenging environments that it encounters as a probiotic microorganism. PMID:23455349

Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Gebhard, Susanne; Alcantara, Cristina; Staron, Anna

2013-01-01

54

The Relationship of Serine Deamination and Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Lactobacillus casei to Cheddar Cheese Flavor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of certain strains of Lactobacillus casei to deaminate serine has been reported by Kristoffersen and Nelson (6). Strain 7 also produced H_~S in a V-8 juice medium without added carbohydrate. Sherwood (7) found that the addition of some strains of lactobacilli to milk to be used for making Cheddar cheese resulted in \\

T. Kristoffersen; F. E. Nelson

1955-01-01

55

Metabolism of Biotin and Analogues of Biotin by Microorganisms. Iv. Degradation of Biotin, Oxybiotin, and Desthiobiotin by Lactobacillus Casei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lactobacillus casei degrades biotin when it is present in excess to products not utilizable for growth by L. plantarum or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Degrading activity was initiated in the early stationary phase and was controlled by the pH of the medium. ...

J. Birnbaum, H. C. Lichstein

1966-01-01

56

16S rRNA PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of Oral Lactobacillus casei Group and Their Phenotypic Appearances.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a 16S rRNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the species level of Lactobacillus casei group and to investigate their characteristics of acid production and inhibitory effect. PCR-DGGE has been developed based on the 16S rRNA gene, and a set of HDA-1-GC and HDA-2, designed at V2-V3 region, and another set of CARP-1-GC and CARP-2, designed at V1 region, have been used. The bacterial strains included L. casei ATCC 393, L. paracasei CCUG 32212, L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, L. zeae CCUG 35515, and 46 clinical strains of L. casei/paracasei/rhamnosus. Inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans and acid production were examined. Results revealed that each type species strain and identified clinical isolate showed its own unique DGGE pattern using CARP1-GC and CARP2 primers. HDA1-GC and HDA2 primers could distinguish the strains of L. paracasei from L. casei. It was found that inhibitory effect of L. paracasei was stronger than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. The acid production of L. paracasei was lower than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. In conclusion, the technique has been proven to be able to differentiate between closely related species in L. casei group and thus provide reliable information of their phenotypic appearances. PMID:24191230

Piwat, S; Teanpaisan, R

2013-01-01

57

16S rRNA PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of Oral Lactobacillus casei Group and Their Phenotypic Appearances  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to develop a 16S rRNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the species level of Lactobacillus casei group and to investigate their characteristics of acid production and inhibitory effect. PCR-DGGE has been developed based on the 16S rRNA gene, and a set of HDA-1-GC and HDA-2, designed at V2-V3 region, and another set of CARP-1-GC and CARP-2, designed at V1 region, have been used. The bacterial strains included L. casei ATCC 393, L. paracasei CCUG 32212, L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, L. zeae CCUG 35515, and 46 clinical strains of L. casei/paracasei/rhamnosus. Inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans and acid production were examined. Results revealed that each type species strain and identified clinical isolate showed its own unique DGGE pattern using CARP1-GC and CARP2 primers. HDA1-GC and HDA2 primers could distinguish the strains of L. paracasei from L. casei. It was found that inhibitory effect of L. paracasei was stronger than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. The acid production of L. paracasei was lower than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. In conclusion, the technique has been proven to be able to differentiate between closely related species in L. casei group and thus provide reliable information of their phenotypic appearances. PMID:24191230

Piwat, S.; Teanpaisan, R.

2013-01-01

58

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK900.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900 fulfills the criteria required for probiotic strains. In this study, we report a whole-genome sequence of this isolate and compare it with other L. rhamnosus complete genome sequences already published. PMID:23950137

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

59

Epithelial cell proliferation arrest induced by lactate and acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve.  

PubMed

In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut. PMID:23646174

Matsuki, Takahiro; Pédron, Thierry; Regnault, Béatrice; Mulet, Céline; Hara, Taeko; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2013-01-01

60

Effects of Citrate on the Composition and Metabolism of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 converted small amounts of citrate to diacetyl, other volatile compounds, and lipids. Citrate was accumulated passively by the organism. The presence of citrate in the growth medium decreased the uptake of acetate and its conversion to cellular lipids. Cells grown in citrate media contained more protein per cell than did controls. This increased protein content was reflected mainly in the soluble fraction when cells were subjected to sonic lysis. Soluble fractions from cells cultured in the presence of citrate contained more total protein as well as more individual proteins than these fractions from control cells. The presence of citrate caused extensive flocculation and increased the susceptibility of cells to lysis. PMID:4327613

Branen, A. L.; Keenan, T. W.

1971-01-01

61

Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus in milk whey.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that colonizes diverse ecological niches and that has found broad commercial application. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of biomass production, lactic acid production, and substrate consumption of Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus cultured in deproteinized milk whey. Batch culture experiments were performed in an instrumented, 2-L, stirred tank bioreactor using different inoculum concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 g/L) and lactose levels (35 to 70 g/L). The time series of experimental data corresponding to biomass growth, lactose consumption, and lactic acid formation were differentiated to calculate the corresponding kinetic rates. Strong exponentially dependent product inhibition effects were evident at low lactic acid concentrations, and lactic acid production rate was partially associated with biomass growth. A mathematical model is presented that reproduces the experimental lactose, biomass, and lactic acid concentration profiles. PMID:21094727

Alvarez, M M; Aguirre-Ezkauriatza, E J; Ramírez-Medrano, A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, A

2010-12-01

62

Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing\\u000a Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of\\u000a the ldh1 gene, encoding the main l-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a

Reinout De Boeck; Luz Adriana Sarmiento-Rubiano; Inmaculada Nadal; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; María J. Yebra

2010-01-01

63

Conditions required for citrate utilization during growth of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 in chemically defined medium and Cheddar Cheese extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate was utilized by this microorganism in modified Chemically Defined Media (mCDM) as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of galactose. The presence of glucose inhibited citrate utilization by this microorganism even when added in limiting concentrations. Utilization of citrate occurred at pH 6.0 ± 0.2 and

Ilenys Díaz-Muñiz; James L. Steele

2006-01-01

64

Electron microscope studies on the host cell energy requirement for injection of PL1 phage DNA into Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of genome DNA injection, after adsorption, by phage PL-1 intoLactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 was monitored by electron microscopy. The DNA injection depended on the incubation temperature, and the apparent activation energy was about 11 kcal. It was inhibited when the cells had been previously starved, where their intracellular ATP contents was lowered less than one-hundredth that of the

Kenji Watanabe; Mitsuhiro Shirabe; Tomoharu Fukuzaki; Yukari Kakita; Yukihiko Nakashima; Fumio Miake

1993-01-01

65

Involvement of host cell energy in the transfection of Lactobacillus casei protoplasts with phage PL1 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 protoplasts with phage PL-1 DNA was studied under various conditions. The process of transfection was dependent on the incubation temperature, and the apparent activation energy was calculated to be about 11 kcal\\/mol. Transfection was inhibited by treating the cells before protoplasting either with monoiodoacetate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), or NaN3, without affecting both the viability of

Kenji Watanabe; Yukari Kakita; Yukihiko Nakashima; Fumio Miake

1995-01-01

66

Probiotic Lactobacillus casei activates innate immunity via NF-?B and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria are microorganisms that benefit the host through improvement of the balance of intestinal microflora and possibly by augmentation of host defense systems. We examined the mechanisms for the up-regulation of innate immune responses by a probiotic Lactobacillus casei ATCC27139, in vivo. Using mouse models of systemic Listeria monocytogenes infection and MethA fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis in combination with BALB\\/c and

Yun-Gi Kim; Toshihisa Ohta; Takuya Takahashi; Akira Kushiro; Koji Nomoto; Teruo Yokokura; Nobuhiko Okada; Hirofumi Danbara

2006-01-01

67

Immobilization of kefir and Lactobacillus casei on brewery spent grains for use in sourdough wheat bread making  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of bread were produced employing baker’s yeast, kefir or Lactobacillus casei immobilized on brewer’s spent grains. Bread was produced either by the straight-dough or the sourdough method. All the studied biocatalysts and their corresponding sourdoughs were found efficient for breadmaking. Good rising was achieved and the produced breads had good overall quality and remained fresher for longer, compared

Stavros Plessas; Marillena Trantallidi; Argyro Bekatorou; Maria Kanellaki; Poonam Nigam; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2007-01-01

68

Studies on identifying the binding sites of folate and its derivatives in Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthase  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that folate and its derivatives have a profound effect on stabilizing thymidylate synthase in vitro and in vivo, as a consequence of ternary formation between the folate, dUMP, or FdUMP, and the synthase. The degree to which complex formation is affected can be revealed qualitatively by circular dichroism and quantitatively by equilibrium dialysis using the Lactobacillus casei synthase. In contrast to the pteroylmonoglutamates, the pteroylpolyglutamates bind to thymidylate synthase in the absence of dUMP, but even their binding affinity is increased greatly by this nucleotide or its analogues. Similarly, treatment of the synthase with carboxypeptidase A prevents the binding of the pteroylmonoglutamates and reduces the binding of the polyglutamates without affecting dUMP binding. The latter does not protect against carboxypeptidase inactivation but does potentiate the protective effect of the pteroylpolyglutamates. To determine the region of the synthase involved in the binding of the glutamate residues, Pte(/sup 14/C)GluGlu6 was activated by a water soluble carbodiimide in the presence and absence of dUMP. This folate derivative behaved as a competitive inhibitor of 5,10-CH/sub 2/H/sub 4/PteGlu, in contrast to methotrexate which was non-competitive. Separation of the five cyanogen bromide peptides from the L. casei synthase revealed 80% of the radioactivity to be associated with CNBr-2 and about 15% with CNBr-4. Chymotrypsin treatment of CNBr-2 yielded two /sup 14/C-labeled peaks on high performance liquid chromatography, with the slower migrating one being separated further into two peaks by Bio-gel P2 chromatography. All three peptides came from the same region of CNBr-2, encompassing residues 47-61 of the enzyme. From these studies it would appear that the residues most probably involved in the fixation of PteGlu7 are lysines 50 and 58. In contrast, methotrexate appeared to bind to another region of CNBr-2.

Maley, F.; Maley, G.F.

1983-01-01

69

Immunomodulatory and protective effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei against Candida albicans infection in malnourished mice.  

PubMed

The effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc), when administered as a supplement to a repletion diet, on the resistance of malnourished mice to Candida albicans infection was studied. Weaned mice were malnourished by being given a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 days. The malnourished mice were then fed a balanced conventional diet (BCD) for 7 days or BCD for 7 days with supplemental Lc on days 6 and 7 (BCD+Lc). Malnourished (MNC) and well-nourished (WNC) mice were used as controls. At the end of the treatments the mice were infected intraperitoneally with C. albicans. Animals that had received probiotics had improved survival and resistance against this infection compared to those in the BCD and MNC groups. The number and fungicidal activity of phagocytes, and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6), increased in blood and infected tissues in all experimental groups, but MNC mice showed lower concentrations than those in the WNC group. BCD and BCD+Lc mice showed higher concentrations of these variables than those in the MNC group, but only the BCD+Lc group presented values similar to the WNC mice. Malnutrition also impaired the production of IL-17 and IL-10 in response to infection. Both repletion treatments normalized IL-17 concentrations, but IL-10 in the BCD+Lc group was significantly higher than in WNC mice. The addition of L. casei to the repletion diet normalized the immune response against C. albicans, allowing efficient recruitment and activation of phagocytes, as well as effective release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, probiotic treatment induced an increase in IL-10 concentrations, which would have helped to prevent damage caused by the inflammatory response. PMID:21395664

Villena, Julio; Salva, Susana; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2011-06-01

70

Genetics of l-Sorbose Transport and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding l-sorbose metabolism of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 have been identified on a 6.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment. Sequence analysis revealed seven complete genes and a partial open reading frame transcribed as two units. The deduced amino acid sequences of the first transcriptional unit (sorRE) showed high similarity to the transcriptional regulator and the l-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase of the sorbose (sor) operon from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other genes are transcribed as one unit (sorFABCDG) in opposite direction to sorRE. The deduced peptide sequence of sorF showed homology with the d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded in the sor operon from K. pneumoniae and sorABCD to components of the mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) family but especially to domains EIIA, EIIB, EIIC and EIID of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent l-sorbose PTS from K. pneumoniae. Finally, the deduced amino acid sequence of a truncated gene (sorG) located downstream of sorD presented high similarity with ketose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases. Results of studies on enzyme activities and transcriptional analysis revealed that the two gene clusters, sorRE and sorFABCDG, are induced by l-sorbose and subject to catabolite repression by d-glucose. Data indicating that the catabolite repression is mediated by components of the PTS elements and by CcpA, are presented. Results of sugar uptake assays in L. casei wild-type and sorBC mutant strains indicated that l-sorbose is taken up by l-sorbose-specific enzyme II and that L. casei contains an inducible d-fructose-specific PTS. Results of growth analysis of those strains and a man sorBC double mutant suggested that l-sorbose is probably also transported by the d-mannose PTS. We also present evidence, from studies on a sorR mutant, suggesting that the sorR gene encodes a positive regulator of the two sor operons. Sequence alignment of SorR, SorC (K. pneumoniae), and DeoR (Bacillus subtilis) revealed that they might constitute a new group of transcriptional regulators. PMID:10613875

Yebra, Maria J.; Veyrat, Ana; Santos, Mario A.; Perez-Martinez, Gaspar

2000-01-01

71

The isolation of oligosaccharides from the cell-wall polysaccharide of Lactobacillus casei, serological group C  

PubMed Central

1. A number of disaccharides and oligosaccharides have been isolated from the products of mild acid hydrolysis of the specific substance from Lactobacillus casei, serological group C. 2. The major disaccharide is O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-N-acetyl- d-galactosamine (B4) and evidence is presented for the structure of a tetrasaccharide composed of O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-d-galactose (B1) joined through its reducing end group to B4. 3. Disaccharide B1 is also a component of a trisaccharide O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-O-?- d-galactopyranosyl-(1?6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (A7). 4. A number of other oligosaccharides have been shown to be related structurally. 5. The ability of certain of the oligosaccharides to inhibit the precipitin reaction has been studied. The disaccharide B1 is more effective as an inhibitor than gentiobiose and the trisaccharide A7 is considerably more effective than B1. 6. These results have been compared with those obtained previously for the composition of the cell wall. PMID:14340043

Knox, K. W.; Hall, Elizabeth A.

1965-01-01

72

Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.  

PubMed

Batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation was used in the processing of methyl orange decolorization using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. This report presents the optimal conditions for methyl orange decolorization by the strain TISTR 1500 in modified MRS via a central composite design (CCD) experiment. In particular, the highest decolorization efficiencies were obtained with 13.41 g/L of meat extract, and with 10.89 g/L of yeast extract at pH 6.88 at 35 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the rate of decolorization increased to 322% of that obtained for un-optimized MRS medium. The high concentration of methyl orange (5 g/L) was completely degraded within 9 h in batch fermentation. The total methyl orange load with 8.075 g/L was also decolorized in fed-batch fermentation within 13 h, and the biomass of the strain dramatically decreased after an incubation time of 8 h due to a shortage of sucrose. In the continuous system with a dye-loading rate of 600 mg/L/h and a total of loaded azo dye of 7.2 g/L, high efficiency of methyl orange removal was significantly high, at 98%. PMID:24096665

Tantiwa, Nidtaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Kuntiya, Ampin

2013-01-01

73

Altered nutritional requirements associated with mutations affecting the structures of ribonucleic acid polymerase in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Rifampin-resistant mutants were isolated from Lactobacillus casei S1 and examined for possible simultaneous alteration in nutritional properties. Among the 36 mutants obtained either spontaneously or after mutagenesis with 2-aminopurine, 22 were found to be altered with respect to the specific growth requirements. The majority (20 of 22) of the latter mutants were shown to require L-glutamine in addition to the nutrients required by the parental strain for maximal growth, whereas the remaining mutants had apparently lost the requirement for L-aspartate. Further studies with one of the glutamine-requiring mutants revealed that the rifampin resistance of this strain is due to the resistance of ribonucleic acid polymerase itself and that a single mutation is responsible for both rifampin resistance and the glutamine requirement. These results strongly indicate that a structural alteration of the ribonucleic acid polymerase caused by the rifampin resistance mutation somehow affected glutamine metabolism, possibly through change in selective transcription of the genes involved. PMID:1379

Morishita, T; Yura, T

1976-02-01

74

A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their ability to colonize murine tissues following oral delivery and the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a nascent probiotic, to combat paratuberculosis. Oral inoculation of mice was able to establish paratuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner. Two consecutive doses of approximately 109 CFU per mouse resulted in a disseminated infection, whereas lower doses were not efficient to establish infection. All inoculated mice were colonized with M. paratuberculosis, maintained infection for up to 24 weeks post infection and generated immune responses that reflect M. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Notably, oral administration of L. casei ATCC 334 did not reduce the level of M. paratuberculosis colonization in treated animals. Interestingly, cytokine responses and histology indicated a trend for the immunomodulation and reduction of pathology in animals receiving L. casei ATCC 334 treatment. Overall, a reproducible oral model of paratuberculosis in mice was established that could be used for future vaccine experiments. Although the L. casei ATCC 334 was not a promising candidate for controlling paratuberculosis, we established a protocol to screen other probiotic candidates. PMID:24551602

Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L.; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.

2014-01-01

75

Comparison of Ribotyping, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 24 strains, biochemically identified as members of the Lactobacillus casei group, were identified by PCR with species-specific primers. The same set of strains was typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to compare the discrimi- natory power of the methods. Species-specific primers for L. rhamnosus and L. casei

SOILE TYNKKYNEN; REETTA SATOKARI; MARIA SAARELA; TIINA MATTILA-SANDHOLM; MAIJA SAXELIN

1999-01-01

76

Probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but not iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years.  

PubMed

Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children, whereas milk calcium alone would improve growth but reduce iron and zinc status. A 6-mo randomized trial was conducted in low-socioeconomic urban communities of Jakarta. Healthy children (n = 494) were randomly assigned to receive low-lactose milk with a low calcium content of ?50 mg/d (LC; n = 124), a regular calcium content of ?440 mg/d (RC group; n = 126), regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Growth, anemia, and iron and zinc status were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared with the RC group, the reuteri group had significantly greater weight gain [0.22 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.42) kg], weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) changes [0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17)], and monthly weight [0.03 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.05) kg/mo] and height [0.03 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.05) cm/mo] velocities. Casei significantly increased monthly weight velocity [0.03 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) kg/mo], but not height. However, the changes in underweight, stunting, anemia prevalence, and iron and zinc status were similar between groups. In conclusion, L. reuteri DSM 17938 modestly improved growth by increasing weight gain, WAZ changes, and weight and height velocity, whereas L. casei CRL 431 modestly improved weight velocity. Independent from probiotics supplementation, regular milk calcium did not affect growth or iron and zinc status. PMID:23700339

Agustina, Rina; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Lukito, Widjaja; Fahmida, Umi; van de Rest, Ondine; Zimmermann, Michael B; Firmansyah, Agus; Wulanti, Ratna; Albers, Ruud; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kok, Frans J

2013-07-01

77

Modulation of the immuno-coagulative response in a pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice nasally treated with Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

We studied the systemic effects of the intranasal administration of Lactobacillus casei on the immuno-coagulative response in pneumoccocal infection in immunocompromised mice. Weaned mice consumed a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 days and were therefore malnourished. Malnourished mice were fed a balanced conventional diet (BCD) for 7 days (BCD group) or a BCD for 7 days with nasal administration of viable L. casei on days 6 and 7 (BCD+LcN group). The malnourished control mice (MNC) received a PFD, whereas the well-nourished control mice (WNC) continually consumed a BCD. At the end of the treatment period, the mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. At different times after infection, we analysed the following parameters: global coagulation system, activation of coagulation, coagulation inhibitors, platelet count, leukocyte count and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, total proteins, albumin and acute phase proteins (APPs). The MNC group showed greater impairment in the coagulation tests and an increase in the positive APPs. These parameters were normalized by the L. casei treatment. However, the number of leukocytes, decreased by malnutrition, was improved only by the administration of L. casei. After infection, the BCD+LcN group showed similar results to those of the WNC group for most of the haemostatic parameters. The BCD+LcN group did not show significant variations in the prothrombin time or in the level of anticoagulant protein C, but showed higher levels of fibrinogen, platelets, albumin, leukocytes and MPO activity compared with the different experimental groups. The intranasal administration of L. casei was effective in modulating the pro-inflammatory aspects of coagulation without affecting coagulation itself. PMID:23065544

Zelaya, Hortensia; Laiño, Jonathan; Haro, Cecilia; Alvarez, Susana; Agüero, Graciela

2013-01-01

78

Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei supragenome and its influence in species evolution and lifestyle adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The broad ecological distribution of L. casei makes it an insightful subject for research on genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation. To explore evolutionary mechanisms that determine genomic diversity of L. casei, we performed comparative analysis of 17 L. casei genomes representing strains collected from dairy, plant, and human sources. Results Differences in L. casei genome inventory revealed an open pan-genome comprised of 1,715 core and 4,220 accessory genes. Extrapolation of pan-genome data indicates L. casei has a supragenome approximately 3.2 times larger than the average genome of individual strains. Evidence suggests horizontal gene transfer from other bacterial species, particularly lactobacilli, has been important in adaptation of L. casei to new habitats and lifestyles, but evolution of dairy niche specialists also appears to involve gene decay. Conclusions Genome diversity in L. casei has evolved through gene acquisition and decay. Acquisition of foreign genomic islands likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats, notably plant-associated niches. Loss of unnecessary ancestral traits in strains collected from bacterial-ripened cheeses supports the hypothesis that gene decay contributes to enhanced fitness in that niche. This study gives the first evidence for a L. casei supragenome and provides valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible and industrially important lactic acid bacterium. Additionally, our data confirm the Distributed Genome Hypothesis extends to non-pathogenic, ecologically flexible species like L. casei. PMID:23035691

2012-01-01

79

Physiological and proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus casei in response to acid adaptation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei by a combined physiological and proteomic analysis. To optimize the ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 1 h at different pHs, and then acid challenged at pH 3.5. The result showed that acid adaptation improved acid tolerance, and the highest survival was observed in cells adapted at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the acid-adapted cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, and lower inner permeability compared with the cells without adaptation. Proteomic analysis was performed upon acid adaptation to different pHs (pH 6.5 vs. pH 4.5) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. A total of 24 proteins that exhibited at least 1.5-fold differential expression were identified. Four proteins (Pgk, LacD, Hpr, and Galm) involved in carbohydrate catabolism and five classic stress response proteins (GroEL, GrpE, Dnak, Hspl, and LCAZH_2811) were up-regulated after acid adaptation at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Validation of the proteomic data was performed by quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional regulation of all selected genes showed a positive correlation with the proteomic patterns of the identified proteins. Results presented in this study may be useful for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and may help in formulating new strategies to improve the industrial performance of this species during acid stress. PMID:25062817

Wu, Chongde; He, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan

2014-10-01

80

Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence to suggest an immunomodulation function both within the intestines and systemically upon consuming probiotic species. We recently isolated a novel LAB, Lactobacillus caseiZhang (LcZhang) from koumiss. LcZhang exhibited favorable probiotic properties, such as acid resistance, bile resistance, gastrointestinal (GI) colonization ability, etc. In order to examine the immunomodulatory qualities of LcZhang, we administered LcZhang to healthy mice with varying doses of either live or heat-killed LcZhang and measured various parameters of the host immune response. Results The study was performed in four separate experiments via oral administration of live and heat-killed LcZhang to BALB/c mice for several consecutive days. We investigated the immunomodulating capacity of LcZhang in vivo by analyzing the profile of cytokines, T cell subpopulations, and immunoglobulin concentrations induced in blood serum and intestinal fluid in BALB/c mice. Only live bacteria elicited a wide range of immune responses, which include the increased production of interferon-? (IFN-?), and depression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. In addition, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor gene transcription increased significantly, but the proportion of T cell subsets appeared to be unaffected. We also observed that LcZhang was capable of inducing gut mucosal responses by enhancing the production of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as well influencing the systemic immunity via the cytokines released to the circulating blood. Conclusion The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of LcZhang is capable of influencing immune responses, implying that it may be a valuable strain for probiotic use in humans. PMID:19019236

Ya, Tuo; Zhang, Qijin; Chu, Fuliang; Merritt, Justin; Bilige, Menhe; Sun, Tiansong; Du, Ruiting; Zhang, Heping

2008-01-01

81

Enhanced immune response to pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice nasally treated with heat-killed Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed whether nasal administration of viable and non-viable Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 to immunocompromised mice was capable of increasing resistance against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a PFD for 21 days. Malnourished mice were fed a BCD for 7 days or BCD for 7 days with viable or non-viable L. casei nasal treatments on day 6 and day 7 (BCD+LcV and BCD+LcN, respectively). The MNC group received PFD whereas the WNC mice consumed BCD. MNC mice showed greater lung colonization, more severe lung injuries, impaired leukocyte recruitment and reduced antibodies and cytokine production when compared with WNC mice. Administration of L. casei increased the resistance of malnourished mice to the infection. Both BCD+LcV and BCD+LcN treatments prevented the dissemination of the pathogen to the blood and induced its lung clearance. BCD+LcV or BCD+LcN groups showed improved production of TNF-alpha and activity of phagocytes in the respiratory tract, an effect that was not observed in the BCD control group. In addition, IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly increased in BCD+LcV and BCD+LcN groups, which correlated with the increase in the levels of specific respiratory IgA. The nasal treatments with L. casei were also effective at stimulating the production of specific IgG at both the systemic and the respiratory levels. The comparative study between the viable and the non-viable bacteria demonstrated that viability would be an important factor to achieve maximum protective effects. However, the results from this study suggest that heat-killed lactic acid bacteria are also effective in the immunomodulation of the systemic and respiratory immune system. PMID:19903264

Villena, Julio; Barbieri, Natalia; Salva, Susana; Herrera, Matías; Alvarez, Susana

2009-11-01

82

Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.  

