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1

Initiation of Protein Synthesis by a Labeled Derivative of the Lactobacillus casei DN114 001 Strain during Transit from the Stomach to the Cecum in Mice Harboring Human Microbiota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies on the survival of bacteria in the digestive tract have been reported in the literature, little data are available on the physiological adaptation of probiotics to the digestive environment. In previous work, a transcriptional fusion system (i.e., luciferase genes under the control of a deregulated promoter) was used to demonstrate that a derivative of the Lactobacillus casei DN-114

R. Oozeer; D. D. G. Mater; N. Goupil-Feuillerat; G. Corthier

2004-01-01

2

Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children. Subjects/Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3–6 years old in daycare/schools. The intervention was a fermented dairy drink containing a specific probiotic strain or matching placebo with no live cultures for 90 consecutive days. Two primary outcomes were assessed: incidence of CIDs and change of behavior because of illness (both assessed by parental report). Results: The rate of change of behavior because of illness was similar among active and control groups. However, the incidence rate for CIDs in the active group (0.0782) is 19% lower than that of the control group (0.0986) (incidence rate ratio=0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 099) P=0.046. Conclusions: Daily intake of a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 showed some promise in reducing overall incidence of illness, but was primarily driven by gastrointestinal infections and there were no differences in change of behavior. PMID:20485304

Merenstein, D; Murphy, M; Fokar, A; Hernandez, R K; Park, H; Nsouli, H; Sanders, M E; Davis, B A; Niborski, V; Tondu, F; Shara, N M

2010-01-01

3

Pentitol metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus casei capable of growing on either ribitol or xylitol carry out a heterolactic fermentation producing ethanol, acetate, and a mixture of D- and L-lactate. Following conversion of the pentitols to ribulose 5-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate via enzymatic steps unique to these organisms, the intermediate products are further metabolized by enzymes of the pentose pathway. The initial enzymes of the pathway, i.e., pentitol:phosphoenolypyruvate phosphotransferase and penititol phosphate dehydrogenase, do not appear to be stringently regulated by glucose or intermediate products of glycolysis. PMID:118163

London, J; Chace, N M

1979-01-01

4

Genomic Adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

5

Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producing bacteriostasis. Images PMID:6090413

Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

1984-01-01

6

Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producing bacteriostasis. PMID:6090413

Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

1984-10-01

7

Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran  

PubMed Central

We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activites in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities. PMID:16367940

Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

2006-01-01

8

Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1?×?10(10)?CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70?°C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03?±?0.04%, 100% (in 1.16?min), 0.14?±?0.0, 35.20?g H2O/100?g and 4.80?±?0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60?days, the samples stored at -8?°C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0?×?10(9)?CFU/g. PMID:25090592

Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

2014-01-01

9

Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics. PMID:23292549

Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-05-01

10

High efficiency electrotransformation of Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

We investigated whether protocols allowing high efficiency electrotransformation of other lactic acid bacteria were applicable to five strains of Lactobacillus casei (12A, 32G, A2-362, ATCC 334 and BL23). Addition of 1% glycine or 0.9 M NaCl during cell growth, limitation of the growth of the cell cultures to OD600 0.6-0.8, pre-electroporation treatment of cells with water or with a lithium acetate (100 mM)/dithiothreitol (10 mM) solution and optimization of electroporation conditions all improved transformation efficiencies. However, the five strains varied in their responses to these treatments. Transformation efficiencies of 10(6) colony forming units ?g(-1) pTRKH2 DNA and higher were obtained with three strains which is sufficient for construction of chromosomal gene knock-outs and gene replacements. PMID:25670703

Welker, Dennis L; Hughes, Joanne E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

2015-01-01

11

Stress Responses in Probiotic Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

2015-01-01

12

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

13

Peptidase and proteinase activity of Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Das proteolytische System von mehreren nicht kommerziellenLactococcus- undLactobacillus-Stämmen wurde direkt vom traditionellen spanischen halbfesten Ziegenmilchkäse isoliert und untersucht. Die Aktivität von Aminopeptidase, X-Prolyldipeptidylaminopeptidase, Dipeptidase and Proteinase dieser neuen Stämme wurde in cytoplasmatischen, Zellwand-Membran- und spontan freigesetzten Fraktionen gemessen. Die Aminopeptidase-Aktivität erfolgte ausschließlich intracellular und war höher fürLactobacillus casei subsp. casei als fürLactococcus lactis subsp.lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum zeigte höhere Dipeptidase

Teresa Requena; Carmen Pelaez; Patrick F. Fox

1993-01-01

14

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

15

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2.  

PubMed

We report here a 3.2-Mb draft assembled genome of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2. The bacterium shows probiotic and immunomodulatory activities. The genome assembly and annotation will help to identify molecules and pathways responsible for interaction between the host immune system and the microbe. PMID:25540344

Bhowmick, Swati; Malar, Mathu; Das, Abhishek; Kumar Thakur, Bhupesh; Saha, Piu; Das, Santasabuj; Rashmi, H M; Batish, Virender K; Grover, Sunita; Tripathy, Sucheta

2014-01-01

16

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2  

PubMed Central

We report here a 3.2-Mb draft assembled genome of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2. The bacterium shows probiotic and immunomodulatory activities. The genome assembly and annotation will help to identify molecules and pathways responsible for interaction between the host immune system and the microbe. PMID:25540344

Bhowmick, Swati; Malar, Mathu; Das, Abhishek; Kumar Thakur, Bhupesh; Saha, Piu; Rashmi, H. M.; Batish, Virender K.; Grover, Sunita

2014-01-01

17

Viability of Probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and Nonprobiotic Microflora in Argentinian Fresco Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bi- fidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combi- nations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts,

C. G. Vinderola; W. Prosello; D. Ghiberto; J. A. Reinheimer

2000-01-01

18

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

19

The Characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. helveticus and L. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The characteristics of 152 strains of lactobacilli were examined, and strains divided into three groups. Lactobacillus helveticus fermented inositol, sorbose, glycerol and rhamnose but not melibiose or raffinose, failed to grow in 4 yo bile salt, but gave EL positive Voges-Proskauer reaction and a rapid acid clot in Yeastrel glucose litmus milk (Y.G.L.M.). L. casei would not ferment these

DOROTHY M. WHEATER

1955-01-01

20

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut.  

PubMed

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2014-07-29

21

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut  

PubMed Central

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

2014-01-01

22

Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.  

PubMed

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

2012-12-01

23

Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

2013-01-01

24

Comparative genomic and functional analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains marketed as probiotics.  

PubMed

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

2013-03-01

25

Effect of Trehalose and Drying Process on the Survival of Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was prepared by extrusion technology with rice shell powder and alginate followed by drying at 4°C. Drying at 4°C was beneficial to the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 compared with freeze drying. Trehalose had a positive effect on the survival of dried L. casei ATCC 393; the live cell numbers remained over 10 cfu\\/g after

Xiao Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Cheng Sheng Liu; Hong Ni Peng; Dong Su Cha

2008-01-01

26

Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.  

PubMed

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-05-01

27

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23?  

PubMed Central

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-01-01

28

Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2013-01-01

29

PCR screening and sequence analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss.  

PubMed

The iol cluster (consisting of genes involved in myo-inositol utilization) was investigated in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss. Ten strains were tested for the presence of iol cluster by PCR screening; three strains encoded this cluster. Full-sequencing procedure was conducted; the iol cluster was identical to that of L. casei BL23 (GenBank access. no. FM177140) except for an upstream transposase. The iol cluster is not a common feature for L. casei strains isolated from koumiss. PMID:21253906

Zhang, W; Sun, Z; Sun, T; Zhang, H

2010-11-01

30

Oral ecology and virulence of Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans in gnotobiotic rats.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli comprise a small percentage of the normal oral microbial flora of humans and are isolated commonly from saliva and frequently from an active caries lesion. We have compared the pathogenesis and colonization pattern of Lactobacillus casei with that of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 in gnotobiotic rats. Of the two L. casei strains tested, L. casei strain ATCC 4646 caused slightly more caries than L. casei strain ATCC 11578. However, the level of caries induced by either L. casei strain was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than that observed in similar-aged rats monoassociated with S. mutans strain 6715. When groups of rats were infected with mixtures of L. casei strain ATCC 4646 and S. mutans strain 6715, or with L. casei followed by S. mutans, higher numbers of L. casei than S. mutans were found associated with the tongue and in saliva; S. mutans always predominated in plaque. The level of caries observed in these groups of rats was similar to that seen with rats monoassociated with S. mutans except when L. casei comprised greater than 1% of the plaque microflora. In this latter situation, the level of caries was significantly lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) than that obtained in S. mutans-monoassociated rats. The results of this study suggest that L. casei colonizes sites in the oral cavity (including the tongue and saliva) other than the tooth surface in rats. The effect of L. casei in plaque toward reduction of S. mutans-induced dental caries in rats is discussed. PMID:6793515

Michalek, S M; Hirasawa, M; Kiyono, H; Ochiai, K; McGhee, J R

1981-01-01

31

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

32

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-01-01

33

LIMITING GALACTOSE REQUIREMENT FOR CITRATE UTILIZATION BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI IS ANNULLED IN CHEDDAR CHEESE EXTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate is utilized by this microorganism in modified chemically defined media as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of other more readily metabolized carbon sources (i.e. ga...

34

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (from the fermented milk product Yakult (Yakult Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)) on Helicobacter pylori by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain 1) and nine H. pylori clinical isolates and (ii) the in vivo H. pylori SS1 mouse model of infection over a period of

D. Sgouras; P. Maragkoudakis; K. Petraki; B. Martinez-Gonzalez; E. Eriotou; S. Michopoulos; G. Kalantzopoulos; E. Tsakalidou; A. Mentis

2004-01-01

35

Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-06-01

36

Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b  

PubMed Central

We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food. PMID:24435875

Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; del Río, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz

2014-01-01

37

Probiotic activities of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus: in vitro adherence to intestinal cells and antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of probiotics as remedies for a broad number of gastrointestinal and other infectious diseases has gained wide interest over the last few years, but little is known about their underlying mechanism of action. In this study, the probiotic activities of a human isolate of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus strain (Lcr35) were investigated. Using intestinal Caco-2 cell line in

Christiane Forestier; Christophe De Champs; Catherine Vatoux; Bernard Joly

2001-01-01

38

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

39

Lactobacillus casei Inhibits Antigen-Induced IgE Secretion through Regulation of Cytokine Production in Murine Splenocyte Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Lactobacillus casei is a nonpathogenic gram-positive bacterium widely used in dairy products and has been shown to enhance the cellular immunity of the host. Methods: To examine the inhibitory effect of L. casei on IgE production, splenocytes obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c mice were restimulated in vitro with the same antigen in the presence of heat-killed L. casei. The effect

Kan Shida; Kumiko Makino; Aki Morishita; Kotaro Takamizawa; Satoshi Hachimura; Akio Ametani; Takehito Sato; Yoshihiro Kumagai; Sonoko Habu; Shuichi Kaminogawa

1998-01-01

40

Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese  

PubMed Central

In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

2013-01-01

41

Genome Sequence and Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into Their Niche-Associated Evolution  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is remarkably adaptable to diverse habitats and widely used in the food industry. To reveal the genomic features that contribute to its broad ecological adaptability and examine the evolution of the species, the genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 is analyzed and compared with other sequenced lactobacilli. This analysis reveals that ATCC 334 contains a high number of coding sequences involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation, reflecting its requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. A comparison of the genome sequences of ATCC 334 to L. casei BL23 reveals 12 and 19 genomic islands, respectively. For a broader assessment of the genetic variability within L. casei, gene content of 21 L. casei strains isolated from various habitats (cheeses, n = 7; plant materials, n = 8; and human sources, n = 6) was examined by comparative genome hybridization with an ATCC 334-based microarray. This analysis resulted in identification of 25 hypervariable regions. One of these regions contains an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation and was thus proposed as a lifestyle adaptation island. Differences in L. casei genome inventory reveal both gene gain and gene decay. Gene gain, via acquisition of genomic islands, likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats. Gene decay, that is, loss of unnecessary ancestral traits, is observed in the cheese isolates and likely results in enhanced fitness in the dairy niche. This study gives the first picture of the stable versus variable regions in L. casei and provides valuable insights into evolution, lifestyle adaptation, and metabolic diversity of L. casei. PMID:20333194

Cai, Hui; Thompson, Rebecca; Budinich, Mateo F.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

2009-01-01

42

Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen. PMID:23183972

Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves

2013-01-01

43

Genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei: insights into their niche-associated evolution.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is remarkably adaptable to diverse habitats and widely used in the food industry. To reveal the genomic features that contribute to its broad ecological adaptability and examine the evolution of the species, the genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 is analyzed and compared with other sequenced lactobacilli. This analysis reveals that ATCC 334 contains a high number of coding sequences involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation, reflecting its requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. A comparison of the genome sequences of ATCC 334 to L. casei BL23 reveals 12 and 19 genomic islands, respectively. For a broader assessment of the genetic variability within L. casei, gene content of 21 L. casei strains isolated from various habitats (cheeses, n = 7; plant materials, n = 8; and human sources, n = 6) was examined by comparative genome hybridization with an ATCC 334-based microarray. This analysis resulted in identification of 25 hypervariable regions. One of these regions contains an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation and was thus proposed as a lifestyle adaptation island. Differences in L. casei genome inventory reveal both gene gain and gene decay. Gene gain, via acquisition of genomic islands, likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats. Gene decay, that is, loss of unnecessary ancestral traits, is observed in the cheese isolates and likely results in enhanced fitness in the dairy niche. This study gives the first picture of the stable versus variable regions in L. casei and provides valuable insights into evolution, lifestyle adaptation, and metabolic diversity of L. casei. PMID:20333194

Cai, Hui; Thompson, Rebecca; Budinich, Mateo F; Broadbent, Jeff R; Steele, James L

2009-01-01

44

Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the response to bile stress of Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, and some strains are used as probiotics. The ability of probiotic strains to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract is considered a key factor for their probiotic action. Therefore, tolerance to bile salts is a desirable feature for probiotic strains. In this study we have characterized the response of L. casei BL23 to bile by a transcriptomic and proteomic approach. The analysis revealed that exposure to bile induced changes in the abundance of 52 proteins and the transcript levels of 67 genes. The observed changes affected genes and proteins involved in the stress response, fatty acid and cell wall biosynthesis, metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of peptides, coenzyme levels, membrane H(+)-ATPase, and a number of uncharacterized genes and proteins. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms that enable L. casei BL23 to cope with bile stress. PMID:22322960

Alcántara, Cristina; Zúñiga, Manuel

2012-05-01

45

Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promotes an Immunosuppressive Phenotype in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of the immunological tolerance and homeostasis in the gut is associated with the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We here report that cultivation of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 in the presence of human intestinal epithelial cells promotes functional changes in bacteria. In particular, the interaction enhanced the immunosuppressive phenotype of L. casei as demonstrated by the ability of L. casei to generate functional regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results indicate microbe-host cross-talk that changes features of microbes, and suggest that in vitro simulation of epithelial cell interaction can reveal functional properties of gut microbes more accurately than conventional cultivation. PMID:24244309

Tiittanen, Minna; Keto, Joni; Haiko, Johanna; Mättö, Jaana; Partanen, Jukka; Lähteenmäki, Kaarina

2013-01-01

46

Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria. PMID:21178363

Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

2010-01-01

47

Application of the acetolactate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus casei for accelerated maturation of beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetolactate decarboxylase produced by Lactobacillus casei DSM 2547 has been tested as an aid for accelerated removal\\u000a of the diacetyl precursor acetolactic acid from beer. Addition of the enzyme to freshly fermented beer has been shown to effect\\u000a efficient removal of the diacetyl precursor while addition of the decarboxylase to wort prior to pitching was found to lead\\u000a to

Sven Erik Godtfredsen; Anne Munk Rasmussen; Martin Ottesen; Thomas Mathiasen; Bent Ahrenst-Larsen

1984-01-01

48

Effects of complete cell recycling on product formation by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in continuous cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteriumLactobacillus casei ssprhamnosus was cultivated in a system with complete cell recycling in order to obtain information on how this cultivation technique affected the microorganisms. Cultivations at two different glucose concentrations (25 g\\/L and 50 g\\/L) were performed. Hollow fiber filters were used for separating the cells from the spent broth. The cell recycling was carried out

Sigridur Hjörleifsdottir; Sulojana Seevaratnam; Olle Holst; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

49

Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

2014-01-01

50

Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3? end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, ?-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2000-01-01

51

Effects of a Lactobacillus casei synbiotic on serum lipoprotein, intestinal microflora, and organic acids in rats.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 synbiotic diets: 1) containing Lactobacillus casei ASCC 292 and fructooligosaccharides (LF diet); 2) containing L. casei ASCC 292 and maltodextrin (LM diet); and 3) containing L. casei ASCC 292, fructooligosaccharide, and maltodextrin (LFM diet) to reduce serum cholesterol in male Wistar rats. The effect of the synbiotic diets on intestinal microflora, concentration of organic acids, and the possibility of translocation of lactobacilli were also investigated. The LFM diet lowered serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, whereas the LM diet increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. However, synbiotic diets did not contribute to a change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level compared with the control diet. There was a decrease in the population of staphylococci, bacteroides, Escherichia coli, and total coliforms in most bowel regions with the LFM diet compared with the control (which did not contain any synbiotic). In general, the LFM diet contributed to a higher concentration of lactic acid that may have contributed to the decrease in the population of pathogenic microorganisms compared with the control. Fructooligosaccharide was the preferred substrate for production of acetic acid. Results from this study showed that the synbiotic diet that contained L. casei ASCC 292, fructooligosaccharide, and maltodextrin beneficially altered cholesterol levels and produced a healthier bowel microbial population without translocation of lactobacilli to other organs. PMID:16606710

Liong, M T; Shah, N P

2006-05-01

52

Catabolite repression in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 is mediated by CcpA.  

PubMed Central

The chromosomal ccpA gene from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes the CcpA protein, a central catabolite regulator belonging to the LacI-GalR family of bacterial repressors, and shows 54% identity with CcpA proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. The L. casei ccpA gene was able to complement a B. subtilis ccpA mutant. An L. casei ccpA mutant showed increased doubling times and a relief of the catabolite repression of some enzymatic activities, such as N-acetylglucosaminidase and phospho-beta-galactosidase. Detailed analysis of CcpA activity was performed by using the promoter region of the L. casei chromosomal lacTEGF operon which is subject to catabolite repression and contains a catabolite responsive element (cre) consensus sequence. Deletion of this cre site or the presence of the ccpA mutation abolished the catabolite repression of a lacp::gusA fusion. These data support the role of CcpA as a common regulatory element mediating catabolite repression in low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9352913

Monedero, V; Gosalbes, M J; Pérez-Martínez, G

1997-01-01

53

Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei d-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid Dehydrogenase in Cheddar Cheese†  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that ?-keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by aminotransferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor compounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable ?-keto acids to more-stable ?-hydroxy acids via the action of ?-keto acid dehydrogenases such as d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase. To further characterize the role of this enzyme in cheese flavor, the Lactobacillus casei d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase gene was cloned into the high-copy-number vector pTRKH2 and transformed into L. casei ATCC 334. Enzyme assays confirmed that ?-keto acid dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in pTRKH2:dhic transformants than in wild-type cells. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were made with Lactococcus lactis starter only, starter plus L. casei ATCC 334, and starter plus L. casei ATCC 334 transformed with pTRKH2:dhic. After 3 months of aging, the cheese chemistry and flavor attributes were evaluated instrumentally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by descriptive sensory analysis. The culture system used significantly affected the concentrations of various ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters and one sulfur compound in cheese. Results further indicated that enhanced expression of d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase suppressed spontaneous degradation of ?-keto acids, but sensory work indicated that this effect retarded cheese flavor development. PMID:15294819

Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Gummalla, Sanjay; Hughes, Joanne E.; Johnson, Mark E.; Rankin, Scott A.; Drake, Mary Anne

2004-01-01

54

Cloning and Characterization of Two Lactobacillus casei Genes Encoding a Cystathionine Lyase?  

PubMed Central

Volatile sulfur compounds are key flavor compounds in several cheese types. To better understand the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, which certainly plays a key role in the release of volatile sulfur compounds, we searched the genome database of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 for genes encoding putative homologs of enzymes known to degrade cysteine, cystathionine, and methionine. The search revealed that L. casei possesses two genes that putatively encode a cystathionine ?-lyase (CBL; EC 4.4.1.8). The enzyme has been implicated in the degradation of not only cystathionine but also cysteine and methionine. Recombinant CBL proteins catalyzed the degradation of l-cystathionine, O-succinyl-l-homoserine, l-cysteine, l-serine, and l-methionine to form ?-keto acid, hydrogen sulfide, or methanethiol. The two enzymes showed notable differences in substrate specificity and pH optimum. PMID:17993563

Irmler, Stefan; Raboud, Sylvie; Beisert, Beata; Rauhut, Doris; Berthoud, Hélène

2008-01-01

55

Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by ?-acetolactate synthase and ?-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

2013-01-01

56

The phosphotransferase system of Lactobacillus casei: regulation of carbon metabolism and connection to cold shock response.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of two different Lactobacillus casei strains (ATCC334 and BL23) is presently going on and preliminary data revealed that this lactic acid bacterium possesses numerous carbohydrate transport systems probably reflecting its capacity to proliferate under varying environmental conditions. Many carbohydrate transporters belong to the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), but all different kinds of non-PTS transporters are present as well and their substrates are known in a few cases. In L. casei regulation of carbohydrate transport and carbon metabolism is mainly achieved by PTS proteins. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated via several mechanisms, including the major P-Ser-HPr/catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-dependent mechanism. Catabolite response elements, the target sites for the P-Ser-HPr/CcpA complex, precede numerous genes and operons. PTS regulation domain-containing antiterminators and transcription activators are also present in both L. casei strains. Their activity is usually controlled by two PTS-mediated phosphorylation reactions exerting antagonistic effects on the transcription regulators: P~EIIB-dependent phosphorylation regulates induction of the corresponding genes and P~His-HPr-mediated phosphorylation plays a role in CCR. Carbohydrate transport of L. casei is also regulated via inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion. The presence of glucose, fructose, etc. leads to inhibition of the transport or metabolism of less favorable carbon sources (inducer exclusion) or to the export of accumulated non-metabolizable carbon sources (inducer expulsion). While P-Ser-HPr is essential for inducer exclusion of maltose, it is not necessary for the expulsion of accumulated thio-methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Surprisingly, recent evidence suggests that the PTS of L. casei also plays a role in cold shock response. PMID:17183208

Monedero, Vicente; Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2007-01-01

57

Identification of a gene cluster enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 to utilize myo-inositol.  