PubMed

The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (? 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. PMID:24211554

Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-02-01

83

Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers for Amplification of Priming Glycosyltransferase Genes of the Exopolysaccharide Locus in Strains of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primer design strategy named CODEHOP (consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer) for amplification of distantly related sequences was used to detect the priming glycosyltransferase (GT) gene in strains of the Lactobacillus casei group. Each hybrid primer consisted of a short 3 degenerate core based on four highly conserved amino acids and a longer 5 consensus clamp region based on six sequences

Cathy Provencher; Gisele LaPointe; Stephane Sirois; Marie-Rose Van Calsteren; Denis Roy

2003-01-01

84

Characterization of pMC11, a plasmid with dual origins of replication isolated from Lactobacillus casei MCJ and construction of shuttle vectors with each replicon.  

PubMed

Many lactic acid bacteria carry different plasmids, particularly those that replicate via a theta mechanism. Here we describe Lactobacillus casei MCJ(CCTCC AB20130356), a new isolate that contains pMC11, carrying two distinct theta-type replicons. Each replicon contained an iteron in the origin of replication (oriV1 or oriV2) and a gene coding for the replicase (RepA_1 or RepB_1), both of which are essential for plasmid replication. Escherichia coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vectors were constructed with each replicon, yielding pEL5.7 and pEL5.6 that are based on oriV2 and oriV1 replicons, respectively. These plasmids showed distinct properties: pEL5.7 was capable of replicating in L. casei MCJ?1 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1 but failed to do so in two other tested lactobacilli strains whereas pEL5.6 replicated in three different strains, including L. casei MCJ?1, L. casei NJ, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1. Plasmid stability was studied: pEL5.6 and pEL5.7 were very stably maintained in L. casei, as the loss rate was lower than 1 % per generation. pEL5.7 was also stable in L. delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1 with the loss rate estimated to be 3 %. These vectors were employed to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) using the promoter of S-layer protein SlpA from Lactobacillus acidophilus. And a growth-phase regulated expression of GFP was observed in different strains. In conclusion, these shuttle vectors provide efficient genetic tools for DNA cloning and heterologous gene expression in lactobacilli. PMID:24652065

Chen, Zhengjun; Lin, Jinzhong; Ma, Chengjie; Zhao, Shumiao; She, Qunxin; Liang, Yunxiang

2014-07-01

85

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

2014-01-01

86

Rectal Administration of Lactobacillus casei DG Modifies Flora Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Expression in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Mild Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  An imbalance in gut microbiota seems to contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal\\u000a tract, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). Although it has been suggested that probiotic supplementation is an effective approach\\u000a to colitis, its effects on intestinal flora and on mucosal cytokine balance have never been explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei)

Renata D’Incà; Michela Barollo; Marco Scarpa; Alessia Rosaria Grillo; Paola Brun; Maria Grazia Vettorato; Ignazio Castagliuolo; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo

2011-01-01

87

Malic Enzyme and Malolactic Enzyme Pathways Are Functionally Linked but Independently Regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE. PMID:23835171

Landete, Jose Maria; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

88

Inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei by oral peroxidase systems in human saliva.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans, Strep. sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei were grown in glucose-supplemented, sterilized, human whole saliva, adjusted to pH 5, 6 or 7. Components of the antibacterial peroxidase system--hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) and hypothiocyanite ions (OSCN-)--were generated by adding exogenous H2O2 to sterilized saliva containing endogenous peroxidases and thiocyanate (SCN-) ions. HOSCN/OSCN- generation was proportional to the amount of H2O2 added, and more HOSCN/OSCN- was detected in saliva at pH 7 than at pH 5. However, the growth of mutans streptococci and L. casei was inhibited at pH 5 by HOSCN/OSCN-, whereas no inhibition was found at pH 7. The findings show that (a) sufficient amount of HOSCN/OSCN- will inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria in human saliva at pH 5; (b) this amount of HOSCN/OSCN- can be generated in saliva by exogenously added H2O2; and (c) peroxidase systems have stronger antistreptococcal effects in human whole saliva than in phosphate buffer. PMID:1905532

Lumikari, M; Soukka, T; Nurmio, S; Tenovuo, J

1991-01-01

89

Comparative therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs in murine giardiasis.  

PubMed

Various antiprotozoal drugs have been used to counteract the spread of giardiasis. However, due to increase in resistance to these compounds, there is an urgent need to find a natural biocompatible product to fight the pathogen in more healthy and effective way. The present study was designed to compare the therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs on the outcome of giardiasis in murine model. BALB/c mice were challenged with Giardia intestinalis trophozoites, and 1 day after infection, these mice were treated with either probiotic alone or in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs. Cyst, trophozoite, and lactobacilli counts were monitored vis-a-vis histopathological alterations in the small intestine. It was found that albendazole administered orally 1 day after Giardia infection was the most effective antiprotozoal drug among albendazole, tinidazole, metronidazole, and nitazoxanide. It reduced both the severity and duration of giardiasis. More specifically, oral administration of the probiotic L. casei in conjunction with albendazole further reduced the Giardia infection as was evident by the restored normal gut morphology. This suggests that probiotics and antiprotozoal drugs in combination may be the better alternative therapy for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and enhanced recovery. PMID:23559378

Shukla, Geeta; Kaur, Hemjeet; Sharma, Lalita

2013-06-01

90

Beneficial effect of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and L-carnitine combination in preference to each in experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the beneficial effect of the combination of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei, and L-carnitine in a rat colitis model. METHODS: Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral butyrate, L-carnitine, Lactobacillus casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups included negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic, histopathological examinations, and biomarkers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interlukin-1? (IL-1?), myeloperoxidase (MPO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and ferric reduced ability of plasma (FRAP) were determined in the colon. RESULTS: The combination therapy exhibited a significant beneficial effect in alleviation of colitis compared to controls. Overall changes in reduction of TNF-? (114.66 ± 18.26 vs 171.78 ± 9.48 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), IL-1? (24.9 ± 1.07 vs 33.06 ± 2.16 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), TBARS (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.49 ± 0.04 ?g/mg protein, P < 0.01), MPO (15.32 ± 0.4 vs 27.24 ± 3.84 U/mg protein, P < 0.05), and elevation of FRAP (23.46 ± 1.2 vs 15.02 ± 2.37 ?mol/L, P < 0.05) support the preference of the combination therapy in comparison to controls. Although the monotherapies were also effective in improvement of colitis markers, the combination therapy was much better in improvement of colon oxidative stress markers including FRAP, TBARS, and MPO. CONCLUSION: The present combination is a suitable mixture in control of experimental colitis and should be trialed in the clinical setting. PMID:25152589

Moeinian, Mahsa; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Mozaffari, Shilan; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Navaea-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2014-01-01

91

Short-chain organic acids produced on glucose, lactose, and citrate media by Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterobacter aerogenes strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Enterococcus faecalis, three of Lactobacillus casei and two of Enterobacter aerogenes, isolated from commercial Palmita-type cheese were cultured in peptone-yeast extract broth with glucose (PYG), lactose (PYL), or citrate (PYC) added as the main carbon sources. The short-chain volatile and non-volatile organic acids were extracted and their concentration determined by GC with a FID detector. The identity

D. Urdaneta; D. Raffe; A. Ferrer; B. Sulbarán de Ferrer; L. Cabrera; M. Pérez

1995-01-01

92

Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 manganese-dependant catalase (MnKat) in Lb. casei BL23 successfully enhances its survival when exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of this antioxidative Lb. casei strain in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced moderate colitis. Results Either Lb. casei BL23 MnKat- or MnKat+ was administered daily to mice treated with DSS for 10 days. In contrast to control mice treated with PBS for which DSS induced bleeding diarrhea and mucosal lesions, mice treated with both Lb. casei strains presented a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of caecal and colonic inflammatory scores. Conclusion No contribution of MnKat to the protective effect from epithelial damage has been observed in the tested conditions. In contrast, these results confirm the high interest of Lb. casei as an anti-inflammatory probiotic strain. PMID:17659075

Rochat, Tatiana; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Fourage, Christel; Hoebler, Christine; Corthier, Gerard; Langella, Philippe

2007-01-01

93

Transposon mutagenesis of probiotic Lactobacillus casei identifies asnH, an asparagine synthetase gene involved in its immune-activating capacity.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:24416179

Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

2014-01-01

94

Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

2014-04-01

95

Lectin Microarray Reveals Binding Profiles of Lactobacillus casei Strains in a Comprehensive Analysis of Bacterial Cell Wall Polysaccharides?†  

PubMed Central

We previously showed a pivotal role of the polysaccharide (PS) moiety in the cell wall of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (YIT 9029) as a possible immune modulator (E. Yasuda M. Serata, and T. Sako, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:4746-4755, 2008). To distinguish PS structures on the bacterial cell surface of individual strains in relation to their activities, it would be useful to have a rapid and high-throughput methodology. Recently, a new technique called lectin microarray was developed for rapid profiling of glycosylation in eukaryotic polymers and cell surfaces. Here, we report on the development of a simple and sensitive method based on this technology for direct analysis of intact bacterial cell surface glycomes. The method involves labeling bacterial cells with SYTOX Orange before incubation with the lectin microarray. After washing, bound cells are directly detected using an evanescent-field fluorescence scanner in a liquid phase. Using this method, we compared the cell surface glycomes from 16 different strains of L. casei. The patterns of lectin-binding affinity of most strains were found to be unique. There appears to be two types of lectin-binding profiles: the first is characterized by a few lectins, and the other is characterized by multiple lectins with different specificities. We also showed a dramatic change in the lectin-binding profile of a YIT 9029 derivative with a mutation in the cps1C gene, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase. In conclusion, the developed technique provided a novel strategy for rapid profiling and, more importantly, differentiating numerous bacterial strains with relevance to the biological functions of PS. PMID:21602390

Yasuda, Emi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabarashi, Jun; Iino, Tohru; Sako, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

96

Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from Actimel and Yakult products reveals marked similarities and points to a common origin  

PubMed Central

Summary The members of the Lactobacillus genus are widely used in the food and feed industry and show a remarkable ecological adaptability. Several Lactobacillus strains have been marketed as probiotics as they possess health-promoting properties for the host. In the present study, we used two complementary next-generation sequencing technologies to deduce the genome sequences of two Lactobacillus casei strains LcA and LcY, which were isolated from the products Actimel and Yakult, commercialized as probiotics. The LcA and LcY draft genomes have, respectively, an estimated size of 3067 and 3082?Mb and a G+C content of 46.3%. Both strains are close to identical to each other and differ by no more than minor chromosomal re-arrangements, substitutions, insertions and deletions, as evident from the verified presence of one insertion-deletion (InDel) and only 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In terms of coding capacity, LcA and LcY are predicted to encode a comparable exoproteome, indicating that LcA and LcY are likely to establish similar interactions with human intestinal cells. Moreover, both L.?casei?LcA and LcY harboured a 59.6?kb plasmid that shared high similarities with plasmids found in other L.?casei strains, such as W56 and BD-II. Further analysis revealed that the L.?casei plasmids constitute a good evolution marker within the L.?casei species. The plasmids of the LcA and LcY strains are almost identical, as testified by the presence of only three verified SNPs, and share a 3.5?kb region encoding a remnant of a lactose PTS system that is absent from the plasmids of W56 and BD-II but conserved in another smaller L.?casei plasmid (pLC2W). Our observations imply that the results obtained in animal and human experiments performed with the Actimel and Yakult strains can be compared with each other as these strains share a very recent common ancestor. Funding Information The present work was supported by the Center of Excellence in Microbial Food Safety Research (Academy of Finland, Grant 141140), Grant ERC 250172 – Microbes Inside from the European Research Council and Grants 137389 and 141130 from the Academy of Finland. F.P.D. was funded by a postdoctoral research fellowship (Academy of Finland, Grant 252123). PMID:23815335

Douillard, Francois P; Kant, Ravi; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; Vos, Willem M

2013-01-01

97

Marked Acceleration of Atherosclerosis following Lactobacillus casei induced Coronary Arteritis in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate if Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced Kawasaki Disease (KD) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Method and Resuslts Apoe?/? or Ldlr?/? mice were injected with LCWE (KD mice) or PBS, fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinuses (AS), arch (AC) and whole aorta were assessed. KD mice had larger, more complex aortic lesions with abundant collagen, and both extracellular and intracellular lipid and foam cells, compared to lesions in control mice despite similar cholesterol levels. Both Apoe?/? KD and Ldlr?/? KD mice showed dramatic acceleration in atherosclerosis vs. controls, with increases in en face aortic atherosclerosis and plaque size in both the AS and AC plaques. Accelerated atherosclerosis was associated with increased circulating IL-12p40, IFN-?, TNF-?, and increased macrophage, DC, and T cell recruitment in lesions. Furthermore, daily injections of the IL-1Ra, which inhibits LCWE induced KD vasculitis, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results suggest an important pathophysiologic link between coronary arteritis/vasculitis in the KD mouse model and subsequent atherosclerotic acceleration, supporting the concept that a similar relation may also be present in KD patients. These results also suggest that KD in childhood may predispose to accelerated and early atherosclerosis as adults. PMID:22628430

Chen, Shuang; Lee, Young Ho; Crother, Timothy R.; Fishbein, Michael; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yilmaz, Atilla; Shimada, Kenichi; Schulte, Danica J; Lehman, Thomas J.A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Arditi, Moshe

2012-01-01

98

Prevention of B220+ T cell expansion and prolongation of lifespan induced by Lactobacillus casei in MRL/lpr mice  

PubMed Central

We examined the therapeutic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei (LC) on MRL/lpr mice. Ingestion of a diet containing 0.05% (w/w) LC from the weaning period prolonged the lifespan and tended to reduce the proportion of B220+ T cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of MRL/lpr mice. When LC was intraperitoneally injected once a week after the age of 8 weeks, I-A? macrophages accumulated in the spleen as well as the peritoneum and macrophage progenitors increased in the bone marrow. Moreover, the amount of IL-6 mRNA in peritoneal macrophages was reduced by LC injection. Splenocytes from LC-injected MRL/lpr mice exhibited lower proliferative responses to mitogens than those from control MRL/lpr mice and the increase in number of B220+ T cells in the spleen and MLN was prevented by LC injection. However, LC injection affected neither expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and IL-4 mRNAs nor proliferative capacities of splenic T cells. Our findings demonstrate that LC injection accelerates macrophage recruitment and prevents the expansion of B220+ T cells without affecting the functions of T cells in MRL/lpr mice. These immunological modulations induced by LC may lead to prolongation of the lifespan of MRL/lpr mice. PMID:10444272

Mike, A; Nagaoka, N; Tagami, Y; Miyashita, M; Shimada, S; Uchida, K; Nanno, M; Ohwaki, M

1999-01-01

99

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues  

SciTech Connect

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. The authors propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition.

Childs, W.C. 3d.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

1985-06-01

100

Metabolomic approach assisted high resolution LC-ESI-MS based identification of a xenobiotic derivative of fenhexamid produced by Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Fenhexamid is a widely used fungicide with one of the highest maximum tolerance limits approved for fruits and vegetables. The goal of this study was to examine if fenhexamid is metabolized by a nontarget organism, a Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus casei Shirota), a probiotic strain of the human gastrointestinal tract. The assignment of bacterial derivatives of the xenobiotic fenhexamid was substantially facilitated by a metabolomic software based approach optimized for the extraction of molecular features of chlorine-containing compounds from liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry data with an untargeted compound search algorithm. After validating the software with a set of seventeen chlorinated pesticides and manually verifying the result lists, eleven molecular features out of 4363 turned out to be bacterial derivatives of fenhexamid, revealing the O-glycosyl derivative as the most abundant one that arose from the fermentation medium of Lactobacillus casei Shirota in the presence of 100 ?g/mL fenhexamid. PMID:23971653

Lénárt, József; Bujna, Erika; Kovács, Béla; Békefi, Eszter; Száraz, Leonóra; Dernovics, Mihály

2013-09-18

101

Exposing the Secrets of Two Well-Known Lactobacillus casei Phages, J-1 and PL-1, by Genomic and Structural Analysis.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage J-1 was isolated in 1965 from an abnormal fermentation of Yakult using Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and a related phage, PL-1, was subsequently recovered from a strain resistant to J-1. Complete genome sequencing shows that J-1 and PL-1 are almost identical, but PL-1 has a deletion of 1.9 kbp relative to J-1, resulting in the loss of four predicted gene products involved in immunity regulation. The structural proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Similarly to phage A2, two capsid proteins are generated by a translational frameshift and undergo proteolytic processing. The structure of gene product 16 (gp16), a putative tail protein, was modeled based on the crystal structure of baseplate distal tail proteins (Dit) that form the baseplate hub in other Siphoviridae. However, two regions of the C terminus of gp16 could not be modeled using this template. The first region accounts for the differences between J-1 and PL-1 gp16 and showed sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). J-1 and PL-1 GFP-gp16 fusions bind specifically to Lactobacillus casei/paracasei cells, and the addition of l-rhamnose inhibits binding. J-1 gp16 exhibited a higher affinity than PL-1 gp16 for cell walls of L. casei ATCC 27139 in phage adsorption inhibition assays, in agreement with differential adsorption kinetics observed for both phages in this strain. The data presented here provide insights into how Lactobacillus phages interact with their hosts at the first steps of infection. PMID:25217012

Dieterle, Maria Eugenia; Bowman, Charles; Batthyany, Carlos; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Turjanski, Adrián; Hatfull, Graham; Piuri, Mariana

2014-11-15

102

A pilot study on the effect of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on intestinal microbiota parameters in Chinese subjects of different age.  

PubMed

Ageing of the population is an imminent global problem. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) was isolated from Inner Mongolian fermented milk, koumiss. LcZ possesses numerous probiotic properties in in vitro tests and in animal models. However, it has never been tested in any human trial. In the current study, the impact of oral consumption of LcZ on different age groups was tested. Chinese subjects, including 10 young, 7 middle-aged and 7 elderly volunteers (with mean age of 24.3, 47.6 and 64.7, respectively), were recruited. Each subject took 10.6 log10 cfu LcZ daily for a continuous period of 28 days. Several parameters, including the amounts of LcZ and four selected groups of bacteria, change of bacterial diversity, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and total bile acids (TBA), were monitored in faecal samples collected from the subjects before starting, during and after stopping oral LcZ consumption. The consumption of LcZ exhibited beneficial effects to the subjects by modulating faecal microbiota in a temporal manner with a prolonged elevation of SCFA and reduction of TBA. The potentially harmful Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera were suppressed by the probiotic administration. Furthermore, a moderately divergent response was observed in the indigenous gut populations of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides fragilis group in different age subjects. Taken together, the current study has provided proof on the positive effect of probiotic consumption and crucial insights into the design and application of probiotic-based products to users of different age segments. PMID:24854958

Kwok, L Y; Wang, L; Zhang, J; Guo, Z; Zhang, H

2014-09-01

103

Recombinant fusion protein of cholera toxin B subunit with YVAD secreted by Lactobacillus casei inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1 beta secretion in Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus species are used as bacterial vectors to deliver functional peptides to the intestine because they are delivered live to the intestine, colonize the mucosal surface, and continue to produce the desired protein. Previously, we generated a recombinant Lactobacillus casei secreting the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which can translocate into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) through GM1 ganglioside. Recombinant fusion proteins of CTB with functional peptides have been used as carriers for the delivery of these peptides to IECs because of the high cell permeation capacity of recombinant CTB (rCTB). However, there have been no reports of rCTB fused with peptides expressed or secreted by Lactobacillus species. In this study, we constructed L. casei secreting a recombinant fusion protein of CTB with YVAD (rCTB–YVAD). YVAD is a tetrapeptide (tyrosine–valine–alanine–aspartic acid) that specifically inhibits caspase-1, which catalyzes the production of interleukin (IL)-1?, an inflammatory cytokine, from its inactive precursor. Here, we examined whether rCTB–YVAD secreted by L. casei binds to GM1 ganglioside and inhibits caspase-1 activation in Caco-2 cells used as a model of IECs. Results We constructed the rCTB–YVAD secretion vector pSCTB–YVAD by modifying the rCTB secretion vector pSCTB. L. casei secreting rCTB–YVAD was generated by transformation with pSCTB–YVAD. Both the culture supernatant of pSCTB–YVAD-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB–YVAD bound to GM1 ganglioside, as did the culture supernatant of pSCTB-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB. Interestingly, although both purified rCTB–YVAD and rCTB translocated into Caco-2 cells, regardless of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), only purified rCTB–YVAD but not rCTB inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1? secretion in Caco-2 cells, without affecting cell viability. Conclusions The rCTB protein fused to a functional peptide secreted by L. casei can bind to GM1 ganglioside, like rCTB, and recombinant YVAD secreted by L. casei may exert anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. Therefore, rCTB secreted by L. casei has potential utility as a vector for the delivery of YVAD to IECs. PMID:24884459

2014-01-01

104

Proteomics analysis of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a new probiotic bacterium isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei Zhang, isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, was considered as a new probiotic bacterium by probiotic selection tests. We carried out a proteomics study to identify and characterize proteins expressed by L. casei Zhang in the exponential phase and stationary phase. Cytosolic proteins of the strain cultivated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using pH 4-7 linear gradients. The number of protein spots quantified from the gels was 487 +/- 21 (exponential phase) and 494 +/- 13 (stationary phase) among which a total of 131 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and/or MALDI-TOF/TOF according to significant growth phase-related differences or high expression intensity proteins. Accompanied by the cluster of orthologous groups (COG), codon adaptation index (CAI), and GRAVY value analysis, the study provided a very first insight into the profile of protein expression as a reference map of L. casei. Forty-seven spots were also found in the study that showed statistically significant differences between exponential phase and stationary phase. Thirty-three of the spots increased at least 2.5-fold in the stationary phase in comparison with the exponential phase, including 19 protein spots (e.g. Hsp20, DnaK, GroEL, LuxS, pyruvate kinase, and GalU) whose intensity up-shifted above 3.0-fold. Transcriptional profiles were conducted to confirm several important differentially expressed proteins by using real time quantitative PCR. The analysis suggests that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, indicating that these proteins might play a potential important role for the adaptation to the surroundings, especially the accumulation of lactic acid in the course of growth, and the physiological processes in bacteria cell. PMID:19508964

Wu, Rina; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Dongliang; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Yan; Sun, Zhihong; Wu, Junrui; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

2009-10-01

105

The efficacy of ampicillin and Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus in the active management of preterm premature rupture of membranes remote from term  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to investigate the treatment efficacy of ampicillin prophylaxis accompanied by Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus over the latency period following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Methods Records of 40 patients who presented with PPROM between 230/7–316/7 weeks were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=20), treated with ampicillin; and group 2 (n=20), treated with ampicillin plus L. casei rhamnosus. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared. Delta (?) values of each laboratory parameter were calculated by subtracting the value at delivery from the values at admission to the clinic. Results Gestational weeks at delivery (28.1±0.3 weeks versus 31.5±0.4 weeks), latency periods (12.3±1.5 days versus 41.4±4.4 days), 5-minute APGAR scores (6.8±0.1 versus 7.8±0.1), and birth weights (1,320±98 g versus 1,947±128 g) were significantly higher in group 2. White blood cell (WBC) (12,820±353/mm3 versus 11,107±298/mm3), and neutrophil counts (10.7±0.5×103/L versus 8.2±0.5×103/L) were significantly lower in group 2 at delivery. The ?WBC (2,295±74/mm3 versus ?798±?406/mm3), ?C-reactive protein (5±0.04 mg/L versus 1.6±0.2 mg/L), and ?neutrophil (3±0.2×103/L versus 0.2±?0.1×103/L) were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion It seems that addition of L. casei rhamnosus to ampicillin prolongs the latency period in patients with PPROM remote from term. PMID:25210439

Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru; Ilhan, Rasit; Atilgan, Remzi; Arat, Ozgur; Deveci, Ugur; Sapmaz, Ekrem

2014-01-01

106

SpaCBA sequence instability and its relationship to the adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus casei group isolates to Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The ability to adhere to enterocytes is one of the key features of probiotics. This process involves a number of factors, among which the important role of pili was demonstrated. Some Lactobacillus species are confirmed to have heterotrimeric spaCBA type pili. The aim of this study was to identify spaCBA pili in strains of selected Lactobacillus spp. and assess the impact of their presence and sequence polymorphism on the adhesion of these strains to enterocytes. Total 20 bacterial strains of L. rhamnosus, L. casei and L. paracasei were tested. The presence of pilus specific proteins coding genes spaA, spaB and spaC was verified by PCR in order to identify the presence of sequence polymorphism in the genes possibly affecting the structure of the spaCBA pilus. To correlate spaCBA polymorphism to adhesion capability the adhesion assay was carried out using Caco-2 cell line. The effectiveness of the adhesion was measured using a scintillation counter. The Lactobacillus strains analyzed showed the adhesion to Caco-2 enterocytes capability from 0.6% to 19.6%. The presence of spaCBA pili is a factor increasing the adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus spp. to Caco-2 enterocytes. Lack of these structures on the surface of bacterial cells results in the reduction in adhesion efficiency, indicating its important role in the adhesion process. But not in all cases the correlation between the presence of protein spaCBA structures and adhesion efficiency was observed, what may indicate the important role of other factors in adhesion of analyzed strains to Caco-2 cells. PMID:24927238

Markowicz, Corinna; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Monika; Schmidt, Marcin T

2014-01-01

107

Influence of food colorant and initial COD concentration on the efficiencies of micro-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (micro-aerobic SBR) for casein recovery under non-sterile condition by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid biocoagulants produced from non-sterile lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 were used to settle colloidal protein, mainly casein, at the isoelectric point in dairy effluent prior to secondary treatment. High concentration of azo dye (Ponceau 4R) in the dairy wastewater and the stress of starvation decreased the efficiencies of the micro-aerobic SBR. Consequently, low casein recovery

Phisit Seesuriyachan; Thanongsak Chaiyaso; Ken Sasaki; Charin Techapun

2009-01-01

108

A unique gene cluster for the utilization of the mucosal and human milk-associated glycans galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

The probiotic Lactobacillus casei catabolizes galacto-N-biose (GNB) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) by using a transport system and metabolic routes different from those of Bifidobacterium. L. casei contains a gene cluster, gnbREFGBCDA, involved in the metabolism of GNB, LNB and also N-acetylgalactosamine. Inactivation of gnbC (EIIC) or ptsI (Enzyme I) of the phosphoenolpyruvate?:?sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) prevented the growth on those three carbohydrates, indicating that they are transported and phosphorylated by the same PTS(Gnb) . Enzyme activities and growth analysis with knockout mutants showed that GnbG (phospho-?-galactosidase) hydrolyses both disaccharides. However, GnbF (N-acetylgalactosamine-6P deacetylase) and GnbE (galactosamine-6P isomerase/deaminase) are involved in GNB but not in LNB fermentation. The utilization of LNB depends on nagA (N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase), showing that the N-acetylhexosamine moieties of GNB and LNB follow different catabolic routes. A lacAB mutant (galactose-6P isomerase) was impaired in GNB and LNB utilization, indicating that their galactose moiety is channelled through the tagatose-6P pathway. Transcriptional analysis showed that the gnb operon is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the transcriptional repressor GnbR, which binds to a 26 bp DNA region containing inverted repeats exhibiting a 2T/2A conserved core. The data represent the first characterization of novel metabolic pathways for human milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate structures in Firmicutes. PMID:24942885

Bidart, Gonzalo N; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

2014-08-01

109

Utilization of D-ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 requires a mannose-type phosphotransferase system and three catabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment D-ribitol (also called D-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates D-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in D-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented D-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a D-ribitol-5-phosphate (D-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a D-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein D-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD(+) to oxidize D-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to D-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to D-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting D-xylulose-5-P is split by D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate D-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as D-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

Bourand, A; Yebra, M J; Boël, G; Mazé, A; Deutscher, J

2013-06-01

110

Utilization of d-Ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Requires a Mannose-Type Phosphotransferase System and Three Catabolic Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment d-ribitol (also called d-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates d-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in d-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented d-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a d-ribitol-5-phosphate (d-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a d-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein d-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD+ to oxidize d-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to d-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to d-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting d-xylulose-5-P is split by d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate d-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as d-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

Bourand, A.; Yebra, M. J.; Boel, G.; Maze, A.

2013-01-01

111

Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 modulate gene expression of subset specific transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese and overweight people.  

PubMed

Probiotics are believed to have interaction with immune cells through sustained effects on gene expression of different cytokines and transcription factors. The present randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial was performed recruiting 75 individuals with BMI 25-35, who were randomly assigned to the following three groups: Group 1 (n = 25) who consumed regular yogurt as part of a low calorie diet [RLCD], group 2 (n = 25) who received probiotic yogurt with a LCD [PLCD] and group 3 (n = 25) who consumed probiotic yogurt without LCD [PWLCD] for 8 week. Participants in PLCD and PWLCD groups received 200 g/day yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium Bb12, and lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) cfu/gr. The expression of the FOXP3, T-bet, GATA3, TNF-?, IFN-?, TGF-?, and ROR-?t in PBMCs genes were assessed, before and after intervention. In three groups, ROR-?t expression was reduced (P = 0.007) and FOXP3 was increased (P < 0.001). The expression of TNF?, TGF?, and GATA3 genes did not change among all groups after intervention. Interestingly, the expression of T-bet gene, which was significantly decreased in PLCD and PWLCD groups (P < 0.001), whereas gene expression of IFN-? decreased in all three groups. Our results suggest that weight loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cell subset specific gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells among overweight and obese individuals. PMID:24019207

Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mofid, Vahid; Hossein zadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Bidad, Katayoon; Najafi, Forouzan; Gheflati, Zahra; Chamari, Maryam; Salehi, Eisa

2013-01-01

112

A Novel Type of Peptidoglycan-binding Domain Highly Specific for Amidated d-Asp Cross-bridge, Identified in Lactobacillus casei Bacteriophage Endolysins*  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) are responsible for bacterial cell lysis. Most PGHs have a modular structure comprising a catalytic domain and a cell wall-binding domain (CWBD). PGHs of bacteriophage origin, called endolysins, are involved in bacterial lysis at the end of the infection cycle. We have characterized two endolysins, Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2, identified in prophages present in the genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23. These two enzymes have different catalytic domains but similar putative C-terminal CWBDs. By analyzing purified peptidoglycan (PG) degradation products, we showed that Lc-Lys is an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, whereas Lc-Lys-2 is a ?-d-glutamyl-l-lysyl endopeptidase. Remarkably, both lysins were able to lyse only Gram-positive bacterial strains that possess PG with d-Ala4?d-Asx-l-Lys3 in their cross-bridge, such as Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus faecium. By testing a panel of L. lactis cell wall mutants, we observed that Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2 were not able to lyse mutants with a modified PG cross-bridge, constituting d-Ala4?l-Ala-(l-Ala/l-Ser)-l-Lys3; moreover, they do not lyse the L. lactis mutant containing only the nonamidated d-Asp cross-bridge, i.e. d-Ala4?d-Asp-l-Lys3. In contrast, Lc-Lys could lyse the ampicillin-resistant E. faecium mutant with 3?3 l-Lys3-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges replacing the wild-type 4?3 d-Ala4-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges. We showed that the C-terminal CWBD of Lc-Lys binds PG containing mainly d-Asn but not PG with only the nonamidated d-Asp-containing cross-bridge, indicating that the CWBD confers to Lc-Lys its narrow specificity. In conclusion, the CWBD characterized in this study is a novel type of PG-binding domain targeting specifically the d-Asn interpeptide bridge of PG. PMID:23733182

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2013-01-01

113

Isolation of Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512 as novel probiotics with immunomodulatory properties.  

PubMed

Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1?cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized. PMID:25130071

Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed

2014-10-01

114

Lactobacillus casei-01 Facilitates the Ameliorative Effects of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Lotus Seedpod on Learning and Memory Impairment in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice  

PubMed Central

Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC) have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC) enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (109 cfu/kg body weight (BW)), LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC) and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC)), or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC). Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. PMID:25396737

Xiao, Juan; Li, Shuyi; Sui, Yong; Wu, Qian; Li, Xiaopeng; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Mingwei; Sun, Zhida

2014-01-01

115

Viability of commercial probiotic cultures ( L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus) in cheddar cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six batches of cheddar cheese were manufactured containing different combinations of commercially available probiotic cultures from three suppliers. Duplicate cheeses contained the organisms of each supplier, a Bifidobacterium spp. (each supplier), a Lactobacillus acidophilus (2 suppliers), and either Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Using selective media, the different strains were assessed for viability during cheddar cheese maturation over

Michael Phillips; Kasipathy Kailasapathy; Lai Tran

2006-01-01

116

Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431

Tatiana Rochat; Luis Bermúdez-Humarán; Jean-Jacques Gratadoux; Christel Fourage; Christine Hoebler; Gérard Corthier; Philippe Langella

2007-01-01

117

Insufficient antilisterial capacity of low inoculum Lactobacillus cultures on long-term stored meats at 4 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the 210 lactobacilli strains isolated from chilled meats produced antilisterial bacteriocins: Lactobacillus sake 265 (Lb 265) and Lactobacillus casei 52 (Lb 52). Factors affecting antilisterial effectiveness of these and two other bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) strains (Lactobacillus sake 706, Lb 706; and Lactobacillus sake 148, Lb 148) at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) were studied in laboratory media and meat systems.

S. Buncic; Sheryl M. Avery; Sandra M. Moorhead

1997-01-01

118

Immune effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory studies on the effects of probiotics indicate a potential\\u000ahazard with regard to induction of autoimmunity. Advertisements for\\u000aprobiotics claim their beneficial effects on gut flora, resistance and\\u000aallergies. Although no legislation is currently in place, probiotics are\\u000agenerally regarded as safe bacteria. Studies in laboratory animals\\u000adescribed here focused on effects of probiotics on the immune system. \\u000aProbiotics

Ezendam J; Baken K; Loveren H van

2007-01-01

119

Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacil- lus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six

WEI ZHONG; KEVIN MILLSAP; HANNA BIALKOWSKA-HOBRZANSKA; GREGOR REID

1998-01-01

120

Molecular analysis and clinical significance of Lactobacillus spp. recovered from clinical specimens presumptively associated with disease.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?10(5) CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

Martinez, Raquel M; Hulten, Kristina G; Bui, Uyen; Clarridge, Jill E

2014-01-01

121

Distribution dynamics of recombinant Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal rats.  

PubMed

One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates. PMID:23544119

Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R; Lin, Jing

2013-01-01

122

Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in naturally fermented green olives, collected from different areas of Sicily. Both classical biochemical tests and PCR\\/Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rDNA were used to characterize the isolates. The identity of the isolates was obtained by the partial sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The BioMerieux

Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia; A. Daniele Romano; Cinzia Caggia

2004-01-01

123

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food.  

PubMed

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S M; Nascimento, A M A; Costa, P S; Moreira, J L S; Nunes, A C; Nicoli, J R; Lima, F L; Mota, V T; Nardi, R M D

2013-01-01

124

Effect of Growth Medium on Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus plantarum ST194BZ, a Strain Isolated from Boza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The cell-free supernatant containing bacteriocin ST194BZ, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST194BZ, inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseu- domonas aeruginosa. Strain ST194BZ produces two bacteriocins, viz. ST194BZ(a) of 3.3 kDa and ST194BZ(b) of 14.0 kDa, based on tricine-SDS-PAGE. Reduction in bacteriocin activity was observed after treatment

Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov; Leon Milner; Theodore Dicks

125

Effect of recombinant lactobacillus expressing canine GM-CSF on immune function in dogs.  

PubMed

Many Lactobacillus strains have been promoted as good probiotics for the prevention and treatment of diseases. We engineered recombinant Lactobacillus casei, producing biologically active canine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (cGM-CSF), and investigated its possibility as a good probiotic agent for dogs. Expression of the cGM-CSF protein in the recombinant Lactobacillus was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting methods. For the in vivo study, 18 Beagle puppies of 7 weeks of age were divided into three groups; the control group was fed only on a regular diet and the two treatment groups were fed on a diet supplemented with either 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/day of L. casei or L. casei expressing cGM-CSF protein for 7 weeks. Body weight was measured, and fecal and blood samples were collected from the dogs during the experiment for the measurement of hematology, fecal immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG, circulating IgA and IgG, and canine corona virus (CCV)-specific IgG. There were no differences in body weights among the groups, but monocyte counts in hematology and serum IgA were higher in the group receiving L. casei expressing cGMCSF than in the other two groups. After the administration of CCV vaccine, CCV-specific IgG in serum increased more in the group supplemented with L. casei expressing cGM-CSF than the other two groups. This study shows that a dietary L. casei expressing cGM-CSF enhances specific immune functions at both the mucosal and systemic levels in puppies. PMID:19996694

Chung, Jin Young; Sung, Eui Jae; Cho, Chun Gyu; Seo, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong-Soo; Bhang, Dong Ha; Lee, Hee Woo; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Wan Kyu; Youn, Hwa Young; Kim, Chul Joong

2009-11-01

126

Probiotic Crescenza Cheese Containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus Manufactured with High-Pressure Homogenized Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilagemicroorganismsinmodelsystemsandrealfood is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated

P. Burns; F. Patrignani; D. Serrazanetti; G. C. Vinderola; J. A. Reinheimer; R. Lanciotti; M. E. Guerzoni

2008-01-01

127

Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:We examined whether or not the lactobacilli administered to treat Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can suppress the colonization of H. pylori, and we also sought to elucidate the mechanism of such suppression.Methods:We used an in vitro culture system and an H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic murine model.Results:Among the lactobacillus species examined in vitro, Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) but not L. casei

Yuji Aiba; Nobuyuki Suzuki; Abu M. A. Kabir; Atushi Takagi; Yasuhiro Koga

1998-01-01

128

The microbial flora of sugary kefir grain (the gingerbeer plant): biosynthesis of the grain from Lactobacillus hilgardii producing a polysaccharide gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microflora of sugary kefir grains was principally mesophilic and consisted chiefly of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus hilgardii (=brevis),Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.dextranicum, Streptococcus lactis] and a small proportion of yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces florentinus, Torulospora pretoriensis, Kloeckera apiculata, Candida lambica andC. valida). Few coliforms and faecal streptococci were observed. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filamentous yeasts adhered

M. Pidoux

1989-01-01

129

Rapid PCR-based procedure to identify lactic acid bacteria: application to six common Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a method allowing rapid identification of the lactic acid bacteria strains in use in the laboratory (Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826; L. fermentum KLD; L. reuteri 100-23; L. salivarius UCC43321; L. paracasei LbTGS1.4; L. casei ATCC393), based on PCR amplification of 16S RNA coding sequences. First, specific forward oligonucleotides were designed in the variable

Patrice Chagnaud; Kalotina Machinis; Armelle Marecat; Annick Mercenier

2001-01-01

130

Antibiotic resistance of potential probiotic bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from human gastrointestinal microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal microbiome of people from the territory of the former Soviet Union have been studied\\u000a for resistance to 15 antibiotics of different nature, namely, penicillins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, tetracyclines,\\u000a chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. The strains included four strains of L. plantarum, four of L. helveticus, three of L. casei\\/paracasei, one of L. rhamnosus, and one

S. G. Botina; E. U. Poluektova; A. A. Glazova; N. V. Zakharevich; N. V. Koroban; V. V. Zinchenko; M. M. Babykin; O. G. Zhilenkova; A. M. Amerkhanova; V. N. Danilenko

2011-01-01

131

Shotgun mass mapping of Lactobacillus species and subspecies from caries related isolates by MALDI-MS.  

PubMed

A taxonomical study of 90 isolates of lactobacilli isolated from soft and hard carious dentine of 70 deciduous molars is presented. The Lactobacillus strains were determined by shotgun mass mapping (SMM). This method based on MALDI-MS analysis of Lactobacillus isolates treated with trypsin followed by database comparison against a library of mass spectra derived from 20 reference strains. The SMM method allowed to discriminate different Lactobacillus subspecies. The method was used to analyse Lactobacillus isolates of unknown identity derived from carious dentine. Application of the SMM method to isolates from hard carious dentine revealed a nearly similar distribution of L. paracasei ss paracasei (29%), L. paracasei ss tolerans (32%) and L. casei ss rhamnosus (23%) as dominant subspecies. On the other hand, samples derived from soft carious dentine showed a clear bias only to L. paracasei ss paracasei (60%), whereas L. paracasei ss tolerans (14%) and L. casei ss rhamnosus (12%) were clear minorities. Compared to existent methods, SMM has unique potential for the analysis of Lactobacillus strains on subspecies level. PMID:19260002

Schmidt, Frank; Fiege, Thomas; Hustoft, Hanne K; Kneist, Susanne; Thiede, Bernd

2009-04-01

132

Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.  

PubMed

Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P < 0·05) by the supplementation with protein sources. The germination and malting processes significantly improved oats nutrient characteristics demonstrating to be adequate substrates for the fermentation with probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. PMID:24979232

Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

2014-10-01

133

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

134

Divergence in codon usage of Lactobacillus species.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923

Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A

1994-01-01

135

Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2012-09-01

136

The biofilm mode of life boosts the anti-inflammatory properties of Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The predominant form of life for microorganisms in their natural habitats is the biofilm mode of growth. The adherence and colonization of probiotic bacteria are considered as essential factors for their immunoregulatory function in the host. Here, we show that Lactobacillus casei?ATCC334 adheres to and colonizes the gut of zebrafish larvae. The abundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of macrophages were low when inflammation was induced in probiotic-fed animals, suggesting that these bacteria have anti-inflammatory properties. We treated human macrophage-differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells with supernatants of L.?casei?ATCC334 grown in either biofilm or planktonic cultures. TNF-? production was suppressed and the NF-?B pathway was inhibited only in the presence of supernatants from biofilms. We identified GroEL as the biofilm supernatant compound responsible, at least partially, for this anti-inflammatory effect. Gradual immunodepletion of GroEL demonstrated that the abundance of GroEL and TNF-? were inversely correlated. We confirmed that biofilm development in other Lactobacillus species affects the immune response. The biofilms supernatants of these species also contained large amounts of GroEL. Thus, our results demonstrate that the biofilm enhances the immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus sp. and that secreted GroEL is involved in this beneficial effect. PMID:25052472

Rieu, Aurélie; Aoudia, Nabil; Jego, Gaëtan; Chluba, Johanna; Yousfi, Nadhir; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Gasquet, Benoît; Monedero, Vicente; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

2014-12-01

137

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei Suppress Escherichia coli-Induced Chemokine Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to prevent the development of atopic dermatitis and to improve allergic symptoms, especially in young children. However, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not fully understood. Intestinal microbiota play critical roles in the development of host immune development and are recognized and regulated by the host through

Shinji Toki; Shinji Kagaya; Miwa Shinohara; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Takashi Matsumoto; Yoshihisa Takahata; Fumiki Morimatsu; Hirohisa Saito; Kenji Matsumoto

2009-01-01

138

Identification of Collagen-Binding Proteins in Lactobacillus spp. with Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption\\/Ionization-Time of Flight ProteinChip Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, L. rhamnosus GR-1 and 36, and L. casei Shirota were found to contain proteins that bind to both collagen types III and VI, as determined by surface-enhanced laser desorption\\/ionization (SELDI)-time of flight mass spectrometry. Both collagen types III and VI immo- bilized on SELDI preactivated ProteinChip arrays detected several different sizes (2 to 48

JEFFREY C. HOWARD; CHRISTINE HEINEMANN; BRADLEY J. THATCHER; BRIAN MARTIN; BING SIANG GAN; GREGOR REID

2000-01-01

139

Tailoring the probiotic potential of non-starter Lactobacillus strains from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese by in vitro screening and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) inhabiting fermented food have been recently revised as source of probiotic strains. Here, we in vitro assessed the potential probiotic aptitude of a de-replicated set of NSLAB previously isolated from long ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses (22 Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 18 Lactobacillus paracasei, 3 Lactobacillus casei, 2 Lactobacillus harbinensis, and 2 Lactobacillus fermentum). Most strains showed moderate to good resistance to biological barriers, including bile salts, lysozyme, and simulated gastric and pancreatic juices. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against seven antimicrobials belonging to different categories showed that most strains are susceptible towards all the antibiotics, with the exception of vancomycin and streptomycin. The strains lost the streptomycin resistance when assayed on agar medium containing 0.5% bile salts, suggesting that detergent-like properties of cholic acids increase membrane permeability and mediate streptomycin susceptibility. No isolate showed bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activities, supporting that bile salts resistance and BSH activity are unpaired traits. Finally, NSLAB strains had moderate to high auto-aggregative and hydrophobic phenotypes, whereas two subsets of 22 and 8 strains co-aggregated with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica s. typhimurium, respectively. A multivariate analysis was effective to segregate one L. casei and two L. rhamnosus strains showing physiological characteristics compatible with probiotic properties. PMID:24290648

Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Mottolese, Giovanni; Lemmetti, Federico; Giudici, Paolo

2014-04-01

140

Characterization of bacteriocin ST8KF produced by a kefir isolate Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, isolated from kefir, produced a 3.5kDa bacteriocin (bacST8KF) active against Lb. casei, Lb. salivarius, Lb. curvatus and Listeria innocua. BacST8KF was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0 and 10.0, and heat resistant (20min at 121°C). BacST8KF did not adsorb to the surface of the producer cell. Maximum activity (25,600AUmL?1) was recorded in MRS broth

J. E. Powell; R. C. Witthuhn; S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

141

Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.  

PubMed

The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed. PMID:20722939

Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

2010-08-01

142

Impact of nisin producing culture and liposome-encapsulated nisin on ripening of Lactobacillus added-Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of incorporating liposome-encapsulated nisin Z, nisin Z producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis UL719, or Lactobacillus casei-casei L2A adjunct culture into cheese milk on textural, physicochemical and sensory attributes during ripening of Cheddar cheese. For this purpose, cheeses were made using a selected nisin tolerant cheese starter culture. Proteolysis, free fatty acid production, rheological parameters and hydrophilic/hydrophobic peptides evolution were monitored over 6 mo ripening. Sensory quality of cheeses was evaluated after 6 mo. Incorporating the nisin-producing strain into cheese starter culture increased proteolysis and lipolysis but did not significantly affect cheese rheology. Liposome-encapsulated nisin did not appear to affect cheese proteolysis, rheology and sensory characteristics. The nisinogenic strain increased the formation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides present in the cheese water extract. Sensory assessment indicated that acidic and bitter tastes were enhanced in the nisinogenic strain-containing cheese compared to control cheese. Incorporating Lb. casei and the nisinogenic culture into cheese produced a debittering effect and improved cheese flavor quality. Cheeses with added Lb. casei and liposome-encapsulated nisin Z exhibited the highest flavor intensity and were ranked first for sensory characteristics. PMID:12836923

Benech, R O; Kheadr, E E; Lacroix, C; Fliss, I

2003-06-01

143

Preparation of Sphaeroplasts from Lactobacillus casei by Growth with Low Concentration of Benzylpenicillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain ofLactobaciIlus caseiused for the production of a lactic acid beverage is susceptible to phage infections. Calcium ions were required for the formation of PL-I phage-infected bacteria (Watanabe & Takesue, 1972). Further studies on the role of calcium ions in phage infection required the use of protoplasts or sphaeroplasts of the host bacteria. Early trials using egg-white lysozyme, EDTA

K. Watanabe; S. Takesue

1973-01-01

144

Applicability of pectate-entrapped Lactobacillus casei cells for l (+) lactic acid production from whey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid is a versatile organic acid, which finds major application in the food, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries.\\u000a Microbial fermentation has the advantage that by choosing a strain of lactic acid bacteria producing only one of the isomers,\\u000a an optically pure product can be obtained. The production of l(+) lactic acid is of significant importance from nutritional viewpoint and finds

P. S. Panesar; J. F. Kennedy; C. J. Knill; M. R. Kosseva

2007-01-01

145

Adjuvant effects of Lactobacillus casei added to a renutrition diet in a malnourished mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional deficiencies are associated with impaired immune response, affecting the body's defence mechanisms. It is also known that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and fermented products such us yogurt have immunopotentiator activity and nutritional properties, and could thus be used as a valuable supplement in a renutrition diet. The aim of this study was to determine, in a non-severe malnutrition model,

PAOLA GAUFFIN CANO; GRACIELA AGÜERO; GABRIELA PERDIGON

146

Hwangryun-Haedok-Tang Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Suppresses Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is the common recipe in traditional Asian medicine, and microbial fermentation is used for the conventional methods for processing traditional medicine. We investigated the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol fraction of HRT (HRT-BU) and fHRT (fHRT-BU) on the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were evaluated by real-time QPCR. The activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. The marker compounds of HRT-BU and fHRT-BU were analyzed by HPLC. The inhibitory effect of HRT or fHRT on ovariectomy-induced bone loss were evaluated using OVX rats with orally administered HRT, fHRT (300, 1000?mg/kg), or its vehicle for 12 weeks. fHRT-BU significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and phosphorylation of p38, IKK?/?, and NF-?Bp65 compared to HRT-BU. In addition, fHRT-BU also significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nf?b2, TNF-?, NFATc1, TRAP, ATPv0d2, and cathepsin K. Furthermore, administration of fHRT had a greater effect on the increase of BMD, and greater improved bone microstructure of the femora than that of HRT in ovariectomy rats. This study demonstrated that bacterial fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial effects on bone disease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23082080

Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; Ha, Hyunil; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Han Sung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Ma, Jin Yeul

2012-01-01

147

Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pD403 from Lactobacillus plantarum and construction of shuttle vectors based on its replicon.  

PubMed

A cryptic plasmid pD403 was isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum D403 derived from fermented dairy products. It was 2,791 bp in size with a G+C content of 37%. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames, orf1 and orf2. ORF1 (318 amino acids) was identified as a replication protein (RepA). ORF2 (137 amino acids) shared 31% similarity with the transcriptional regulator of Ralstonia pickettii 12D. Functional investigation indicated that ORF2 (Tra) had the ability of improving the transformation efficiency. The origin of replication was predicted, suggesting that pD403 was a rolling-circle-replication (RCR) plasmid. An Escherichia coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vector pCD4032 was constructed based on the pD403 replicon, and proved to be successfully transformed into various lactobacilli including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus brevis. The transformation efficiencies were ranged from 1.3 x 10(2) to 7 x 10(4) transformants per microgram DNA. Furthermore, an expression vector pCD4033 was developed with the promoter of the lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii 11842. The green fluorescent protein (gfp) as a reporter was expressed successfully in various lactobacilli tested, suggesting that the expression vector pCD4033 had the potential to be used as a molecular tool for heterologous gene cloning and expression in lactobacilli. PMID:20077035

Sun, Zhilan; Kong, Jian; Kong, Wentao

2010-05-01

148

Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. PMID:24975836

Salva, Susana; Marranzino, Gabriela; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2014-09-01

149

Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcantara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zuniga, Manuel

2014-01-01

150

Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

2014-03-01

151

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vasquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

152

Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22328611

Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2013-01-01

153

NAD(+)-dependent D-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Gene cloning and enzyme characterization.  