PubMed

Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding a DeoR family transcriptional repressor and a divergently transcribed iolTABCDG1G2EJK operon, encoding a complete MI catabolic pathway, in which the iolK gene probably codes for a malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase. The presence of iolK suggests that L. casei has two alternative pathways for the metabolism of malonic semialdehyde: (i) the classical MI catabolic pathway in which IolA (malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from malonic semialdehyde and (ii) the conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the product of iolK. The function of the iol genes was verified by the disruption of iolA, iolT, and iolD, which provided MI-negative strains. By contrast, the disruption of iolK resulted in a strain with no obvious defect in MI utilization. Transcriptional analyses conducted with different mutant strains showed that the iolTABCDG1G2EJK cluster is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor IolR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This is the first example of an operon for MI utilization in lactic acid bacteria and illustrates the versatility of carbohydrate utilization in L. casei BL23. PMID:17449687

Yebra, María Jesús; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

2007-06-01

58

Synthesis of Fucosyl-N-Acetylglucosamine Disaccharides by Transfucosylation Using ?-l-Fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

AlfB and AlfC ?-l-fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei were used in transglycosylation reactions, and they showed high efficiency in synthesizing fucosyldisaccharides. AlfB and AlfC activities exclusively produced fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. The reaction kinetics showed that AlfB can convert 23% p-nitrophenyl-?-l-fucopyranoside into fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and AlfC at up to 56% into fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:23542622

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

59

The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334?  

PubMed Central

Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ?50,000 and ?17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ?50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-?-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-?-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ?1.5- and ?1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

2008-01-01

60

Maltose transport in Lactobacillus casei and its regulation by inducer exclusion.  

PubMed

Transport of maltose in Lactobacillus casei BL23 is subject to regulation by inducer exclusion. The presence of glucose or other rapidly metabolized carbon sources blocks maltose transport by a control mechanism that depends on the phosphorylation of the HPr protein at serine residue 46. We have identified the L. casei gene cluster for maltose/maltodextrin utilization by sequence analysis and mutagenesis. It is composed of genes coding for a transcriptional regulator, oligosaccharide hydrolytic enzymes, an ABC transporter (MalEFGK2) and the enzymes for the metabolism of maltose or the degradation products of maltodextrins: maltose phosphorylase and beta-phospho-glucomutase. These genes are induced by maltose and repressed by the presence of glucose via the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). A mutant strain was constructed which expressed the hprKV267F allele and therefore formed large amounts of P-Ser-HPr even in the absence of a repressive carbon source. In this mutant, transport of maltose was severely impaired, whereas transport of sugars not subject to inducer exclusion was not changed. These results strengthen the idea that P-Ser-HPr controls inducer exclusion and make the maltose system of L. casei a suitable model for studying this process in Firmicutes. PMID:18096372

Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María Jesús; Poncet, Sandrine; Deutscher, Josef

2008-03-01

61

Culture media for differential isolation of Lactobacillus casei Shirota from oral samples.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a solid culture medium for differential isolation of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) and for selective cultivation of lactobacilli present in oral samples. Type strains of lactobacilli and isolates from commercial probiotic products were inoculated onto modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe agar (termed 'LcS Select'), containing bromophenol blue pH indicator, vancomycin and reducing agent L-cysteine hydrochloride for differential colony morphology development. L. casei Shirota cultured on the novel medium produced distinctive colony morphologies, different from other lactobacilli tested. LcS-characteristic colonies were recovered on LcS Select medium from samples of saliva and tongue plaque following a four-week probiotic intervention study. The viable count of presumptive LcS colonies correlated with those isolated on a non-commercial lactitol-LBS-vancomycin agar (LLV) developed for a selective isolation of LcS from faeces. The novel LcS Select medium proved suitable for differential isolation of the probiotic strain L. casei Shirota from oral samples containing mixed microbial populations. It can also be used for selective growth of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli. There are few available culture media that are sufficiently selective to enable isolation of probiotic strains from mixed populations. LcS Select medium provides a cheaper, yet effective tool in this context. PMID:22484087

Sutula, Justyna; Coulthwaite, Lisa; Verran, Joanna

2012-07-01

62

LACTOBACILLUS CASEI METABOLIC POTENTIAL TO UTILIZE CITRATE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE IN RIPENING CHEESE: A BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research describes a unique PCAC for Lactobacillus casei. Additionally, it describes the citric acid catabolism end-product by this non-starter lactic acid bacteria during growth, and under conditions similar to those present in ripening cheese. It provides insights on pathways preferably util...

63

Characterization of a Regulatory Network of Peptide Antibiotic Detoxification Modules in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Two-component systems (TCS) are major signal transduction pathways that allow bacteria to detect and respond to environmental and intracellular changes. A group of TCS has been shown to be involved in the response against antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These TCS are characterized by the possession of intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases, and they are usually associated with ABC transporters of the peptide-7 exporter family (Pep7E). Lactobacillus casei BL23 encodes two TCS belonging to this group (TCS09 and TCS12) that are located next to two ABC transporters (ABC09 and ABC12), as well as a third Pep7E ABC transporter not genetically associated with any TCS (orphan ABC). This study addressed the involvement of modules TCS09/ABC09 and TCS12/ABC12 in AMP resistance. Results showed that both systems contribute to L. casei resistance to AMPs, and that each TCS constitutes a functional unit with its corresponding ABC transporter. Analysis of transcriptional levels showed that module 09 is required for the induction of ABC09 expression in response to nisin. In contrast, module 12 controls a wider regulon that encompasses the orphan ABC, the dlt operon (d-alanylation of teichoid acids), and the mprF gene (l-lysinylation of phospholipids), thereby controlling properties of the cell envelope. Furthermore, the characterization of a dltA mutant showed that Dlt plays a major role in AMP resistance in L. casei. This is the first report on the regulation of the response of L. casei to AMPs, giving insight into its ability to adapt to the challenging environments that it encounters as a probiotic microorganism. PMID:23455349

Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Gebhard, Susanne; Alcántara, Cristina; Staro?, Anna

2013-01-01

64

Metabolic engineering of Lactobacillus casei for production of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine.  

PubMed

UDP-sugars are used as glycosyl donors in many enzymatic glycosylation processes. In bacteria UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate by four successive reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM), and the bi-functional enzyme glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase/N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU). In this work several metabolic engineering strategies, aimed to increment UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis, were applied in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei strain BL23. This strain does not produce exopolysaccharides, therefore it could be a suitable host for the production of oligosaccharides. The genes glmS, glmM, and glmU coding for GlmS, GlmM, and GlmU activities in L. casei BL23, respectively, were identified, cloned and shown to be functional by homologous over-expression. The recombinant L. casei strain over-expressing simultaneously the genes glmM and glmS showed a 3.47 times increase in GlmS activity and 6.43 times increase in GlmM activity with respect to the control strain. Remarkably, these incremented activities resulted in about fourfold increase of the UDP-GlcNAc pool. In L. casei BL23 wild type strain transcriptional analyses showed that glmM and glmU are constitutively transcribed. By contrast, glmS transcription is down-regulated with a 21-fold decrease of glmS mRNA in cells cultured with N-acetylglucosamine as the sole carbon source compared to cells cultured with glucose. Our results revealed for the first time that GlmS, GlmM, and GlmU are responsible for UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis in lactobacilli. PMID:22383248

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Rubio-del-Campo, Antonio; Yebra, María J

2012-07-01

65

Characterization of a regulatory network of peptide antibiotic detoxification modules in Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Two-component systems (TCS) are major signal transduction pathways that allow bacteria to detect and respond to environmental and intracellular changes. A group of TCS has been shown to be involved in the response against antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These TCS are characterized by the possession of intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases, and they are usually associated with ABC transporters of the peptide-7 exporter family (Pep7E). Lactobacillus casei BL23 encodes two TCS belonging to this group (TCS09 and TCS12) that are located next to two ABC transporters (ABC09 and ABC12), as well as a third Pep7E ABC transporter not genetically associated with any TCS (orphan ABC). This study addressed the involvement of modules TCS09/ABC09 and TCS12/ABC12 in AMP resistance. Results showed that both systems contribute to L. casei resistance to AMPs, and that each TCS constitutes a functional unit with its corresponding ABC transporter. Analysis of transcriptional levels showed that module 09 is required for the induction of ABC09 expression in response to nisin. In contrast, module 12 controls a wider regulon that encompasses the orphan ABC, the dlt operon (d-alanylation of teichoid acids), and the mprF gene (l-lysinylation of phospholipids), thereby controlling properties of the cell envelope. Furthermore, the characterization of a dltA mutant showed that Dlt plays a major role in AMP resistance in L. casei. This is the first report on the regulation of the response of L. casei to AMPs, giving insight into its ability to adapt to the challenging environments that it encounters as a probiotic microorganism. PMID:23455349

Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Gebhard, Susanne; Alcántara, Cristina; Staron, Anna; Mascher, Thorsten; Zúñiga, Manuel

2013-05-01

66

Intragastric administration of a superoxide dismutase-producing recombinant Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain attenuates DSS colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Human immune cells release large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide via respiratory burst. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune response results in oxidative stress of the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously reported that heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum manganese catalase (MnKat) enhances the survival of Lb. casei BL23 when exposed to oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory effects were observed after Lb. casei BL23 oral administrations in moderate murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, without added effects of the MnKat production. Here, we evaluated the protective effects obtained by an improved antioxidative strategy. The Lactococcus lactis sodA gene was expressed in Lb. casei BL23 which acquired an efficient manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. The effects of Lb. casei MnSOD alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat were compared first in eukaryotic cell PMA-induced oxidative stress model and then in severe murine DSS-induced colitis. Based on ROS production assays as well as colonic histological scores, a significant reduction of both oxidative stress and inflammation was observed with Lb. casei MnSOD either alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat. No added effect of the presence of Lb. casei MnKat was observed. These results suggest that Lb. casei BL23 MnSOD could have anti-inflammatory effects on gut inflammation. PMID:20452077

Watterlot, Laurie; Rochat, Tatiana; Sokol, Harry; Cherbuy, Claire; Bouloufa, Ismael; Lefèvre, François; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Honvo-Hueto, Edith; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Blugeon, Sébastien; Corthier, Gérard; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

2010-11-15

67

Production of lactic acid from date juice extract with free cells of single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lactic acid from date juice by single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis was investigated. In the present conditions, the highest concentration of lactic acid (60.3 g l?1) was obtained in the mixed culture system while in single culture fermentations of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, the maximum concentration of lactic acid was 53 and 46 g l?1,

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Joseph Boudrant

2009-01-01

68

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Lactobacillus casei Reveals a Clonal Population Structure with Low Levels of Homologous Recombination? †  

PubMed Central

Robust genotyping methods for Lactobacillus casei are needed for strain tracking and collection management, as well as for population biology research. A collection of 52 strains initially labeled L. casei or Lactobacillus paracasei was first subjected to rplB gene sequencing together with reference strains of Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 strains belonged to a single compact L. casei-L. paracasei sequence cluster, together with strain CIP107868 (= ATCC 334) but clearly distinct from L. rhamnosus and from a cluster with L. zeae and CIP103137T (= ATCC 393T). The strains were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing based on internal portions of the seven housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, and recG, and tandem repeat variation (multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis [MLVA] using nine loci). Very high concordance was found between the three methods. Although amounts of nucleotide variation were low for the seven genes (? ranging from 0.0038 to 0.0109), 3 to 12 alleles were distinguished, resulting in 31 sequence types. One sequence type (ST1) was frequent (17 strains), but most others were represented by a single strain. Attempts to subtype ST1 strains by MLVA, ribotyping, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat characterization, and single nucleotide repeat variation were unsuccessful. We found clear evidence for homologous recombination during the diversification of L. casei clones, including a putative intragenic import of DNA into one strain. Nucleotides were estimated to change four times more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, statistical congruence between individual gene trees was retained, indicating that recombination is not frequent enough to disrupt the phylogenetic signal. The developed multilocus sequence typing scheme should be useful for future studies of L. casei strain diversity and evolution. PMID:17704267

Diancourt, Laure; Passet, Virginie; Chervaux, Christian; Garault, Peggy; Smokvina, Tamara; Brisse, Sylvain

2007-01-01

69

Roles of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in the resistance to oxidative stress in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

The Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota used in this study has in the genome four putative thioredoxin genes designated trxA1, trxA2, trxA3 and trxA4, and one putative thioredoxin reductase gene designated trxB. To elucidate the roles of the thioredoxins and the thioredoxin reductase against oxidative stress in L. casei, we constructed gene disruption mutants, in which each of the genes trxA1, trxA2 and trxB, or both trxA1 and trxA2 were disrupted, and we characterized their growth and response to oxidative stresses. In aerobic conditions, the trxA1 (MS108) and the trxA2 (MS109) mutants had moderate growth defects, and the trxA1 trxA2 double mutant (MS110) had a severe growth defect, which was characterized by elongation of doubling time and a lower final turbidity level. Furthermore, the trxB mutant (MS111), which is defective in thioredoxin reductase, lost the ability to grow under aerobic conditions, although it grew partially under anaerobic conditions. The growth of these mutants, however, could be substantially restored by the addition of dithiothreitol or reduced glutathione. In addition, MS110 and MS111 were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and disulfide stress than the wild-type. In particular, the stress sensitivity of MS111 was significantly increased. On the other hand, transcription of all these genes was only weakly affected by these oxidative stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system is the major thiol/disulfide redox system and is essential to allow the facultative anaerobe L. casei to grow under aerobic conditions. PMID:22301908

Serata, Masaki; Iino, Tohru; Yasuda, Emi; Sako, Tomoyuki

2012-04-01

70

Analysis of ldh genes in Lactobacillus casei BL23: role on lactic acid production.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium that produces L-lactate as the main product of sugar fermentation via L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh1) activity. In addition, small amounts of the D-lactate isomer are produced by the activity of a D-hydroxycaproate dehydrogenase (HicD). Ldh1 is the main L-lactate producing enzyme, but mutation of its gene does not eliminate L-lactate synthesis. A survey of the L. casei BL23 draft genome sequence revealed the presence of three additional genes encoding Ldh paralogs. In order to study the contribution of these genes to the global lactate production in this organism, individual, as well as double mutants (ldh1 ldh2, ldh1 ldh3, ldh1 ldh4 and ldh1 hicD) were constructed and lactic acid production was assessed in culture supernatants. ldh2, ldh3 and ldh4 genes play a minor role in lactate production, as their single mutation or a mutation in combination with an ldh1 deletion had a low impact on L-lactate synthesis. A Deltaldh1 mutant displayed an increased production of D-lactate, which was probably synthesized via the activity of HicD, as it was abolished in a Deltaldh1 hicD double mutant. Contrarily to HicD, no Ldh1, Ldh2, Ldh3 or Ldh4 activities could be detected by zymogram assays. In addition, these assays revealed the presence of extra bands exhibiting D-/L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, which could not be attributed to any of the described genes. These results suggest that L. casei BL23 possesses a complex enzymatic system able to reduce pyruvic to lactic acid. PMID:18231816

Rico, Juan; Yebra, María Jesús; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

2008-06-01

71

Shotgun phage display of Lactobacillus casei BL23 against collagen and fibronectin.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are normal constituents of the intestinal microbiota, and some strains show the capacity to bind to extracellular matrix proteins and components of the mucosal layer, which represents an adaptation to persist in this niche. A shotgun phage-display library of Lactobacillus casei BL23 was constructed and screened for peptides able to bind to fibronectin and collagen. Clones showing binding to these proteins were isolated, which encoded overlapping fragments of a putative transcriptional regulator (LCABL_29260), a hypothetical protein exclusively found in the L. casei/rhamnosus group (LCABL_01820), and a putative phage-related endolysin (LCABL_13470). The construction of different glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusions confirmed the binding activity and demonstrated that the three identified proteins could interact with fibronectin, fibrinogen, and collagen. The results illustrate the utility of phage display for the isolation of putative adhesins in lactobacilli. However, it remains to be determined whether the primary function of these proteins actually is adhesion to mucosal surfaces. PMID:21364304

Munoz-Provencio, Diego; Monedero, Vicente

2011-02-01

72

Characterization and Heterologous Gene Expression of a Novel Esterase from Lactobacillus casei CL96  

PubMed Central

A novel esterase gene (estI) of Lactobacillus casei CL96 was localized on a 3.3-kb BamHI DNA fragment containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,800 bp. The ORF of estI was isolated by PCR and expressed in Escherichia coli, the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, and the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of T7, methanol dehydrogenase (PmxaF), and alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoters, respectively. The amino acid sequence of EstI indicated that the esterase is a novel member of the GHSMG family of lipolytic enzymes and that the enzyme contains a lipase-like catalytic triad, consisting of Ser325, Asp516, and His558. E. coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing estI expressed a novel 67.5-kDa protein corresponding to EstI in an N-terminal fusion with the S?·?tag peptide. The recombinant L. casei CL96 EstI protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a one-step affinity chromatography procedure on S-protein agarose. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 7.0 and 37°C, respectively. Among the pNP (p-nitrophenyl) esters tested, the most selective substrate was pNP-caprylate (C8), with Km and kcat values of 14 ± 1.08 ?M and 1,245 ± 42.3 S?1, respectively. PMID:15184114

Choi, Young J.; Miguez, Carlos B.; Lee, Byong H.

2004-01-01

73

Immobilization of kefir and Lactobacillus casei on brewery spent grains for use in sourdough wheat bread making  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of bread were produced employing baker’s yeast, kefir or Lactobacillus casei immobilized on brewer’s spent grains. Bread was produced either by the straight-dough or the sourdough method. All the studied biocatalysts and their corresponding sourdoughs were found efficient for breadmaking. Good rising was achieved and the produced breads had good overall quality and remained fresher for longer, compared

Stavros Plessas; Marillena Trantallidi; Argyro Bekatorou; Maria Kanellaki; Poonam Nigam; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2007-01-01

74

Effect of Different Antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Growth of Lactobacillus casei Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could cause inhibition\\u000a of the growth of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) or whether this microorganism is able to use some of them as the sole carbon source, considering that the simultaneous\\u000a consumption of NSAIDs and a dairy drink fermented with LcS could help to prevent the

Alaíde Jiménez-Serna; Humberto Hernández-Sánchez

2011-01-01

75

Utilization of natural fucosylated oligosaccharides by three novel alpha-L-fucosidases from a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain.  

PubMed

Three putative ?-L-fucosidases encoded in the Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome were cloned and purified. The proteins displayed different abilities to hydrolyze natural fucosyloligosaccharides like 2'-fucosyllactose, H antigen disaccharide, H antigen type II trisaccharide, and 3'-, 4'-, and 6'-fucosyl-GlcNAc. This indicated a possible role in the utilization of oligosaccharides present in human milk and intestinal mucosa. PMID:21097595

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

2011-01-01

76

Influence of two-component signal transduction systems of Lactobacillus casei BL23 on tolerance to stress conditions.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei BL23 carries 17 two-component signal transduction systems. Insertional mutations were introduced into each gene encoding the cognate response regulators, and their effects on growth under different conditions were assayed. Inactivation of systems TC01, TC06, and TC12 (LCABL_02080-LCABL_02090, LCABL_12050-LCABL_12060, and LCABL_19600-LCABL_19610, respectively) led to major growth defects under the conditions assayed. PMID:21183633

Alcántara, Cristina; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Zúñiga, Manuel

2011-02-01

77

Improvement of l -lactic acid production by osmotic-tolerant mutant of Lactobacillus casei at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei was used as a model to study the mechanism of substrate inhibition and the strategy for enhancing l-lactic acid production. It was found that the concentration of cell growth and l-lactate decreased with the increase of glucose concentration and fermentation temperature. To enhance the osmotic stress\\u000a resistance of the strain at high temperature, a

Xiang-Yang Ge; Jian Yuan; Hao Qin; Wei-Guo Zhang

2011-01-01

78

Cloning and expression of a codon-optimized gene encoding the influenza A virus nucleocapsid protein in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species are envisioned as promising vehicles for the mucosal delivery of therapeutic and prophylactic molecules, including the development of oral vaccines. In this study, we report on the expression of a synthetic nucleocapsid (NP) gene of influenza A virus in Lactobacillus casei. The NP gene was re-designed based on the tRNA pool and the codon usage preference of L. casei BL23. The codon-optimized NP gene was then cloned and expressed in L. casei RCEID02 under the control of a constitutive promoter, that of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene. The synthetic NP gene was further expressed in L. casei EM116 under the control of an inducible promoter, that of the structural gene of nisin (nisA) from Lactococcus lactis. Based on Western blot analysis, the specific protein band of NP, with a molecular mass of 56.0 kDa, was clearly detected in both expression systems. Thus, our study demonstrates the success of expressing a codon-optimized influenza A viral gene in L. casei. The suitability of the recombinant LAB strains for immunization purposes is currently under evaluation. PMID:24400527

Suebwongsa, Namfon; Panya, Marutpong; Namwat, Wises; Sookprasert, Saovaluk; Redruello, Begoña; Mayo, Baltasar; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lulitanond, Viraphong

2013-06-01

79

Enhanced UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose by homologous overexpression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

UDP-sugars are widely used as substrates in the synthesis of oligosaccharides catalyzed by glycosyltransferases. In the present work a metabolic engineering strategy aimed to direct the carbon flux towards UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose biosynthesis was successfully applied in Lactobacillus casei. The galU gene coding for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU) enzyme in L. casei BL23 was cloned under control of the inducible nisA promoter and it was shown to be functional by homologous overexpression. Notably, about an 80-fold increase in GalU activity resulted in approximately a 9-fold increase of UDP-glucose and a 4-fold increase of UDP-galactose. This suggested that the endogenous UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) activity, which inter-converts both UDP-sugars, is not sufficient to maintain the UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose ratio. The L. casei galE gene coding for GalE was cloned downstream of galU and the resulting plasmid was transformed in L. casei. The new recombinant strain showed about a 4-fold increase of GalE activity, however this increment did not affect that ratio, suggesting that GalE has higher affinity for UDP-galactose than for UDP-glucose. The L. casei strains constructed here that accumulate high intracellular levels of UDP-sugars would be adequate hosts for the production of oligosaccharides. PMID:21663774

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Yebra, María J

2011-07-20

80

Consumption of Lactobacillus casei Fermented Milk Prevents Salmonella Reactive Arthritis by Modulating IL-23/IL-17 Expression  