PubMed

A genomic library from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was used to complement an Escherichia coli mutant strain deficient for both lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase, and thus unable to grow anaerobically. One recombinant clone was found to display a broad specificity NAD(+)-dependent D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity. The corresponding gene (named hdhD) was subcloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded enzyme indicates a 333-residue protein closely related to D-2-hydroxyisocaproate (i.e. 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentanoate) dehydrogenase (D-HO-HxoDH) of Lactobacillus casei and other NAD(+)-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDH) from several other bacterial species. The hdhD gene was overexpressed under the control of the lambda phage PL promoter and the enzyme was purified with a two-step method. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus enzyme, like that of L. casei, was shown to be active on a wide variety of 2-oxoacid substrates except those having a branched beta-carbon. PMID:7925358

Bernard, N; Johnsen, K; Ferain, T; Garmyn, D; Hols, P; Holbrook, J J; Delcour, J

1994-09-01

154

Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus  

PubMed Central

Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

155

Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

156

Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population. PMID:23617246

2013-01-01

157

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

158

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

2013-01-01

159

Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

2014-01-01

160

Ingredient selection for plastic composite supports for L-(+)-lactic acid biofilm fermentation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.  

PubMed Central

Plastic composite supports containing 50% agricultural products (oat hulls, soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, dried bovine erythrocytes, bovine albumin, and/or mineral salts) and 50% (wt/wt) polypropylene were produced by high-temperature twin-screw extrusion. The research employed two half sets of a five-factorial fractional design (2(5 - 1)) to evaluate the effects of different agricultural components on the properties of the plastic composite supports and to select the best plastic composite support formulation for lactic acid fermentation. The biofilm population was affected by the contact angle and relative hydrophobicity of the supports (r = 0.79 to 0.82). Lactic acid was produced by the suspended cells (r = 0.96) and the biofilm on the plastic composite support discs (r = 0.85). Incorporation of yeast extract into plastic composite supports enhanced growth of free and attached cells in minimal medium (P < 0.0001). The presence of soybean hulls, yeast extract, or mineral salts in plastic composite supports produced less hydrophobic supports (P < 0.0001) and enhanced cell attachment (P < 0.03). Under all conditions, suspended-cell and polypropylene disc controls gave negligible lactic acid production and cell density. Plastic composite supports containing soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, bovine albumin, and mineral salts gave the highest biofilm population (2.3 x 10(9) CFU/g of support), cell density (absorbance of 1.8 at 620 nm), and lactic acid concentration (7.6 g/liter) in minimal medium. PMID:9212402

Ho, K L; Pometto, A L; Hinz, P N; Dickson, J S; Demirci, A

1997-01-01

161

Antimicrobial Activity of Intraurethrally Administered Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a Murine Model of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

type 1 and P fimbriae), at a dose of 1 3 106 to 2 3 106 CFU in 20 ml of saline, into a C3H\\/HeN mouse bladder which had been traumatized with 0.1 N HCl followed immediately by neutralization with 0.1 N NaOH 24 h before the challenge infection. Chronic infection with the pathogen at 106 CFU in the urinary

TAKASHI ASAHARA; KOJI NOMOTO; MASAAKI WATANUKI; TERUO YOKOKURA

2001-01-01

162

Differences in TLR9-dependent inhibitory effects of H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-kappa B/I kappa B-alpha system activation by genomic DNA from five Lactobacillus species.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) show anti-inflammatory effects, and their genomic DNA was identified as one of the anti-inflammatory components. Despite the differences in anti-inflammatory effects between live LAB dependent not only on genus but also species, this effect has not been compared at the genomic DNA level. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of the genomic DNA from five Lactobacillus species-Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus reuteri-using Caco-2 cells. To evaluate anti-inflammatory effects, decreases in H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 secretion and inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced NF-?B/I?B-? system activation were examined. All LAB genomic DNAs dose-dependently decreased H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 secretion and inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced NF-?B/I?B-? system activation. Comparison of these effects between Lactobacillus species showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of L. acidophilus genomic DNA are lower than those of the other species. Furthermore, suppression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a specific receptor of bacterial DNA, expression by RNAi abolished the decrease of H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 secretion and inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced NF-?B/I?B-? system activation by LAB genomic DNA. Our results demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of genomic DNA differ between Lactobacillus species and TLR9 is one of the major pathways responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of LAB genomic DNA. PMID:23182970

Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Satho, Tomomitsu; Irie, Keiichi; Shiimura, Shota; Okuno, Takahiro; Sharmin, Tanjina; Uyeda, Saori; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Nakashima, Yukihiko; Miake, Fumio; Kashige, Nobuhiro

2013-02-01

163

The Characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: A study of 94 strains of lactobacilli was made. These were divided into three groups by ' sugar ' fermentations and tolerance of sodium chloride and sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented amygdalin, cellobiose, salicin and sucrose, were variable in their action on dextrin and maltose, but grew in 2 yo sodium chloride or sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of

DOROTHY M. WHEATER

1955-01-01

164

Immunofluorescence microscopic studies on distribution of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Lactobacillus kefir in kefir grains.  

PubMed

Immunofluorescence staining was applied to observe distribution of two Lactobacillus species in kefir grains with cauliflower floret forms. Kefiran-producing, encapsulated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was located all over the grain and increased toward the center, while Lactobacillus kefir populated only a small region at the surface layers. PMID:2261314

Arihara, K; Toba, T; Adachi, S

1990-10-01

165

Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

was studied using baker's yeast, isolated pure Lactobacillus, a combination of baker's yeast and isolated pure Lactobaci llus, and microorganisms that occur naturally in sorghum flour. Changes in pH and percent acidity caused by growth of the var- ious... cultures in sorghum flour were measured. Generally, the dough fermented by pure Lactobacillus had lower final pH values and higher final percent acidity compared to the other starter cultures, except for one strain of isolated Lactobacillus which...

Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

2012-06-07

166

CASEI Project (Consultation and Administration Specialists in Early Intervention) Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Consultation and Administration Specialists in Early Intervention Project (CASEI). This federally funded project was developed to provide cross-disciplinary preservice training for early intervention (EI) specialists in Illinois. Students were recruited from a broad range of…

Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

167

A selective differential medium for Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of exogenous lactobacilli in faecal samples is frequently required for the evaluation of the intestinal colonization by probiotic bacteria. In this study, a selective and differential medium, designated LPSM, was developed for the culture of exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum. In quantitative assays, LPSM showed a sensitivity similar to those of enriched and Lactobacillus-adapted media. The presence of ciprofloxacin made

Carmen Bujalance; Maria Jiménez-Valera; Encarnacion Moreno; Alfonso Ruiz-Bravo

2006-01-01

168

Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot,

J Nowroozi; M Mirzaii; M Norouzi

169

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients. PMID:25035097

Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Luty?ska, A

2014-12-01

170

Gut Balance, a synbiotic supplement, increases fecal Lactobacillus paracasei but has little effect on immunity in healthy physically active individuals.  

PubMed

Synbiotic supplements, which contain multiple functional ingredients, may enhance the immune system more than the use of individual ingredients alone. A double blind active controlled parallel trial over a 21 d exercise training period was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gut Balance™, which contains Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. casei 431®), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5®), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), two prebiotics (raftiline and raftilose) and bovine whey derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins with acacia gum on fecal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut permeability, salivary lactoferrin and serum cytokines. All subjects randomized were included in the analysis. There was a 9-fold (1.2-fold to 64-fold; 95% confidence intervals p = 0.03) greater increase in fecal L. paracasei numbers with Gut Balance™ compared with acacia gum supplementation. Gut Balance™ was associated with a 50% (-12% to 72%; p = 0.02) smaller increase in the concentration of serum IL-16 in comparison to acacia gum from pre- to post-study. No substantial effects of either supplement were evident in fecal SCFA concentrations, measures of mucosal immunity or GI permeability. Clinical studies are now required to determine whether Gut Balance™ may exert beneficial GI health effects by increasing the recovery of fecal L. paracasei. Both supplements had little effect on immunity. Twenty two healthy physically active male subjects (mean age = 33.9 ± 6.5y) were randomly allocated to either daily prebiotic or synbiotic supplementation for 21 d. Saliva, blood, urine and fecal samples were collected pre-, mid and post-intervention. Participants recorded patterns of physical activity on a self-reported questionnaire. PMID:22572834

West, Nicholas P; Pyne, David B; Cripps, Allan W; Christophersen, Claus T; Conlon, Michael A; Fricker, Peter A

2012-01-01

171

Dark chocolates supplemented with Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark chocolate masses and chocolates were supplemented with viable cells of two bacterial strains Lactobacillus caseii and Lactobacillus paracasei with potential probiotic properties, which were lyophilized in milk. Total number of live bacteria in the lyophilizate was\\u000a 7.9109 cfu\\/g. Sucrose or isomalt and aspartame were used as bulking substances and sweeteners. Sensory attributes of these chocolates\\u000a were not different from that

Ewa Nebesny; Dorota ?y?elewicz; Ilona Motyl; Zdzis?awa Libudzisz

2007-01-01

172

KAI KURI? VEIKSNI? ?TAKA LIOFILIZUOT? LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IR LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM GYVYBINGUMUI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The present study was designed to assess the impact of different protective media, the method of concentration and the age of the lactate-fermenting bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum on their viability during the lyophilization. The cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum of 18 and 48 hour age were studied. For the concentration of these cultures the following

Vaidas Oberauskas; Jonas Laugalis

173

Lactobacillus  

MedlinePLUS

... Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect). Treating a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis. Some research suggests that taking a specific combination ... treat chronic pouchitis, a complication of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Continuous treatment for one year with a specific ...

174

Development of a carotenoid shuttle vector for Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

of Lactobacillus suggest that development of recombinant strains ofLacrobacillus, genetically modified to synthesize P-carotene, could be conviently incorporated into current practices to improve foods. The new recombinant strain of Lactobacillus is a potential... of Lactobacillus suggest that development of recombinant strains ofLacrobacillus, genetically modified to synthesize P-carotene, could be conviently incorporated into current practices to improve foods. The new recombinant strain of Lactobacillus is a potential...

White, Kevin E

2012-06-07

175

Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain of a species ofLactobacillus of human origin, designated GG (Lactobacillus GG), has been studied to determine its ability to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. When fed to 76 volunteers as a frozen concentrate or as a fermented preparation in milk or whey,Lactobacillus GG was recovered in the feces of all subjects receiving the fermented milk

Barry R. Goldin; Sherwood L. Gorbach; Maija Saxelin; Susan Barakat; Lisa Gualtieri; Seppo Salminen

1992-01-01

176

Lactobacillus taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from silage.  

PubMed

Strain FIRDI 006T, isolated from silage cattle feed, was characterized by using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The strain was a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium; the cells stained Gram-positive and were catalase-negative, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belongs phylogenetically to the genus Lactobacillus and can be placed within the Lactobacillus acidophilus-delbrueckii group. Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii were the most closely related species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.53 and 99.46% to the respective type strains. Low gyrB gene sequence similarities (<90%) and low DNA-DNA reassociation values (<45%) were obtained between the strain and the phylogenetically closest neighbours. Based on phenotypic and genetic evidence, the strain is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FIRDI 006T (=BCRC 17755T =DSM 21401T). PMID:19605711

Wang, Li-Ting; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping; Wu, Yen-Chi; Tai, Chun-Ju; Lee, Fwu-Ling

2009-08-01

177

Lactobacillus fermentum, a pathogen in documented cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Lactobacillus species are probiotics proven to exhibit various preventative as well as therapeutic properties. While lactobacillus species have been implicated in the formation of dental caries, endocarditis and bacteremia, their role as pathogens in cholecystitis has not been reported. We present a rare case of Lactobacillus fermentum working as a pathogen in cholecystitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 81-year old male was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. His signs, symptoms, laboratory values and imaging were consistent with a diagnosis of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. In view of his co-morbidity and severe sepsis, the patient was treated non-operatively with antibiotics and cholecystostomy. L. fermentum, which was vancomycin resistant, was identified from the cholecystostomy aspirate and from anaerobic blood culture. The patient went into septic shock, developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually died. DISCUSSION Commensal bacteria such as L. fermentum are known to modulate immunity, reduce the pathogenicity of gastrointestinal organisms and play a therapeutic role in various disease processes. We isolated L. fermentum as a pathogen in a documented case of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. CONCLUSION While the routine use lactobacillus species as a probiotic is supported in the literature, understanding its potential role as a pathogen may allow more judicious use of these bacteria and encourage research to elucidate the pathogenicity of lactobacillus species. PMID:23792476

Chery, Josue; Dvoskin, Dmitriy; Morato, Fernando P.; Fahoum, Bashar

2013-01-01

178

Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties. PMID:23467265

Griffiths, M W; Tellez, A M

2013-01-01

179

Serine metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

This study investigated the metabolism of (L-) serine by Lactobacillus plantarum B3089 isolated from cheese. Serine was deaminated by growing cells to ammonia with the corresponding formation of acetate and formate. Serine was also deaminated by non-growing cells to ammonia but with the formation of acetate only (no production of formate). Phosphoserine and threonine were not catabolised. It is proposed that serine was deaminated by serine dehydratase (deaminase) to ammonia and pyruvate. Pyruvate was further catabolised predominantly to acetate, carbon dioxide and formate in growing cells, catalysed by pyruvate-formate lyase and pyruvate oxidase; some of the pyruvate was converted to acetoin. In non-growing cells, however, pyruvate-formate lyase was inactive and pyruvate oxidase degraded the pyruvate to acetate and carbon dioxide. Serine dehydratase activity could not be detected in cell-free extracts, presumably because of enzyme instability. The growth of L. plantarum was neither enhanced nor stimulated by serine under the current conditions. Whereas there was little difference in serine utilisation between pH 7.0 and pH 5.8, serine utilisation was decreased by 30% at pH 5.0. NaCl of up to 4% (w/v) concentration had little effect on serine utilisation. Serine had no impact on lactose metabolism. Lactose was fermented mainly to lactate (73%) with the remainder converted to an unidentified polysaccharide (27%). PMID:14623392

Liu, S-Q; Holland, R; McJarrow, P; Crow, V L

2003-12-31

180

Carbohydrate Utilization in Lactobacillus sake  

PubMed Central

The ability of Lactobacillus sake to use various carbon sources was investigated. For this purpose we developed a chemically defined medium allowing growth of L. sake and some related lactobacilli. This medium was used to determine growth rates on various carbohydrates and some nutritional requirements of L. sake. Mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (a nonmetabolizable glucose analog) were isolated. One mutant unable to grow on mannose and one mutant deficient in growth on mannose, fructose, and sucrose were studied by determining growth characteristics and carbohydrate uptake and phosphorylation rates. We show here that sucrose, fructose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, and glucose are transported and phosphorylated by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS permease specific for mannose, enzyme II(supMan), was shown to be responsible for mannose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine transport. A second, non-PTS system, which was responsible for glucose transport, was demonstrated. Subsequent glucose metabolism involved an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. Ribose and gluconate were transported by PTS-independent permeases. PMID:16535331

Lauret, R.; Morel-Deville, F.; Berthier, F.; Champomier-Verges, M.; Postma, P.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Zagorec, M.

1996-01-01

181

[Evaluation of the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic culture added to yogurt over Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis populations].  

PubMed

The effect of different types of probiotics present in yogurt over known populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated. The three types of yogurt used were: without added probiotics, with added probiotics (Lactobacillus casei CRL_431 and L. acidophilus CRL_730 CHR HANSEN) and another one with the same probiotics mentioned above and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR-35) culture. About 10(9) CFU/ mL of each potentially pathogenic bacteria was added to each type of yogurt tested, and kept in refrigeration at 4 degrees C during its shelf life, about 30 days. Bacterial count was done the initial day and every four days. Results obtained show that there is a difference in the inhibition between yogurts without added probiotics and the commercial yogurt with added probiotics; there is a clear inhibitory effect of the last one over S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The yogurt with added probiotics and L. rhamnosus did not show any additional inhibitory effect over the bacteria tested when compared with the yogurt with added probiotics. S. enteritidis could not be evaluated because it was not detectable in any yogurt samples evaluated four days after its inoculation. This study confirms the antagonic effect of probiotic cultures over potentially pathogenic bacteria for human beings and animals that may be present in food. Nevertheless, the use of L. rhamnosus did not produce any additional inhibitory effect. PMID:17824199

Calderón, Oscar; Padilla, Carolina; Chaves, Carolina; Villalobos, Laura; Arias, María Laura

2007-03-01

182

Characterization and electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum isolated from fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of the study were to characterize two Lactobacillus plantarum-related strains, Lact.\\u000a plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum isolated from fermented vegetables and, for their potential use as starter strains, compare their growth in various food\\u000a matrices. Species-level identification of the strains belonging to the Lact. plantarum group was performed by multiplex-PCR with species-specific primers and generation of distinct genotypic profiles was

Elina Mäkimattila; Minna Kahala; Vesa Joutsjoki

2011-01-01

183

Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of homofermentative lactobacilli and two strains of heterofermentative lactobacilli were isolated from kefir grains by using R-CW agar medium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics, DNA guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these isolates and previously described lactobacilli were compared. Our results indicated that two new species, Lactobacillus kefirgranurn and Lactobacillus parakefir, could be distinguished. The type

S. TAKIZAWA; S. KOJIMA; S. TAMURA; S. FUJINAGA; Y. BENNO

1994-01-01

184

Instability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Yogurt1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus added to yo- gurt decreased in numbers during refriger- ated storage. This instability was caused by substance(s) produced by L. bulgari- cus, a component species of yogurt cul- tures. Hydrogen peroxide produced by L. bulgaricus during the manufacture and\\/or storage of yogurt appeared to be the main substance responsible for the antagonism of L. bulgaricus toward L. acidophilus

S. E. Gilliland; M. L. Speck

1977-01-01

185

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.  

PubMed

In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains. PMID:24558254

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Kosarev, Igor V; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2014-01-01

186

The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108) bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with ConA reactive sugars at the serine residues at 106 and 107. Glycosylation is not required for the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1 nor for Akt activation capacity in epithelial cells, but appears to be important for its stability and protection against proteases. PMID:22297095

2012-01-01

187

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.

Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Littleton, CO); Mc Millan, James D. (Boulder, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

1998-01-01

188

Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

2008-09-01

189

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

190

Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray\\u000a and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles\\u000a as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

K. Prasad; Anal K. Jha; A. R. Kulkarni

2007-01-01

191

Lactobacillus florum sp. nov., a fructophilic species isolated from flowers.  

PubMed

Three strains of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in South Africa. The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus buchneri phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus lindneri and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis according to phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that the three strains belonged to the same taxon and formed a genetically distinct group, well separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains produced acids from only two of the 49 carbohydrates tested, i.e. D-glucose and D-fructose. D-Fructose was more rapidly fermented than D-glucose. Good growth was recorded on d-fructose or D-glucose in the presence of external electron acceptors. However, delayed growth was recorded on d-glucose without electron acceptors. The novel strains produced lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid from D-glucose at a ratio of 1?:?0.8?:?0.2. These characteristics were distinct from other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Based on the data provided, the three isolates represent a fructophilic and novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus florum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F9-1(T) (=JCM 16035(T)=DSM 22689(T)=NRIC 0771(T)). PMID:19965998

Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kitahara, Maki; Dicks, Leon M T

2010-10-01

192

Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and CscD proteins form cell-surface protein complexes and play a role in carbon source acquisition. Primary occurrence in plant-associated gram-positive bacteria suggests a possible role in degradation and utilization of plant oligo- or poly-saccharides. PMID:16723015

Siezen, Roland; Boekhorst, Jos; Muscariello, Lidia; Molenaar, Douwe; Renckens, Bernadet; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2006-01-01

193

Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

194

Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains  

PubMed Central

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

195

Isolation and process parameter optimization of Brevibacterium casei for simultaneous bioremediation of hexavalent chromium and pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

Chromate and pentachlorophenol are major pollutants discharged through tanneries. Three bacteria resistant to high Cr(6+) and PCP concentrations simultaneously were isolated. The TVS-3 strain was tolerant to highest 850?mg l(-1) Cr(6+) and 1000?mg l(-1) PCP concentration and concomitantly reduced 69% Cr(6+) and degraded 72% PCP within 168?h at pH 7.5, 35?±?1°C temperature, was selected and identified as Brevibacterium casei. At 168?h of growth, bacterium showed maximum PCP utilization of 720?mg l(-1) and released 900?mg l(-1) chloride ion. The bacterium exhibited remarkable ability to significantly reduce Cr(6+) and degrade PCP in presence of other metals, between 100-120?rpm aeration and over broad pH (6.5-10.0) and temperature (30-40°C) range. Maximum 78% Cr(6+) reduction and 82% PCP degradation was observed at pH 8.0, 35?±?1°C within 168?h of incubation, 120?rpm and initial concentration of 850?mg l(-1) Cr(6+) and 1000?mg l(-1) PCP. This is the first study reporting 78% Cr(6+) reduction and 82% PCP degradation simultaneously by single native bacteria under wide growth conditions utilizing PCP as sole carbon source. This bacterium may potentially be useful for simultaneous bioremediation of Cr(6+) and PCP containing wastes in the environment. PMID:22733606

Verma, Tuhina; Singh, Neha

2013-03-01

196

Probiotic Lactobacillus-induced improvement in murine chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lamina propria mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

IL-6/STAT-3 signals play key roles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is known that Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) improves inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of LcS on murine chronic IBD and to clarify the mechanism. We focused the inhibitory effect of LcS on the production of IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC) isolated from mice with chronic colitis and in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. We also determined in vivo the effect of LcS on murine chronic IBD models induced with dextran sodium sulphate and SAMP1/Yit mice. Finally, we examined the cellular determinants of LcS for the down-regulation of IL-6 secretion by LI-LPMC, RAW264.7 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). LcS, but not other strains of Lactobacillus, inhibited the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated LI-LPMC and RAW264.7 cells, down-regulating the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The LcS-diet-improved murine chronic colitis is associated with the reduction of IL-6 synthesis by LI-LPMC. LcS also improved chronic ileitis in SAMP1/Yit mice. The release of IL-6 in vitro in LPS-stimulated LI-LPMC, RAW 264.7 cells and UC-PBMC was inhibited by a polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) derived from LcS. This probiotic-induced improvement in murine chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IFN-gamma production in LPMC. Therefore, LcS may be a useful probiotic for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15932502

Matsumoto, S; Hara, T; Hori, T; Mitsuyama, K; Nagaoka, M; Tomiyasu, N; Suzuki, A; Sata, M

2005-06-01

197

Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs)  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria is one of the most frequent infections in human population. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, often leads to appearance of drug resistance in bacteria. However, use of probiotic bacteria has been suggested as a partial replacement. This study was aimed to assess the antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus standard strains against bacteria isolated from UTI infections. Materials and Methods: Among 600 samples; those with ?10,000 cfu/ml were selected as UTI positive samples. Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli were found the most prevalent UTI causative agents. All isolates were screened for multi drug resistance and subjected to the antimicrobial effects of three Lactobacillus strains by using microplate technique and the MICs amounts were determined. In order to verify the origin of antibiotic resistance of isolates, plasmid curing using ethidium bromide and acridine orange was carried out. Results: No antagonistic activity in Lactobacilli suspension was detected against test on Enterococcus and Enterobacter strains and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to most antibiotics. However, an inhibitory effect was observed for E. coli which were resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. In addition, L. casei was determined to be the most effective probiotic. Results from replica plating suggested one of the plasmids could be related to the gene responsible for ampicillin resistance. Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates. PMID:24847423

Naderi, Atiyeh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Saffarian, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

198

Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass silage.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated IWT126(T), was isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage preserved in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolate showed growth at 15-45 °C, pH 3.5-7.5 and with 4.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain IWT126(T) was classified as a member of the genus Lactobacillus and was most closely related to Lactobacillus odoratitofui YIT 11304(T) (98.7?%), Lactobacillus similis JCM 2765(T) (98.5?%), Lactobacillus collinoides JCM 1123(T) (97.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides DSM 15502(T) (97.6?%) and Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) (96.9?%). Based on sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase ?-subunit (pheS) gene, strain IWT126(T) was well separated from its phylogenetic neighbours in the genus Lactobacillus. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic results, as well as low DNA-DNA relatedness to recognized phylogenetic relatives in the genus Lactobacillus, classification of strain IWT126(T) as a representive of a novel species named Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IWT126(T) (?=?JCM 19001(T)?=?DSM 27022(T)). PMID:23919960

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-12-01

199

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

200

Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

2014-12-01

201

Comparison of amylolytic properties of Lactobacillus amylovorus and of Lactobacillus amylophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified amylases produced by Lactobacillus amylovorus and L. amylophilus were compared and they differed in several properties. The maximum amylase activity of L. amylovorus was higher than that of L. amylophilus. As estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular mass of the enzymes was 140 kDa for L. amylovorus amylase and 100 kDa for L. amylophilus amylase.

Carlos Castillo Pompeyo; Maricela Suárez Gómez; Sylvie Gasparian; Juliette Morlon-Guyot

1993-01-01

202

Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40°C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30°C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20°C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40°C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20°C and day 6 at 30°C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30°C but survived the entire test period at 20°C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20°C and day 2 at 30°C. PMID:6414372

Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

1983-01-01

203

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oryzae Strain SG293T  

PubMed Central

We report the 1.86-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactobacillus oryzae SG293T isolated from fermented rice grains. This genome information may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the fermentation of rice grains. PMID:25169865

Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Mochizuki, Takako; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

2014-01-01

204

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28 is an integral component of a multistrain commercial culture with food biopreservative and pathogen biocontrol functionality. A draft sequence of the L. animalis 381-IL-28 genome is described in this paper. PMID:24874675

Rajendran, Mahitha; Altermann, Eric

2014-01-01

205

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

206

Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.  

PubMed

Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9?% sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96?%) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10?%). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5?%) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18?:?1?9c (78.85 and 74.29?%) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) (?=?CCTCC M 2011481(T)?=?KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23002044

Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

2013-05-01

207

Aglycone production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 during soymilk fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 showed the highest levels of ?-glucosidase and was selected to characterize this enzyme system, among 63 strains of different Lactobacillus species. The maximum activity was obtained at pH 6.4 and 42°C. The enzyme showed weak resistance to thermal inactivation maintaining only 20% of the initial activity when it was exposed at 50°C for 5min. It also, showed

Jose A. Marazza; Marisa S. Garro; Graciela Savoy de Giori

2009-01-01

208

Preservation by freezing of potentially probiotic strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to detect the best conditions to preserve by freezing potentially probiotic strains ofLactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from food. Four strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, the commercial strainLactobacillus GG and the type strain ATCC 7469T were used in the present study. Two different pre-incubation times (5 and 24 h), three\\u000a protective media (Skim milk, Skim

Mariantonietta Succi; Patrizio Tremonte; Anna Reale; Elena Sorrentino; Raffaele Coppola

2007-01-01

209

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive brief, about 2 sec, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

2012-01-01

210

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

2012-02-01

211

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

212

Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

213

Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

2014-09-01

214

Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken crop.  

PubMed

In the early 1980s, a facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, short rod, designated 202(T), was isolated from a chicken crop and identified as a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, clustering within the Lactobacillus acidophilus-delbrueckii group. In this analysis, strain 202(T) appeared to be most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus intestinalis and Lactobacillus amylolyticus, with gene sequence similarities of 96.1 and 96.2?%, respectively. Strain 202(T) was found to differ from these two species, however, when investigated by multilocus sequence analysis, and it also differed in terms of some of its metabolic properties. On the basis of these observations, strain 202(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 202(T) (?=?CRBIP 24.85(T)?=?DSM 23908(T)). PMID:21421927

Cousin, Sylvie; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Motreff, Laurence; Gouyette, Catherine; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2012-02-01

215

Lactobacillus curieae sp. nov., isolated from stinky tofu brine.  

PubMed

A lactic acid bacterium, strain CCTCC M 2011381(T), isolated from the brine of the traditional Chinese snack, stinky tofu, was studied to determine its taxonomic position. It was a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium that did not exhibit catalase activity. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 44.1 % and its peptidoglycan was characterized by the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) and the most closely related species Lactobacillus senioris JCM 17472(T), Lactobacillus parafarraginis JCM 14109(T) and Lactobacillus diolivorans JCM 12183(T) were 96.5, 96.4 and 96.4 %, respectively. Combined with data from high-resolution genomic markers recA, rpoA and pheS, strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) was classified as representing a novel species. The strain could also be distinguished from other related species of the genus Lactobacillus by its physiological and biochemical characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, it is proposed that the new isolate can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus curieae sp. nov. (type strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) = S1L19(T) = JCM 18524(T)) is proposed. PMID:23223818

Lei, Xiao; Sun, Guipeng; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

2013-07-01

216

Lactobacillus ozensis sp. nov., isolated from mountain flowers.  

PubMed

Five strains (Mizu2-1(T), Gon2-7, Koba6-1, Koyu2-2 and Miya2-2) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from flowers in Oze National Park, Japan, using anaerobic cultivation. The five isolates were found to share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known LAB; the closest recognized relatives of strain Mizu2-1(T) were the type strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei (94.9?%), Lactobacillus kefiri (94.1?%) and Lactobacillus buchneri (93.9?%). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and heterofermentative. Anaerobic growth was better than aerobic growth. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus ozensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Mizu2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17196(T) ?=?DSM 23829(T)). PMID:21075903

Kawasaki, Shinji; Kurosawa, Kana; Miyazaki, Madoka; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Niimura, Youichi

2011-10-01

217

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sanchez, Borja

2013-01-01

218

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2014-04-01

219

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2011-04-01

220

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2010-04-01

221

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2012-04-01

222

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

223

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

224

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Propionibacterium in cheese-based dips and the suitability of dips as effective carriers of probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of cheese-based dips as a delivery vehicle for probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was studied by evaluating the survival of these organisms in dips. Effects of organic acids, oils and gums, l-cysteine and NaHCO3 on the survival of probiotics in cheese-based dips were also studied.

Nalayini Tharmaraj; Nagendra P. Shah

2004-01-01

225

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

226

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

227

Structural identification of novel oligosaccharides produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

?-Galactosidases (?-Gal) of lactic acid bacteria produce oligosaccharides from lactose when suitable acceptor carbohydrates are present. This study aimed to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides formed by galactosylation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and fucose. Crude cellular extract of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and LacLM of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as sources of ?-Gal activity. Disaccharides obtained by galactosylation of GlcNAc were identified as Gal-?-(1?4)-GlcNAc or Gal-?-(1?6)-GlcNAc by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and comparison with external standards. Trisaccharides were identified as Gal-?-(1?6)-Gal-?-(1?[4 or 6])-GlcNAc by LC-MS, analysis of the MS/MS spectra of selected in-source fragment ions, and their relative retention times. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five galactosylated fucosides, but their linkage type could not be identified, partly due to the lack of reference compounds. ?-Gal of lactic acid bacteria may serve as suitable tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of therapeutic oligosaccharides. PMID:22497208

Black, Brenna A; Lee, Vivian S Y; Zhao, Yuan Yuan; Hu, Ying; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

2012-05-16

228

Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

2013-01-01

229

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. The addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels that are typically found in L. plantarum growth media (1 to 2% [vol/vol] glucose). In contrast, comparable mannitol levels did not inhibit the reduction of nitrate. L. plantarum reduced nitrate with concomitant formation of nitrite and ammonia. Genes that encode a bd-type cytochrome (cydABCD) and a nitrate reductase (narGHJI) were identified in the genome of L. plantarum. The narGHJI operon is part of a cluster of genes that includes the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes and narK. Besides a menaquinone source, isogenic mutants revealed that cydA and ndh1 are required for the aerobic-respiration-like response and narG for nitrate reduction. The ndh1 mutant was still able to reduce nitrate. The existence of a nonredundant branched electron transport chain in L. plantarum WCFS1 that is capable of using oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor is proposed. PMID:19346351

Brooijmans, R. J. W.; de Vos, W. M.; Hugenholtz, J.

2009-01-01

230

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

231

Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov., isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia).  

PubMed

Twenty-one homofermentative lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented cummingcordia (pobuzihi), a traditional food in Taiwan. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were distinct from those of other lactobacilli, and their closest neighbours in the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree were strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between representative pobuzihi isolates and strains of L. acidipiscis were 17% and below. Furthermore, the new isolates could be differentiated clearly from L. acidipiscis NBRC 102163T and NBRC 102164 in terms of acid production from L-arabinose, rhamnose, mannitol, lactose and 5-ketogluconate. It was concluded that the new isolates represent a single novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E100301T (=RIFY 6501T =NBRC 103219T =KCTC 13174T). PMID:19783610

Chen, Yi-Sheng; Miyashita, Mika; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Sato, Hajime; Hsu, Jar-Sheng; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-08-01

232

Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.  

PubMed

Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

2005-07-01

233

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-08-01

234

Description of Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage, and Lactobacillus backii sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246(T) and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7?% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6?%), L. bifermentans (95.5?%) and L. rennini (94.1?%). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246(T) and IWT248 were 99.7?% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246(T) (?=?JCM 18838(T)?=?DSM 26942(T)) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18?:?1?11c, C18?:?1?9t, C18?:?1?6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665(T) (?=?LMG 23555(T)?=?DSM 18080(T)?=?L1062(T)). PMID:23687059

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

235

In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets.  

PubMed

Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2014-01-01

236

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 was isolated in Tibet, China, from kefir grain, a traditional dairy product that is known to provide many health benefits to humans. Here, we present the genome features of L. kefiranofaciens ZW3 and the identification of a gene cluster related to the synthesis of exopolysaccharide, an important constituent of the Tibetan kefir. PMID:21705607

Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jingrui; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bai, Xiaojia; Wang, Jinju

2011-01-01

237

Probiotic-associated aspiration pneumonia due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are low-virulence, commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and are commonly used as "probiotic supplements." Herein, we describe an episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis with bacterial superinfection secondary to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an 11-month-old female with trisomy 21. PMID:24899028

Doern, Christopher D; Nguyen, Sean T; Afolabi, Folashade; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-08-01

238

Lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum in the mouse caecum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the caeca of

M. Marco; T. H. F. Peters; D. Molenaar; Hemert van S; J. L. Sonnenburg; J. Gordon; M. Kleerebezem

2009-01-01

239

Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Vietnamese nem chua.  

PubMed

A species diversity study of lactic acid bacteria occurring in traditional Vietnamese nem chua yielded an isolate, LMG 26767(T), that could not be assigned to a species with a validly published name. The isolate was initially investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which revealed that it belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus manihotivorans and Lactobacillus camelliae as the closest relatives (98.9?% and 96.9?% gene sequence similarity to the type strains, respectively). Comparative (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting confirmed the unique taxonomic status of the novel strain. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, DNA G+C content determination, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene, and physiological and biochemical characterization demonstrated that strain LMG 26767(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LMG 26767(T) (?=?CCUG 62266(T)). Biochemically, L. porcinae can be distinguished from L. manihotivorans and L. camelliae by its carbohydrate fermentation profile, absence of growth at 45 °C, and production of d- and l-lactate as end products of glucose metabolism. PMID:22941299

Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Cnockaert, Margo; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; De Brandt, Evie; Snauwaert, Isabel; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vuyst, Luc; Le, Binh Thanh; Vandamme, Peter

2013-05-01

240

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhances gastric ulcer healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are widely used as functional foods which have been advocated for the maintenance of gastrointestinal microflora equilibrium and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, studying the role of probiotics in peptic ulcer disease is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on gastric ulcer and to elucidate the

Emily K. Y. Lam; L. Yu; Helen P. S. Wong; William K. K. Wu; Vivian Y. Shin; Emily K. K. Tai; Wallace H. L. So; Patrick C. Y. Woo; C. H. Cho

2007-01-01

241

Identification of Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.624 dextransucrase and comparative characterization with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and Lactobacillus animalis TMW 1.971 dextransucrases.  

PubMed

Recently, it was affirmed that the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.624, Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and Lactobacillus animalis TMW 1.971 improve the quality of gluten-free breads and that they can be produced in situ to levels enabling baking applications. In this study we provide insight into the molecular and biochemical background of EPS production of these three strains. EPS formation strongly correlated with growth and took place during the exponential phase. Gtf genes were heterologously expressed, purified and their enzymatic properties as well as the structures of the EPSs formed were compared. Structural comparison of EPS formed by heterologously expressed glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) and of those formed by the wildtype lactobacilli confirmed that the respective genes/enzymes were identified and examined. The glucan formed by L. animalis Gtf was identified as a linear low molecular weight dextran. Optimal enzymatic conditions were pH 4.4 and 45 °C for the L. reuteri Gtf and pH 4.4 and 31 °C for L. curvatus Gtf. The Gtf from L. animalis had an optimal pH of 5.8 and displayed more than 50% of activity over a broad temperature profile (22-59 °C). The three Gtfs were stimulated by various mono- and divalent metal ions, dextran, as well as levan to different extents. PMID:23498178

Rühmkorf, Christine; Bork, Christian; Mischnick, Petra; Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Vogel, Rudi F

2013-05-01

242

Lait 86 (2006) 407414 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2006  

E-print Network

% of the isolates were either Lactobacillus casei or L. rhamnosus, and a combined total of 45 genotypes were found bacteria / NSLAB / L. casei / L. rhamnosus / Gruyère cheese ­ Gruyère 3 Gruyère 6(NSLAB) Gruyère 1099 90% (Lactobacillus casei) (L. rhamnosus), 45 3 6 (NSLAB) / Gruyère / / / Résumé

Boyer, Edmond

243

DNA Arrays and Membrane Hybridization Methods for Screening of Six Lactobacillus Species Common in Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dot blot and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) array hybridization assays for the traceability of Lactobacillus species in food have been developed to monitor and validate typical food products. A primer set was designed to amplify the\\u000a 540-bp region located at +157 of the tuf (Elongation factor Tu) gene of the Lactobacillus genus. An oligonucleotide array, containing 73 Lactobacillus species-specific tuf sequences

Palmiro Poltronieri; Oscar Fernando D’Urso; Giuseppe Blaiotta; Maria Morea

2008-01-01

244

Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

245

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

246

Isolation and characterization of ?-galactosidase from Lactobacillus crispatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Galactosidase was isolated from the cell-free extracts ofLactobacillus crispatus strain ATCC 33820 and the effects of temperature, pH, sugars and monovalent and divalent cations on the activity of the enzyme\\u000a were examined.L. crispatus produced the maximum amount of enzyme when grown in MRS medium containing galactose (as carbon source) at 37°C and pH 6.5\\u000a for 2 d, addition of glucose

J.-W. Kim; S. N. Rajagopal

2000-01-01

247

Lactobacillus kimchiensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented food.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium was isolated from a traditional fermented food, kimchi. The morphology, physiology, biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain L133(T) were studied. Strain L133(T) was Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative, with rod-shaped cells that formed cream colonies. Cells grew in the presence of 0-5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1-2?%), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C). Comparative 16S rRNA gene and pheS sequence analysis of strain L133(T) indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. The major fatty acids were identified as C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?0 and C18?:?0, and the cell wall contained peptidoglycan of the L-Lys-D-Asp type. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L133(T) and related species were below 11±0.4?%. The DNA G+C content of strain L133(T) was 35.7 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as physiological and biochemical tests, identified genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain L133(T) and other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Based on these analyses, strain L133(T) is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, named Lactobacillus kimchiensis. The type strain is L133(T) (?=?KACC 15533(T)?=?JCM 17702(T)?=?DSM 24716(T)). PMID:22798657

Kim, Jandi; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

2013-04-01

248

Endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus jensenii in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and nasal cavity. In this report, a rare case of Lactobacillus jensenii endocarditis in a 47-year-old immunocompetent patient is described. Blood cultures and a replaced mitral valve were positive for L. jensenii as assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Based on susceptibility tests the patient was successfully treated with a mixture of teicoplanin and meropenem antimicrobial therapy. PMID:20133416

Fradiani, Piera Assunta; Petrucca, Andrea; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Di Nucci, Giandomenico; Teggi, Antonella; Bilancini, Silvia; Cipriani, Paola

2010-05-01

249

Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum?WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L.?plantarum?WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L.?plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L.?plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L.?plantarum?WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

2014-09-01

250

Bacteriocin production and gene sequencing analysis from vaginal Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

The human vagina is a complex and dynamic ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age, this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp. In the present work, seventeen newly isolated vaginal strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. Twelve of the isolated Lactobacillus strains showed activity against one or more microorganisms. Six and five of them produced substances that inhibited the growth of two different Klebsiella strains and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Two lactobacilli strains were active against an Escherichia coli strain, one isolate was active against an Enterococus faecalis strain and another lactobacilli strain showed antimicrobial activity against a Candida parapsilosis strain. The nature of the active compounds was additionally studied, and the presence of bacteriocin-like substances was proved. The genes related to the bacteriocin production in three of the newly isolated strains were identified and sequenced. The presence of gassericin A operon in the genome of the species Lactobacillus crispatus was described for the first time. The presence of antimicrobial activity contributes to their possible use as potential probiotic strains after further research. PMID:24919535

Stoyancheva, Galina; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

2014-09-01

251

TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE DEXTRANSUCRASE SYNTHESIS BY A LACTOBACILLUS  

PubMed Central

Dunican, L. K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York), and H. W. Seeley, Jr. Temperature-sensitive dextransucrase synthesis by a lactobacillus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1079–1083. 1963.—Dextran synthesis was found to be temperature-dependent in Lactobacillus strain RWM-13. Dextran was not formed above 37 C, although growth of cells occurred up to 42 C. Logarithmically growing cells transferred from 30 C to 40 C ceased producing dextran while growth decreased nominally. An examination of the extracts of cells broken by sonic treatment showed that as the temperature of growth was increased above 37 C the production of dextransucrase decreased. By use of an inhibitor of invertase, 10?4m AgNO3, it was shown that invertase replaced dextransucrase activity at temperatures above 37 C. In contrast to dextransucrase in Leuconostoc mesenteroides, the enzyme in Lactobacillus strain RWM-13 was constitutive and thus resembled that of Streptococcus bovis. Thermosensitivity of dextransucrase synthesis has not been observed in Leuconostoc or Streptococcus. PMID:14080775

Dunican, L. K.; Seeley, H. W.

1963-01-01

252

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

253

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules  

PubMed Central

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

2012-01-01

254

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

2012-01-01

255

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in Mongrel pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation was studied in eight Mongrel pups of about 10 weeks of age with a mean body weight of 5.2 kg divided into two equal groups, control (group C) and a probiotic supplemented group (group L). Both groups received the same feed (biscuit) which was for group L supplemented with 2 × 10 cfu of a Lactobacillus

K. Pasupathy; A. Sahoo; N. N. Pathak

2001-01-01

256

Diversity and functional characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated throughout the ripening of a hard cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the Lactobacillus spp. intra- and inter- species diversity in a Piedmont hard cheese made of raw milk without thermal treatment and without addition of industrial starter, and to perform a first screening for potential functional properties. A total of 586 isolates were collected during the cheese production and identified by means of molecular methods: three hundred and four were identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two hundred and forty as Lactobacillus helveticus, twenty six as Lactobacillus fermentum, eleven as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, three as Lactobacillus pontis, and two as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. A high genetic heterogeneity was detected by using the repetitive bacterial DNA element fingerprinting (rep-PCR) with the use of (GTG)5 primer resulting in eight clusters of L. helveticus and sixteen clusters in the case of L. rhamnosus. Most of isolates showed a high auto-aggregation property, low hydrophobicity values, and a general low survival to simulated digestion process. However, sixteen isolates showed promising functional characteristics. PMID:24819414

Bautista-Gallego, J; Alessandria, V; Fontana, M; Bisotti, S; Taricco, S; Dolci, P; Cocolin, L; Rantsiou, K

2014-07-01

257

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant honeybee  

E-print Network

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant 2011 Abstract ­ This is the first assay that describes the isolation and identification of strains of honeybees were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees, and Lactobacillus was isolated

258

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108(T) and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202(T), isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

259

Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

2014-10-01

260

High-Level Expression of Heme-Dependent Catalase Gene katA from Lactobacillus Sakei Protects Lactobacillus Rhamnosus from Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Lactobacillus sakei YSI8 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a heme-dependent catalase. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains are very important probiotic starter cultures in meat product fermentation, but they are deficient in catalase. In\\u000a this study, the effect of heterologous expression

Haoran An; Hui Zhou; Ying Huang; Guohong Wang; Chunguang Luan; Jing Mou; Yunbo Luo; Yanling Hao

2010-01-01

261

Growth and survival of Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 in yogurt for use as a functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 are considered probiotic agents with therapeutic properties. To prepare mother cultures for these organism bacteria, four formulations were made with milk (1% fat) with 0.33% yeast extract (T1); 0.4% inulin (T2); 0.33% yeast extract and 0.4% inulin (T3); and one with no additives (T4). The media were inoculated with 1% probiotic cultures

Sharareh Hekmat; Hoda Soltani; Gregor Reid

2009-01-01

262

Effect of the administration of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN114001 on intestinal microbiota and gut associated immune cells of nursing mice and after weaning until immune maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of bacterial colonization in the newborn. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) containing yogurt starter cultures

Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc; Cecilia A Dogi; Carolina Maldonado Galdeano; Esteban Carmuega; Ricardo Weill; Gabriela Perdigón

2008-01-01

263

Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium  

SciTech Connect

Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.

Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

1986-10-01

264

Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov., lactic acid bacteria isolated from mountain flowers.  

PubMed

Five strains (Ryu1-2(T), Gon2-9, Ryu4-3, Nog8-1 and Aza1-1) of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in mountainous areas in Japan, Oze National Park, Iizuna mountain and the Nikko area. The five isolates were found to share almost identical (99.6-100 % similar) 16S rRNA gene sequences and were therefore deemed to belong to the same species. These isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria; the closest recognized relatives to strain Ryu1-2(T) were the type strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii (92.8 % similarity), Lactobacillus kefiri (92.7 %), Lactobacillus composti (92.6 %) and Lactobacillus buchneri (92.4 %). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ryu1-2(T) (?= NRIC 0774(T) ?= JCM 16512(T) ?= DSM 23037(T)). PMID:20601482

Kawasaki, Shinji; Kurosawa, Kana; Miyazaki, Madoka; Yagi, Chisato; Kitajima, Yoritaka; Tanaka, Shigeta; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Okada, Sanae; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Niimura, Youichi

2011-06-01

265

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov., isolated from subarctic timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage.  

PubMed

Four strains of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and non-motile lactic acid bacteria, LOOC260(T), LOOC253, LOOC273 and LOOC279, were isolated from timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage produced in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. These isolates grew at 4-37 °C, indicating the psychrotolerant nature of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these four strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LOOC260(T) demonstrated that the closest neighbours were the type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus (97.7 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans (96.7 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus (96.7 %). Strain LOOC260(T) showed low levels of DNA-DNA association with Lactobacillus suebicus JCM 9504(T) (14.7 ± 3.5 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans JCM 16175(T) (15.1 ± 4.8 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus JCM 1716(T) (10.7 ± 3.0 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LOOC260(T) ( = JCM 18461(T) = DSM 26202(T)). PMID:23223820

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-07-01

266

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk was fermented with a total of 25 lactic acid bacteria to assay in vitro inhibitory activity towards angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). The tested strains belonged to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lacobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus. raffinolactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. The ACE inhibitory potencies of theses strains varied and

Anne Pihlanto; Tarja Virtanen; Hannu Korhonen

2010-01-01

267

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G?+?C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

2013-01-01

268

Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored.

Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Khoury, Charbel C.

2014-01-01

269

[Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].  

PubMed

The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

2014-01-01

270

Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.e., 1-kestose, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) of the strains were compared. L. paracasei DSM 20020 grew well on all these sugars, while the growth rates of the 4 L. delbrueckii strains were markedly higher on the fructans with a greater degree of polymerization than on fructose and sucrose. Secondly, sugar compositions of spent cultures of the strains of L. delbrueckii and L. paracasei grown in mMRS containing either the fructans or inulin were determined by thin layer chromatography, in which the spent cultures of L. paracasei DSM 20020 showed spots of short fructose and sucrose fractions, whereas those of the L. delbrueckii strains did not show such spots at all. These results suggest that, unlike the L. paracasei strains, the L. delbrueckii strains do not degrade the inulin-type fructans extracellularly, but transport the fructans capable of greater polymerization preferentially into their cells to be degraded intracellularly for their growth. PMID:24936375

TSUJIKAWA, Yuji; NOMOTO, Ryohei; OSAWA, Ro

2013-01-01

271

Conversion of D-Biotin to Biotin Vitamers by Lactobacillus Arabinosus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes D-biotin, biotin sulfoxide, and several vitamers of biotin, whereas Lactobacillus arabinosus responds to biotin and biotin sulfoxide of the naturally occurring forms of the vitamin. The use of these organisms for differen...

J. Birnbaum, H. C. Lichstein

1964-01-01

272

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain FMNP01, Isolated from Mango Fruit  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum strain FMNP01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from Guangzhou, China. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism. PMID:25428967

Li, Xue-Fei; Liao, Xue-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei

2014-01-01

273

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: covalent modification  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a 76 kDa monomer using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides and is rapidly (<30 ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

274

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1, an Indian Isolate of Human Gut Origin  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an Indian isolate of the probiotic strain L. fermentum Lf1, isolated from the human gut. PMID:24233584

Sharma, Vineet K.; Mallapa, Rashmi H.; Batish, Virender K.

2013-01-01

275

Lactobacillus yonginensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium with ginsenoside converting activity isolated from Kimchi.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, ?-glucosidase-producing lactic acid bacterium, designated strain THK-V8(T), was isolated from the Korean fermented food, Kimchi, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain THK-V8(T) was able to grow at 4-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 4.0-7.0 (optimum, pH 6.0). Strain THK-V8(T) had the ability to transform ginsenoside Rb? to Rd. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data, strain THK-V8(T) was shown to belong to the genus Lactobacillus. Strain THK-V8(T) was related to Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50(T) (98.8% sequence similarity), Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984(T) (97.7%), Lactobacillus senmaizukei L13(T) (97.5%), Lactobacillus hammesii TMW1.1236(T) (97.3%) and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14687(T) (97.2%). Subsequently, sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit gene (rpoA) confirmed that strain THK-V8(T) showed a maximum rpoA gene sequence similarity value of 93% with Lactobacillus brevis LMG 6906(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.8 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THK-V8(T) and Lactobacillus parabrevis DCY50(T) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984(T) were 46.1 ± 4.9% and 10.6 ± 2.9%, respectively. The major fatty acids were summed feature 7 (comprised of C(19:0) cyclo ?10c/19?6), C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:1)?9c. The cell wall peptidoglycan was of the A4? L-Lys-D-Asp type. The phenotypic and molecular properties indicated that strain THK-V8(T) represents a novel species within the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus yonginensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THK-V8(T) (?=KACC 16236(T)?=JCM 18023(T)). PMID:23475345

Yi, Eun-Ji; Yang, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Yongjin; Park, Sang-Yong; Shin, Heon-Sub; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-09-01

276

Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression levels of liver enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, including the down regulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and the upregulation of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Conclusion This study suggested that the two NS lactobacillus strains may affect lipid metabolism and have cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:23656797

2013-01-01

277

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on immune status of malnourished pre-school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of Lactobacillus supplementation on immune response of pre school children.\\u000a Thirty malnourished (grade I and grade II) preschool (3–5 years old) children were selected for the study. These were further\\u000a categorized into three groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’, each group comprising of 10 individuals. Groups ‘Ar and ‘B’ were given lactobacillus

Sucharitha Devi; P. Yasoda Devi; M. Siva Prakash

1999-01-01

278

Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus -SDC 2012, 2013 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria exhibit a variety of properties, which are unique to a particular strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 are new strains isolated from Korean infants’ feces. The potential utility of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was studied. Forty IBS patients were randomized into a placebo (n = 20) and probiotics group (n = 20). Four weeks of treatment with L.