PubMed Central

Reactive arthritis is the development of sterile joint inflammation as a sequel to a remote infection, often in the gut. We have previously shown that a low dose of S. enteritidis inoculated to streptomycin-pretreated mice generates a self-limiting enterocolitis suitable for studying reactive arthritis. Here we show that consumption of Lactobacillus casei prior to infection abolishes intestinal and joint inflammation triggered by Salmonella. BALB/c mice were sacrificed after infection; intestinal and joint samples were analyzed for histological changes and expression of cytokines. TNF-? was measured by ELISA and the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23 and TGF-? was assessed by qPCR. L. casei consumption prevented Salmonella-induced synovitis, the increment of TNF-? in knees and the increase of IL-17 expression in popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes. At intestinal level consumption of L. casei drastically diminished S. enteritidis invasiveness and shortened splenic persistence of the pathogen. Bacterial loads recovered at days 2 and 5 from Peyer’s patches were 10-fold lower in mice fed with L. casei. In accordance, we found that the augment in gut permeability induced during enterocolitis was decreased in those animals. Consumption of L. casei prior to infection failed to increase anti- inflammatory molecules such as IL-10 and TGF-? in the intestine. On the other hand, consumption of L. casei abrogated the expression of TNF-?, IL-17, IL-23, IL-1? and IL-6 in cecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. These cytokines are needed for differentiation of immune cells involved in the development of reactive arthritis such as Th17 and ?? T cells. Trafficking of these inflammatory cells from the gut to the joints has been proposed as a mechanism of generation of reactive arthritis. Our results suggest that L. casei consumption prevents Salmonella-induced synovitis by altering the intestinal milieu necessary for differentiation of cells involved in the generation of joint inflammation. PMID:24340048

Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Aya Castañeda, María del Rosario; Bernal, María Isabel; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Cerquetti, María Cristina

2013-01-01

81

The anti-inflammatory effects of a high-frequency oligodeoxynucleotide from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA has been identified as an anti-inflammatory component of Lactobacillus species, the effects of which are mediated through toll-like receptor (TLR) 9. In this study, we identified 14 novel anti-inflammatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus casei by measuring their effects on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8) in the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 cells. The ODN TTTTGCCG strongly decreased IL-8 secretion. In the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus species, the frequency of TTTTGCCG was highest in the genomic DNA of L. casei and similar among strains of L. casei. Decreases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions in macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 cells confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of TTTTGCCG. Furthermore, oral administration of TTTTGCCG ameliorated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis and DSS-induced increased expression of inflammatory factor mRNAs, such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 (CXCL2), iNOS, and COX-2. The anti-inflammatory effect of TTTTGCCG was mainly regulated by an increase in heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in the epithelium. TLR9 and Hsp90 may primarily mediate the anti-inflammatory effect of TTTTGCCG on Hsp70 signaling. PMID:25193776

Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Satho, Tomomitsu; Hyakutake, Mika; Irie, Keiichi; Mishima, Kenichi; Miake, Fumio; Kashige, Nobuhiro

2014-09-01

82

Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013  

PubMed Central

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2?>NO?>N2O?>N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

83

Genetics of l-Sorbose Transport and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding l-sorbose metabolism of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 have been identified on a 6.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment. Sequence analysis revealed seven complete genes and a partial open reading frame transcribed as two units. The deduced amino acid sequences of the first transcriptional unit (sorRE) showed high similarity to the transcriptional regulator and the l-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase of the sorbose (sor) operon from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other genes are transcribed as one unit (sorFABCDG) in opposite direction to sorRE. The deduced peptide sequence of sorF showed homology with the d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded in the sor operon from K. pneumoniae and sorABCD to components of the mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) family but especially to domains EIIA, EIIB, EIIC and EIID of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent l-sorbose PTS from K. pneumoniae. Finally, the deduced amino acid sequence of a truncated gene (sorG) located downstream of sorD presented high similarity with ketose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases. Results of studies on enzyme activities and transcriptional analysis revealed that the two gene clusters, sorRE and sorFABCDG, are induced by l-sorbose and subject to catabolite repression by d-glucose. Data indicating that the catabolite repression is mediated by components of the PTS elements and by CcpA, are presented. Results of sugar uptake assays in L. casei wild-type and sorBC mutant strains indicated that l-sorbose is taken up by l-sorbose-specific enzyme II and that L. casei contains an inducible d-fructose-specific PTS. Results of growth analysis of those strains and a man sorBC double mutant suggested that l-sorbose is probably also transported by the d-mannose PTS. We also present evidence, from studies on a sorR mutant, suggesting that the sorR gene encodes a positive regulator of the two sor operons. Sequence alignment of SorR, SorC (K. pneumoniae), and DeoR (Bacillus subtilis) revealed that they might constitute a new group of transcriptional regulators. PMID:10613875

Yebra, María J.; Veyrat, Ana; Santos, Mario A.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2000-01-01

84

Antimicrobial Activity of Intraurethrally Administered Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a Murine Model of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of the intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model was examined. UTI was induced by intraurethral administration of Escherichia coli strain HU-1 (a clinical isolate from a UTI patient, positive for type 1 and P fimbriae), at a dose of 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 CFU in 20 ?l of saline, into a C3H/HeN mouse bladder which had been traumatized with 0.1 N HCl followed immediately by neutralization with 0.1 N NaOH 24 h before the challenge infection. Chronic infection with the pathogen at 106 CFU in the urinary tract (bladder and kidneys) was maintained for more than 3 weeks after the challenge, and the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and myeloperoxidase activity in the urine were markedly elevated during the infection period. A single administration of L. casei Shirota at a dose of 108 CFU 24 h before the challenge infection dramatically inhibited E. coli growth and inflammatory responses in the urinary tract. Multiple daily treatments with L. casei Shirota during the postinfection period also showed antimicrobial activity in this UTI model. A heat-killed preparation of L. casei Shirota exerted significant antimicrobial effects not only with a single pretreatment (100 ?g/mouse) but also with multiple daily treatments during the postinfection period. The other Lactobacillus strains tested, i.e., L. fermentum ATCC 14931T, L. jensenii ATCC 25258T, L. plantarum ATCC 14917T, and L. reuteri JCM 1112T, had no significant antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the probiotic L. casei strain Shirota is a potent therapeutic agent for UTI. PMID:11353622

Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Watanuki, Masaaki; Yokokura, Teruo

2001-01-01

85

A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their ability to colonize murine tissues following oral delivery and the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a nascent probiotic, to combat paratuberculosis. Oral inoculation of mice was able to establish paratuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner. Two consecutive doses of approximately 109 CFU per mouse resulted in a disseminated infection, whereas lower doses were not efficient to establish infection. All inoculated mice were colonized with M. paratuberculosis, maintained infection for up to 24 weeks post infection and generated immune responses that reflect M. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Notably, oral administration of L. casei ATCC 334 did not reduce the level of M. paratuberculosis colonization in treated animals. Interestingly, cytokine responses and histology indicated a trend for the immunomodulation and reduction of pathology in animals receiving L. casei ATCC 334 treatment. Overall, a reproducible oral model of paratuberculosis in mice was established that could be used for future vaccine experiments. Although the L. casei ATCC 334 was not a promising candidate for controlling paratuberculosis, we established a protocol to screen other probiotic candidates. PMID:24551602

Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L.; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.

2014-01-01

86

Carbon Source Requirements for Exopolysaccharide Production by Lactobacillus casei CG11 and Partial Structure Analysis of the Polymer  

PubMed Central

Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus casei CG11 was studied in basal minimum medium containing various carbon sources (galactose, glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, melibiose) at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, and 20 g/liter. L. casei CG11 produced exopolysaccharides in basal minimum medium containing each of the sugars tested; lactose and galactose were the poorest carbon sources, and glucose was by far the most efficient carbon source. Sugar concentrations had a marked effect on polymer yield. Plasmid-cured Muc- derivatives grew better in the presence of glucose and attained slightly higher populations than the wild-type strain. The values obtained with lactose were considerably lower for both growth and exopolysaccharide yield. The level of specific polymer production per cell obtained with glucose was distinctively lower for Muc- derivatives than for the Muc+ strain. The polymer produced by L. casei CG11 in the presence of glucose was different from that formed in the presence of lactose. The polysaccharide produced by L. casei CG11 in basal minimum medium containing 20 g of glucose per liter had an intrinsic viscosity of 1.13 dl/g. It was rich in glucose (76%), which was present mostly as 2- or 3-linked residues along with some 2,3 doubly substituted glucose units, and in rhamnose (21%), which was present as 2-linked or terminal rhamnose; traces of mannose and galactose were also present. PMID:16349427

Cerning, J.; Renard, C. M. G. C.; Thibault, J. F.; Bouillanne, C.; Landon, M.; Desmazeaud, M.; Topisirovic, L.

1994-01-01

87

The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, and immune parameters in humans.Subjects: Twenty healthy male subjects aged 40–65 years were selected.Design:A placebo-controlled trial was performed in which 10 subjects were randomly assigned to a control and 10 to a

S. Spanhaak; R. Havenaar; G. Schaafsma

1998-01-01

88

Comparison of Ribotyping, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 24 strains, biochemically identified as members of the Lactobacillus casei group, were identified by PCR with species-specific primers. The same set of strains was typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to compare the discrimi- natory power of the methods. Species-specific primers for L. rhamnosus and L. casei

SOILE TYNKKYNEN; REETTA SATOKARI; MARIA SAARELA; TIINA MATTILA-SANDHOLM; MAIJA SAXELIN

1999-01-01

89

Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5?min at 100°C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

2014-01-01

90

Characterization of a membrane-regulated sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase from Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

One of the key components of the futile xylitol cycle of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 is a phosphatase which dephosphorylates xylitol 5-phosphate to xylitol prior to the expulsion of the pentitol from cells. This enzyme has been partially purified and characterized. The phosphatase is active against a variety of four-, five-, and six-carbon sugars and sugar alcohols phosphorylated at the terminal 4, 5, and 6 positions, respectively, but exhibits little or no affinity for substrates phosphorylated at the C-1 position. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 62,000 and a pH optimum between 5.5 and 6, and it requires a divalent cation (Mg2+) for maximal activity. A single protein band, exhibiting phosphatase activity, was excised from polyacrylamide gels and used to prepare antiphosphatase sera in rabbits. The antiserum was used to detect the enzyme on polyacrylamide gels and to determine the molecular weight of the monomer on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. With a subunit molecular weight of 32,000, the native enzyme appears to be a dimer. Phosphatase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by some component associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:2993253

London, J; Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J

1985-09-01

91

Characterization of a membrane-regulated sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase from Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

One of the key components of the futile xylitol cycle of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 is a phosphatase which dephosphorylates xylitol 5-phosphate to xylitol prior to the expulsion of the pentitol from cells. This enzyme has been partially purified and characterized. The phosphatase is active against a variety of four-, five-, and six-carbon sugars and sugar alcohols phosphorylated at the terminal 4, 5, and 6 positions, respectively, but exhibits little or no affinity for substrates phosphorylated at the C-1 position. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 62,000 and a pH optimum between 5.5 and 6, and it requires a divalent cation (Mg2+) for maximal activity. A single protein band, exhibiting phosphatase activity, was excised from polyacrylamide gels and used to prepare antiphosphatase sera in rabbits. The antiserum was used to detect the enzyme on polyacrylamide gels and to determine the molecular weight of the monomer on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. With a subunit molecular weight of 32,000, the native enzyme appears to be a dimer. Phosphatase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by some component associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. Images PMID:2993253

London, J; Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J

1985-01-01

92

Altered nutritional requirements associated with mutations affecting the structures of ribonucleic acid polymerase in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Rifampin-resistant mutants were isolated from Lactobacillus casei S1 and examined for possible simultaneous alteration in nutritional properties. Among the 36 mutants obtained either spontaneously or after mutagenesis with 2-aminopurine, 22 were found to be altered with respect to the specific growth requirements. The majority (20 of 22) of the latter mutants were shown to require L-glutamine in addition to the nutrients required by the parental strain for maximal growth, whereas the remaining mutants had apparently lost the requirement for L-aspartate. Further studies with one of the glutamine-requiring mutants revealed that the rifampin resistance of this strain is due to the resistance of ribonucleic acid polymerase itself and that a single mutation is responsible for both rifampin resistance and the glutamine requirement. These results strongly indicate that a structural alteration of the ribonucleic acid polymerase caused by the rifampin resistance mutation somehow affected glutamine metabolism, possibly through change in selective transcription of the genes involved. PMID:1379

Morishita, T; Yura, T

1976-02-01

93

Elements Involved in Catabolite Repression and Substrate Induction of the Lactose Operon in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

In Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, the chromosomally encoded lactose operon, lacTEGF, encodes an antiterminator protein (LacT), lactose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) elements (LacE and LacF), and a phospho-?-galactosidase. lacT, lacE, and lacF mutant strains were constructed by double crossover. The lacT strain displayed constitutive termination at a ribonucleic antiterminator (RAT) site, whereas lacE and lacF mutants showed an inducer-independent antiterminator activity, as shown analysis of enzyme activity obtained from transcriptional fusions of lac promoter (lacp) and lacp?RAT with the Escherichia coli gusA gene in the different lac mutants. These results strongly suggest that in vivo under noninducing conditions, the lactose-specific PTS elements negatively modulate LacT activity. Northern blot analysis detected a 100-nucleotide transcript starting at the transcription start site and ending a consensus RAT sequence and terminator region. In a ccpA mutant, transcription initiation was derepressed but no elongation through the terminator was observed in the presence of glucose and the inducing sugar, lactose. Full expression of lacTEGF was found only in a man ccpA double mutant, indicating that PTS elements are involved in the CcpA-independent catabolite repression mechanism probably via LacT. PMID:10383959

Gosalbes, María José; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

1999-01-01

94

Production of a Heterologous Nonheme Catalase by Lactobacillus casei: an Efficient Tool for Removal of H2O2 and Protection of Lactobacillus bulgaricus from Oxidative Stress in Milk  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound that they can paradoxically produce themselves, as is the case for Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14431 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a nonheme, manganese-dependent catalase (hereafter called MnKat). The MnKat gene was expressed in three catalase-deficient LAB species: L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842, Lactobacillus casei BL23, and Lactococcus lactis MG1363. While the protein could be detected in all heterologous hosts, enzyme activity was observed only in L. casei. This is probably due to the differences in the Mn contents of the cells, which are reportedly similar in L. plantarum and L. casei but at least 10- and 100-fold lower in Lactococcus lactis and L. bulgaricus, respectively. The expression of the MnKat gene in L. casei conferred enhanced oxidative stress resistance, as measured by an increase in the survival rate after exposure to H2O2, and improved long-term survival in aerated cultures. In mixtures of L. casei producing MnKat and L. bulgaricus, L. casei can eliminate H2O2 from the culture medium, thereby protecting both L. casei and L. bulgaricus from its deleterious effects. PMID:16885258

Rochat, Tatiana; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Gruss, Alexandra; Corthier, Gérard; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Langella, Philippe; van de Guchte, Maarten

2006-01-01

95

Production of a heterologous nonheme catalase by Lactobacillus casei: an efficient tool for removal of H2O2 and protection of Lactobacillus bulgaricus from oxidative stress in milk.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound that they can paradoxically produce themselves, as is the case for Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14431 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a nonheme, manganese-dependent catalase (hereafter called MnKat). The MnKat gene was expressed in three catalase-deficient LAB species: L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842, Lactobacillus casei BL23, and Lactococcus lactis MG1363. While the protein could be detected in all heterologous hosts, enzyme activity was observed only in L. casei. This is probably due to the differences in the Mn contents of the cells, which are reportedly similar in L. plantarum and L. casei but at least 10- and 100-fold lower in Lactococcus lactis and L. bulgaricus, respectively. The expression of the MnKat gene in L. casei conferred enhanced oxidative stress resistance, as measured by an increase in the survival rate after exposure to H2O2, and improved long-term survival in aerated cultures. In mixtures of L. casei producing MnKat and L. bulgaricus, L. casei can eliminate H2O2 from the culture medium, thereby protecting both L. casei and L. bulgaricus from its deleterious effects. PMID:16885258

Rochat, Tatiana; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Gruss, Alexandra; Corthier, Gérard; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Langella, Philippe; van de Guchte, Maarten

2006-08-01

96

Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on the evolution of flavor compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening.  

PubMed

The effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture were also included in the study. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 45days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. Both the probiotic culture and the ripening process affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. The significantly highest content of total volatiles, esters, alcohols and miscellaneous compounds was observed in sausages containing the highest amount of immobilized culture (300g/kg of stuffing mixture) ripened for 45days. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the concentration of the immobilized probiotic culture affected the volatile composition. PMID:25306510

Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2015-02-01

97

The effect of oxygen and pH on the glucose metabolism of Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus ATCC 7469  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of cultures ofLactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 without pH control under aerobic conditions resulted in very low maximum specific growth rates (0.19 hr?1), exponential glucose utilization rates (0.10 log units\\/hr\\/ml of culture) and exponential lactate production rates (0.17\\u000a log units\\/hr\\/ml of culture), compared to anaerobic cultures. In anaerobic cultures glucose was converted stoichiometrically\\u000a to lactate but in aerobic cultures this

G. J. Manderson; H. W. Doelle

1972-01-01

98

Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei supragenome and its influence in species evolution and lifestyle adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The broad ecological distribution of L. casei makes it an insightful subject for research on genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation. To explore evolutionary mechanisms that determine genomic diversity of L. casei, we performed comparative analysis of 17 L. casei genomes representing strains collected from dairy, plant, and human sources. Results Differences in L. casei genome inventory revealed an open pan-genome comprised of 1,715 core and 4,220 accessory genes. Extrapolation of pan-genome data indicates L. casei has a supragenome approximately 3.2 times larger than the average genome of individual strains. Evidence suggests horizontal gene transfer from other bacterial species, particularly lactobacilli, has been important in adaptation of L. casei to new habitats and lifestyles, but evolution of dairy niche specialists also appears to involve gene decay. Conclusions Genome diversity in L. casei has evolved through gene acquisition and decay. Acquisition of foreign genomic islands likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats, notably plant-associated niches. Loss of unnecessary ancestral traits in strains collected from bacterial-ripened cheeses supports the hypothesis that gene decay contributes to enhanced fitness in that niche. This study gives the first evidence for a L. casei supragenome and provides valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible and industrially important lactic acid bacterium. Additionally, our data confirm the Distributed Genome Hypothesis extends to non-pathogenic, ecologically flexible species like L. casei. PMID:23035691

2012-01-01

99

Physiological and proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus casei in response to acid adaptation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei by a combined physiological and proteomic analysis. To optimize the ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 1 h at different pHs, and then acid challenged at pH 3.5. The result showed that acid adaptation improved acid tolerance, and the highest survival was observed in cells adapted at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the acid-adapted cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, and lower inner permeability compared with the cells without adaptation. Proteomic analysis was performed upon acid adaptation to different pHs (pH 6.5 vs. pH 4.5) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. A total of 24 proteins that exhibited at least 1.5-fold differential expression were identified. Four proteins (Pgk, LacD, Hpr, and Galm) involved in carbohydrate catabolism and five classic stress response proteins (GroEL, GrpE, Dnak, Hspl, and LCAZH_2811) were up-regulated after acid adaptation at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Validation of the proteomic data was performed by quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional regulation of all selected genes showed a positive correlation with the proteomic patterns of the identified proteins. Results presented in this study may be useful for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and may help in formulating new strategies to improve the industrial performance of this species during acid stress. PMID:25062817

Wu, Chongde; He, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan

2014-10-01

100

Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.  

PubMed

The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (?94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ?0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

2014-11-01

101

Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant

2005-01-01

102

The effect of supplementation by different nitrogen sources on the production of lactic acid from date juice by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from date juice by fermentation has been studied using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus as the producer organism. The optimum substrate concentration, expressed in its glucose content, was 60 g l?1. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract in terms of their efficiency for lactic acid production. None of these nitrogen sources gave lactic acid concentrations

Nabil Nancib; Aicha Nancib; Amel Boudjelal; Chouki Benslimane; Fabrice Blanchard; J Boudrant

2001-01-01

103

Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

1997-01-01

104

Microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability of whole crop corn and a total mixed ration ensiled with and without inoculation of Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri.  

PubMed

Whole crop corn (DM 29.2%) and a total mixed ration (TMR, DM 56.8%) containing wet brewers grains, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, cracked corn, soybean meal, and molasses at a ratio of 5:1:1:1:1:1 on fresh weight basis, were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri in laboratory silos. The effects of inoculation on microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability were determined after 10 and 60 d. Untreated corn silage was well preserved with high lactic acid content, whereas large numbers of remaining yeasts resulted in low stability on exposure to air. Inoculation with L. casei suppressed heterolactic fermentation, but no improvements were found in aerobic stability. The addition of L. buchneri markedly enhanced the aerobic stability, while not affecting the DM loss and NH3-N production. Large amounts of ethanol were found when the TMR was ensiled, and the content of ethanol overwhelmed that of lactic acid in untreated silage. This fermentation was related to high yeast populations and accounted for a large loss of DM found in the initial 10 d. The ethanol production decreased when inoculated with L. casei and L. buchneri, but the effects diminished at 60 d of ensiling. Inoculation with L. buchneri lowered the yeasts in TMR silage from the beginning of storage; however, the populations decreased to undetectable levels when stored for 60 d, regardless of inoculation. No heating was observed in TMR silage during aerobic deterioration test for 7 d. This stability was achieved even when a high population of yeasts remained and was not affected by either inoculation or ensiling period. The results indicate that inoculation with L. buchneri can inhibit yeast growth and improve aerobic stability of corn and TMR silage; however, high stability of TMR silage can be obtained even when no treatments were made and high population (>10(5) cfu/g) of yeasts were detected. PMID:15328280

Nishino, N; Wada, H; Yoshida, M; Shiota, H

2004-08-01

105

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

2014-01-01

106

Analysis of the Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Complement of Lactobacillus casei and Characterization of the Major ?-D-Glutamyl-L-Lysyl-Endopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs) which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75) was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1) major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a ?-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23. PMID:22384208

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Meyrand, Mickael; Claes, Ingmar J. J.; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

107

Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major ?-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs) which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75) was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1) major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a ?-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23. PMID:22384208

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Meyrand, Mickael; Claes, Ingmar J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

108

Malic Enzyme and Malolactic Enzyme Pathways Are Functionally Linked but Independently Regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE. PMID:23835171

Landete, José María; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

109

Malic enzyme and malolactic enzyme pathways are functionally linked but independently regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE. PMID:23835171

Landete, José María; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

2013-09-01

110

Suppression of the ptsH Mutation in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium by a DNA Fragment from Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

A DNA fragment from Lactobacillus casei that restores growth to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium ptsH mutants on glucose and other substrates of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been isolated. These mutants lack the HPr protein, a general component of the PTS. Sequencing of the cloned fragment revealed the absence of ptsH homologues. Instead, the complementation ability was located in a 120-bp fragment that contained a sequence homologue to the binding site of the Cra regulator from enteric bacteria. Experiments indicated that the reversion of the ptsH phenotype was due to a titration of the Cra protein, which allowed the constitutive expression of the fructose operon. PMID:9748463

Monedero, Vicente; Postma, Pieter W.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

1998-01-01

111

Osmotic stress adaptation in Lactobacillus casei BL23 leads to structural changes in the cell wall polymer lipoteichoic acid.  