Dong Hyun Sinn; Ji Hyun Song; Hoi Jin Kim; Jun Haeng Lee; Hee Jung Son; Dong Kyung Chang; Young-Ho Kim; Jae J. Kim; Jong Chul Rhee; Poong-Lyul Rhee

2008-01-01

279

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11, a strain isolated from Egyptian cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the maximum activity of bacteriocin production\\u000a by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11. The bacteriocin was produced at maximum activity in M17 broth supplemented with 0.5% lactose (M17L). The maximum growth\\u000a of Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 was obtained at 37°C, while the optimal temperature for the bacteriocin production was 30°C.

Aly E. Abo-Amer

2011-01-01

280

Effect of intestinal Lactobacillus starter cultures on the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in fermented sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Lactobacillus strains isolated from intestinal tracts for starter cultures of fermented sausage on the growth rate and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were studied at two fermentation temperatures of 20°C and 35°C. Initial inoculated populations in the sausage batter were approx. 104 cfu\\/g for S. aureus and 107 cfu\\/g for the Lactobacillus strain as a starter culture.

T Sameshima; C Magome; K Takeshita; K Arihara; M Itoh; Y Kondo

1998-01-01

281

Investigation into the Potential of Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 for Biopreservation of Raw Turkey Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 was assessed for its potential as a protective culture in the biopreservation of aerobically stored turkey meat.\\u000a This strain produces three bacteriocins, i.e. plantaricins EF, JK and N. The absolute expression of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 16S rRNA housekeeping gene, as well as l-ldh, plnEF and plnG genes as determined by quantitative, real-time-PCR, revealed

Gyu-Sung Cho; Alexander Hanak; Melanie Huch; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel; Charles M. A. P. Franz

2010-01-01

282

Characterization of a Mobile clpL Gene from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes encoding ClpL ATPase proteins were identified in a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain, E-97800. Sequence analyses revealed that the genes, designated clpL1 and clpL2, share 80% identity. The clpL2 gene showed the highest degree of identity (98.5%) to a clpL gene from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFSI, while it was not detected in three other L. rhamnosus strains studied. According to

Aki Suokko; Kirsi Savijoki; Erja Malinen; Airi Palva; Pekka Varmanen

2005-01-01

283

Draft genome sequences and description of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains L31, L34, and L35.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a facultative, lactic acid bacterium in the phylum Firmicutes. Lactobacillus spp. are generally considered beneficial, and specific strains of L. rhamnosus are validated probiotics. We describe the draft genomes of three L. rhamnosus strains (L31, L34, and L35) isolated from the feces of Thai breastfed infants, which exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. The three genomes range between 2.8 - 2.9 Mb, and contain approximately 2,700 protein coding genes. PMID:25197459

Boonma, Prapaporn; Spinler, Jennifer K; Qin, Xiang; Jittaprasatsin, Chutima; Muzny, Donna M; Doddapaneni, Harsha; Gibbs, Richard; Petrosino, Joe; Tumwasorn, Somying; Versalovic, James

2014-06-15

284

Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two healthy women were randomized to receive one of three encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 plus Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 probiotic dosage regimens or L. rhamnosus GG by mouth each day for 28 days. However, the vaginal flora, assessed by Nugent scoring, was only normal in 40% of the cases, and 14 patients had asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Treatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1\\/L.

Gregor Reid; Dee Beuerman; Christine Heinemann; Andrew W Bruce

2001-01-01

285

Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov., isolated from fu-tsai and suan-tsai, traditional Taiwanese fermented mustard products.  

PubMed

Three Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from fermented mustard and were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, homofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the type strains of Lactobacillus crustorum (98.7% similarity), Lactobacillus farciminis (98.9%) and Lactobacillus mindensis (97.9%) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 50%. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YM 0097(T) (=JCM 17355(T)=BCRC 80278(T)). PMID:21478397

Chao, Shiou-Huei; Kudo, Yuko; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Watanabe, Koichi

2012-03-01

286

Genetic and functional characterization of Lactobacillus panis levansucrase.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) can affect the rheological properties of foods, act as stabilizers or stimulate preferential growth of bifidobacteria in the gut and therefore function as prebiotics. The latter is referred to fructans, which are synthesized from sucrose by fructosyl transferases (FTFs). In this work, the FTF enzyme of Lactobacillus panis TMW1.648 isolated from sourdough was characterized. The coding gene was identified, sequenced and expressed heterologously in E. coli. Enzyme activity was maximal at pH 4.0-4.6, 45 degrees C and a substrate concentration of 300 mmol l(-1). It produced free fructose, a high molecular fructan and the oligosaccharide kestose from sucrose. Calcium ions proved to be essential for the enzymatic activity. In comparison to published data of other FTF enzymes of lactobacilli the described enzyme showed significant differences. PMID:18607568

Waldherr, Florian W; Meissner, Daniel; Vogel, Rudi F

2008-10-01

287

Molecular characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages.  

PubMed

In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

2014-09-01

288

Complete glutathione system in probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3.  

PubMed

There is much information about glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about GSH in prokaryotes. Without GSH and glutathione redox cycle lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cannot protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Previously we have shown the presence of GSH in Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (DSM14241). Results of this study show that probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 contains both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also present that L. fermentum ME-3 can transport GSH from environment and synthesize GSH. This means that it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover ability that makes L. fermentum ME-3 a perfect protector against oxidative stress. To our best knowledge studies on existence of the complete glutathione system in probiotic LAB strains are still absent and glutathione synthesis in them has not been demonstrated. PMID:21058502

Kullisaar, T; Songisepp, E; Aunapuu, M; Kilk, K; Arend, A; Mikelsaar, M; Rehema, A; Zilmer, M

2010-01-01

289

Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.  

PubMed

The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

2014-09-15

290

Analysis of Lactobacillus Products for Phages and Bacteriocins That Inhibit Vaginal Lactobacilli  

PubMed Central

Objective: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an unexplained loss of vaginal lactobacilli. Previously, we have identified certain vaginal lactobacilli-released phages that can inhibit in vitro other vaginal lactobacilli. However, there is no apparent route for phages to be transmitted among women. The purpose of this study was to identify whether certain Lactobacillus products commonly used by women release phages or bacteriocins that can inhibit vaginal lactobacilli. Methods: From 26 Lactobacillus products (2 acidophilus milks, 20 yogurts, 3 Lactobacillus pills, and 1 vaginal douche mix), lactobacilli were isolated with Rogosa SL agar (Difco, Detroit, MI). From these lactobacilli, phages and bacteriocins were induced with mitomycin C and tested against a collection of vaginal Lactobacillus strains. Results: From the 26 products, 43 Lactobacillus strains were isolated. Strains from 11 yogurts released phages, among which 7 inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. Eleven strains released bacteriocins that inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. While about one-half of the vaginal strains were lysed by bacteriocins, less than 20% were lysed by phages. Conclusions: Some vaginal lactobacilli were inhibited in vitro by phages or bacteriocins released from Lactobacillus products used by women, implying that vaginal lactobacilli may be reduced naturally due to phages or bacteriocins from the environment. PMID:18476145

Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Mou, Susan M.; Ma, Wen-ge; Kilic, Ali O.

1997-01-01

291

Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from Spanish natural cider.  

PubMed

Strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 were isolated from ropy natural ciders of the Basque Country, Spain, in 2007. Cells are Gram-stain positive, non-spore-forming, motile rods, facultative anaerobes and catalase-negative. The strains are obligately homofermentative (final product dl-lactate) and produce exopolysaccharides from sucrose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the highest similarity to both isolates corresponded to the type strain of Lactobacillus vini (99.1?%), followed by Lactobacillus satsumensis (96.4?%), and Lactobacillus oeni (96.2?%), and for all other established species, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were below 96?%. The species delineation of strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 was evaluated through RAPD fingerprinting. In addition, a random partial genome pyrosequencing approach was performed on strain CUPV261(T) in order to compare it with the genome sequence of Lactobacillus vini DSM 20605(T) and calculate indexes of average nucleotide identity (ANI) between them. Results permit the conclusion that strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CUPV261(T) (?=?CECT 8227(T)?=?KCTC 21012(T)). PMID:24899655

Puertas, Ana Isabel; Arahal, David R; Ibarburu, Idoia; Elizaquível, Patricia; Aznar, Rosa; Dueñas, M Teresa

2014-09-01

292

Strain-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested. PMID:19765084

Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M

2009-11-01

293

Some taxonomical characteristics of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B isolated from kefir grains and characterization of its extracellular polysaccharide.  

PubMed

A capsular polysaccharide-producing strain KPB-167B isolated from kefir grains was identified as a homofermentative Lactobacillus. The carbohydrate fermentation pattern and DNA base composition of the strain were different from those of other capsular Lactobacillus species previously isolated from kefir grains. The polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B was found similar to kefiran by 13C-NMR and methylation analysis. Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B could grow and produce capsular polysaccharide in MRSL medium with better yield than L. kefiranofaciens, which suggested that it is suitable for kefiran production. PMID:1911082

Yokoi, H; Watanabe, T; Fujii, Y; Mukai, T; Toba, T; Adachi, S

1991-08-01

294

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

295

Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

2013-01-01

296

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic.  

PubMed

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-04-01

297

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic  

PubMed Central

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-01-01

298

Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) (?=?JCM 18764(T)?=?NRIC 0900(T)?=?DSM 27174(T)). PMID:24876240

Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

2014-08-01

299

Starch-binding domain affects catalysis in two Lactobacillus alpha-amylases.  

PubMed

A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in alpha-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus alpha-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities. PMID:15640201

Rodríguez-Sanoja, R; Ruiz, B; Guyot, J P; Sanchez, S

2005-01-01

300

Some low homogenization pressures improve certain probiotic characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are dairy cultures widely used in the manufacture of cultured dairy products. Commonly used homogenization pressures in the dairy industry are 13.80 MPa or less. It is not known whether low homogenization pressures can stimulate bacteria to improve their probiotic characteristics. Objectives were to determine the effect of homogenization

T. Muramalla; K. J. Aryana

2011-01-01

301

Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 isolated from dry sausage: characterization, production and bactericidal action of plantaricin UG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 isolated from dry sausage produced an antimicrobial substance that inhibited other strains of the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, and some foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes. This antibacterial substance was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and showed a bactericidal mode of action. Consequently, it was characterized as a bacteriocin, and was designated

G. Enan; A. A. El-Essawy; M. Uyttendaele; J. Debevere

1996-01-01

302

Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 2771: Impact on Metabolism of Isoflavonoids in the Fecal Flora from a Male Equol Producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beneficial effects of probiotics have been reported; however, few have focussed on the effects of Lactobacillus, a probiotic, on the bioconversion of isoflavonoids. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus rhamnosus will modify the metabolism of isoflavone. In an in vitro incubation, L. rhamnosus JCM 2771 produced daidzein from daidzin along with genistein. However, daidzin and genistein were not detected in the

Motoi Tamura; Sachiko Hori; Hiroyuki Nakagawa

2011-01-01

303

The adsorption of ochratoxin a by lactobacillus species.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-09-01

304

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

305

Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 alleviates lead toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Lead causes a broad range of adverse effects in humans and animals. The objective was to evaluate the potency of lactobacilli to bind lead in vitro and the protective effects of a selected Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 against lead-induced toxicity in mice. Nine strains of bacteria were used to investigate their binding abilities of lead in vitro, and L. plantarum CCFM8661 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent lead binding capacity. Both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 were used to treat 90 male Kunming mice during or after the exposure to 1 g/L lead acetate in drinking water. The results showed oral administration of both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 offered a significant protective effect against lead toxicity by recovering blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, decreasing the lead levels in blood and tissues, and preventing alterations in the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and reactive oxygen species caused by lead exposure. Moreover, L. plantarum CCFM8661 was more effective when administered consistently during the entire lead exposure, not after the exposure. Our results suggest that L. plantarum CCFM8661 has the potency to provide a dietary strategy against lead toxicity. PMID:22684513

Tian, Fengwei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

2012-12-01

306

CRISPR–Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR–Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR–Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR–Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR–Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR–Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR–Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR–Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

307

CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2015-01-01

308

Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits growth of Campylobacter pylori in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter pylori has been implicated as a causative factor in acid-peptic disease. Lactobacillus acidophilus is known to inhibit the growth of pathogens in the human gastrointestinal tract. We recovered C. pylori from gastric antral biopsies of seven patients with acid-peptic disease; the isolates were then cultured in brucella broth. The effect of L. acidophilus (cultured in DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe broth) on the growth of C. pylori was tested by a mixed culture technique. L. acidophilus inhibited the growth of all seven isolates of C. pylori in vitro. All these isolates were also inhibited by the L. acidophilus culture supernatant (brucella blood agar cup technique) obtained at or after 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of C. pylori growth was also observed with 1 and 3% lactic acid but not with 0.5 and 1% hydrogen peroxide, the L. acidophilus sonic extract, or a citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 4.0). We conclude that the inhibitory action of L. acidophilus on C. pylori is dependent on an extracellular secretory product, probably lactic acid. This inhibitory effect may be of therapeutic relevance in patients with C. pylori-positive acid-peptic disease. PMID:2511224

Bhatia, S J; Kochar, N; Abraham, P; Nair, N G; Mehta, A P

1989-01-01

309

Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer's interest in placing "healthy" food on the market based on the consumer's ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products.To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods.Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

Herbel, Stefan R; Vahjen, Wilfried; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

2013-01-01

310

Kinetics and Modeling of Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

An unstructured model was developed to describe bacterial growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum in cucumber juice. Significant lactic acid production occurred during growth, as well as stationary phases. The percentage of acid produced after growth ceased was a function of the medium composition. Up to 51% of the lactic acid was produced after growth ceased when NaCl was not present in the medium, whereas not more than 18% of the total lactic acid was produced after the growth ceased in presence of NaCl, probably because of an increase in the cell death rate. An equation relating the specific death rate and NaCl concentration was developed. With the kinetic model proposed by R. Luedeking and E. L. Piret (J. Biochem. Microbiol. Technol. Eng. 1:393-412, 1958) for lactic acid production rate, the growth-associated and non-growth-associated coefficients were determined as 51.9 (+/-4.2) mmol/g of cells and 7.2 (+/-0.9) mmol/g of cells h respectively. The model was demonstrated for batch growth of L. plantarum in cucumber juice. Mathematical simulations were used to predict the influence of variations in death rate, proton concentration when growth ceased, and buffer capacity of the juice on the overall fermentation process. PMID:16349339

Passos, F V; Fleming, H P; Ollis, D F; Felder, R M; McFeeters, R F

1994-07-01

311

Purification and biochemical characterization of pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.3) was isolated and characterized from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of phosphate and oxygen, yielding acetyl phosphate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. This pyruvate oxidase is a flavoprotein, with the relatively tightly bound cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and a divalent metal ion, with Mn2+ being the most effective. The enzyme is only slightly inhibited by EDTA, implying that the enzyme-bound metal ion is poorly accessible to EDTA. Only under relatively drastic conditions, such as acid ammonium sulfate precipitation, could a colorless and entirely inactive apoenzyme be obtained. A partial reactivation of the enzyme was only possible by the combined addition of flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and MnSO4. The enzyme has a molecular weight of ca. 260,000 and consists of four subunits with apparently identical molecular weights of 68,000. For catalytic activity the optimum pH is 5.7, and the optimum temperature is 30 degrees C. The Km values for pyruvate, phosphate, and arsenate are 0.4, 2.3, and 1.2 mM, respectively. The substrate specificity revealed that the enzyme reacts also with certain aldehydes and that phosphate can be replaced by arsenate. In addition to oxygen, several artificial compounds can function as electron acceptors. Images PMID:6480556

Sedewitz, B; Schleifer, K H; Götz, F

1984-01-01

312

Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

2013-01-01

313

The Adsorption of Ochratoxin A by Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

314

Adhesion properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri to gastrointestinal mucus.  

PubMed

We investigated the mucus-binding properties of aggregating and non-aggregating potentially probiotic strains of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri, using different substrates. All the strains were able to adhere to commercial gastric mucin (MUCIN) and extracted mucus from small intestine (SIM) and colon (CM). The extraction of surface proteins from bacteria using LiCl or NaOH significantly reduced the adhesion of three selected strains (CIDCA 8348, CIDCA 83115 and JCM 5818); although a significant proportion (up to 50%) of S-layer proteins were not completely eliminated after treatments. The surface (S-layer) protein extracts from all the strains of Lb. kefiri were capable of binding to MUCIN, SIM or CM, and no differences were observed among them. The addition of their own surface protein extract increased adhesion of CIDCA 8348 and 83115 to MUCIN and SIM, meanwhile no changes in adhesion were observed for JCM 5818. None of the seven sugars tested had the ability to inhibit the adhesion of whole bacteria to the three mucus extracts. Noteworthy, the degree of bacterial adhesion reached in the presence of their own surface protein (S-layer) extract decreased to basal levels in the presence of some sugars, suggesting an interaction between the added sugar and the surface proteins. In conclusion, the ability of these food-isolated bacteria to adhere to gastrointestinal mucus becomes an essential issue regarding the biotechnological potentiality of Lb. kefiri for the food industry. PMID:24168928

Carasi, Paula; Ambrosis, Nicolás M; De Antoni, Graciela L; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

2014-02-01

315

Human ?-amylase Present in Lower-Genital-Tract Mucosal Fluid Processes Glycogen to Support Vaginal Colonization by Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary ?-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of ?-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of ?-amylase digestion. These studies show that human ?-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. PMID:24737800

Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

2014-10-01

316

Molecular analysis of the composition of the bifidobacterial and lactobacillus microflora of humans.  

PubMed Central

The bifidobacterial and lactobacillus populations of fecal samples collected from two human subjects during a 12-month period were studied. The total numbers of bifidobacteria were stable throughout the study period in both subjects, but lactobacillus numbers were less constant. Analysis of the composition of the bifidobacterial populations by using ribotyping or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to differentiate between bacterial strains demonstrated major differences between the subjects. Subject 1 harbored five strains of bifidobacteria throughout the 12-month period, and one strain was numerically predominant. In contrast, subject 2 harbored a more complex bifidobacterial population (five to six strains per sample) whose composition fluctuated throughout the 12 months. One lactobacillus strain was numerically predominant throughout the study in both subjects. Strains of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli common to both subjects were not detected. PMID:8953730

McCartney, A L; Wenzhi, W; Tannock, G W

1996-01-01

317

Characterization of the Properties of Human and Dairy-Derived Probiotics for Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the potential probiotic properties of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) intended for human use, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, L. rhamnosus LC 705, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, and one for animal use, Enterococcus faecium Tehobak, for use as a fish probiotic. The strains for human use

SAMI NIKOSKELAINEN; SEPPO SALMINEN; GORAN BYLUND; ARTHUR C. OUWEHAND

2001-01-01

318

Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

Different Lactobacillus strains are frequently used in consumer food products. In addition, recombinant lactobacilli which contain novel expression vectors can now be used in immunotherapeutic applications such as oral vaccination strategies and in T cell tolerance induction approaches for autoimmune disease. Both for food and clinical applications of lactobacilli, proper selection of wild type strains is crucial. For that purpose, eight different common Lactobacillus strains were analysed with respect to mucosal induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IgA-producing plasma cells in the gut, as well as systemic antibody responses against a parenterally administered antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis of cytokine-producing cells in the gut villi showed no significant induction of the cytokines IL-1alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-10 after oral administration of wild type Lactobacillus strains. In contrast, oral administration of L. reuteri and L. brevis induced expression of the proinflammatory/Th1 cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-2 and/or IL-1beta. Oral administration of these two strains and L. fermentum also significantly enhanced the IgG response against parenterally administered haptenated chicken gamma globulin (TNP-CGG). The five other strains did not show this adjuvanticity. L. reuteri induced relatively high levels of IgG2a compared to L. murines, a nonadjuving Lactobacillus strain. These findings imply that different Lactobacillus strains induce distinct mucosal cytokine profiles and possess differential intrinsic adjuvanticity. This suggests that rational Lactobacillus strain selection provides a strategy to influence cytokine expression and thereby influence immune responses. PMID:10775795

Maassen, C B; van Holten-Neelen, C; Balk, F; den Bak-Glashouwer, M J; Leer, R J; Laman, J D; Boersma, W J; Claassen, E

2000-05-22

319

The antimicrobial properties of different strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir.  

PubMed

The characteristics of 58 strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir were studied. These strains were tested for adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, resistance to acidic pH and bile acid, antimicrobial activities against enteropathogenic bacteria and inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium attachment to Caco-2 cells. The best probiotic properties were observed in L. acidophilus CYC 10051 and L. kefiranofaciens CYC 10058. L. kefiranofaciens CYC 10058 produced an exopolysaccharide, which revealed that it was closely related to kefiran, a polysaccharide with antitumoral properties. This is the first in vitro study about the antimicrobial characteristics of the Lactobacillus population of kefir. PMID:14529186

Santos, A; San Mauro, M; Sanchez, A; Torres, J M; Marquina, D

2003-09-01

320

Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods. PMID:25320437

Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-12-01

321

EPR polarization studies on Mn catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The binuclear manganese active site of Mn catalase catalyzes redox disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, forming dioxygen and water. We report here multifrequency EPR and microwave polarization studies of the catalytically active homovalent Mn2+ complex of Lactobacillus plantarum Mn catalase, resolving spectra from each of the thermally accessible multiplet states of the coupled complex by multivariate methods. The experimental spectra have been simulated using computational approaches for the binuclear cluster to predict both intensity and polarization for arbitrary values of the ground state parameters. These two spectroscopic properties define the nature of the ground state wavefunctions and so serve as a sensitive and quantitative measure of the inter-ion interactions in the reduced complex. Interpretation of the spectra in terms of a pair Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange, dipolar, single site zero field splitting, and Zeeman perturbations leads to the most complete ground state description of the active site metal centers. The results of this spectroscopic analysis support a picture of two high spin ions weakly coupled by exchange interactions (J = 40 cm-1) with relatively small dipole-dipole coupling and single site zero field splittings for the ligand-free reduced enzyme. The coupling between fluoride binding and protonation of the complex has been demonstrated by proton uptake studies. The binding of two fluoride ions in the active site dramatically changes the pair spectra, reflecting a substantially reduced J-coupling (J = 10.5 cm-1) that must be a consequence of perturbation of the bridging ligands. Anion binding to the binuclear Mn complex appears to result in poisoning of the active site by protons, possibly associated with insertion of fluoride into bridging positions of the dimanganese core. PMID:8555195

Meier, A E; Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

1996-01-01

322

Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Probiotics have proven to be useful in the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics may compete directly with Helicobacter pylori, possibly by interference with adherence or by the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to inhibit H. pylori in vitro and in vivo, and theoretically may play a role in eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of L. reuteri in H. pylori eradication therapy. This was an open label single center study. H. pylori infection was defined as positive gastric histopathology and (13)C-UBT. Intervention consisted of L. reuteri (DSM 17938) 10(8) cfu plus pantoprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. Eradication was defined as a negative (13)C-UBT, 4-6 weeks post therapy. Compliance was considered good if at least 90% of the total number of the pills were taken. 21 of 22 subjects completed the study without protocol violation (mean age 52 years; 36% men). L. reuteri plus pantoprazole twice a day cured 13.6% (3/22; 95% CI 2.9-34.9%) of patients with H. pylori infection by ITT analysis and 14.2% (3/21; 95% CI 3.0-36%) by PP analysis. Overall urease activity assessed before and 4-6 weeks post therapy showed a significant reduction with a difference of mean of 38.8 vs. 25.4 by one-tailed test (P = 0.002). In conclusion, L. reuteri may have a potential role in H. pylori eradication therapy if the cure rate can be improved by changes in dose, dosing interval, or duration of therapy. PMID:24178436

Dore, Maria Pina; Cuccu, Marianna; Pes, Gianni Mario; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Yates

2014-09-01

323

Primary metabolism in Lactobacillus sakei food isolates by proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish. Results Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus), and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources. Conclusions It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory mechanisms, actions of catabolic enzymes and proteins, and preference of carbon source is of great importance. PMID:20412581

2010-01-01

324

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, the genome encodes all enzymes required for the glycolysis and phosphoketolase pathways, all of which appear to belong to the class of potentially highly expressed genes in this organism, as was evident from the codon-adaptation index of individual genes. Moreover, L. plantarum encodes a large pyruvate-dissipating potential, leading to various end-products of fermentation. L. plantarum is a species that is encountered in many different environmental niches, and this flexible and adaptive behavior is reflected by the relatively large number of regulatory and transport functions, including 25 complete PTS sugar transport systems. Moreover, the chromosome encodes >200 extracellular proteins, many of which are predicted to be bound to the cell envelope. A large proportion of the genes encoding sugar transport and utilization, as well as genes encoding extracellular functions, appear to be clustered in a 600-kb region near the origin of replication. Many of these genes display deviation of nucleotide composition, consistent with a foreign origin. These findings suggest that these genes, which provide an important part of the interaction of L. plantarum with its environment, form a lifestyle adaptation region in the chromosome. PMID:12566566

Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; van Kranenburg, Richard; Molenaar, Douwe; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Leer, Rob; Tarchini, Renato; Peters, Sander A.; Sandbrink, Hans M.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Stiekema, Willem; Lankhorst, Rene M. Klein; Bron, Peter A.; Hoffer, Sally M.; Groot, Masja N. Nierop; Kerkhoven, Robert; de Vries, Maaike; Ursing, Bjorn; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.

2003-01-01

325

LIFESTYLE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN THE MOUSE CECUM  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the ceca of adult germ-free C57Bl/6J mice fed a standard low-fat rodent chow diet rich in complex plant polysaccharides or a prototypic Western diet high in simple sugars and fat. L. plantarum colonized the digestive tracts of these animals to high levels, although L. plantarum was found in 10-fold higher amounts in the ceca of mice fed the standard chow. Metabolic reconstructions based on the transcriptional datasets revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism form the principal functional group that is up-regulated in vivo compared to exponential phase cells grown in three different culture media, and that a Western diet provides a more nutritionally-restricted, growth limiting milieu for the microbe in the distal gut. A set of bacterial genes encoding cell surface-related functions were differentially regulated in both groups of mice. This set included down-regulated genes required for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acids, extracellular structures of L. plantarum that mediate interactions with the host immune system. These results, obtained in a reductionist gnotobiotic mouse model of the gut ecosystem, provide insights about the niches (professions) of this lactic acid bacterium, and a context for systematically testing features that affect epithelial and immune cell responses to this organism in the digestive tract. PMID:19638173

Marco, Maria L.; Peters, Theodorus H.F.; Bongers, Roger S.; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hemert, Saskia; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2010-01-01

326

Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum Genome Diversity by Using Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping of 20 strains of L. plantarum from various sources. The gene categories with the most genes conserved in all strains were those involved in biosynthesis or degradation of structural compounds like proteins, lipids, and DNA. Conversely, genes involved in sugar transport and catabolism were highly variable between strains. Moreover, besides the obvious regions of variance, like prophages, other regions varied between the strains, including regions encoding plantaricin biosynthesis, nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In many cases, these variable regions colocalized with regions of unusual base composition. Two large regions of flexibility were identified between 2.70 and 2.85 and 3.10 and 3.29 Mb of the WCFS1 chromosome, the latter being close to the origin of replication. The majority of genes encoded in these variable regions are involved in sugar metabolism. This functional overrepresentation and the unusual base composition of these regions led to the hypothesis that they represented lifestyle adaptation regions in L. plantarum. The present study consolidates this hypothesis by showing that there is a high degree of gene content variation among L. plantarum strains in genes located in these regions of the WCFS1 genome. Interestingly, based on our genotyping data L. plantarum strains clustered into two clearly distinguishable groups, which coincided with an earlier proposed subdivision of this species based on conventional methods. PMID:16109953

Molenaar, Douwe; Bringel, Francoise; Schuren, Frank H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

327

Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylT, Encoding the D-Xylose-H 1 Symporter of Lactobacillus brevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding D-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the D-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the D-xylose-H 1 symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%),

STEPHANE CHAILLOU; YEOU-CHERNG BOR; CARL A. BATT; PIETER W. POSTMA; PETER H. POUWELS

1998-01-01

328

Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic

Gillian E. Gardiner; Christine Heinemann; Andrew W. Bruce; Dee Beuerman; Gregor Reid

2002-01-01

329

Lactobacillus harbinensis sp. nov., consisted of strains isolated from traditional fermented vegetables ‘Suan cai’ in Harbin, Northeastern China and Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12745  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomical analysis of two genetically distinguished Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables ‘Suan cai’ was performed. They formed l-lactate from glucose, were facultatively heterofermentative, and had a DNA G+C content of 53–54mol%. They fermented d- and l-arabinose. They produced lactate, ethanol and acetate from gluconate at a molar ratio of 1.1:0.4:0.7. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that

Mari Miyamoto; Yasuyuki Seto; Dong Hai Hao; Tamaki Teshima; Yan Bo Sun; Toshihide Kabuki; Li Bing Yao; Hadjime Nakajima

2005-01-01

330

Optimization of the freeze-drying media and survival throughout storage of freeze-dried Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for veterinarian probiotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vaginal probiotic cultures depends on the preservation technologies employed by the related industries.A full two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering medium and strain, of the decrease in bacterial viability during freeze-drying was applied. Lactobacillus gasseri CRL1421 was significantly more resistant than L. gasseri CRL1412 to the process. L. gasseri CRL1412 suspended in

María Claudia Otero; María Carolina Espeche; María Elena Nader-Macías

2007-01-01

331

Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.  

PubMed

The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field. PMID:24426140

Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

2013-12-01

332

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate.  

PubMed

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

2014-01-01

333

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J.; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos

2014-01-01

334

Clostridium tertium isolated from gas gangrene wound; misidentified as Lactobacillus spp initially due to aerotolerant feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium tertium has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. This organism is an aerotolerant Gram-positive rod that is often mistaken for other organisms, such as Lactobacillus or Bacillus species. We describe a case of a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting to UCLA-Olive View Medical Center with gas gangrene of both upper extremities. The organism was

Shigeki Fujitani; Chengxu X. Liu; Sydney M. Finegold; Yuli L. Song; Glenn E. Mathisen

2007-01-01

335

Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.  

PubMed Central

A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations. PMID:4083875

Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

1985-01-01

336

Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, from a cucumber fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virulent Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, was isolated from a commercial cucumber fermentation. The phage was specific for two related strains of L. plantarum, BI7 and its mutant (deficient in malolactate fermenting ability) MU45, which have been evaluated as starter cultures for controlled cucumber fermentation and as biocontrol microorganisms for minimally processed vegetable products. The phage genome of ?JL-1 was

Z. Lu; F. Breidt Jr; H. P. Fleminga; E. Altermann; T. R. Klaenhammer

2003-01-01

337

Characterization of the tre Locus and Analysis of Trehalose Cryoprotection in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing and lyophilization are common methods used for preservation and storage of microorganisms during the production of concentrated starter cultures destined for industrial fermentations or product formulations. The compatible solute trehalose has been widely reported to protect bacterial, yeast and animal cells against a variety of environmental stresses, particularly freezing and dehydration. Analysis of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome revealed

Tri Duong; Rodolphe Barrangou; W. Michael Russell; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2006-01-01

338

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production from  

E-print Network

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production and finishing beef animals fed untreated and ECOSYL (ECOSUR in France) treated silage. A similar review has). A total of 19 trials studying the effects on beef production (with both growing and finishing cattle

Boyer, Edmond

339

Carbohydrates and the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum: The role of moisture distribution and water activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol were tested for their ability to minimize the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum during fluidized bed drying. Desorption isotherms were measured for starch and L. plantarum, for binary mixtures containing starch and a carbohydrate, and for ternary mixtures composed of L. plantarum, starch and a carbohydrate. The moisture distribution inside the drying

Leonie J. M. Linders; Gerard I. W. de Jong; Gerrit Meerdink; Klaas van't Riet

1997-01-01

340

Identification and Inactivation of Genetic Loci Involved with Lactobacillus acidophilus Acid Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid decarboxylation-antiporter reactions are one of the most important systems for maintaining intracellular pH between physiological limits under acid stress. We analyzed the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM complete genome sequence and selected four open reading frames with similarities to genes involved with decarboxylation reactions involved in acid tolerance in several microorganisms. Putative genes encoding an ornithine decarboxylase, an amino acid

M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril; Eric Altermann; Rebecca L. Hoover-Fitzula; Raul J. Cano; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2004-01-01

341

Regulation and Adaptive Evolution of Lactose Operon Expression in Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis are both used in the dairy industry as homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented milk products. After selective pressure for the fast fermentation of milk in the manufacture of yogurts, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus loses its ability to regulate lac operon expression. A series of mutations led to

Luciane Lapierre; Beat Mollet; Jacques-Edouard Germond

2002-01-01

342

Influence of Temperature on Associative Growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compatibility of Streptococcus ther- mophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus during associative growth as dependent on optimum growth temperature was determined. Optimum growth temper- atures for 9 strains of S. thermophilus and 10 strains of L. bulgaricus ranged from 35 to 42°C for S. thermophilus and 43 to 46°C for L. bulgaricus. Streptococ- cus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus strains exhibiting similar to

Lyn C. Radke-Mitchell; W. E. Sandine

1986-01-01

343

An excessively high Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculation level in yogurt lowers product quality during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of manufacturing yogurt with a wide variation in Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculation level while holding the yogurt culture inoculation level constant on the properties of the resulting yogurt was determined to find out if any problems can occur if an excessively high level of L. acidophilus is used in yogurt production. Four batches of plain, set-style yogurt were manufactured

D. W. Olson; K. J. Aryana

2008-01-01

344

Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the biological properties and consequent technological roles of intestinal bacteria with potential health-promoting capacities, and provides selected examples available in the literature that are pertinent to the aforementioned concepts. A comprehensive overview pertaining to the taxonomy and ecology, as well as nutritional and health effects of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus, is provided; particular attention is

Ana M. P. Gomes; F. Xavier Malcata

1999-01-01

345

Selective detection, enumeration and identification of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in mixed bacterial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species constitute a significant proportion of probiotic cultures used in developed countries in ‘microbial adjunct nutrition’. A number of differential plating methodologies have been developed which seek to selectively detect and enumerate these bacterial groups in bioproducts. Differences in oxygen tolerance, nutritional requirements, antibiotic susceptibility, and colony morphology and colour constitute the bases of differentiation in these

William P. Charteris; Phillip M. Kelly; Lorenzo Morelli; J. Kevin Collins

1997-01-01

346

Adhesion of some probiotic and dairy Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of 12 different Lactobacillus strains was studied using Caco-2 cell line as an in vitro model for intestinal epithelium. Some of the strains tested have been used as probiotics, and most of them are used in the dairy and food industry. Human and bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Bacterial adhesion

Seppo J Salminen

1998-01-01

347

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

348

Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 on Alcohol Metabolism and Liver Function in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has numerous health consequences for the human body. For example, heavy drinking on a daily basis causes liver diseases, and certain products such as acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism are more toxic than alcohol itself. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the role of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 to enhance the removal of the toxic effect of alcohol in alcohol

JI-HYUN KIM; HYUN-JIN KIM; JEONG HWA SON; HO-NAM CHUN; JIN-OH YANG; SUNG-JIN CHOI; NAM-SOO PAEK; GYOUNG-HOON CHOI; SUNG-KOO KIM

2003-01-01

349

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of amino acids into volatile and nonvolatile compounds by lactic acid bacteria in cheese is thought to represent the rate-limiting step in the development of mature flavor and aroma. Because amino acid breakdown by microbes often entails the reversible action of enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways, our group investigated the genetics of amino acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus helveticus

Jason K. Christiansen; Joanne E. Hughes; Dennis L. Welker; B. T. Rodriguez; James L. Steele; Jeff R. Broadbent

2008-01-01

350

Modeling the specific growth rate of Lactobacillus plantarum in cucumber extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive empirical research has been published on the fermentation of vegetables, but little predictive modeling of the process is available. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of key variables involved in cucumber fermentation and to develop models for predicting the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in pure and mixed culture fermentations. The growth medium for the studies

F. V. Passos; H. P. Fleming; D. F. Ollis; H. M. Hassan; R. M. Felder

1993-01-01

351

[Isolation and identification of bacteria of Lactobacillus genus from fermented products in diferent regions of Ukraine].  

PubMed

Seventy one strains of lactobacilli were isolated from fermented animal and vegetable products. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of lactobacilli have been studied. Sixty seven strains were identified by molecular genetic methods and classified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the isolated strains was shown. PMID:25000723

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L; Oleshchenko, L T

2014-01-01

352

Protection of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the potential probiotic properties in fish of a lactic acid bacterium intended for human use: Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). A probiotic for human use was specifically chosen since it is known to be safe for human use, which is of major importance because the fish are meant for human consumption. The bacterium was administered

Sami Nikoskelainen; Arthur Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Göran Bylund

2001-01-01

353

Effect of LGG yoghurt on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish effect of 14 day consumption of commercially available yoghurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103 - LGG (Bioaktiv LGG, Dukat, Croatia) on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Twenty five patients, 6-10 yr old participated in the study. At the inclusion in the study caries risk for every patient was evaluated. The saliva samples were tested with chair side kits for saliva buffer capacity (CRT buffer, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), S. Mutans and Lactobacillus counts (CRT bacteria test, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Seven, 14 and 30d after yoghurt consumption saliva samples were tested again with CRT buffer and CRT bacteria tests. Obtained data were analyzed using chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results showed significant increase in saliva buffer capacity 30d after yoghurt consumption. S. Mutans salivary counts were significantly decreased after 30d. Significant differences in Lactobacillus counts were not observed. It could be concluded that daily consumption of yoghurt containing LGG have an inhibitory effect on oral pathogenic bacteria and may be beneficial in caries prevention. PMID:22816209

Glavina, Domagoj; Gorseta, Kristina; Skrinjari?, Ilija; Vrani?, Dubravka Negoveti?; Mehuli?, Ketij; Kozul, Karlo

2012-03-01

354

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gastricus PS3, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus gastricus is a mostly unknown lactobacilli species associated with mucosal surfaces. We present the draft annotated genome sequence of L. gastricus strain PS3, isolated from a human milk sample, to provide new insights into its biology and to characterize those genes related to advantageous technological and beneficial properties. PMID:23846278

Martín, Virginia; Cárdenas, Nivia; Jiménez, Esther; Maldonado, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

2013-01-01

355

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henriquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gomez, Marcela; Rodriguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

2014-01-01

356

Cloning of a novel specific SCAR marker for species identification in Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Identifying Lactobacillus species using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques yields inaccurate results. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific primers based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to distinguish species within the closely related Lactobacillus plantarum group. One of these primers, OPD-3, produced a species-specific band that was found only in the tested Lactobacillus pentosus. This specific fragment was isolated from agarose gel and ligated into a vector for DNA sequencing. A pair of primers, SpOPD3Lpen-F1/R1, that were highly specific sequence-characterized-amplified-regions (SCARs) were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of the specific RAPD marker. These primers were used for PCR analysis of the template DNA of the Lactobacillus strains, and a single 542 bp species-specific band was found only in L. pentosus. Using PCR, a novel species-specific primer pair is shown to rapidly, accurately and effectively distinguish L. pentosus from other species in the L. plantarum group of probiotic bacteria. PMID:24675147

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina

2014-08-01

357

The predicted secretome of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 sheds light on interactions with its environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted extracellular proteins of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying interactions of this bacterium with its environment. Extracellular proteins play important roles in processes ranging from probiotic effects in the gastrointestinal tract to degradation of complex extracellular carbon sources such as those found in plant materials, and they have a primary role

Jos Boekhorst; Michiel Wels; Michiel Kleerebezem; Roland J. Siezen

2006-01-01

358

Degradation of ascorbic acid and potassium sorbate by different Lactobacillus species isolated from packed green olives.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to ascertain the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the degradation of ascorbic acid and/or potassium sorbate, isolated from packed green olives where these additives had diminished. A total of 14 isolates were recovered from samples of different green olive containers. According to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding gene, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans were identified. With the exception of L. pentosus and L. paracollinoides, the other species had not been mentioned in table olives before this study. Only three of the 14 isolates metabolized ascorbic acid in MRS broth, and the products from ascorbic acid in modified MRS broth without carbon sources were acetic and lactic acids. Except for the two L. rapi and the two P. ethanolidurans strains, the remaining 10 isolates depleted potassium sorbate added into MRS broth to some extent. The product generated by three of these strains was confirmed to be trans-4-hexenoic acid. The degradation of ascorbate or sorbate by lactic acid bacteria should be taken into account when these additives are used in food products where this group of bacteria may be present. PMID:23498172

Montaño, Alfredo; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Casado, Francisco Javier; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio

2013-05-01

359

Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov., from the digestive tract of wild rodents.  

PubMed

Three strains of regular, long, Gram-stain-positive bacterial rods were isolated using TPY, M.R.S. and Rogosa agar under anaerobic conditions from the digestive tract of wild mice (Mus musculus). All 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were most similar to sequences of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323T and Lactobacillus johnsonii ATCC 33200T (97.3% and 97.2% sequence similarities, respectively). The novel strains shared 99.2-99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Type strains of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were also most related to the newly isolated strains according to rpoA (83.9-84.0% similarities), pheS (84.6-87.8%), atpA (86.2-87.7%), hsp60 (89.4-90.4%) and tuf (92.7-93.6%) gene sequence similarities. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoA, atpA and pheS gene sequences, other genotypic and many phenotypic characteristics (results of API 50 CHL, Rapid ID 32A and API ZYM biochemical tests; cellular fatty acid profiles; cellular polar lipid profiles; end products of glucose fermentation) showed that these bacterial strains represent a novel species within the genus Lactobacillus. The name Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this group of new isolates. The type strain is MYMRS/TLU1T (=DSM 24759T=CCM 7945T). PMID:24478214

Killer, J; Havlík, J; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Pechar, R; Benada, O; Kope?ný, J; Kofro?ová, O; Sechovcová, H

2014-05-01

360

Lactobacillus koreensis sp. nov., isolated from the traditional Korean food kimchi.  

PubMed

A lactic acid bacterium, strain DCY50(T), isolated from the traditional Korean food kimchi, was studied to determine its taxonomic position. The strain was Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped and motile. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49 mol% and the peptidoglycan structure was of the A4? (l-Lys-d-Asp) type. Chemotaxonomic markers of the strain were consistent with its classification in the genus Lactobacillus. Comparisons of 16S rRNA and rpoA gene sequences showed that strain DCY50(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus parabrevis (98.4 and 91.6?% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA and rpoA genes), L. hammesii (98.0 and 91.2?%), L. brevis (97.6 and 93.3?%) and L. senmaizukei (97.4 and 90.5?%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DCY50(T) to these type strains was below 36?%. According to the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain DCY50(T) could be differentiated from all known Lactobacillus species and should be classified in a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus koreensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is DCY50(T) (?=?KCTC 13530(T) ?=?JCM 16448(T)). PMID:20435754

Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Kim, Yeon-Ju; In, Jun-Gyo; Yang, Deok-Chun

2011-04-01

361

Engineered Vaginal Lactobacillus Strain for Mucosal Delivery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inhibitor Cyanovirin-N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are at significant risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with the cervicovaginal mucosa serving as a major portal for virus entry. Female-initiated preventatives, including topical microbi- cides, are urgently needed to help curtail the HIV\\/AIDS pandemic. Here we report on the development of a novel, live microbicide that employs a natural vaginal strain of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to

Xiaowen Liu; Laurel A. Lagenaur; David A. Simpson; Kirsten P. Essenmacher; Courtney L. Frazier-Parker; Yang Liu; Daniel Tsai; Srinivas S. Rao; Dean H. Hamer; Thomas P. Parks; Peter P. Lee; Qiang Xu

2006-01-01

362

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain MTCC 8711, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Yogurt  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum strain MTCC 8711 is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yogurt. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this strain. The 2,566,297-bp-long genome consisted of a single chromosome and seven plasmids. The genome contains 2,609 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes. PMID:24072868

Jayashree, Sathyanarayanan; Pooja, Sharma; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Vishnu, Udayakumar; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2013-01-01

363

Increased Enterocyte Production in Gnotobiotic Rats Mono-Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown

M. Banasaz; E. Norin; R. Holma; T. Midtvedt

2002-01-01

364

Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance ( van) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a probiotic strain used in fermented dairy products in many countries and is also used as a food supplement in the form of freeze-dried powder. The relationship of the vancomycin resistance factor in L. rhamnosus GG and the vancomycin resistance (van) genes of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium were studied using polymerase chain reaction

Soile Tynkkynen; Kavindra V Singh; Pekka Varmanen

1998-01-01

365

Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L.

Ossowski von I; Vos de W. M; A. Palva

2011-01-01

366

Genome Sequence and Characteristics of Lrm1, a Prophage from Industrial Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain M1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophage Lrm1 was induced with mitomycin C from an industrial Lactobacillus rhamnosus starter culture, M1. Electron microscopy of the lysate revealed relatively few intact bacteriophage particles among empty heads and disassociated tails. The defective Siphoviridae phage had an isometric head of approximately 55 nm and noncontractile tail of about 275 nm with a small baseplate. In repeated attempts, the prophage

Evelyn Durmaz; Michael J. Miller; M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril; Stephen P. Toon; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2008-01-01

367

Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation.  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to find out whether gut colonisation of premature babies with a probiotic, Lactobacillus GG, modified enteric carbohydrate fermentation. Twenty preterm infants were randomised to receive Lactobacillus GG 10(8) colony forming units twice a day for two weeks or to a control group. Faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ethanol, and urinary 2,3-butanediol, were measured in parallel with microbiological studies. Lactobacillus GG colonised nine babies. From 1-28 days of age faecal SCFAs did not differ significantly from controls. Median and ranges were (treated and controls, respectively): acetic acid: 173 (trace-799), 166 (trace-700); propionic acid: 44 (trace-169), 37 (11-229); butyric acid: 31 (5-107), 37 (2-118) mumol/g dry weight. Ethanol was detected in more faecal samples from treated babies (65% v 37%), and at higher concentration (6.3 (trace-40) v 3.3 (0.6-8.8; one 229) mumol/g). 2,3-Butanediol was found in 66% of urine samples from treated babies and 58% from controls. On 83% of these occasions Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, or Serratia sp were cultured from faeces. Lactobacillus GG had no obvious adverse effects on nutritionally important SCFAs. The small increase in ethanol excretion is unlikely to have clinical significance. PMID:8285751

Stansbridge, E M; Walker, V; Hall, M A; Smith, S L; Millar, M R; Bacon, C; Chen, S

1993-01-01

368

Functional Characterization of the Proteolytic System of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T during Growth in Sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysis and amino acid metabolism contribute to the beneficial effects of sourdough fermentation on bread quality. In this work, genes of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strain DSM 20451 involved in peptide uptake and hydrolysis were identified and their expression during growth in sourdough was determined. Screening of the L. sanfranciscensis genome with degenerate primers targeting prt and analysis of proteolytic activity

Nicoline Vermeulen; Melanie Pavlovic; Matthias A. Ehrmann; Michael G. Ganzle; Rudi F. Vogel

2005-01-01

369

[The range of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus bacterial strains on etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis].  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by uncontrolled sequential overgrowth of some anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Mobiluncus sp. usually occurring in stable numbers in the bacterial flora of healthy women. On the other hand, different species of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, most frequently L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus, form a group of aerobic bacteria dominating in the same environment. The diversity and density of their populations depend on the age and health conditions. Thanks to their antagonistic and adherence properties bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus can maintain a positive balance role in this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women against most common agents of bacterial vaginosis. It was found that nearly all of the tested Lactobacillus strains exerted distinct antagonistic activity against anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and quite a number also against Gram-negative rods, while only some of them were able to inhibit Gram-positive aerobic cocci as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:10865430

Strus, M; Malinowska, M

1999-01-01

370

Studies on Viability of Lactobacillus fermentum by Microencapsulation Using Extrusion Spheronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method of encapsulation of Lactobacillus fermentum was developed to protect it from different stresses such as thermal, oxidative, pH, and bile salts. L. fermentum was encapsulated in microcrystalline cellulose and sodium alginate by extrusion spheronization and tested for its survival. In the present study, the concentration of microcrystalline cellulose, L. fermentum, and sodium alginate were optimized. Further, response

Poonam R. Bajaj; Shrikant A. Survase; Mahesh V. Bule; Rekha S. Singhal

2010-01-01

371

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Bacte´riologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France Abstract The response of the immune system to probiotics remains controversial. Some strains modulate the cytokine production of dendritic

Boyer, Edmond

372

Reduction of acetophenone to R (+)-phenylethanol by a new alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alcohol dehydrogenase catalysing the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to R(+)-phenylethanol was found in a strain of Lactobacillus kefir. A 70-fold enrichment of the enzyme with an overall yield of 76% was obtained in two steps. The addition of Mg2+ ions was found to be necessary to prevent rapid deactivation. The enzyme depends essentially on NADPH and was inactive

Werner Hummel

1990-01-01

373

Protective action of Lactobacillus kefir carrying Slayer protein against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Lactobacillus kefir strains isolated from different kefir grains were tested for their ability to antagonize Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis) interaction with epithelial cells. L. kefir surface properties such as autoaggregation and coaggregation with Salmonella and adhesion to Caco-2\\/TC-7 cells were evaluated. L. kefir strains showed significantly different adhesion capacities, six strains were able to autoaggregate and four

M. A. Golowczyc; P. Mobili; G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

2007-01-01

374

Consistent Condom Use Increases the Colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the Vagina  