PubMed

The probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus casei BL23 is naturally confronted with salt-stress habitats. It has been previously reported that growth in high-salt medium, containing 0.8 M NaCl, leads to modifications in the cell envelope of this bacterium. In this study, we report that L. casei BL23 has an increased ability to form biofilms and to bind cations in high-salt conditions. This behaviour correlated with modifications of surface properties involving teichoic acids, which are important cell wall components. We also showed that, in these high-salt conditions, L. casei BL23 produces less of the cell wall polymer lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and that this anionic polymer has a shorter mean chain length and a lower level of d-alanyl-substitution. Analysis of the transcript levels of the dltABCD operon, encoding the enzymes required for the incorporation of d-alanine into anionic polymers, showed a 16-fold reduction in mRNA levels, which is consistent with a decrease in d-alanine substitutions on LTA. Furthermore, a 13-fold reduction in the transcript levels was observed for the gene LCABL_09330 coding for a putative LTA synthase. To provide further experimental evidence that LCABL_09330 is a true LTA synthase (LtaS) in L. casei BL23, the enzymic domain was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein was able to hydrolyse the membrane lipid phosphatidylglycerol as expected for an LTA synthase enzyme, and hence LCABL_09330 was renamed LtaS. The purified enzyme showed Mn(2+)-ion dependent activity, and its activity was modulated by differences in NaCl concentration. The decrease in both ltaS transcript levels and enzyme activity observed in high-salt conditions might influence the length of the LTA backbone chain. A putative function of the modified LTA structure is discussed that is compatible with the growth under salt-stress conditions and with the overall envelope modifications taking place during this stress condition. PMID:24014660

Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Gründling, Angelika; Sanchez-Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

2013-11-01

112

Aseptic addition method for Lactobacillus casei assay of folate activity in human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An `aseptic addition' method is described for microbiological assay with Lactobacillis casei of folate activity in human serum. It has the following advantages over the previously reported `standard' method. 1 The manipulations involved in the assay are halved, by deleting autoclaving of serum in buffers. 2 The use of 1 g.% ascorbate better preserves serum folates than the lower amounts

Victor Herbert

1966-01-01

113

Suppressive effect on activation of macrophages by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota genes determining the synthesis of cell wall-associated polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Although many Lactobacillus strains used as probiotics are believed to modulate host immune responses, the molecular natures of the components of such probiotic microorganisms directly involved in immune modulation process are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the function of polysaccharide moiety of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota as a possible immune modulator which regulates cytokine production by macrophages. A gene survey of the genome sequence of L. casei Shirota hunted down a unique cluster of 10 genes, most of whose predicted amino acid sequences had similarities to various extents to known proteins involved in biosynthesis of extracellular or capsular polysaccharides from other lactic acid bacteria. Gene knockout mutants of eight genes from this cluster resulted in the loss of reactivity to L. casei Shirota-specific monoclonal antibody and extreme reduction of high-molecular-mass polysaccharides in the cell wall fraction, indicating that at least these genes are involved in biosynthesis of high-molecular-mass cell wall polysaccharides. By adding heat-killed mutant cells to mouse macrophage cell lines or to mouse spleen cells, the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and IL-6 was more stimulated than by wild-type cells. In addition, these mutants additively enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells, while wild-type cells significantly suppressed the IL-6 production of RAW 264.7. Collectively, these results indicate that this cluster of genes of L. casei Shirota, which have been named cps1A, cps1B, cps1C, cps1D, cps1E, cps1F, cps1G, and cps1J, determine the synthesis of the high-molecular-mass polysaccharide moiety of the L. casei Shirota cell wall and that this polysaccharide moiety is the relevant immune modulator which may function to reduce excessive immune reactions during the activation of macrophages by L. casei Shirota. PMID:18552190

Yasuda, Emi; Serata, Masaki; Sako, Tomoyuki

2008-08-01

114

Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei upon the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K99 to the intestinal mucosa in gnotobiotic lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were carried out of the interactions between Lactobacillus casei 294\\/89 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CCM 612 (O101:K99) in vivo. In gnotobiotic lambs, inoculation with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) resulted in diarrhea with a typical clinical picture and patho-anatomical findings. E. coli adhered to the mucosa of the digestive tract at counts amounting to 105 per cm2. In these lambs,

A. Bomba; I. Kravjanský; R. Herich; Z. Juhásová; M. ?ížek; B. Kapitan?ík

1997-01-01

115

In vivo assessment of the potential protective effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota  

E-print Network

aflatoxin B1 Adrián HERNANDEZ-MENDOZA 1,2 , Doralinda GUZMAN-DE-PE�A 3 , Aarón Fernando GONZÁLEZ-C�RDOVA 2 casei Shirota to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by fluorescent monoclonal antibody staining, (2) to evaluate absorption through detection of AFB1-Lys adducts used as biological markers to a 3-week aflatoxin exposure

Boyer, Edmond

116

Lectin Microarray Reveals Binding Profiles of Lactobacillus casei Strains in a Comprehensive Analysis of Bacterial Cell Wall Polysaccharides?†  

PubMed Central

We previously showed a pivotal role of the polysaccharide (PS) moiety in the cell wall of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (YIT 9029) as a possible immune modulator (E. Yasuda M. Serata, and T. Sako, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:4746-4755, 2008). To distinguish PS structures on the bacterial cell surface of individual strains in relation to their activities, it would be useful to have a rapid and high-throughput methodology. Recently, a new technique called lectin microarray was developed for rapid profiling of glycosylation in eukaryotic polymers and cell surfaces. Here, we report on the development of a simple and sensitive method based on this technology for direct analysis of intact bacterial cell surface glycomes. The method involves labeling bacterial cells with SYTOX Orange before incubation with the lectin microarray. After washing, bound cells are directly detected using an evanescent-field fluorescence scanner in a liquid phase. Using this method, we compared the cell surface glycomes from 16 different strains of L. casei. The patterns of lectin-binding affinity of most strains were found to be unique. There appears to be two types of lectin-binding profiles: the first is characterized by a few lectins, and the other is characterized by multiple lectins with different specificities. We also showed a dramatic change in the lectin-binding profile of a YIT 9029 derivative with a mutation in the cps1C gene, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase. In conclusion, the developed technique provided a novel strategy for rapid profiling and, more importantly, differentiating numerous bacterial strains with relevance to the biological functions of PS. PMID:21602390

Yasuda, Emi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabarashi, Jun; Iino, Tohru; Sako, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

117

Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

2014-04-01

118

Characterization of the cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 gene cluster involved in sulfur metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

The up- and downstream regions of ctl1 and ctl2 that encode a cystathionine lyase were analyzed in various Lactobacillus casei strains. ctl1 and ctl2 were found to be part of a gene cluster encoding two other open reading frames. One of the two open reading frames precedes ctl1 and encodes a putative cysteine synthase. The other open reading frame lies downstream of ctl1 and encodes a putative serine acetyltransferase. The gene cluster is not present in the publicly available genome sequences of L. casei ATCC 334, BL23 and Zhang. Apparently, the gene cluster was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event and can also be found in other lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of the gene cluster. Additionally, an mass spectrometry-based selected reaction monitoring method was developed for quantifying Ctl1 in a cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria. The gene cluster cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 was expressed as single transcript, and expression was down-regulated by cysteine. In addition, cystathionine lyase activity present in cell-free extracts disappeared when L. casei was grown in the presence of cysteine. Whereas the transcript and the gene product of ctl1 protein were found in all studied ctl1(+)L. casei strains, only the transcript but not the protein or cystathionine lyase activity was detected in L. helveticus FAM2888, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and S. thermophilus FAM17014, which actually possess a homolog of the cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 gene cluster. PMID:21745695

Bogicevic, Biljana; Irmler, Stefan; Portmann, Reto; Meile, Leo; Berthoud, Hélène

2012-01-16

119

Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from Actimel and Yakult products reveals marked similarities and points to a common origin  

PubMed Central

Summary The members of the Lactobacillus genus are widely used in the food and feed industry and show a remarkable ecological adaptability. Several Lactobacillus strains have been marketed as probiotics as they possess health-promoting properties for the host. In the present study, we used two complementary next-generation sequencing technologies to deduce the genome sequences of two Lactobacillus casei strains LcA and LcY, which were isolated from the products Actimel and Yakult, commercialized as probiotics. The LcA and LcY draft genomes have, respectively, an estimated size of 3067 and 3082?Mb and a G+C content of 46.3%. Both strains are close to identical to each other and differ by no more than minor chromosomal re-arrangements, substitutions, insertions and deletions, as evident from the verified presence of one insertion-deletion (InDel) and only 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In terms of coding capacity, LcA and LcY are predicted to encode a comparable exoproteome, indicating that LcA and LcY are likely to establish similar interactions with human intestinal cells. Moreover, both L.?casei?LcA and LcY harboured a 59.6?kb plasmid that shared high similarities with plasmids found in other L.?casei strains, such as W56 and BD-II. Further analysis revealed that the L.?casei plasmids constitute a good evolution marker within the L.?casei species. The plasmids of the LcA and LcY strains are almost identical, as testified by the presence of only three verified SNPs, and share a 3.5?kb region encoding a remnant of a lactose PTS system that is absent from the plasmids of W56 and BD-II but conserved in another smaller L.?casei plasmid (pLC2W). Our observations imply that the results obtained in animal and human experiments performed with the Actimel and Yakult strains can be compared with each other as these strains share a very recent common ancestor. Funding Information The present work was supported by the Center of Excellence in Microbial Food Safety Research (Academy of Finland, Grant 141140), Grant ERC 250172 – Microbes Inside from the European Research Council and Grants 137389 and 141130 from the Academy of Finland. F.P.D. was funded by a postdoctoral research fellowship (Academy of Finland, Grant 252123). PMID:23815335

Douillard, François P; Kant, Ravi; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; Vos, Willem M

2013-01-01

120

The glycolytic genes pfk and pyk from Lactobacillus casei are induced by sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and repressed by CcpA.  

PubMed

In Lactobacillus casei BL23, phosphofructokinase activity was higher in cells utilizing sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphofructokinase gene (pfk) was cloned from L. casei and shown to be clustered with the gene encoding pyruvate kinase (pyk). pfk and pyk genes are cotranscribed and induced upon growth on sugars transported by the PTS. Contrarily to the model proposed for Lactococcus lactis, where the global catabolite regulator protein (CcpA) is involved in PTS-induced transcription of pfk and pyk, a ccpA mutation resulted in a slight increase in pfk-pyk expression in L. casei. This weak regulation was evidenced by CcpA binding to a region of the pfk-pyk promoter which contained two cre sequences significantly deviated from the consensus. The PTS induction of pfk-pyk seems to be counteracted by the CcpA-mediated repression. Our results suggest that the need to accommodate the levels of pfk-pyk mRNA to the availability of sugars is fulfilled in L. casei by a PTS/CcpA-mediated signal transduction different from L. lactis. PMID:16075200

Viana, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

2005-09-01

121

Interleukin-12 is involved in the enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by Lactobacillus casei Shirota  

PubMed Central

We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to examine the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on natural killer (NK) cell activity in humans. NK cell activity exhibited a declining trend during the period of placebo ingestion, but NK cell activity increased after intake for 3 weeks of fermented milk containing 4 × 1010 live LcS. When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of heat-killed LcS, NK cell activity was enhanced. The ability of LcS to enhance NK cell activity and induce interleukin (IL)-12 production was correlated, and the addition of anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody reduced the enhancement of NK cell activity triggered by LcS. In addition, separation of NK cells from LcS-stimulated monocytes with membrane filter reduced NK cell activity to the intermediate level and almost deprived monocytes of the ability to produce IL-12. These results demonstrate that LcS can enhance NK cell activity in vivo and in vitro in humans, and IL-12 may be responsible for enhancement of NK cell activity triggered by LcS. PMID:16968405

Takeda, K; Suzuki, T; Shimada, S-I; Shida, K; Nanno, M; Okumura, K

2006-01-01

122

Exposing the secrets of two well-known Lactobacillus casei phages, J-1 and PL-1, by genomic and structural analysis.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage J-1 was isolated in 1965 from an abnormal fermentation of Yakult using Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and a related phage, PL-1, was subsequently recovered from a strain resistant to J-1. Complete genome sequencing shows that J-1 and PL-1 are almost identical, but PL-1 has a deletion of 1.9 kbp relative to J-1, resulting in the loss of four predicted gene products involved in immunity regulation. The structural proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Similarly to phage A2, two capsid proteins are generated by a translational frameshift and undergo proteolytic processing. The structure of gene product 16 (gp16), a putative tail protein, was modeled based on the crystal structure of baseplate distal tail proteins (Dit) that form the baseplate hub in other Siphoviridae. However, two regions of the C terminus of gp16 could not be modeled using this template. The first region accounts for the differences between J-1 and PL-1 gp16 and showed sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). J-1 and PL-1 GFP-gp16 fusions bind specifically to Lactobacillus casei/paracasei cells, and the addition of l-rhamnose inhibits binding. J-1 gp16 exhibited a higher affinity than PL-1 gp16 for cell walls of L. casei ATCC 27139 in phage adsorption inhibition assays, in agreement with differential adsorption kinetics observed for both phages in this strain. The data presented here provide insights into how Lactobacillus phages interact with their hosts at the first steps of infection. PMID:25217012

Dieterle, Maria Eugenia; Bowman, Charles; Batthyany, Carlos; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Turjanski, Adrián; Hatfull, Graham; Piuri, Mariana

2014-11-01

123

Purification, crystallization and room-temperature X-ray diffraction of inositol dehydrogenase LcIDH2 from Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei BL23 contains two genes, iolG1 and iolG2, homologous with inositol dehydrogenase encoding genes from many bacteria. Inositol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of inositol with concomitant reduction of NAD+. The protein encoded by iolG2, LcIDH2, has been purified to homogeneity, crystallized and cryoprotected for diffraction at 77?K. The crystals had a high mosaicity and poor processing statistics. Subsequent diffraction measurements were performed without cryoprotectant at room temperature. These crystals were radiation-resistant and a full diffraction data set was collected at room temperature to 1.6?Å resolution. PMID:25005103

Bertwistle, Drew; Vogt, Linda; Aamudalapalli, Hari Babu; Palmer, David R J; Sanders, David A R

2014-07-01

124

A pilot study on the effect of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on intestinal microbiota parameters in Chinese subjects of different age.  

PubMed

Ageing of the population is an imminent global problem. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) was isolated from Inner Mongolian fermented milk, koumiss. LcZ possesses numerous probiotic properties in in vitro tests and in animal models. However, it has never been tested in any human trial. In the current study, the impact of oral consumption of LcZ on different age groups was tested. Chinese subjects, including 10 young, 7 middle-aged and 7 elderly volunteers (with mean age of 24.3, 47.6 and 64.7, respectively), were recruited. Each subject took 10.6 log10 cfu LcZ daily for a continuous period of 28 days. Several parameters, including the amounts of LcZ and four selected groups of bacteria, change of bacterial diversity, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and total bile acids (TBA), were monitored in faecal samples collected from the subjects before starting, during and after stopping oral LcZ consumption. The consumption of LcZ exhibited beneficial effects to the subjects by modulating faecal microbiota in a temporal manner with a prolonged elevation of SCFA and reduction of TBA. The potentially harmful Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera were suppressed by the probiotic administration. Furthermore, a moderately divergent response was observed in the indigenous gut populations of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides fragilis group in different age subjects. Taken together, the current study has provided proof on the positive effect of probiotic consumption and crucial insights into the design and application of probiotic-based products to users of different age segments. PMID:24854958

Kwok, L Y; Wang, L; Zhang, J; Guo, Z; Zhang, H

2014-09-01

125

Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on constipation-related symptoms and haemorrhoids in women during puerperium.  

PubMed

Constipation and haemorrhoids are common complaints after childbirth. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate impact of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on stool consistency and frequency, constipation-related symptoms and quality of life, and incidence of haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Forty women who had natural childbirth were randomised to group consuming either one bottle/day of fermented milk containing at least 6.5×109 cfu of LcS, or placebo, for 6 weeks after childbirth. Subjects filled in a diary on their bowel habits including number of bowel movement, stool consistency and incidence of haemorrhoids, and answered questionnaires on constipation-related symptoms (PAC-SYM) and quality of life (PAC-QOL) during the study period. The probiotic group showed the better scores on overall PAC-SYM (P=0.013), PAC-SYM subscales of abdominal symptoms (P=0.043) and rectal symptoms (P=0.031), and PAC-QOL satisfaction subscale (P=0.037) in comparison with the placebo group. In the probiotic group, two to four subjects experienced haemorrhoids during the first 3 weeks of treatment. The number decreased in week 4 and no one had haemorrhoids on most days in week 5-6. In the placebo group, on average four subjects had haemorrhoids from the beginning, and no obvious change was observed until week 6. No statistically significant effect was observed on stool consistency and frequency. The study products did not cause any adverse event in the subjects. Results of this study indicate that continuous consumption of fermented milk containing LcS might alleviate constipation-related symptoms, provide satisfactory bowel habit and result in earlier recovery from haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Nonetheless, there are several limitations in interpretation of the results attributed to the study design, including lack of baseline data. Further study is required in order to confirm the efficacy. PMID:25380801

Sakai, T; Kubota, H; Gawad, A; Gheyle, L; Ramael, S; Oishi, K

2014-11-01

126

Requirement of the Lactobacillus casei MaeKR two-component system for L-malic acid utilization via a malic enzyme pathway.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei can metabolize L-malic acid via malolactic enzyme (malolactic fermentation [MLF]) or malic enzyme (ME). Whereas utilization of L-malic acid via MLF does not support growth, the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on L-malic acid. In this work, we have identified in the genomes of L. casei strains BL23 and ATCC 334 a cluster consisting of two diverging operons, maePE and maeKR, encoding a putative malate transporter (maeP), an ME (maeE), and a two-component (TC) system belonging to the citrate family (maeK and maeR). Homologous clusters were identified in Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Our results show that ME is essential for L-malic acid utilization in L. casei. Furthermore, deletion of either the gene encoding the histidine kinase or the response regulator of the TC system resulted in the loss of the ability to grow on L-malic acid, thus indicating that the cognate TC system regulates and is essential for the expression of ME. Transcriptional analyses showed that expression of maeE is induced in the presence of L-malic acid and repressed by glucose, whereas TC system expression was induced by L-malic acid and was not repressed by glucose. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that MaeR binds specifically to a set of direct repeats [5'-TTATT(A/T)AA-3'] in the mae promoter region. The location of the repeats strongly suggests that MaeR activates the expression of the diverging operons maePE and maeKR where the first one is also subjected to carbon catabolite repression. PMID:19897756

Landete, José María; García-Haro, Luisa; Blasco, Amalia; Manzanares, Paloma; Berbegal, Carmen; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

2010-01-01

127

Lactobacillus casei ferments the N-Acetylglucosamine moiety of fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and excretes L-fucose.  