PubMed Central

Background Non-hormonal contraception methods have been widely used, but their effects on colonization by vaginal lactobacilli remain unclear. Objective To determine the association between non-hormonal contraception methods and vaginal lactobacilli on women’s reproductive health. Methods The cross-sectional study included 164 healthy women between 18–45 years of age. The subjects were divided into different groups on the basis of the different non-hormonal contraception methods used by them. At the postmenstrual visit (day 21 or 22 of the menstrual cycle), vaginal swabs were collected for determination of Nugent score, quantitative culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vaginal lactobacilli. The prevalence, colony counts and 16S rRNA gene expression of the Lactobacillus strains were compared between the different groups by Chi-square and ANOVA statistical analysis methods. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 was more common in the condom group (93.1%) than in the group that used an interuterine device(IUD) (75.4%), (p?=?0.005). The prevalence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the condom group (82.3%) than in the IUD group (68.2%), (p?=?0.016). There was a significant difference in colony count (mean ± standard error (SE), log10colony forming unit (CFU)/ml) of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus between condom users (7.81±0.14) and IUD users (6.54±0.14), (p?=?0.000). The 16S rRNA gene expression (mean ± SE, log10copies/ml) of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly higher in the condom group (8.09±0.16) than in the IUD group (6.03±0.18), (p?=?0.000). Conclusion Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina and may protect against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:23894682

Ma, Liyan; Lv, Zhi; Su, Jianrong; Wang, Jianjie; Yan, Donghui; Wei, Jingjuan; Pei, Shuang

2013-01-01

375

Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov., Associated with Spoilage of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Poultry Products  

PubMed Central

Unidentified lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates which had mainly been detected in spoiled, marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler meat products during two previous studies, were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties and the capability to produce biogenic amines. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. Unexpectedly for a meat-spoilage-associated LAB, the strains utilized glucose very weakly. According to the API 50 CHL test, arabinose and xylose were the only carbohydrates strongly fermented. None of the six strains tested for production of histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were able to produce these main meat-associated biogenic amines in vitro. The polyphasic taxonomy approach showed that these strains represent a new Lactobacillus species. The six isolates sequenced for the 16S rRNA encoding genes shared the highest similarity (95.0 to 96.3%) with the sequence of the Lactobacillus durianis type strain. In the phylogenetic tree, these isolates formed a distinct cluster within the Lactobacillus reuteri group, which also includes L. durianis. Numerical analyses of HindIII-EcoRI ribotypes placed all isolates together in a cluster with seven subclusters well separated from the L. reuteri group reference strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization levels between Lactobacillus sp. nov. isolates varied from 67 to 96%, and low hybridization levels (3 to 15%) were obtained with the L. durianis type strain confirming that these isolates belong to the same species different from L. durianis. The name Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LMG 22743T (also known as DSM 15707T or AMKR18T) as the type strain. PMID:16085830

Koort, Joanna; Murros, Anna; Coenye, Tom; Eerola, Susanna; Vandamme, Peter; Sukura, Antti; Bjorkroth, Johanna

2005-01-01

376

Protective effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains in hyperlipidemic mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 on hyperlipidemic mice. METHODS: Male Kunming mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 28 d to construct hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic mice and normal mice were assigned to 3 groups which were separately treated with L. plantarum CAI6, L. plantarum SC4, and physiological saline through oral gavage for 28 d. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by commercially available enzyme kits. FACS Calibur flow cytometry was used to examine hepatic and renal nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The morphology of livers was checked by hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscope observation. RESULTS: Compared with normal mice, hyperlipidemic mice possessed significantly higher TC (3.50 ± 0.43 vs 2.89 ± 0.36, P < 0.01), TG (1.76 ± 0.07 vs 1.10 ± 0.16, P < 0.01), and LDL-C (1.72 ± 0.20 vs 0.82 ± 0.10, P< 0.01) levels, resulting in an increase of atherogenic index (AI) (2.34 ± 1.60 vs 0.93 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (1.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.51 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). After treatment with L. plantarum CAI6/L. plantarum SC4, TG (1.43 ± 0.27/1.54 ± 0.10 vs 1.76 ± 0.07, P < 0.01/P < 0.05) and LDL-C (1.42 ± 0.07/1.47 ± 0.12 vs 1.72 ± 0.20, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hyperlipidemic mice significantly decreased. In addition, TC, HDL-C, AI, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were all positively changed. Meanwhile, the treatment markedly alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly stimulated Nrf2 expression (73.79 ± 0.80/72.96 ± 1.22 vs 54.94 ± 1.84, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic mice. CONCLUSION: L. plantarum CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 may protect against cardiovascular disease by lipid metabolism regulation and Nrf2-induced antioxidative defense in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:23716997

Wang, Li-Xin; Liu, Kai; Gao, Da-Wei; Hao, Ji-Kui

2013-01-01

377

Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in L. sakei is highly regulated at the transcription level. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources. PMID:21702908

2011-01-01

378

Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

Trivedi, Disha

2014-01-01

379

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: adenosylcobalamin destruction and formation of a nucleotide based radical  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, 76 kDa) from Lactobacillus leichmannii is a class II RNR that requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

380

Detection and Identification of Gastrointestinal Lactobacillus Species by Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Species-Specific PCR Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR

J. Walter; G. W. Tannock; A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi; S. Rodtong; D. M. Loach; K. Munro; T. Alatossava

2000-01-01

381

Detection and characterization of a novel antibacterial substance produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST 31 isolated from sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST31 isolated from sourdough produced an antimicrobial substance inhibiting other strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and some foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus. This antimicrobial substance was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. Consequently, it was characterized as a bacteriocin and was designated plantaricin ST31. This bacteriocin was stable in the pH range 3–8 and it was

S Todorov; B Onno; O Sorokine; J. M Chobert; I Ivanova; X Dousset

1999-01-01

382

Identification of the Most Abundant Lactobacillus Species in the Crop of 1- and 5-Week-Old Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria from crops of 1- and 5-week-old broiler chickens fed with two brands (diets A and B) of wheat-based diets were isolated on Lactobacillus-selective medium and identified (n 300) based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. The most abundant Lactobacillus species were L. reuteri (33%), L. crispatus (18.7%), and L. salivarius (13.3%). Regardless of farm and feed, L. reuteri was

Hanan T. Abbas Hilmi; Anu Surakka; Juha Apajalahti; P. E. J. Saris

2007-01-01

383

The Increase of Lactobacillus Species in the Gut Flora of Newborn Broiler Chicks and Ducks Is Associated with Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Background A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. Methodology Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4×1010 Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000™ system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. Principal Findings Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p?=?0.0162) and 13.5% (p?=?0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p?=?0.05) and 14% (p?=?0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. Conclusions Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain. PMID:20454557

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

2010-01-01

384

Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment. PMID:24625864

Wang, Shijie; He, Fang; Luo, Yongkang; Kang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Chun; Feng, Lili; Lu, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuling; Wang, Hua

2014-01-01

385

Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27) induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells. Methods Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites 1 and 2 (LM1 and LM2) were obtained by culturing Lactobacillus sp. A-2 in reconstituted whey medium and whey-inulin medium; the cultured CAL-27 cells were treated with different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 mg/mL) and assayed by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) method; morphological changes of apoptotic cell were observed under fluorescence microscopy by acridine orange (Ao) fluorescent staining; flow cytometry method (FCM) and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells treated LM1 and LM2. Results The different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 could restrain the growth of CAL-27 cells, and in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells was obviously induced and was time-dependent. Conclusions Viability of CAL-27 cells was inhibited by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites; Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites could induce CAL-27 cells apoptosis; study on the bioactive compounds in the Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites and their molecular mechanism is in progress. PMID:25141199

ZHANG, Guoliang; ZHANG, Jie; WANG, Xinyu; YANG, Wenqin; SUN, Zhihui; KUMAR, Chaurasia Nitesh; GUAN, Hong; GUAN, Jian

2014-01-01

386

Dominant cultivable Lactobacillus species from the feces of healthy adults in northern Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify numerically dominant cultivable lactobacilli species in the feces of healthy adults. Ten individuals from Asturias, northern Spain, were chosen. Bacterial colonies grown under anoxic conditions on MRS with cysteine were microscopically examined for lactobacilli. Isolates were subsequently grouped based on the analysis of their carbohydrate fermentation profiles and then identified by partial amplification, sequencing, and comparison of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Lactobacilli varied from undetectable levels in three subjects (10(5) CFU/g feces) to around 10(9) CFU/g feces. Among the 71 isolates obtained from seven individuals, 12 Lactobacillus species were identified. High interindividual variation was observed in terms of total numbers, number of species, and dominant species. Lactobacillus paracasei was found in four of the seven individuals; L. gasseri, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum in three. Phenotyping showed that only one strain per species was in the majority in each individual. PMID:17661293

Delgado, Susana; Suárez, Adolfo; Mayo, Baltasar

2007-06-01

387

Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus.  

PubMed

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus caused the first human pandemic of the 21st century. Although various probiotic Lactobacillus species have been shown to have anti-microbial effects against pneumonia-inducing pathogens, the prophylactic efficacy and mechanisms behind their protection remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against lethal influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus infection in a mouse model. To further define the protective responses induced by b240, we performed virologic, histopathologic, and transcriptomic analyses on the mouse lungs. Although we did not observe an appreciable effect of b240 on virus growth, cytokine production, or histopathology, gene expressional analysis revealed that oral administration of b240 differentially regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs. Our results unveil the possible mechanisms behind the protection mediated by b240 against influenza virus infection and provide new insights into probiotic therapy. PMID:23535544

Kiso, Maki; Takano, Ryo; Sakabe, Saori; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Uraki, Ryuta; Watanabe, Shinji; Saito, Hiroshi; Toba, Masamichi; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

388

Microbial ketonization of ginsenosides F1 and C-K by Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi to identify microbial modifications of ginsenosides. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain DCY65-1 belongs to the genus Lactobacillus and is most closely related to Lactobacillus brevis. On the basis of TLC and HPLC analysis, we found two metabolic pathways: F1 ? 6?,12?-dihydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and C-K ? 12?-hydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. These results suggest that strain DCY65-1 is capable of potent ketonic decarboxylation, ketonizing the hydroxyl group at C-3. The F1 metabolite had a more potent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase than did the substrate. Therefore, the F1 and C-K derivatives may be more pharmacologically active compounds, which should be further characterized. PMID:25262121

Jin, Yan; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Dae-Young; Min, Jin-Woo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok-Chun

2014-12-01

389

Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus caused the first human pandemic of the 21st century. Although various probiotic Lactobacillus species have been shown to have anti-microbial effects against pneumonia-inducing pathogens, the prophylactic efficacy and mechanisms behind their protection remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against lethal influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus infection in a mouse model. To further define the protective responses induced by b240, we performed virologic, histopathologic, and transcriptomic analyses on the mouse lungs. Although we did not observe an appreciable effect of b240 on virus growth, cytokine production, or histopathology, gene expressional analysis revealed that oral administration of b240 differentially regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs. Our results unveil the possible mechanisms behind the protection mediated by b240 against influenza virus infection and provide new insights into probiotic therapy. PMID:23535544

Kiso, Maki; Takano, Ryo; Sakabe, Saori; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Uraki, Ryuta; Watanabe, Shinji; Saito, Hiroshi; Toba, Masamichi; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

390

Purification and characterization of plantaricin Y, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum 510, previously isolated from a koshu vineyard in Japan, was found to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance which was purified and characterized. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mass of this bacteriocin is 4,296.65 Da. A partial sequence, NH2- SSSLLNTAWRKFG, was obtained by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. A BLAST search revealed that this is a unique sequence; this peptide is thus a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510 and was termed plantaricin Y. Plantaricin Y shows strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14845, but no activity against other pathogens tested. Bacteriocin activity decreased slightly after autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min), but was completely inactivated by protease K. Furthermore, trypsin-digested bacteriocin product fragments retained activity against L. monocytogenes BCRC 14845 and exhibited a different inhibitory spectrum. PMID:24493293

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wang, Yan-chong; Chow, Yiou-shing; Yanagida, Fujitoshi; Liao, Chen-chung; Chiu, Chi-ming

2014-03-01

391

A food additive with prebiotic properties of an ?-d-glucan from Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.  

PubMed

An ?-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by ?-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. PMID:24857877

Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

2014-08-01

392

Lactobacillus acidophilus Protected Organs in Experimental Arthritis by Regulating the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines.  

PubMed

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of joints. Exact etiology of the disease is not understood yet; but histopathological examination of vital organs like liver, kidney, ovary and knee joint can anticipate immune mediated damage. In this study, Lactobacillus acidophilus was administered orally by both prophylactic and curative protocol in freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Indomethacin was used as standard anti-arthritic drug. Histopathology of liver, kidney, ovary and right hind knee joint were done. Cytokine concentrations were determined by using ELISA. Effects shown by L. acidophilus were comparable with indomethacin. Histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, ovaries and knee joints of L. acidophilus fed groups revealed significantly less damage as compared with other counterparts. Lactobacillus treatment has down-regulated pro-inflammatory level and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines level in serum samples. L. acidophilus managed organs damage associated with arthritis. It has significantly down regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25298628

Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

2014-10-01

393

In vitro fermentation of prebiotic oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed

The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L. rhamnosus and B. lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L. acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B. lactis and L. acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L. rhamnosus grew on ?-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L. acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L. acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L. rhamnosus/?-glucan oligosaccharides. PMID:24239979

Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H

2014-02-01

394

Protein A as a fusion partner for the expression of heterologous proteins in Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression system based on the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa) was developed to allow the production and export of proteins in Lactobacillus. Plasmid shuttle vectors were constructed that carried the eZZ gene, a synthetic gene based on the Protein A gene (spa) but lacking the carboxy-terminal membrane-anchoring region. A gene fusion was created between the eZZ gene and

C. Rush; L. Hafner; P. Timms

1997-01-01

395

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Transport, Metabolism, and Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is able to bind the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and thus potentially restrict its rapid absorption from the intestine. In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and toxicity could be assessed. Caco-2

S. Gratz; Q. K. Wu; H. El-Nezami; R. O. Juvonen; H. Mykkanen; P. C. Turner

2007-01-01

396

Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional,\\u000a treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed

J. A. da Silva Medeiros; T. M. F. O. Gonçalves; L. Boyanova; M. I. de Correia Pereira; J. N. da Silva Paiva de Carvalho; A. M. de Sousa Pereira; A. M. Silvério Cabrita

2011-01-01

397

Peptide Pheromone Plantaricin A Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Permeabilizes Liver and Kidney Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain antimicrobial peptides from multicellular animals kill a variety of tumor cells at concentrations not affecting normal\\u000a eukaryotic cells. Recently, it was reported that also plantaricin A (PlnA), which is a peptide pheromone with strain-specific\\u000a antibacterial activity produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, permeabilizes cancerous rat pituitary cells (GH4 cells), whereas normal rat anterior pituitary cells are resistant to the peptide. To

Kristin Andersland; Guro F. Jølle; Olav Sand; Trude M. Haug

2010-01-01

398

Production of l (+) lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii immobilized in functionalized alginate matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of functionalized alginate gels as immobilized matrices in production of l (+) lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied. L. delbrueckii cells immobilized in functionalized alginate beads showed enhanced bead stability and selectivity towards production of optically\\u000a pure l (+) lactic acid in higher yields (1.74Yp\\/s) compared to natural alginate. Palmitoylated alginate beads revealed 99% enantiomeric\\u000a selectivity (ee) in

Chaganti Subba Rao; Reddy Shetty Prakasham; Adari Bhaskar Rao; Jhillu S. Yadav

2008-01-01

399

In vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum SK5 isolated from vagina of a healthy woman.  

PubMed

A lactobacillus strain isolated from a vaginal tract of a healthy woman was examined in vitro for its probiotic potential. This strain, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum SK5, was able to survive at pH 3-4 and 0.1-0.2% bile, and unaffected by pepsin (3 g l(-1)) and pancreatin (1 g l(-1)), but was susceptible to all tested antibiotics except metronidazole. L. fermentum SK5 had an antimicrobial potential against gastrointestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and vaginal pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis. The effective substance was suspected to be a bacteriocin-like compound with a molecular weight of more than 10 kDa, but hydrogen peroxide was also detected. Further studies revealed that L. fermentum SK5 had good autoaggregation characteristic and a high surface hydrophobicity that enhanced its adhesion ability to epithelial cells and for biofilm formation. This lactobacillus showed coaggregation with E. coli and G. vaginalis to affect their adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of L. fermentum SK5 to HeLa, HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and its inhibition of E. coli and G. vaginalis adherence to these cells were demonstrated. These incidences provided evidence of the possible colonization of L. fermentum SK5 that would prevent binding and growth of E. coli and G. vaginalis onto intestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. On the basis of the ability of L. fermentum SK5 to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms through coaggregation and antimicrobial substances, it is likely that this lactobacillus strain could be a potential probiotic candidate for beneficial use in protecting against gastrointestinal and vaginal microbial infections. PMID:23624069

Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Dangmanee, Nattakan; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Srichana, Teerapol; Chulasiri, Malyn; Settharaksa, Sukanya

2013-08-01

400

Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37°C. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (YDA%) were observed. The high levels of ?-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found

R. Medina de Figueroa; G. Oliver; I. L. Benito de Cádenas

2001-01-01

401

Technological and probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditionally produced fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and probiotic characteristics of a number of Lactobacillus plantarum strains (previously isolated and identified from traditionally produced fermented vegetables) were compared, with the aim\\u000a of identifying potential starter cultures to be used for the fermentation of vegetables. The L. plantarum strains were differentiated by their plasmid profiles; 12 separate strains with different plasmid profiles were examined.\\u000a Other than

Nihat Karasu; Ömer ?im?ek; Ahmet Hilmi Çon

2010-01-01

402

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21 isolated from kimchi Korean fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21, isolated from Korean kimchi, was investigated against MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine), NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide), NPD (4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine) and aflatoxin B1 using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. Although all the cell fractions including the culture supernatant, dry cells and cell-free extract exhibited antimutagenic activity against MNNG and NQO, the culture supernatant possessed the highest activity. The antimutagenic ratio

Heui-Dong Park; Chang-Ho Rhee

2001-01-01

403

The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at

J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová

1999-01-01

404

Two 2[5H]-Furanones as Possible Signaling Molecules in Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Two 2[5H]-furanones, in association with medium-chain fatty acids, were released in whey by Lactobacillus helveticus exposed to oxidative and heat stresses. This species plays an important role in cheese technology, particularly for Swiss-type cheeses and Grana cheese. Moreover, it significantly contributes to cheese ripening by means of an early autolysis and the release of enzymes during processing. Experimental evidence of the involvement of the two 2[5H]-furanones, detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid-phase microextraction technique, in the autolysis phenomenon has been obtained. Zymograms performed by using renaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were used to detect the bioactivity of the supernatants containing the two furanones on fresh cells of the same strain. In addition to bands corresponding to known autolysins, new autolysins were detected concomitant with the exposure of Lactobacillus helveticus to the supernatants, which can be regarded as conditioned media (CM), and to a commercial furanone, 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2[5H]-furanone (HEMFi), having spectral data similar to those of the newly described 2[5H]-furanones. Morphological changes were observed when fresh cells were exposed to CM containing the two 2[5H]-furanones and HEMFi. The two furanones produced by Lactobacillus helveticus, which met a number of criteria to be included in cell-cell signaling molecules, have a presumptive molecular mass lower than those of already known 3[2H]-furanones having an autolytic activity and being produced by gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, they present a different chemical structure with respect to the furanones already identified as products of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris or to those identified in some cheeses with Lactobacillus helveticus as a starter culture. PMID:16957229

Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vallicelli, Melania; Cocconcelli, P. Sandro; Cappa, Fabrizio; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

2006-01-01

405

Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the normal intestinal microflora after administration of two antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a comparative study concerning the influence ofLactobacillus acidophilus supplements on the normal intestinal microflora after the administration of two antimicrobial agents, enoxacin and clindamycin, respectively.L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 was given as a fermented milk product containing 5 × 108-2 × 109 CFU\\/ml to ten of the volunteers immediately after the administration of the antimicrobial

A. Lidbeck; C. Edlund; J. Å. Gustafsson; L. Kager; C. E. Nora

1988-01-01

406

Bio-preservative activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus U1during fermentation of fresh minced goat meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of bacteriocinog enic Lactobacillus acidophilus U1 (LacU1) isolated from pygmy goat meat on food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms during the fermentation of minced goat meat. Methodology and results: Bacteriocin obtained from LacU1 was purified and characterized. Survival of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria artificially inoculated aseptically in fermenting minced goat meat was investigated. The

407

Improvement of Raw Sausage Fermentation by Stress-Conditioning of the Starter Organism Lactobacillus sakei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective growth and high acidification activity during meat fermentation are key characteristics of starter lactobacilli\\u000a to ensure hygienic safety and sensory quality of the product. In this study, we demonstrated that the performance of Lactobacillus sakei in sausage fermentation can be improved by preinoculation treatments with sublethal heat, cold, and salt stress. Sausages\\u000a were produced and inoculated with stress-treated cells

Eric Hüfner; Christian Hertel

2008-01-01

408

Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in health-stimulating processes within the host. The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile and flexible

Vries de M. C

2006-01-01

409

Sequencing and expression analysis of sakacin genes in Lactobacillus curvatus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we focused our investigation on two strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, L442 and LTH1174, which are able to produce bacteriocins. L. curvatus LTH1174 is widely studied for its capability to produce curvacin A, while L. curvatus L442 was isolated from traditional Greek fermented sausages and was shown to possess a strong inhibitory activity toward\\u000a Listeria monocytogenes. By polymerase

Luca Cocolin; Kalliopi Rantsiou

2007-01-01

410

Time to turbidity measurement as a tool for modeling spoilage by Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method has been proposed to obtain growth rate estimates from simple time-to-visible-growth measurements by means of inoculum variation. In case the data are censored an algorithm using a maximum likelihood estimation method is given. Growth rates forLactobacillus plantarum obtained by this method have been used to develop a model for the prediction of the growth rate as a

H. G. A. M. Cuppers; J. P. P. M. Smelt

1993-01-01

411

Effect of preculturing conditions on growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on medium containing glucose and citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus can metabolize citrate through a citrate inducible transport system. The growth curves of L. rhamnosus on medium containing glucose and citrate was found to be highly dependent on preculturing conditions. It exhibited diauxic growth when precultured on glucose, but demonstrated simultaneous consumption when cultured on citrate. The maximum specific growth rate for cells growing on glucose+citrate was 0.38h?1,

B. D. Jyoti; A. K. Suresh; K. V. Venkatesh

2004-01-01

412

Comparison of Fructose1,6Bisphosphatase Gene ( fbp ) Sequences for the Identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene ( fbp) sequences was evaluated for the differentiation of reference and clinical strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The sequences of 1,971 nucleotides of the fbp gene were determined on both DNA strands for 21 L. rhamnosus strains, representing reference, probiotic, and clinical strains. No PCR amplification of the fbp gene was observed for other species of

Denis Roy; Pierre Ward

2004-01-01

413

Characterization of the SpaCBA Pilus Fibers in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17193-17198, 2009). These pili were found to be encoded by the

J. Reunanen; Ossowski von I; A. P. Hendrickx; A. Palva; Vos de W. M

2012-01-01

414

Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated

M. Kankainen; L. Paulin; S. Tynkkynen; I. von Ossowski; J. Reunanen; P. Partanen; R. Satokari; S. Vesterlund; A. P. A. Hendrickx; S. Lebeer; S. C. J. de Keersmaecker; J. Vanderleyden; T. Hamalainen; S. Laukkanen; N. Salovuori; J. Ritari; E. Alatalo; R. Korpela; T. Mattila-Sandholm; A. Lassig; K. Hatakka; K. T. Kinnunen; H. Karjalainen; M. Saxelin; K. Laakso; A. Surakka; A. Palva; T. Salusjarvi; P. Auvinen; W. M. de Vos

2009-01-01

415

Bile salt and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated at the end of the ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and to investigate an important prerequisite of probiotic interest, such as the capability to survive at low pH and in presence of bile salts. The use of API 50 CH, RAPD-PCR analysis and species-specific PCR allowed

M. Succi; P. Tremonte; A. Reale; E. Sorrentino; L. Grazia; S. Pacifico; R. Coppola

2005-01-01

416

Human vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus harbor mutation in 23S rRNA associated with erythromycin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the diversity and distribution of resistance determinants in human commensal bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for high-level erythromycin resistance among five human vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolates. PCR screening for the presence of ermA, ermB and ermC methylase genes revealed no determinants responsible for detected erythromycin resistance. Therefore, sequences

Jelena Begovic; Geert Huys; Baltasar Mayo; Klaas D'Haene; Ana Belén Florez; Jelena Lozo; Milan Kojic; Ivana Strahinic; Ljubisa Topisirovic

2009-01-01

417

Changes in the predominant human Lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions 16S rRNA genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal Lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche. METHODS: This study has characterized the normal cultivable vaginal Lactobacillus flora at varying estradiol levels in plasma; the study comprised

Tell Jakobsson; Urban Forsum

2008-01-01

418

Synergistic antidigestion effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums in simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and

Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin

2007-01-01

419

Genetic and biochemical characterization of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produces exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which play a role in the rheological properties of fermented food products. Lb. bulgaricus Lfi5 produces a high-molecular-weight EPS composed of galactose, glucose, and rhamnose in the molar ratio 5:1:1. An 18-kb DNA region containing 14 genes, designated epsA to epsN, was isolated by genomic DNA library screening and inverted PCR. The predicted

Gilbert Thierry Lamothe; Laure Jolly; Beat Mollet; Francesca Stingele

2002-01-01

420

Isolation and characterization of two bacteriocins of Lactobacillus acidophilus LF221  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus LF221 produced bacteriocin-like activity against different bacteria including some pathogenic and food-spoilage species.\\u000a Besides some lactic acid bacteria, the following species were inhibited: Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sp., Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D. L. acidophilus LF221 produced at least two bacteriocins, acidocin LF221?A and acidocin LF221 B, which were purified by ammonium sulphate\\u000a precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction

I. Rogelj; I. F. Nes; H. Holo

1998-01-01