PubMed

We have previously characterized from Lactobacillus casei BL23 three ?-L-fucosidases, AlfA, AlfB, and AlfC, which hydrolyze in vitro natural fucosyl-oligosaccharides. In this work, we have shown that L. casei is able to grow in the presence of fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine (Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc) as a carbon source. Interestingly, L. casei excretes the L-fucose moiety during growth on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, indicating that only the N-acetylglucosamine moiety is being metabolized. Analysis of the genomic sequence of L. casei BL23 shows that downstream from alfB, which encodes the ?-L-fucosidase AlfB, a gene, alfR, that encodes a transcriptional regulator is present. Divergently from alfB, three genes, alfEFG, that encode proteins with homology to the enzyme IIAB (EIIAB), EIIC, and EIID components of a mannose-class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) are present. Inactivation of either alfB or alfF abolishes the growth of L. casei on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc. This proves that AlfB is involved in Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc metabolism and that the transporter encoded by alfEFG participates in the uptake of this disaccharide. A mutation in the PTS general component enzyme I does not eliminate the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, suggesting that the transport via the PTS encoded by alfEFG is not coupled to phosphorylation of the disaccharide. Transcriptional analysis with alfR and ccpA mutants shows that the two gene clusters alfBR and alfEFG are regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor AlfR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This work reports for the first time the characterization of the physiological role of an ?-L-fucosidase in lactic acid bacteria and the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc as a carbon source for bacteria. PMID:22544237

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Rubio-del-Campo, Antonio; Yebra, María J

2012-07-01

128

High resolution melting analysis (HRM) as a new tool for the identification of species belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group and comparison with species-specific PCRs and multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

The correct identification and characterisation of bacteria is essential for several reasons: the classification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has changed significantly over the years, and it is important to distinguish and define them correctly, according to the current nomenclature, avoiding problems in the interpretation of literature, as well as mislabelling when probiotic are used in food products. In this study, species-specific PCR and HRM (high-resolution melting) analysis were developed to identify strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group and to classify them into L. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. HRM analysis confirmed to be a potent, simple, fast and economic tool for microbial identification. In particular, 201 strains, collected from International collections and attributed to the L. casei group, were examined using these techniques and the results were compared with consolidated molecular methods, already published. Seven of the tested strains don't belong to the L. casei group. Among the remaining 194 strains, 6 showed inconsistent results, leaving identification undetermined. All the applied techniques were congruent for the identification of the vast majority of the tested strains (188). Notably, for 46 of the strains, the identification differed from the previous attribution. PMID:25475306

Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Manzano, Marisa; Anastasi, Veronica; Reale, Anna; Zotta, Teresa; Rossi, Franca; Coppola, Raffaele; Comi, Giuseppe

2015-04-01

129

Recombinant fusion protein of cholera toxin B subunit with YVAD secreted by Lactobacillus casei inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1 beta secretion in Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus species are used as bacterial vectors to deliver functional peptides to the intestine because they are delivered live to the intestine, colonize the mucosal surface, and continue to produce the desired protein. Previously, we generated a recombinant Lactobacillus casei secreting the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which can translocate into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) through GM1 ganglioside. Recombinant fusion proteins of CTB with functional peptides have been used as carriers for the delivery of these peptides to IECs because of the high cell permeation capacity of recombinant CTB (rCTB). However, there have been no reports of rCTB fused with peptides expressed or secreted by Lactobacillus species. In this study, we constructed L. casei secreting a recombinant fusion protein of CTB with YVAD (rCTB–YVAD). YVAD is a tetrapeptide (tyrosine–valine–alanine–aspartic acid) that specifically inhibits caspase-1, which catalyzes the production of interleukin (IL)-1?, an inflammatory cytokine, from its inactive precursor. Here, we examined whether rCTB–YVAD secreted by L. casei binds to GM1 ganglioside and inhibits caspase-1 activation in Caco-2 cells used as a model of IECs. Results We constructed the rCTB–YVAD secretion vector pSCTB–YVAD by modifying the rCTB secretion vector pSCTB. L. casei secreting rCTB–YVAD was generated by transformation with pSCTB–YVAD. Both the culture supernatant of pSCTB–YVAD-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB–YVAD bound to GM1 ganglioside, as did the culture supernatant of pSCTB-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB. Interestingly, although both purified rCTB–YVAD and rCTB translocated into Caco-2 cells, regardless of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), only purified rCTB–YVAD but not rCTB inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1? secretion in Caco-2 cells, without affecting cell viability. Conclusions The rCTB protein fused to a functional peptide secreted by L. casei can bind to GM1 ganglioside, like rCTB, and recombinant YVAD secreted by L. casei may exert anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. Therefore, rCTB secreted by L. casei has potential utility as a vector for the delivery of YVAD to IECs. PMID:24884459

2014-01-01

130

The efficacy of ampicillin and Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus in the active management of preterm premature rupture of membranes remote from term  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to investigate the treatment efficacy of ampicillin prophylaxis accompanied by Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus over the latency period following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Methods Records of 40 patients who presented with PPROM between 230/7–316/7 weeks were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=20), treated with ampicillin; and group 2 (n=20), treated with ampicillin plus L. casei rhamnosus. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared. Delta (?) values of each laboratory parameter were calculated by subtracting the value at delivery from the values at admission to the clinic. Results Gestational weeks at delivery (28.1±0.3 weeks versus 31.5±0.4 weeks), latency periods (12.3±1.5 days versus 41.4±4.4 days), 5-minute APGAR scores (6.8±0.1 versus 7.8±0.1), and birth weights (1,320±98 g versus 1,947±128 g) were significantly higher in group 2. White blood cell (WBC) (12,820±353/mm3 versus 11,107±298/mm3), and neutrophil counts (10.7±0.5×103/L versus 8.2±0.5×103/L) were significantly lower in group 2 at delivery. The ?WBC (2,295±74/mm3 versus ?798±?406/mm3), ?C-reactive protein (5±0.04 mg/L versus 1.6±0.2 mg/L), and ?neutrophil (3±0.2×103/L versus 0.2±?0.1×103/L) were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion It seems that addition of L. casei rhamnosus to ampicillin prolongs the latency period in patients with PPROM remote from term. PMID:25210439

Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru; Ilhan, Rasit; Atilgan, Remzi; Arat, Ozgur; Deveci, Ugur; Sapmaz, Ekrem

2014-01-01

131

The lac operon of Lactobacillus casei contains lacT, a gene coding for a protein of the Bg1G family of transcriptional antiterminators.  

PubMed

The 5' region of the lac operon of Lactobacillus casei has been investigated. An open reading frame of 293 codons, designated lacT, was identified upstream of lacE. The gene product encoded by lacT is related to the family of transcriptional antiterminator proteins, which includes BglG from Escherichia coli, ArbG from Erwinia chrysanthemi, SacT, SacY, and LicT from Bacillus subtilis, and BglR from Lactococcus lactis. Amino acid sequence identities range from 35 to 24%, while similarities range from 56 to 47%. The transcriptional start site of the lac operon was identified upstream of lacT. The corresponding mRNA would contain in the 5' region a sequence with high similarity to the consensus RNA binding site of transcriptional antiterminators overlapping a sequence capable of folding into a structure that resembles a rho-independent terminator. LacT was shown to be active as an antiterminator in a B. subtilis test system using the sacB target sequence. lacT directly precedes lacEGF, the genes coding for enzyme IICB, phospho-beta-galactosidase, and enzyme IIA, and these genes are followed by a sequence that appears to encode a second rho-independent transcription terminator-like structure. Northern hybridizations with probes against lacT, lacE, and lacF revealed transcripts of similar sizes for the lac mRNAs of several L. casei strains. Since the length of the lac mRNA is just sufficient to contain lacTEGF, we conclude that the lac operon of L. casei does not contain the genes of the accessory tagatose-6-phosphate pathway as occurs in the lac operons of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus mutans, or Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:9045813

Alpert, C A; Siebers, U

1997-03-01

132

The lac operon of Lactobacillus casei contains lacT, a gene coding for a protein of the Bg1G family of transcriptional antiterminators.  

PubMed Central

The 5' region of the lac operon of Lactobacillus casei has been investigated. An open reading frame of 293 codons, designated lacT, was identified upstream of lacE. The gene product encoded by lacT is related to the family of transcriptional antiterminator proteins, which includes BglG from Escherichia coli, ArbG from Erwinia chrysanthemi, SacT, SacY, and LicT from Bacillus subtilis, and BglR from Lactococcus lactis. Amino acid sequence identities range from 35 to 24%, while similarities range from 56 to 47%. The transcriptional start site of the lac operon was identified upstream of lacT. The corresponding mRNA would contain in the 5' region a sequence with high similarity to the consensus RNA binding site of transcriptional antiterminators overlapping a sequence capable of folding into a structure that resembles a rho-independent terminator. LacT was shown to be active as an antiterminator in a B. subtilis test system using the sacB target sequence. lacT directly precedes lacEGF, the genes coding for enzyme IICB, phospho-beta-galactosidase, and enzyme IIA, and these genes are followed by a sequence that appears to encode a second rho-independent transcription terminator-like structure. Northern hybridizations with probes against lacT, lacE, and lacF revealed transcripts of similar sizes for the lac mRNAs of several L. casei strains. Since the length of the lac mRNA is just sufficient to contain lacTEGF, we conclude that the lac operon of L. casei does not contain the genes of the accessory tagatose-6-phosphate pathway as occurs in the lac operons of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus mutans, or Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:9045813

Alpert, C A; Siebers, U

1997-01-01

133

Glycan-modifying bacteria-derived soluble factors from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Lactobacillus casei inhibit rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells.  

PubMed

Rotaviruses attach to intestinal cells in a process that requires glycan recognition. Some bacteria from the gut microflora have been shown to modify cell-surface glycans. In this study, human intestinal cultured cells were incubated with bacteria-derived soluble factors and infected with rotavirus. Results show that only bacterial soluble factors that increase cell-surface galactose namely, those of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Lactobacillus casei were able to efficiently block rotavirus infections. Increasing cell-surface galactose using galactosyltransferase resulted in a similar blockage of rotavirus infections. These results indicate that manipulation of cell-surface intestinal glycans by bacterial soluble factors can prevent rotavirus infection in a species-specific manner, and should now be considered a potential therapeutic approach against rotavirus infection. PMID:22079149

Varyukhina, Svetlana; Freitas, Miguel; Bardin, Sabine; Robillard, Emilie; Tavan, Emmanuelle; Sapin, Catherine; Grill, Jean-Pierre; Trugnan, Germain

2012-03-01

134

Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Background At present, available pneumococcal vaccines have failed to eradicate infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Search for effective vaccine continues and some serotype independent pneumococcal proteins are considered as candidates for the design of new vaccines, especially a mucosal vaccine, since pneumococci enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Selection of the appropriate adjuvant is important for mucosal vaccines, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunostimulant properties are promissory candidates. In this work, we assessed the adjuvant effect of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), when nasally administered with a pneumococcal antigen (pneumococcal protective protein A: PppA) for the prevention of pneumococcal infection. Adjuvanticity of both live (LcV) and heat-killed (LcM) was evaluated and humoral and cellular antigen-specific immune response was assessed in mucosal and systemic compartments. The potential mechanisms induced by nasal immunization were discussed. Results Nasal immunization of young mice with PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM induced anti-PppA IgA and IgG antibodies in mucosal and systemic compartments and levels of these specific antibodies remained high even at day 45 after the 3rd Immunization (3rd I). These results were correlated with IL-4 induction by the mixture of antigen plus LcV and LcM. Also, PppA+Lc (V and M) induced stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells involved in the defence against pneumococci. The protection against pneumococcal respiratory challenge at day 30 after the 3rd I showed that PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM immunizations significantly reduced pathogen counts in nasal lavages while prventing their passage into lung and blood. Survival of mice immunized with the co-application of PppA plus LcV and LcM was significantly higher than in mice immunized with PppA alone and control mice when intraperitoneal challenge was performed. No significant differences between the treatments involving LcV and LcM were found. Conclusions Live and heat-killed L. casei enhanced the antigen-specific immune response when administered nasally with a pneumococcal antigen. Considering the potential risk associated with live bacteria, the design of a nasal vaccine based on pneumococcal antigens and heat-killed L. casei emerges as a safe and effective strategy for the prevention of pneumococcal infections and opens new possibilities of application of dead LAB as adjuvants in vaccine formulations against other pathogens. PMID:21834957

2011-01-01

135

Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract\\/corn steep liquor\\/glucose medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled

Mi-Young Ha; Si-Wouk Kim; Yong-Woon Lee; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2003-01-01

136

Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

2008-09-01

137

Utilization of D-ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 requires a mannose-type phosphotransferase system and three catabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment D-ribitol (also called D-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates D-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in D-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented D-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a D-ribitol-5-phosphate (D-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a D-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein D-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD(+) to oxidize D-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to D-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to D-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting D-xylulose-5-P is split by D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate D-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as D-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

Bourand, A; Yebra, M J; Boël, G; Mazé, A; Deutscher, J

2013-06-01

138

Utilization of d-Ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Requires a Mannose-Type Phosphotransferase System and Three Catabolic Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment d-ribitol (also called d-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates d-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in d-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented d-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a d-ribitol-5-phosphate (d-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a d-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein d-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD+ to oxidize d-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to d-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to d-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting d-xylulose-5-P is split by d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate d-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as d-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

Bourand, A.; Yebra, M. J.; Boël, G.; Mazé, A.

2013-01-01

139

Insertion of bacteriophage phiFSW into the chromosome of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (S-1): characterization of the attachment sites and the integrase gene.  

PubMed

The integrase gene (int) on the genome of ?FSW, which is a temperate bacteriophage of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (formerly denoted as S-1), and the four attachment sites on the genomes of the phage and its host were characterized by sequencing. The ?FSW integrase was found to belong to the integrase family of site-specific tyrosine recombinase. The attachment sites shared a 40bp common core within which an integrative site-specific recombination occurs. The common core was flanked on one side by an additional segment of high sequence similarity. An integration plasmid, consisting of int, the phage attachment site (attP), and a selectable marker, inserted stably into the bacterial attachment site (attB) within the common core, as did the complete prophage genome at a frequency of more than 10(3)/microg of plasmid DNA. This plasmid was used as a test system for a preliminary mutational analysis of int and attP. The attB common core was located within and near the end of an open reading frame that appears to encode a homolog to glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. It is unlikely that the prophage integration inactivates this protein, since a change of only the C-terminal amino acid is predicted because of the sequence similarity between attP and attB. PMID:10831846

Shimizu-Kadota, M; Kiwaki, M; Sawaki, S; Shirasawa, Y; Shibahara-Sone, H; Sako, T

2000-05-16

140

Assembly of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: mutants deficient in the D-alanyl ester content of this amphiphile  

SciTech Connect

D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 contains a poly(glycerophosphate) moiety that is acylated with D-alanyl ester residues. The physiological function of these residues is not well understood. Five mutant strains of this organism that are deficient in the esters of this amphiphile were isolated and characterized. When compared with the parent, strains AN-1 and AN-4 incorporated less than 10% of D-(/sup 14/C)alanine into LTA, whereas AN-2, AN-3, and AN-5 incorporated 50%. The synthesis of D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA was virtually absent in the first group and was approximately 30% in the second group. The mutant strains synthesized and selected the glycolipid anchor for LTA assembly. In addition, all of the strains synthesized the poly(glycerophosphate) moiety of LTA to the same extent as did the parent or to a greater extent. It was concluded that the membranes from the mutant strains AN-1 and AN-4 are defective for D-alanylation of LTA even though acceptor LTA is present. Mutant strains AN-2 and AN-3 appear to be partially deficient in the amount of the D-alanine-activating enzyme. Aberrant morphology and defective cell separation appear to result from this deficiency in D-alanyl ester content.

Ntamere, A.S.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

1987-04-01

141

A Novel Type of Peptidoglycan-binding Domain Highly Specific for Amidated d-Asp Cross-bridge, Identified in Lactobacillus casei Bacteriophage Endolysins*  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) are responsible for bacterial cell lysis. Most PGHs have a modular structure comprising a catalytic domain and a cell wall-binding domain (CWBD). PGHs of bacteriophage origin, called endolysins, are involved in bacterial lysis at the end of the infection cycle. We have characterized two endolysins, Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2, identified in prophages present in the genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23. These two enzymes have different catalytic domains but similar putative C-terminal CWBDs. By analyzing purified peptidoglycan (PG) degradation products, we showed that Lc-Lys is an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, whereas Lc-Lys-2 is a ?-d-glutamyl-l-lysyl endopeptidase. Remarkably, both lysins were able to lyse only Gram-positive bacterial strains that possess PG with d-Ala4?d-Asx-l-Lys3 in their cross-bridge, such as Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus faecium. By testing a panel of L. lactis cell wall mutants, we observed that Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2 were not able to lyse mutants with a modified PG cross-bridge, constituting d-Ala4?l-Ala-(l-Ala/l-Ser)-l-Lys3; moreover, they do not lyse the L. lactis mutant containing only the nonamidated d-Asp cross-bridge, i.e. d-Ala4?d-Asp-l-Lys3. In contrast, Lc-Lys could lyse the ampicillin-resistant E. faecium mutant with 3?3 l-Lys3-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges replacing the wild-type 4?3 d-Ala4-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges. We showed that the C-terminal CWBD of Lc-Lys binds PG containing mainly d-Asn but not PG with only the nonamidated d-Asp-containing cross-bridge, indicating that the CWBD confers to Lc-Lys its narrow specificity. In conclusion, the CWBD characterized in this study is a novel type of PG-binding domain targeting specifically the d-Asn interpeptide bridge of PG. PMID:23733182

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2013-01-01

142

A novel type of peptidoglycan-binding domain highly specific for amidated D-Asp cross-bridge, identified in Lactobacillus casei bacteriophage endolysins.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) are responsible for bacterial cell lysis. Most PGHs have a modular structure comprising a catalytic domain and a cell wall-binding domain (CWBD). PGHs of bacteriophage origin, called endolysins, are involved in bacterial lysis at the end of the infection cycle. We have characterized two endolysins, Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2, identified in prophages present in the genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23. These two enzymes have different catalytic domains but similar putative C-terminal CWBDs. By analyzing purified peptidoglycan (PG) degradation products, we showed that Lc-Lys is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, whereas Lc-Lys-2 is a ?-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl endopeptidase. Remarkably, both lysins were able to lyse only Gram-positive bacterial strains that possess PG with D-Ala(4)?D-Asx-L-Lys(3) in their cross-bridge, such as Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus faecium. By testing a panel of L. lactis cell wall mutants, we observed that Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2 were not able to lyse mutants with a modified PG cross-bridge, constituting D-Ala(4)?L-Ala-(L-Ala/L-Ser)-L-Lys(3); moreover, they do not lyse the L. lactis mutant containing only the nonamidated D-Asp cross-bridge, i.e. D-Ala(4)?D-Asp-L-Lys(3). In contrast, Lc-Lys could lyse the ampicillin-resistant E. faecium mutant with 3?3 L-Lys(3)-D-Asn-L-Lys(3) bridges replacing the wild-type 4?3 D-Ala(4)-D-Asn-L-Lys(3) bridges. We showed that the C-terminal CWBD of Lc-Lys binds PG containing mainly D-Asn but not PG with only the nonamidated D-Asp-containing cross-bridge, indicating that the CWBD confers to Lc-Lys its narrow specificity. In conclusion, the CWBD characterized in this study is a novel type of PG-binding domain targeting specifically the D-Asn interpeptide bridge of PG. PMID:23733182

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2013-07-12

143

Isolation of Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512 as novel probiotics with immunomodulatory properties.  

PubMed

Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1?cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized. PMID:25130071

Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed

2014-10-01

144

Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools.  

PubMed

The effects of drinking a fermented milk beverage that contains Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) at 40 billion bacterial cells/bottle for 4 weeks (probiotics, 1 bottle/day) on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools were evaluated. Thirty-four healthy adults who had soft stools were randomised into 2 groups, and the effects of a regular 4-week intake of probiotics were evaluated by a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative design. Defecation frequency significantly decreased after the 4-week intake period compared with before the probiotic treatment. The stool quality significantly improved (hardened) compared to the placebo. Also, the water content of the stools was lower in the probiotic group than in the placebo group. Live LcS was recovered at 6.9 ± 1.3 and 7.2 ± 0.8 log(10) CFU per 1g of stool after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of probiotic treatment. The number of bifidobacteria in the stools also increased significantly compared with the level before starting the probiotics. The organic acid levels (total, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) significantly increased compared with the level before intake in both the probiotic and placebo groups, but they returned to the original levels after the end of the intake period. These results suggest that probiotic fermented milk beverage has an intestine-conditioning effect by improving the frequency of defecation and stool quality and increasing the intrinsic bifidobacteria in healthy individuals with soft stool. PMID:20580604

Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takada, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Kensuke; Moriyama, Kaoru; Kawakami, Koji; Hirano, Koichi; Kajimoto, Osami; Nomoto, Koji

2010-11-01

145

Lactobacillus casei-01 Facilitates the Ameliorative Effects of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Lotus Seedpod on Learning and Memory Impairment in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice  

PubMed Central

Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC) have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC) enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (109 cfu/kg body weight (BW)), LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC) and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC)), or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC). Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. PMID:25396737

Xiao, Juan; Li, Shuyi; Sui, Yong; Wu, Qian; Li, Xiaopeng; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Mingwei; Sun, Zhida

2014-01-01

146

Extent of Genetic Lesions of the Arginine and Pyrimidine Biosynthetic Pathways in Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, L. pentosus, and L. casei: Prevalence of CO2-Dependent Auxotrophs and Characterization of Deficient arg Genes in L. plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria require rich media since, due to mutations in their biosynthetic genes, they are unable to synthesize numerous amino acids and nucleobases. Arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis have a common intermediate, carbamoyl phosphate (CP), whose synthesis requires CO2. We investigated the extent of genetic lesions in both the arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways in a collection of lactobacilli, including 150 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 strains of L. pentosus, 15 strains of L. paraplantarum, and 10 strains of L. casei. The distribution of prototroph and auxotroph phenotypes varied between species. All L. casei strains, no L. paraplantarum strains, two L. pentosus strains, and seven L. plantarum strains required arginine for growth. Arginine auxotrophs were more frequently found in L. plantarum isolated from milk products than in L. plantarum isolated from fermented plant products or humans; association with dairy products might favor arginine auxotrophy. In L. plantarum the argCJBDF genes were functional in most strains, and when they were inactive, only one gene was mutated in more than one-half of the arginine auxotrophs. Random mutation may have generated these auxotrophs since different arg genes were inactivated (there were single point mutations in three auxotrophs and nonrevertible genetic lesions in four auxotrophs). These data support the hypothesis that lactic acid bacteria evolve by progressively loosing unnecessary genes upon adaptation to specific habitats, with genome evolution towards cumulative DNA degeneration. Although auxotrophy for only uracil was found in one L. pentosus strain, a high CO2 requirement (HCR) for arginine and pyrimidine was common; it was found in 74 of 207 Lactobacillus strains tested. These HCR auxotrophs may have had their CP cellular pool-related genes altered or deregulated. PMID:12732536

Bringel, Françoise; Hubert, Jean-Claude

2003-01-01

147

Weissella confusa (Basonym: Lactobacillus confusus) Bacteremia: a Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Lactobacillus is rare, and only a handful of species have been identified as being clinically significant: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus leichmannii. The literature contains one case report of bacteremia caused by Weissella confusa (basonym: Lactobacillus confusus), but the clinical significance of the infection was unclear. We describe a case of W. confusa bacteremia in a 46-year-old

ARREL OLANO; JIMMY CHUA; SUZANNE SCHROEDER; AFAF MINARI; MARGARET LA SALVIA; GERRI HALL

148

An esterase gene from Lactobacillus casei cotranscribed with genes encoding a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and regulated by a LevR-like activator and sigma54 factor.  

PubMed

A new esterase-encoding gene was found in the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei BL23 (CECT5275). It is located in an operon together with genes encoding the EIIA, EIIB, EIIC, and EIID proteins of a mannose class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. After overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification, the esterase could hydrolyze acetyl sugars, hence the operon was named esu for esterase-sugar uptake genes. Upstream of the genes encoding the EII components (esuABCD) and the esterase (esuE), two genes transcribed in the opposite sense were found which encode a Bacillus subtilis LevR-like transcriptional activator (esuR) and a sigma54-like transcriptional factor (rpoN). As compared with the wild-type strain, elevated fructose phosphorylation was detected in L. casei mutants constitutively expressing the esu operon. However, none of the many sugars tested could induce the esu operon. The fact that EsuE exhibits esterase activity on acetyl sugars suggests that this operon could be involved in the uptake and metabolism of esterified sugars. Expression of the esu operon is similar to that of the B. subtilis lev operon: it contains a -12,-24 consensus promoter typical of sigma54-regulated genes, and EsuR and RpoN are essential for its transcription which is negatively regulated by EIIB(Esu). The esuABCDE transcription unit represents the first sigma54-regulated operon in lactobacilli. Furthermore, replacement of His852 in the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system regulation domain II of EsuR with Ala indicated that the transcription activator function of EsuR is inhibited by EIIB(Esu)-mediated phosphorylation at His852. PMID:15925903

Yebra, María J; Viana, Rosa; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2004-01-01

149

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine  

E-print Network

- cillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus plantarumDraft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine genome sequence of the strain Lactobacillus hominis CRBIP 24.179T, isolated from a human clinical sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

Influence of a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain on the colonisation with potential pathogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharyngeal space of healthy men with a low baseline NK cell activity.  

PubMed

The effect of a daily intake of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on the colonisation of pathogens, specifically streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, in the nose and throat of healthy human volunteers with low natural killer cell activity, was investigated in a randomised and controlled intervention study. The study consisted of a 2-week run-in phase, followed by a 4-week intervention phase. The probiotic treatment group received a fermented milk drink with LcS, while the placebo group received an equally composed milk drink without the probiotic additive. To isolate potential pathogenic streptococci and Staph. aureus, samples from the pharynx, as well as of both middle nasal meati, were taken, once after the run-in phase and once at the end of the intervention phase. Isolated bacteria were identified as either Staph. aureus and ?- or ?-haemolytic streptococci in a polyphasic taxonomical approach based on phenotypic tests, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotyping, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative strains. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was used as marker of protective mucosal immunity to evaluate whether LcS treatment influenced SIgA production. No statistically significant effect could be determined for intervention with LcS on the incidence of Staph. aureus in the nasal space, Staph. aureus in the pharyngeal space or for ?-haemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pharyngeal space. Thus, the intervention did not influence the nasopharyngeal colonisation with Gram-positive potential pathogens. Production of salivary SIgA as a potential means of microbiota modulation was also not affected. PMID:25416927

Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Seifert, Stephanie; Kramlich, Jeannette; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard

2014-11-23

151

Effects of biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus casei on gtfB, gtfC, and ftf gene expression level in S. mutans by real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background: The Streptococci are the pioneer strains in plaque formation and Streptococcus mutans are the main etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. In general, biofilm formation is a step-wise process, which begins by adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. Evidences show that expression of glucosyltransferase B and C (gtfB and gtfC) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play critical role in initial adhesion of S. mutans to the tooth surface which results in formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biosurfactants produced by a probiotic strain; Lactobacillus casei (ATCC39392) on gene expression profile of gftB/C and tft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The application of the prepared biosurfactant caused dramatic down regulation of all the three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically highly significant (for gtfB, P > 0.0002; for gtfC, P > 0.0063, and for ftf, P > 0.0057). Conclusion: Considerable downregulation of all three genes in the presence of the prepared biosurfactant comparing to untreated controls is indicative of successful inhibition of influential genes in bacterial adhesion phenomena. In view of the importance of glucosyltransferase gene products for S.mutans attachment to the tooth surface which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, further research in this field may lead to an applicable alternative for successful with least adverse side effects in dental caries prevention.

Savabi, Omid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Kamali, Sara; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Eslami, Gilda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Salehi, Rasoul

2014-01-01

152

Effect of the administration of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on intestinal microbiota and gut associated immune cells of nursing mice and after weaning until immune maturity  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of bacterial colonization in the newborn. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) containing yogurt starter cultures and the probiotic bacteria strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 to mothers during nursing or their offspring, on the intestinal bacterial population and on parameters of the gut immune system. Results Fifteen mice of each group were sacrificed at ages 12, 21, 28 and 45 days. Large intestines were taken for determination of intestinal microbiota, and small intestines for the study of secretory-IgA (S-IgA) in fluid and the study of IgA+ cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and goblet cells on tissue samples. The consumption of the PFM either by the mother during nursing or by the offspring after weaning modified the development of bifidobacteria population in the large intestine of the mice. These modifications were accompanied with a decrease of enterobacteria population. The administration of this PFM to the mothers improved their own immune system and this also affected their offspring. Offspring from mice that received PFM increased S-IgA in intestinal fluids, which mainly originated from their mother's immune system. A decrease in the number of macrophages, dendritic cells and IgA+ cells during the suckling period in offspring fed with PFM was observed; this could be related with the improvement of the immunity of the mothers, which passively protect their babies. At day 45, the mice reach maturity of their own immune system and the effects of the PFM was the stimulation of their mucosal immunity. Conclusion The present work shows the beneficial effect of the administration of a PFM not only to the mothers during the suckling period but also to their offspring after weaning and until adulthood. This effect positively improved the intestinal microbiota that are related with a modulation of the gut immune response, which was demonstrated with the stimulation of the IgA + cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. PMID:18554392

de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Dogi, Cecilia A; Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Perdigón, Gabriela

2008-01-01

153

Evaluation of Numerical Analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)PCR as a Method to Differentiate Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus grouped into one protein profile cluster at r ? 0.70, separate from Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sake, and Lactobacillus curvatus. Similar sugar fermentation reactions were recorded for representative strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus. Representative strains, including the type of each species, were selected from the different protein profile clusters and\\u000a their genetic relatedness

Carol A. Van Reenen; Leon M. T. Dicks

1996-01-01

154

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

PubMed Central

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S–23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D.

2013-01-01

155

Molecular Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a Strain with Efficient Nitrite Degradation Capacity.  

PubMed

Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity. PMID:25423449

Fei, Yong-Tao; Liu, Dong-Mei; Luo, Tong-Hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-Gang

2014-01-01

156

Some Lactobacillus l-Lactate Dehydrogenases Exhibit Comparable Catalytic Activities for Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate  

PubMed Central

The nonallosteric and allosteric l-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. casei, respectively, exhibited broad substrate specificities, giving virtually the same maximal reaction velocity and substrate Km values for pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Replacement of Pro101 with Asn reduced the activity of the L. pentosus enzyme toward these alternative substrates to a greater extent than the activity toward pyruvate. PMID:11114942

Arai, Kazuhito; Kamata, Takeo; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2001-01-01

157

Studies on bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus isolates from selected Nigerian fermented foods.  

PubMed

Ten bacteriocin-producing (bacteriocinogenic) Lactobacillus isolates obtained from three Nigerian fermented foods namely: kenkey, ogi and wara were tested against the following indicator organisms: Lactobacillus plantarum and food borne pathogens comprising enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas cavice, Salmonella typhimurium, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Staphylococcus aureus. All the bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus were found to inhibit L. plantarum while some inhibited some of the food borne pathogens listed above. The antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins from L. plantarum KKY12 and L. casei OGM12 were caused by proteins detectable in the culture liquids. They are designated Plantacin N and Caseicin A and they have narrow antimicrobial spectra. Plantacin N from L. plantarum KKY12 was active against L. plantarum, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas cavice whereas Caseicin A from L. casei OGM12 inhibited L. plantarum, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Caseicin A is stable at 121 degrees C/15 mins, and both are inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. The bacteriocinogenic properties of the local isolates of Lactobacillus can help to reduce hygienic risk and the spoilage of fermented foods. PMID:8568643

Olasupo, N A; Olukoya, D K; Odunfa, S A

1995-01-01

158

Probiotic Crescenza Cheese Containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus Manufactured with High-Pressure Homogenized Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilagemicroorganismsinmodelsystemsandrealfood is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated

P. Burns; F. Patrignani; D. Serrazanetti; G. C. Vinderola; J. A. Reinheimer; R. Lanciotti; M. E. Guerzoni

2008-01-01

159

The microbial flora of sugary kefir grain (the gingerbeer plant): biosynthesis of the grain from Lactobacillus hilgardii producing a polysaccharide gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microflora of sugary kefir grains was principally mesophilic and consisted chiefly of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus hilgardii (=brevis),Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.dextranicum, Streptococcus lactis] and a small proportion of yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces florentinus, Torulospora pretoriensis, Kloeckera apiculata, Candida lambica andC. valida). Few coliforms and faecal streptococci were observed. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filamentous yeasts adhered

M. Pidoux

1989-01-01

160

Phytase gene expression in Lactobacillus and analysis of its biochemical characteristics.  

PubMed

A 1.4-kb DNA containing the coding region of phytase gene from Aspergillus ficuum (A. ficuum) was connected with the plasmid of pIAbeta8 to construct shuffling vector, which was inserted into Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) by electroporation. The Lactobacillus with phytase gene was selected and incubated in anaerobic liquid medium. The results indicated that the highest phytase activities in the supernatant and cells were 22.12 and 4.49 Uml(-1) (P<0.05) at the fourth day of incubation; the optimum pH and temperature of phytase were 5.0 and 40-80 degrees C, respectively (P<0.05); the lowest pH value in the anaerobic medium was 3.35 (P<0.05) at the third day incubation; and the molecular weight of the expressed phytase was 39.2 kDa. PMID:19717291

Zuo, Ruiyu; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Chen, Liying; Chen, Qixin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Qiuhong; Ren, Guangzhi; Feng, Hua

2010-05-30

161

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

162

Effect of Medium Components on Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus Pentosus ST151BR, a Strain Isolated from Beer Produced by the Fermentation of Maize, Barley and Soy Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus pentosus ST151BR, isolated from home-brewed beer, produces a 3.0 kDa antibacterial peptide (bacteriocin ST151BR) active against Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Treatment with Proteinase K or Pronase resulted in loss of activity. Bacteriocin levels of 6400 AU\\/ml were recorded in MRSbb\\u000a (De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without Tween 80) at pH 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5.

S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2004-01-01

163

Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.  

PubMed

Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P < 0·05) by the supplementation with protein sources. The germination and malting processes significantly improved oats nutrient characteristics demonstrating to be adequate substrates for the fermentation with probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. PMID:24979232

Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

2014-10-01

164

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

165

Evaluation in vitro of the antagonistic substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from chickens  

PubMed Central

To determine the inhibitory capacity of lactic acid bacteria due to the action of antagonistic substances, we tested 474 isolates of Lactobacillus from the crop and cecum of chickens against gram-positive and gram-negative indicator microorganisms by the spot-on-the-lawn and well-diffusion antagonism methods. Of the 474 isolates, 265 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganisms. Isolates identified as L. reuteri, L. salivarius, or Lactobacillus spp. inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. but not L. casei, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, or L. helveticus by the well-diffusion simultaneous antagonism method under anaerobic incubation conditions. The antagonistic substances produced by some of the Lactobacillus isolates were inactivated after treatment by proteolytic enzymes, which suggested that the substances could be antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins. PMID:17479773

Lima, Edna T.; Andreatti Filho, Raphael L.; Okamoto, Adriano S.; Noujaim, José C.; Barros, Mércia R.; Crocci, Adalberto J.

2007-01-01

166

Lactobacillus composti sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, strains NRIC 0689(T) and NRIC 0690, were isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue in Japan. The isolates showed quite low sequence similarity to known species of lactic acid bacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence; the highest sequence similarities to NRIC 0689(T) were shown by the type strains of Lactobacillus satsumensis, L. plantarum, L. hilgardii, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri (92.9, 92.9, 92.8, 92.6 and 92.5 %, respectively). The isolates formed a distinct subcluster in the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus phylogenetic cluster. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon. Therefore, the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRIC 0689(T) (=JCM 14202(T)=DSM 18527(T)). PMID:17392222

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2007-04-01

167

Lactobacillus satsumensis sp. nov., isolated from mashes of shochu, a traditional Japanese distilled spirit made from fermented rice and other starchy materials.  

PubMed

Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile lactic acid bacteria (strains NRIC 0603, NRIC 0604T, NRIC 0605 and NRIC 0606) were isolated from shochu mashes using an enrichment culture approach. These strains clustered in the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus group and were closely related to Lactobacillus nagelii and Lactobacillus mali on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed genotypic separation of the four isolates from the above two species. The isolates are therefore considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus satsumensis is proposed. The type strain is NRIC 0604T (=JCM 12392T=DSM 16230T). PMID:15653857

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2005-01-01

168

Characterization of bacteriocin ST8KF produced by a kefir isolate Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, isolated from kefir, produced a 3.5kDa bacteriocin (bacST8KF) active against Lb. casei, Lb. salivarius, Lb. curvatus and Listeria innocua. BacST8KF was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0 and 10.0, and heat resistant (20min at 121°C). BacST8KF did not adsorb to the surface of the producer cell. Maximum activity (25,600AUmL?1) was recorded in MRS broth

J. E. Powell; R. C. Witthuhn; S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

169

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei Suppress Escherichia coli-Induced Chemokine Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to prevent the development of atopic dermatitis and to improve allergic symptoms, especially in young children. However, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not fully understood. Intestinal microbiota play critical roles in the development of host immune development and are recognized and regulated by the host through

Shinji Toki; Shinji Kagaya; Miwa Shinohara; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Takashi Matsumoto; Yoshihisa Takahata; Fumiki Morimatsu; Hirohisa Saito; Kenji Matsumoto

2009-01-01

170

Preparation of Sphaeroplasts from Lactobacillus casei by Growth with Low Concentration of Benzylpenicillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain ofLactobaciIlus caseiused for the production of a lactic acid beverage is susceptible to phage infections. Calcium ions were required for the formation of PL-I phage-infected bacteria (Watanabe & Takesue, 1972). Further studies on the role of calcium ions in phage infection required the use of protoplasts or sphaeroplasts of the host bacteria. Early trials using egg-white lysozyme, EDTA

K. Watanabe; S. Takesue

1973-01-01

171

Applicability of pectate-entrapped Lactobacillus casei cells for l (+) lactic acid production from whey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid is a versatile organic acid, which finds major application in the food, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries.\\u000a Microbial fermentation has the advantage that by choosing a strain of lactic acid bacteria producing only one of the isomers,\\u000a an optically pure product can be obtained. The production of l(+) lactic acid is of significant importance from nutritional viewpoint and finds

P. S. Panesar; J. F. Kennedy; C. J. Knill; M. R. Kosseva

2007-01-01

172

Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei D-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid Dehydrogenase in Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that -keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by amino- transferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor com- pounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable -keto acids to more-stable

Jeffery R. Broadbent; Sanjay Gummalla; Joanne E. Hughes; Mark E. Johnson; Scott A. Rankin; Mary Anne Drake

2004-01-01

173

Analysis of the morphogenetic cluster and genome of the temperate Lactobacillus casei bacteriophage A2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The genes that encode the morphogenetic proteins of bacteriophage A2 are clustered and expressed as a single operon which\\u000a originates a late transcript of more than 20?kb. This DNA stretch is analyzed in the context of the whole phage genome, which\\u000a presents the following peculiarities: a) the head presents two major proteins that share their NH2 termini, i.e.: both are

P. García; V. Ladero; J. E. Suárez

2003-01-01

174

Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. PMID:24975836

Salva, Susana; Marranzino, Gabriela; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2014-09-01

175

Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

2014-03-01

176

Detection of antifungal properties in Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SM20, SM29, and SM63 and molecular typing of the strains.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli isolated from different food and feed samples such as raw milk, cheese, yoghurt, olives, sour dough, as well as corn and grass silage, were screened for their antifungal activities. Out of 1,424 isolates tested, 82 were shown to be inhibitory to different yeasts (Candida spp. and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) and a Penicillium sp., which were previously isolated from spoiled yoghurt and fruits. Carbohydrate fermentation patterns suggested that a substantial portion, 25%, belonged to the Lactobacillus casei group, including L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus. The isolates SM20 (DSM14514), SM29 (DSM14515), and SM63 (DSM14516) were classified by PCR using species-specific primers to target the corresponding type strains (L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus) as controls. Further molecular typing methods such as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene allowed classifying strains SM20, SM29, and SM63 as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei in accordance with the new reclassification of the L. casei group proposed by Collins et al. PMID:15690811

Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher; von Ah, Ueli; Niederer, Brigitte; Teuber, Michael; Meile, Leo

2005-01-01

177

Transport of D-Xylose in Lactobacillus Pentosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus plantarum: Evidence for a mechanism of facilitated diffusion via the phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

an apparent Km of 8.5 mM and a Vmax of 23 nmol min 21 mg of dry weight 21 . In two mutants of L. pentosus defective in the phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose phosphotransferase system, growth on D-xylose was absent due to the lack of D-xylose transport. However, transport of the pentose was not totally abolished in a third mutant, which could be

STEPHANE CHAILLOU; PETER H. POUWELS; PIETER W. POSTMA

1999-01-01

178

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

179

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)). PMID:24944337

Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-09-01

180

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Metabolites from Lactobacillus Strains on Candida Species Implicated in Candida Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Research from developing countries, such as Nigeria, on Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract and their role as a barrier to vaginal infection is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical biotherapeutic potential of indigenous Lactobacillus species. Methods: Antimicrobial metabolites production were characterised using simple and easily reproducible qualitative and quantitative methods. The in vitro inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus antimicrobials on vulvovaginal candidiasis–associated Candida species was investigated using modified agar spot and agar well-diffusion methods. Results: The maximum levels of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl from 20 vaginal Lactobacillus strains from diseased subjects were 1.46 mg/L, 1.36 mmol/L, and 1.72 mg/L respectively. From the 4 healthy subjects, the maximum level of lactic acid was 1.08 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide, 1.36 mmol/L; and diacetyl, 0.86 mg/L. The maximum productions of these substances occurred between 72 and 120 hours of incubation. The in vitro antagonistic activities of vaginal L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. jensenii from diseased subjects inhibited a maximum of 5.71% of the 35 Candida species tested, while vaginal L. acidophilus and L. plantarum from healthy subjects inhibited between 57.1% and 68.6% of Candida species in vitro. Conclusion: Antimicrobial-producing lactobacilli can be considered as adjunct biotherapeutic candidates for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:22589669

Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Mopelola A; Bello, Victoria B

2011-01-01

181

Ripening of Emmental Cheese Wrapped in Foil with and without Addition of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei . I. Microbial, Chemical, Rheological and Sensorial Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes the ripening of eight quarters of raw milk Swiss Emmental cheese loaves which were packaged at 3 months in a plastic sheet. The loaves were manufactured with and without addition ofL. caseisubsp.caseito the usual starter cultures. Samples were taken at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of ripening. The following parameters were measured and statistically compared:

H. P Bachmann; U Bütikofer; R Badertscher; M Dalla Torre; P Lavanchy; U Bühler-Moor; B Nick; J Jimeno; R Warmke; W Grosch; R Sieber; J. O Bosset

1997-01-01

182

Relatedness of Heterofermentative Lactobacillus Species Revealed by Numerical Analysis of Total Soluble Cell Protein Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatedness among strains of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacil- lus confusus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus kandleri, and Lactobacillus viridescens was determined by computer- ized comparison of total soluble cell protein patterns. Two related subgroups of L. buchneri were obtained: the first comprised a tight cluster of strains ATCC 11579 and ATCC

L. M. T. DICKS; H. J. J. VAN VUUREN

183

Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus  

PubMed Central

Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

184

Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

185

Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 infection in experimentally challenged weaned pigs fed a lactobacillus-fermented feed.  

PubMed

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen and commonly present on pig farms. Probiotics have shown potential as a means of reducing Salmonella shedding in pigs. Three experimental challenge trials were conducted to investigate the potential application of newly isolated Lactobacillus isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in pigs. In each trial, 16 Yorkshire piglets (28-d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (BD), (2) naturally fermented (NF) feed, (3) Lactobacillus zeae-fermented (LZ-F) feed, and 4) Lactobacillus casei-fermented (LC-F) feed. All pigs consumed their assigned diets for 3 d prior to the challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (approximately 6 log colony-forming units/pig) through gavage. Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. zeae, and L. casei were most abundant in NF, LZ-F, and LC-F feed, respectively. After the challenge, pigs on fermented feed had lower rectal temperature, diarrhea scores, serum haptoglobin concentrations, and intestinal Salmonella counts than the control group (BD) (p ? 0.01). Salmonella spp. were detected in both ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) and spleens from all pigs on BD, NF, and LC-F, but only 50% of spleens from pigs on LZ-F. Pigs had a dynamic spatial and temporal immune response to Salmonella infection and dietary treatments, as indicated by up- and downregulation in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor) in the ileum, ICLN, and spleen. The alternation in cytokine expression by fermented feed, particularly LZ-F, appeared to benefit pigs in combating Salmonella infection. PMID:24826965

Yin, Fugui; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Wang, Qi Chuck; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Friendship, Robert; Gong, Joshua

2014-08-01

186

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

187

Coexpression and secretion of endoglucanase and phytase genes in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

188

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

2013-01-01

189

Original article Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Original article Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M stimulate TNF, IL-6) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW- 9595M have been pre- pared from bacterial cultures, isolated exopolysaccharides du Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. Différence entre les réponses de cellules de sang

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Endocarditis Complicating Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus after an uneventful colonoscopy. The initial empiric treatment with the standard regimen of penicillin-aminoglycoside failed; subsequent treatment with a combination of antibiotics, selected according to the in vitro studies, was successful.

A. Avlami; T. Kordossis; N. Vrizidis; N. V. Sipsas

2001-01-01

191

A component of polysaccharide peptidoglycan complex on Lactobacillus induced an improvement of murine model of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signals play key roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We previously described that both intact cells and a cell wall-derived polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) in a strain of lactobacillus [Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS)] inhibited IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) isolated from murine IBD. Diets with LcS improve murine IBD by suppression of IL-6 synthesis in LPMCs. Moreover, LcS supplementation with fermented milk ameliorates disease activity in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Here, we focused on the specific roles of PSPG in LcS concerning their anti-inflammatory actions. PSPG derived from LcS, and no other strain of lactobacilli, inhibited IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs. Purified PSPG-I from LcS inhibited IL-6 synthesis in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB. The anti-IL-6 action of LcS PSPG was abrogated by masking with monoclonal anti-PSPG-I. Furthermore, PSPG-I-negative L. casei strains (PSPG-I-negative mutant LcS: LC(DeltaPSPG-I), L. casei ATCC 334) did not inhibit IL-6 production. Finally, we confirmed the effects of PSPG-I on LcS in the models of both IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In the IBD model, ingestion of LcS improved ileitis and inhibited activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling, while ingestion of the LC(DeltaPSPG-I) strain did not. In the CAC model, treatment with LcS, but not the LC(DeltaPSPG-I) strain, showed tumour-suppressive effects with an inhibition of IL-6 production in the colonic mucosa. These results suggested that a specific polysaccharide component in an L. casei strain plays a crucial role in its anti-inflammatory actions in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:19740306

Matsumoto, S; Hara, T; Nagaoka, M; Mike, A; Mitsuyama, K; Sako, T; Yamamoto, M; Kado, S; Takada, T

2009-09-01

192

Intraspecific variation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus in sensitivity towards various bacteriocins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group were identified and typed. They represented 32 clones of Lactobacillus plantarum and 7 clones of Lactobacillus pentosus. Sensitivity of all strains towards bacteriocins of four different producer strains was investigated using a deferred inhibition test (DIT). Substantial intra-specific variation in sensitivity of clones was observed towards bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria producing

G. D. Carl; J. J. Leisner; J. Swings; M. Vancanneyt

2004-01-01

193

Lait 85 (2005) 481490 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2005  

E-print Network

- biotic bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus AT 194, CLT 2/2, and Lactobacillus casei LC 88, isolated properties integrated with probiotic bacteria. donkey's milk / fermented beverage / Lactobacillus rhamnosus / Lactobacillus casei ­ Parmigiano Reggiano · (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) AT194, CLT2/2 (Lactobacillus casei) LC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis  

PubMed Central

This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M. O.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

2015-01-01

195

Expression of the immunity protein of plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 423, and analysis of the plasmid encoding the bacteriocin.  

PubMed

Plantaricin 423 is a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from sorghum beer. It has been previously determined that plantaricin 423 is encoded by a plasmid designated pPLA4, which is now completely sequenced. The plantaricin 423 operon shares high sequence similarity with the operons of coagulin, pediocin PA-1, and pediocin AcH, with small differences in the DNA sequence encoding the mature bacteriocin peptide and the immunity protein. Apart from the bacteriocin operon, no significant sequence similarity could be detected between the DNA or translated sequence of pPLA4 and the available DNA or translated sequences of the plasmids encoding pediocin AcH, pediocin PA-1, and coagulin, possibly indicating a different origin. In addition to the bacteriocin operon, sequence analysis of pPLA4 revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative mobilization (Mob) protein that is homologous to the pMV158 superfamily of mobilization proteins. Highest sequence similarity occurred between this protein and the Mob protein of L. plantarum NCDO 1088. ORF2 encodes a putative replication protein that revealed low sequence similarity to replication proteins of plasmids pLME300 from Lactobacillus fermentum and pYIT356 from Lactobacillus casei. The immunity protein of plantaricin 423 contains 109 amino acids. Although plantaricin 423 shares high sequence similarity with the pediocin PA-1 operon, no cross-reactivity was recorded between the immunity proteins of plantaricin 423 and pediocin PA-1. PMID:17056693

Van Reenen, C A; Van Zyl, W H; Dicks, L M T

2006-12-01

196

Properties of potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen Lactobacillus strains were characterized for probiotic properties. Of these, 13 of the strains were Lactobacillus plantarum. L. acidophilus and L. pentosus were also included as controls. Among the several requirements, tolerance to acid and bile salts, ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS), ?-galactosidase activity and susceptibility to antibiotics were studied. Acid-tolerant isolates were L. plantarum HU, L. plantarum NCIMB 1193,

Aysun Cebeci; Candan Gürakan

2003-01-01

197

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients. PMID:25035097

Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Luty?ska, A

2014-12-01

198

Biosynthesis of Lipoteichoic Acid in Lactobacillus rhamnosus: Role of DltD in d-Alanylation  

PubMed Central

The dlt operon (dltA to dltD) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7469 encodes four proteins responsible for the esterification of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by d-alanine. These esters play an important role in controlling the net anionic charge of the poly (GroP) moiety of LTA. dltA and dltC encode the d-alanine–d-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and d-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp), respectively. Whereas the functions of DltA and DltC are defined, the functions of DltB and DltD are unknown. To define the role of DltD, the gene was cloned and sequenced and a mutant was constructed by insertional mutagenesis of dltD from Lactobacillus casei 102S. Permeabilized cells of a dltD::erm mutant lacked the ability to incorporate d-alanine into LTA. This defect was complemented by the expression of DltD from pNZ123/dlt. In in vitro assays, DltD bound Dcp for ligation with d-alanine by Dcl in the presence of ATP. In contrast, the homologue of Dcp, the Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein (ACP), involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, was not bound to DltD and thus was not ligated with d-alanine. DltD also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the mischarged d-alanyl–ACP. The hydrophobic N-terminal sequence of DltD was required for anchoring the protein in the membrane. It is hypothesized that this membrane-associated DltD facilitates the binding of Dcp and Dcl for ligation of Dcp with d-alanine and that the resulting d-alanyl–Dcp is translocated to the primary site of d-alanylation. PMID:10781555

Debabov, Dmitri V.; Kiriukhin, Michael Y.; Neuhaus, Francis C.

2000-01-01

199

Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei subsp. nov., a dominant isolate from a surface ripened cheese.  

PubMed

A new subspecies of the species Staphylococcus succinus, isolated from a Swiss surface ripened cheese, is described. This subspecies is differentiated from the species Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337T on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridisation, cell wall composition and phenotypic characteristics. Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei could be distinguished among other things by its ability to reduce nitrate, form acid from D-mannose and D-melezitose, ferment adenosine, inosine, D-sorbitol, and 2,3-butanediol, but not D-alanine. The type strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei is DSM 15096 (CIP no. pending). The GenBank accession numbers for the reference sequences of the 16S rDNA and the hsp60 gene used in this study are AJ320272 and AF527482, respectively. PMID:12421073

Place, Raymond B E; Hiestand, Daniel; Burri, Sandra; Teuber, Michael

2002-10-01

200

Lactobacillus: host-microbe relationships.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are a subdominant component of the human intestinal microbiota that are also found in other body sites, certain foods, and nutrient-rich niches in the free environment. They represent the types of microorganisms that mammalian immune systems have learned not to react to, which is recognized as a potential driving force in the evolution of the human immune system. Co-evolution of lactobacilli and animals provides a rational basis to postulate an association with health benefits. To further complicate a description of their host interactions, lactobacilli may rarely cause opportunistic infections in compromised subjects. In this review, we focus primarily on human-Lactobacillus interactions. We overview the microbiological complexity of this extraordinarily diverse genus, we describe where lactobacilli are found in or on humans, what responses their presence elicits, and what microbial interaction and effector molecules have been identified. The rare cases of Lactobacillus septicaemia are explained in terms of the host impairment required for such an outcome. We discuss possibilities for exploitation of lactobacilli for therapeutic delivery and mucosal vaccination. PMID:22102141

O'Callaghan, John; O'Toole, Paul W

2013-01-01

201

Metabolites of Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 prevent oxidative stress-induced overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in IPEC-J2 cell line.  

PubMed

Probiotics have already proven beneficial effects in the treatment of several intestinal infections, but the underlying mechanisms how the probiotics can affect responses of porcine IPEC-J2 enterocytes to oxidative stress remained to be elucidated. The immunomodulatory effect of five bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 2142, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515) on 1 mM peroxide-triggered upregulation of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) level was screened by q RT-PCR. Our data revealed that spent culture supernatant (SCS) of L. plantarum 2142 had significant lowering effect on IL-8 and TNF-? level with concomitant promoting activity on protective Hsp70 gene expression. According to our results, lactic acid (racemic, D: - and L: -lactic acid) and acetic acid produced by lactobacilli had no protective effect in quenching upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, L. plantarum 2142-specific supernatant peptides were detected by gel electrophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis. PMID:22476971

Paszti-Gere, Erzsebet; Szeker, Krisztina; Csibrik-Nemeth, Edina; Csizinszky, Rita; Marosi, Andras; Palocz, Orsolya; Farkas, Orsolya; Galfi, Peter

2012-08-01

202

Original article The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on mineral absorption and bone health mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to measure (1) the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN strength / mineral bioavailability ­ HN001 : (1) Lb HN001 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) ; (2) Lb HN001

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103),

Riitta Korpela; Eeva Moilanen; Maija Saxelin; Heikki Vapaatalo

1997-01-01

204

Influence of Lactobacillus spp. from an Inoculant and of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. from Forage Crops on Silage Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus spp. from an inoculant and Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. from forage crops were characterized, and their influence on silage fermentation was studied. Forty-two lactic acid-producing cocci were obtained from forage crops and grasses. All isolates were gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci that produced gas from glucose, and produced more than 90% of their lactate in the d-isomer form. These isolates were divided into groups A and B by sugar fermentation patterns. Two representative strains from the two groups, FG 5 and FG 13, were assigned to the species Weissella paramesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively, on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness. Strains FG 5, FG 13, and SL 1 (Lactobacillus casei), isolated from a commercial inoculant, were used as additives to alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silage preparations. Lactic acid bacterium counts were higher in all additive-treated silages than in the control silage at an early stage of ensiling. During silage fermentation, inoculation with SL 1 more effectively inhibited the growth of aerobic bacteria and clostridia than inoculation with strain FG 5 or FG 13. SL 1-treated silages stored well. However, the control and FG 5- and FG 13-treated silages had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher pH and butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen contents and significantly (P < 0.05) lower lactate content than SL 1-treated silage. Compared with the control silage, SL 1 treatments reduced the proportion of d-(?)-lactic acid, gas production, and dry matter loss in two kinds of silage, but the FG 5 and FG 13 treatments gave similar values in alfalfa silages and higher values (P < 0.05) in Italian ryegrass silage. The results confirmed that heterofermentative strains of W. paramesenteroides FG 5 and L. pseudomesenteroides FG 13 did not improve silage quality and may cause some fermentation loss. PMID:9687461

Cai, Yimin; Benno, Yoshimi; Ogawa, Masuhiro; Ohmomo, Sadahiro; Kumai, Sumio; Nakase, Takashi

1998-01-01

205

Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent. PMID:18225764

Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

2007-03-01

206

Screening of Probiotic Activities of Forty-Seven Strains of Lactobacillus spp. by In Vitro Techniques and Evaluation of the Colonization Ability of Five Selected Strains in Humans  

PubMed Central

The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studies. The daily consumption by 12 healthy volunteers of two doses of 1010 freeze-dried bacteria of the selected strains for 18 days was followed by a washout period of 17 days. Fecal samples were taken at days 0 and 18 and during the washout period at days 5 and 11. Lactobacillus isolates were initially identified by API 50CHL and internal transcribed spacer PCR, and their identities were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis in combination with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the tested strains, L. rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, and L. rhamnosus LGG were identified most frequently in fecal samples; they were found in 10, 8, and 7 of the 12 samples tested during the intervention period, respectively, whereas reisolations were less frequent in the washout period. The bacteria were reisolated in concentrations from 105 to 108 cells/g of feces. Survival and reisolation of the bacteria in vivo appeared to be linked to pH tolerance, adhesion, and antimicrobial properties in vitro. PMID:10543808

Jacobsen, C. N.; Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V.; Hayford, A. E.; Møller, P. L.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Pærregaard, A.; Sandström, B.; Tvede, M.; Jakobsen, M.

1999-01-01

207

Ensiling whole-crop wheat and corn in large containers with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effect of applying Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, at ensiling, on the aerobic stability of wheat and corn silages was studied in 50-l plastic containers. Treatments comprised\\u000a control (no additives), L. plantarum, L. buchneri and a combination of L. plantarum+L. buchneri. After 3 months of storage, the wheat silages treated with L. buchneri had higher

ZG Weinberg; G Ashbell; Y Hen; A Azrieli; G Szakacs; I Filya

2002-01-01

208

Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of homofermentative lactobacilli and two strains of heterofermentative lactobacilli were isolated from kefir grains by using R-CW agar medium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics, DNA guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these isolates and previously described lactobacilli were compared. Our results indicated that two new species, Lactobacillus kefirgranurn and Lactobacillus parakefir, could be distinguished. The type

S. TAKIZAWA; S. KOJIMA; S. TAMURA; S. FUJINAGA; Y. BENNO

1994-01-01

209

Hydrolysis of Pork Muscle Sarcoplasmic Proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were selected on the basis of their proteolytic activities against synthetic substrates. Further, the effects of whole cells, cell extracts, and a combination of both enzymatic sources on muscle sarcoplasmic proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography anal- yses. Strains of both species displayed

Silvina Fadda; Yolanda Sanz; Graciela Vignolo; M. concepcio N Aristoy; Guillermo Oliver; Fidel Toldra

1999-01-01

210

CD4 detected from Lactobacillus helps understand the interaction between Lactobacillus and HIV.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects and destroys CD4+ cells and leads to a gradual decline in the number of CD4 cells. Despite evidence that probiotics increase CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and lower the risk of HIV transmission, little is known about the detailed mechanism underlying these effects. In this study, we investigated the cell surface protein of Lactobacillus and its role in blocking HIV-1 transmission by lactobacilli. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), we detected the CD4 receptor on the surface of Lactobacillus. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) for the CD4 receptor could partially inhibit HIV-1 binding to Lactobacillus. In addition, Lactobacillus could decrease HIV-1 pseudovirus infection of TZM-bl cells in vitro by 60-70%. Our data suggest that Lactobacillus can use this receptor to bind HIV and block HIV infection. This may in turn increase the CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV. These data provide direct evidence that Lactobacillus expresses the CD4 receptor and utilizes it to block HIV transmission. PMID:23318049

Su, Yan; Zhang, Baojiang; Su, Lingling

2013-06-12

211

The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108) bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with ConA reactive sugars at the serine residues at 106 and 107. Glycosylation is not required for the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1 nor for Akt activation capacity in epithelial cells, but appears to be important for its stability and protection against proteases. PMID:22297095

2012-01-01

212

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.  

PubMed

In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains. PMID:24558254

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Kosarev, Igor V; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2014-01-01

213

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) bacteriocin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

214

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

215

Protective Effect of Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in Infant Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined colonization patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), concentrations of Shiga toxins (Stxs) and specific immunoglobulin A (lgA) against Stxs and STEC bacterial cell surface antigen in various portions of the gastrointestinal tract in an infant rabbit infection model. After inoculation of 3- day-old infant rabbits with STEC strain 89020087 at low doses (;103 CFU\\/body), numbers of colonizing

MICHINAGA OGAWA; KENSUKE SHIMIZU; KOJI NOMOTO; MASATOSHI TAKAHASHI; MASAAKI WATANUKI; RYUICHIRO TANAKA; TETSUYA TANAKA; TAKASHI HAMABATA; SHINJI YAMASAKI; YOSHIFUMI TAKEDA

2001-01-01

216

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098 Produces Cobalamin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B12-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-pro- panediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement

María P. Taranto; J. L. Vera; J. Hugenholtz; G. F. De Valdez; F. Sesma

2003-01-01

217

Significance of Bile Salt Tolerant Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Probiotic supplements have received worldwide attention due to their health benefits. One of the most commonly used probiotics\\u000a is Lactobacillus reuteri, which has known to help prevent and treat both viral and bacterial diarrhea enhancing the body’s resistance to gastrointestinal\\u000a disease. In order to survive and colonize in the gastrointestinal tract, L. reuteri should express high tolerance to bile salt.

Siham A. Ahmed; Salam A. Ibrahim; Chyer Kim; Abolghasem Shahbazi

218

Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7log10 to 8–9log10 cfu\\/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9–5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry

Susanna Erkkilä; Maija-Liisa Suihko; Susanna Eerola; Esko Petäjä; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm

2001-01-01

219

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a levansucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 employs a fructosyltransferase (FTF) to synthesize a fructose polymer [a fructan of the levan type, with ?(2?6) linkages] from sucrose or raffinose. Purification of this FTF (a levansucrase), and identification of peptide amino acid sequences, allowed isolation of the first Lactobacillus levansucrase gene (lev), encoding a protein (Lev) consisting of 804 amino acids. Lev showed highest

E. Szalowska; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

220

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spec- trum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did

MICHAEL G. GANZLE; ALEXANDRA HOLTZEL; JENS WALTER; GUNTHER JUNG; WALTER P. HAMMES

2000-01-01

221

Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus during storage in the presence of protectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

No significant differences were observed in the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells during freeze-drying in the presence or absence of inositol, sorbitol, fructose, trehalose, monosodium glutamate and propyl gallate. However, survival was higher during storage when drying took place in the presence of these compounds. Sorbitol produced more significant effects than the other compounds toward maintaining viability

A. Sofia Carvalho; Joana Silva; Peter Ho; Paula Teixeira; F. Xavier Malcata; Paul Gibbs

2002-01-01

222

Lait 86 (2006) 407414 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2006  

E-print Network

% of the isolates were either Lactobacillus casei or L. rhamnosus, and a combined total of 45 genotypes were found 90% (Lactobacillus casei) (L. rhamnosus), 45 3 6 (NSLAB) / Gruyère / / / Résumé Lactobacillus casei, soit de L. rhamnosus. Parmi ces isolats, on a trouvé un total de 45 génotypes différents

Boyer, Edmond

223

Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.  

PubMed Central

The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

Savijoki, K; Palva, A

1997-01-01

224

Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains  

PubMed Central

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

225

Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

226

Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

2014-12-01

227

Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass silage.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated IWT126(T), was isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage preserved in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolate showed growth at 15-45 °C, pH 3.5-7.5 and with 4.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain IWT126(T) was classified as a member of the genus Lactobacillus and was most closely related to Lactobacillus odoratitofui YIT 11304(T) (98.7?%), Lactobacillus similis JCM 2765(T) (98.5?%), Lactobacillus collinoides JCM 1123(T) (97.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides DSM 15502(T) (97.6?%) and Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) (96.9?%). Based on sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase ?-subunit (pheS) gene, strain IWT126(T) was well separated from its phylogenetic neighbours in the genus Lactobacillus. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic results, as well as low DNA-DNA relatedness to recognized phylogenetic relatives in the genus Lactobacillus, classification of strain IWT126(T) as a representive of a novel species named Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IWT126(T) (?=?JCM 19001(T)?=?DSM 27022(T)). PMID:23919960

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-12-01

228

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

229

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Background Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), a severe infection with a high fatality rate, develops in mediastinal spaces due mainly to deep cervical abscesses. The majority of causative microbes of DNM are Streptococci and oral anaerobes. DNM associated with Lactobacillus-infection is rather rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old male with an unremarkable past medical history was referred to our hospital for surgical resection of advanced laryngeal cancer. Full examination revealed a neck abscess and DNM with a background of untreated diabetes mellitus. Initially, he was treated with meropenem. However, Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from surgical drainage of a mediastinal abscess. Despite using antibiotics capable of eradicating all isolates with susceptibilities not differing significantly from those of the neck and mediastinal abscesses, we attributed DNM to the L. plantarum detected only in the mediastinal abscess. After DNM treatment, he underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection followed by reconstruction using free jejunum. He was discharged fully recovered. Conclusion We concluded that L. plantarum as the sole cause of the mediastinal abscess in the present case cannot be ruled out. As the number of immunocompromised patients increases, we should be cautious regarding this “familiar” microbe. PMID:23987907

2013-01-01

230

Homodimeric ?-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ?170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS. PMID:22283494

2012-01-01

231

Identification and Characterization of Novel Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri  

PubMed Central

We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the aggregation-promoting factor (APF) protein from six different strains of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. Both species harbor two apf genes, apf1 and apf2, which are in the same orientation and encode proteins of 257 to 326 amino acids. Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences of these apf genes demonstrate a very strong sequence conservation of all of the genes with the exception of their central regions. Northern blot analysis showed that both genes are transcribed, reaching their maximum expression during the exponential phase. Primer extension analysis revealed that apf1 and apf2 harbor a putative promoter sequence that is conserved in all of the genes. Western blot analysis of the LiCl cell extracts showed that APF proteins are located on the cell surface. Intact cells of L. johnsonii revealed the typical cell wall architecture of S-layer-carrying gram-positive eubacteria, which could be selectively removed with LiCl treatment. In addition, the amino acid composition, physical properties, and genetic organization were found to be quite similar to those of S-layer proteins. These results suggest that APF is a novel surface protein of the Lactobacillus acidophilus B-homology group which might belong to an S-layer-like family. PMID:12450842

Ventura, Marco; Jankovic, Ivana; Walker, D. Carey; Pridmore, R. David; Zink, Ralf

2002-01-01

232

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oryzae Strain SG293T.  

PubMed

We report the 1.86-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactobacillus oryzae SG293(T) isolated from fermented rice grains. This genome information may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the fermentation of rice grains. PMID:25169865

Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Mochizuki, Takako; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tohno, Masanori

2014-01-01

233

Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

E-print Network

Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp the ACE-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities were analysed in milks fermented by two bacterial of peptide fractions (fermented milks. Concanavalin A (conA), a known

Boyer, Edmond

234

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

235

Distinct immune response induced by peptidoglycan derived from Lactobacillus sp  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the distinct immune responses induced by Lactobacillus peptidoglycan (PG). METHODS: BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with PG once a day for three consecutive days. Peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte mRNA was extracted and the gene expression profile was studied using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus PG on colon tumor tissue were studied in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles revealed that the TLR-NF-?B and Jak-STAT signaling pathways were highly activated. An inflammatory phenotype was induced when peritoneal macrophages were initially exposed to Lactobacillus PG and switched to a more complex phenotype when BALB/c mice were treated with three doses of Lactobacillus PG. A protective physiological inflammatory response was induced after three consecutive days of PG treatment. It was tending toward Th1 dominant immune response. Lactobacillus PG also appeared to induce a significant in vivo anti-colon tumor effect. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus PG is responsible for certain immune responses induced by Lactobacilli. Anti-tumor effects of Lactobacilli are likely to attribute to the activation of macrophages by PG expressed on the bacterial cell surface. PMID:16419162

Sun, Jin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei; Ma, Xi-Yi

2005-01-01

236

Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.  

PubMed

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55?mg/10(10)?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33?mg/10(10)?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

237

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive brief, about 2 sec, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

2012-01-01

238

Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

239

Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. strain GG, which was isolated from the feces of a normal person, produced a substance with potent inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species. It inhibited anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp.), members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., as demonstrated by a microbiological assay; however, it did not inhibit other lactobacilli. The inhibitory activity occurred between pH 3 and 5 and was heat stable. Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli was demonstrated at a dilution of 1:128. The inhibitory substance was distinct from lactic and acetic acids. It had a low molecular weight (less than 1,000) and was soluble in acetone-water (10:1). Because of these characteristics, the inhibitory material could not be considered a bacteriocin; it most closely resembled a microcin, which has been associated previously with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:3307619

Silva, M; Jacobus, N V; Deneke, C; Gorbach, S L

1987-01-01

240

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

2013-01-01

241

The complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus johnsonii reveal extensive differences in chromosome organization and gene content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive comparative analysis of lactobacilli was done by comparing the genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum (3?3 Mb) and Lactobacillus johnsonii (2?0 Mb). L. johnsonii is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract, while L. plantarum is also found on plants and plant-derived material, and is used in a variety of industrial fermentations. The L. plantarum and L. johnsonii chromosomes have

Boekhorst te J; Roland J. Siezen; Marie-Camille Zwahlen; David Vilanova; Raymond D. Pridmore; Annick Mercenier; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos; Harald Brussow; Frank Desiere

2004-01-01

242

The Genome of the Predominant Equine Lactobacillus Species, Lactobacillus equi, Is Reflective of Its Lifestyle Adaptations to an Herbivorous Host  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus equi strain DPC6820, isolated from equine feces. L. equi is a predominant Lactobacillus species in the horse hindgut microbiota. An examination of the genome identified genes and enzymes highlighting L. equi adaptations to the herbivorous gastrointestinal tract of the horse, including fructan hydrolases. This genome sequence may help us further understand the microbial ecology of the equine hindgut and the influence lactobacilli have on it. PMID:24435863

O’Donnell, Michelle M.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; O’Toole, Paul W.

2014-01-01

243

Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from silage, and emended description of the genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated SU 18(T) and SU 83, were isolated from silage prepared with Sudan grass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.]. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. The isolates exhibited ?93.5?% DNA-DNA relatedness to each other and shared the same phenotypic characteristics, which indicated that they belonged to a single species. The DNA G+C content was 58.5-59.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were placed in the genus Lactobacillus. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Lactobacillus manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and Lactobacillus camelliae JCM 13995(T) (95.9 and 96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with strain SU 18(T)). Ribotyping revealed that strain SU 18(T) was well separated from L. manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and L. camelliae JCM 13995(T). Strain SU 18(T) exhibited ?23.7?% DNA-DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The isolates represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SU 18(T) (?=?JCM 17158(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10801(T)). The description of the genus Lactobacillus is also amended. PMID:21724957

Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-05-01

244

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

245

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2010-04-01

246

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2014-04-01

247

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2011-04-01

248

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2012-04-01

249

Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacilluscrispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillusamylovorus, Lactobacillusgallinarum and Lactobacillusreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides

K. Cauwerts; F. Pasmans; L. A. Devriese; A. Martel; F. Haesebrouck; A. Decostere

2006-01-01

250

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

251

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018735 Editor

Boyer, Edmond

252

Anti-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress and Increases  

E-print Network

Anti-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress, identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690, protected worms by increasing their viability by 30% and-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress and Increases Lifespan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Lactobacillus bacteremia and endocarditis: review of 45 cases.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are part of normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora but are an uncommon cause of bacteremia. We reviewed the cases of 45 patients with clinically significant lactobacillus bacteremia occurring over 15 years. Underlying conditions were common, including cancer (40%), recent surgery (38%), and diabetes mellitus (27%). Twenty-two patients were in the intensive care unit at the time of onset of lactobacillus bacteremia. Eleven of the 45 patients were receiving immunosuppressive therapy, 11 were receiving total parenteral nutrition, and 23 had received antibiotics without activity against Lactobacillus prior to the occurrence of bacteremia. Bacteremia was polymicrobial in 27 patients and developed during hospitalization in 39. Thirty-one patients died, but only one death was attributable to lactobacillus bacteremia. Lactobacilli are relatively avirulent pathogens that produce bacteremia in patients with serious underlying illnesses, many of whom have received prior antibiotic therapy that may select out for the organism. While rarely fatal in itself, lactobacillus bacteremia identifies patients with serious and rapidly fatal illness. PMID:9402355

Husni, R N; Gordon, S M; Washington, J A; Longworth, D L

1997-11-01

254

Different Immune Regulatory Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei Isolated from Kimchi.  

PubMed

It is known that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have many beneficial health effects, including antioxidative activity and immune regulation. In this study, the immune regulatory effects of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum, which are found in different types of kimchi, were evaluated. L. sakei and its lipoteichoic acid (LTA) have greater immune stimulating potential in IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-? production as compared with L. plantarum in an in vitro condition. On the other hand, L. plantarum is assumed to repress the Th1 immune response in murine experiments. After being injected with LPS, L. plantarum-fed mice maintained a healthier state, and the level of TNF-? in their blood was lower than in other bacterial strainfed mice and in the LPS-only control mice. Additionally, IL-12 production was significantly decreased and the production of IL-4 was greatly increased in the splenocytes from L. plantarum-fed mice. Further experiments revealed that the pre-injection of purified LTA from L. plantarum (pLTA), L. sakei (sLTA), and S. aureus (aLTA) decreased TNF-? and IL-4 production in LPS-injected mice. Mouse IL-12, however, was significantly increased by aLTA pre-injection. In conclusion, the L. sakei and L. plantarum strains have immune regulation effects, but the effects differ in cytokine production and the regulatory effects of the Th1/Th2 immune response. PMID:25112321

Hong, Yi-Fan; Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Gim, Min Geun; Chung, Dae Kyun

2014-12-28

255

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

256

Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

2013-01-01

257

Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

2013-01-01

258

Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058

Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

2012-01-01

259

Survival and persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum 4.1 and Lactobacillus reuteri 3S7 in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sp. are important inhabitants of the intestines of animals. They are also largely used as probiotics for both humans and animals. To exert beneficial effects, lactobacilli have to survive through the gastrointestinal transit. Based on bile-salt resistance, pH tolerance, antimicrobial activity and heat resistance, Lactobacillus plantarum 4.1 and Lactobacillus reuteri 3S7 were previously selected and used as probiotic additives

Maria De Angelis; Sonya Siragusa; Leonardo Caputo; Adriano Ragni; Roberto Burzigotti; Marco Gobbetti

2007-01-01

260

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-08-01

261

Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.  

PubMed

Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

2005-07-01

262

Lactobacillus farraginis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parafarraginis sp. nov., heterofermentative lactobacilli isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue.  

PubMed

Five strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue in Japan. The isolates were separated into two groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and two subclusters were formed that comprised micro-organisms closely related to Lactobacillus buchneri, L. diolivorans, L. hilgardii, L. kefiri, L. parabuchneri and L. parakefiri. DNA-DNA relatedness results revealed that the isolates could be separated into two groups, and these groups correlated well with the subclusters generated using the phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness showed clear separation of the two groups from their phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, the two groups represent two novel species, for which the names Lactobacillus farraginis sp. nov. (type strain NRIC 0676(T)=JCM 14108(T)=DSM 18382(T)) and Lactobacillus parafarraginis sp. nov. (type strain NRIC 0677(T)=JCM 14109(T)=DSM 18390(T)) are proposed. PMID:17392191

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2007-04-01

263

Metabolism of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactobacillus paracasei 1195†  

PubMed Central

Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and other oligosaccharides has been suggested to be an important property for the selection of bacterial strains used as probiotics. However, little information is available on FOS transport and metabolism by lactic acid bacteria and other probiotic bacteria. The objectives of this research were to identify and characterize the FOS transport system of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195. Radiolabeled FOS was synthesized enzymatically from [3H]sucrose and purified by column and thin-layer chromatography, yielding three main products: glucose (G) ?-1,2 linked to two, three, or four fructose (F) units (GF2, GF3, and GF4, respectively). FOS hydrolysis activity was detected only in cell extracts prepared from FOS- or sucrose-grown cells and was absent in cell supernatants, indicating that transport must precede hydrolysis. FOS transport assays revealed that the uptake of GF2 and GF3 was rapid, whereas little GF4 uptake occurred. Competition experiments showed that glucose, fructose, and sucrose reduced FOS uptake but that other mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were less inhibitory. When cells were treated with sodium fluoride, iodoacetic acid, or other metabolic inhibitors, FOS transport rates were reduced by up to 60%; however, ionophores that abolished the proton motive force only slightly decreased FOS transport. In contrast, uptake was inhibited by ortho-vanadate, an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transport systems. De-energized cells had low intracellular ATP concentrations and had a reduced capacity to accumulate FOS. These results suggest that FOS transport in L. paracasei 1195 is mediated by an ATP-dependent transport system having specificity for a narrow range of substrates. PMID:12676703

Kaplan, Handan; Hutkins, Robert W.

2003-01-01

264

Description of Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage, and Lactobacillus backii sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246(T) and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7?% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6?%), L. bifermentans (95.5?%) and L. rennini (94.1?%). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246(T) and IWT248 were 99.7?% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246(T) (?=?JCM 18838(T)?=?DSM 26942(T)) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18?:?1?11c, C18?:?1?9t, C18?:?1?6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665(T) (?=?LMG 23555(T)?=?DSM 18080(T)?=?L1062(T)). PMID:23687059

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

265

In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets.  

PubMed

Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2014-01-01

266

Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.  

PubMed Central

An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. Images PMID:7986030

Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

1994-01-01

267

Two Arginine Repressors Regulate Arginine Biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repression of the carAB operon encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase leads to Lactobacillus plantarum FB331 growth inhibition in the presence of arginine. This phenotype was used in a positive screening to select spontaneous mutants deregulated in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. Fourteen mutants were genetically characterized for constitutive arginine production. Mutations were located either in one of the arginine repressor genes

H. Nicoloff; F. Arsene-Ploetze; C. Malandain; M. Kleerebezem; F. Bringel

2004-01-01

268

Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum genome diversity by using microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping of 20 strains

Douwe Molenaar; Francoise Bringel; Frank H. Schuren; Willem M. de Vos; Roland J. Siezen; Michiel Kleerebezem

2005-01-01

269

Freezing resistance improvement of Lactobacillus reuteri by using cell immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri shows certain beneficial effects to human health and is recognized as a probiotic. However, its application in frozen foods is still not popular because of its low survival during freezing and frozen storage. Cell immobilization technique could effectively exert protection effects to microbial cells in order to enhance their endurance to unfavorable environmental conditions as well as to

Jen-Horng Tsen; Hui-Ying Huang; Yeu-Pyng Lin; V. An-Erl King

2007-01-01

270

Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays.

Eric Hüfner; Robert A. Britton; Stefan Roos; Hans Jonsson; Christian Hertel

2008-01-01

271

Environmental influences on exopolysaccharide formation in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of the corresponding reuteransucrase gene, gtfO, was investigated over time and

Emma Årsköld; Malin Svensson; Halfdan Grage; Stefan Roos; Peter Rådström; Ed W. J. van Niel

2007-01-01

272

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan (‘reuteran’) with mainly ?-(1?4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with

S. Kralj; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

273

Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from tulum cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1 and 45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential. PMID:25270832

Tulumo?lu, Sener; Kaya, Halil ?brahim; Sim?ek, Omer

2014-12-01

274

Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.  

PubMed

Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

2014-10-01

275

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

2014-01-01

276

Production and stability of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) is considered as a potent antimicrobial substance. Exploration of its application as a food preservative or as a therapeutic auxiliary agent has been documented in the literature. In the present work, factors that may impact on 3-HPA accumulation by Lactobacillus reuteri and on the stability of 3-HPA were investigated. Three media - H2O, milk and MRS broth -

Q. Lüthi-Peng; S. Schärer; Z. Puhan

2002-01-01

277

Wound Healing and Angiogenic Properties of Supernatants from Lactobacillus Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts or supernatants from cultures of Lactobacilli are used for their medicinal effects, including wound healing and im- mune system stimulating activity. We have studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of supernatants from bacterial cultures of two strains of Lactobacillus (LS) on tissue repair and angiogen- esis. Subcutaneous injection of LS into rodent ears led to pro- liferation

J. HALPER; L. S. LESHIN; S. J. LEWIS; W. I. LI

278

Culture conditions of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum produced an extracellular tannase after 24 h growth on minimal medium of amino acids containing 2 g tannic acid l-1. Enzyme production (6 U ml-1) was optimal at 37 °C and pH 6 with 2 g glucose l-1 and 7 g tannic acid l-1 in absence of O2.

Lamia Ayed; Moktar Hamdi

2002-01-01

279

Comparative evaluation of selected strains of lactobacilli for the development of antioxidant activity in milk  

E-print Network

. casei NCDC17, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC24, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NCDC6324(Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC24) NCDC63(Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NCDC63)NCDC141 (Lactobacillus fermentum NCDC141)NCDC288(Lactobacillus helveticus NCDC288)7 ,NCDC24(L. rhamnosus NCDC24) NCDC17(L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10?kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10?kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25095898

Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-12-01

281

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel CO2-Tolerant Lactobacillus Strain from Crystal Geyser, UT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capnophiles are microbes that grow in CO2 enriched environments. Cultured capnophiles generally, grow in 2 to 25% CO2, or 0.02 to 0.25 atm. When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, the newly created high CO2 environment may select for capnophlic organisms. In this study, a capnophile was isolated from Crystal Geyser, a CO2 spring along the Little Grand Wash Fault, UT, a site being investigated as an analogue to CO2 sequestration. Crystal Geyser periodically erupts with CO2 charged water, indicating the presence of very high CO2 pressures below the subsurface, similar to sequestration conditions. Biomass was sampled by pumping springwater from approximately 10 m below the surface through filters. Filters were immediately placed in selective media within pressure vessels where they were pressurized to 10 atm in the field. Subsequent recultures produced an isolate, designated CG-1, that is most closely (99%) related to Lactobacillus casei on the strain level. CG-1 grows in tryptic soy broth, in PCO2 ranging from 0 atm to 10 atm, 40 times higher than pressures of previously cultured capnophiles. At 25 atm, growth is inhibited though survival can be as long as 5 days. At 50 atm, survival is poor, with sterilization occurring by 24 hours. Growth is optimal between pH values of 6 to 8, though sluggish if no CO2 is present. Its optimal salinity is 0.25 M NaCl though growth is observed ranging from 0 to 1 M NaCl. Growth is observed between 25o to 45o C, but optimal at 25oC. It consumes long-chained carbon molecules such as glucose, sucrose, and crude oil, and exhibits poor growth when supplied with lactate, acetate, formate, and pyruvate. The organism likely performs lactic acid fermentation as it requires no electron acceptors for growth and produces no acid, gas, and sulfide in triple sugar iron agar slants. CG-1 also expresses a variety of lipids, most notably cyclopropyl C19 (cycC19), or lactobacillic acid, characteristic of organisms belonging to the Lactobacilli. At 1 atm PCO2, CG-1 largely expresses monounsaturated fatty acids. At 10 atm, this changes to an increase saturated fatty acids and cycC19 consistent with a cell size decrease. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the organism as rod shaped at 1 atm. At 10 atm, the organism appears smaller, amorphous, and surrounded by a sheath. However, invaginations present in the cell at this pressure indicate cell division at high PCO2. Isolation of this organism shows that viable microbial populations can exist during CO2 sequestration and these organisms will likely contribute to changes in geochemistry and permeability of saline aquifers, which can affect the overall fate of stored CO2. Furthermore, its tolerance and reliance on CO2 pressures higher than any other known capnophile means this organism should be classified as a new kind of extremeophile, a hyper-capnophile.

Santillan, E. U.; Major, J. R.; Omelon, C. R.; Shanahan, T. M.; Bennett, P.

2013-12-01

282

Heat Shock Response in Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Heat stress resistance and response were studied in strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 had decimal reduction times (D values) (D value was the time that it took to reduce the number of cells by 1 log cycle) in sterile milk of 32.9, 14.7, and 7.14 s at 60, 72, and 75°C, respectively. When mid-exponential-phase cells were used, the D values decreased. The temperature increases which caused a 10-fold reduction in the D value ranged from 9 to 20°C, depending on the strain. Part of the cell population treated at 72°C for 90 s recovered viability during incubation at 7°C in sterile milk for 20 days. When mid-exponential- or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were adapted to 42°C for 1 h, the heat resistance at 72°C for 90 s increased ca. 3 and 2 log cycles, respectively. Heat-adapted cells also showed increased growth at pH 5 and in the presence of 6% NaCl. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins expressed by control and heat-adapted cells revealed changes in the levels of expression of 31 and 18 proteins in mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Twelve proteins were commonly induced. Nine proteins induced in the heat-adapted mid-exponential- and/or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. These proteins were identified as DnaK, GroEL, trigger factor, ribosomal proteins L1, L11, L31, and S6, DNA-binding protein II HlbA, and CspC. All of these proteins have been found to play a role in the mechanisms of stress adaptation in other bacteria. Antibodies against GroES detected a protein which was induced moderately, while antibodies against DnaJ and GrpE reacted with proteins whose level of expression did not vary after heat adaptation. This study showed that the heat resistance of L. plantarum is a complex process involving proteins with various roles in cell physiology, including chaperone activity, ribosome stability, stringent response mediation, temperature sensing, and control of ribosomal function. The physiological mechanisms of response to pasteurization in L. plantarum are fundamental for survival in cheese during manufacture. PMID:15006751

De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Huet, Claude; Crecchio, Carmine; Fox, Patrick F.; Gobbetti, Marco

2004-01-01

283

The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz

2013-01-01

284

The Effects of Two Lactobacillus plantarum Strains on Rat Lipid Metabolism Receiving a High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

Salaj, Rastislav; Štofilová, Jana; Šoltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter

2013-01-01

285

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and L. reuteri RC14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess, among women with HIV, whether long-term oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 supplementation can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and enhance the cure rate of metronidazole among those with BV.

Ruben Hummelen; John Changalucha; Nicodemus L. Butamanya; Adrian Cook; J. Dik F. Habbema; Gregor Reid

2010-01-01

286

ISL 2 , a new mobile genetic element in Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous, phenotypically stable mutations at the ß-galactosidase locus (lacL-lacM) in Lactobacillus helveticus were identified and analyzed. We found that a significant number of mutations were caused by integration of a new IS element, ISL2, into these lac genes. ISL2 is 858 by long, flanked by 16-bp perfect inverted repeats and generates 3-bp target duplications upon insertion. It contains one open

Marie-Camille Zwahlen; Beat Mollet

1994-01-01

287

Das „Malatenzym” von Lactobacillus plantarum und Leuconostoc mesenteroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The “malic enzyme” was partially purified from induced cells of Lactobacillus plantarum B 38 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 99. Specific activities of 170 or 17.5 u\\/mg protein respectively were obtained by precipitation with manganese chloride and protamine sulphate, chromatography on Sephadex and hydroxyapatite.2.Fractions containing “malic enzyme” without lactate dehydrogenase were obtained from L. plantarum by gel filtration, chromatography with hydroxyapatite or

M. Schütz; F. Radler

1973-01-01

288

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic bacterium, and oral pathogenic bacteria have not been studied adequately. This study examined the effects of\\u000a L. reuteri on the proliferation of periodontopathic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia, and on the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Human-derived L. reuteri strains (KCTC 3594 and KCTC 3678) and rat-derived

Mi-Sun Kang; Jong-Suk Oh; Hyun-Chul Lee; Hoi-Soon Lim; Seok-Woo Lee; Kyu-Ho Yang; Nam-Ki Choi; Seon-Mi Kim

2011-01-01

289

Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the ?-(1?4) glucosidic type (~70%). This reuteran also contains ?-(1?6)-linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted ?-glucosyl units at the branching points. The

S. Kralj; E. Stripling; P. Sanders; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; L. Dijkhuizen

2005-01-01

290

Expression of a Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant plasmid pM25 containing the celE gene of Clostridium thermocellum, which codes for an enzymatically active endoglucanase, was transformed into Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation. Strains harboring pM25 expressed thermostable endoglucanase, which was found predominantly in the culture medium. Two other plasmids, pGK12 and pSA3, were transformed into L. plantarum, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. Images PMID:2782880

Bates, E E; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G P; Huckle, J; Laurie, J I; Mann, S P

1989-01-01

291

Transport of ?-Galactosides in Lactobacillus plantarum NC2 †  

PubMed Central

The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum NC2 to transport thiomethyl-?-d-galactoside in the presence or absence of various inhibitors was investigated to determine the mechanism of ?-galactoside transport in this bacterium. A novel system employing l-arabinose as an energy-generating compound is described, and evidence that this transport is energized by an ATP-driven proton motive force is presented. PMID:16348259

Jeffrey, Scott R.; Dobrogosz, Walter J.

1990-01-01

292

The electronic structure of Slayer proteins from Lactobacillus brevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence electronic structure of the S-layer of Lactobacillus brevis is determined using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Spectra are compared to experimental work on amino-acids and S-layers of Bacillus sphaericus. While it is indeed possible to identify energy levels with those of natural amino-acids, distinct energy shifts are indeed observed which cannot be reconciled using such

Susan M. Graham; Nicola L. Asquith; Karyn Wilde; Ken Short; Peter Holden; Anton P. J. Stampfl; A. J. Holmes; A. Ruys; P. Stojanov; J. D. Riley; Liang-Jen Fang; Yaw-Wen Yang; Yeukuang Hwu

2008-01-01

293

Lactobacillus arizonensis sp. nov., isolated from jojoba meal.  

PubMed

Five strains of simmondsin-degrading, lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented jojoba meal. These isolates were facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped organisms. They grew singly and in short chains, produced lactic acid but no gas from glucose, and did not exhibit catalase activity. Growth occurred at 15 and 45 degrees C. All strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, D-ribose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose. Some strains fermented L-(-)-arabinose and L-rhamnose. D-Xylose was not fermented and starch was not hydrolysed. The mean G+C content of the DNA was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA established that the isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA reassociation of 45% or less was obtained between the new isolates and the reference strains of species with G+C contents of about 48 mol%. The isolates were differentiated from other homofermentative Lactobacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence divergence, DNA relatedness, stereoisomerism of the lactic acid produced, growth temperature and carbohydrate fermentation. The data support the conclusion that these organisms represent strains of a new species, for which the name Lactobacillus arizonensis is proposed. The type strain of L. arizonensis is NRRL B-14768T (= DSM 13273T). PMID:11034490

Swezey, J L; Nakamura, L K; Abbott, T P; Peterson, R E

2000-09-01

294

Comparative genomics analysis of Lactobacillus species associated with weight gain or weight protection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Some Lactobacillus species are associated with obesity and weight gain while others are associated with weight loss. Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria represent a major bacterial population of the small intestine where lipids and simple carbohydrates are absorbed, particularly in the duodenum and jejunum. The objective of this study was to identify Lactobacillus spp. proteins involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with weight modifications. METHODS: We examined a total of 13 complete genomes belonging to seven different Lactobacillus spp. previously associated with weight gain or weight protection. We combined the data obtained from the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology, Batch CD-Search and Gene Ontology to classify gene function in each genome. RESULTS: We observed major differences between the two groups of genomes. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. appear to lack enzymes involved in the catabolism of fructose, defense against oxidative stress and the synthesis of dextrin, L-rhamnose and acetate. Weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded a significant gene amount of glucose permease. Regarding lipid metabolism, thiolases were only encoded in the genome of weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. In addition, we identified 18 different types of bacteriocins in the studied genomes, and weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded more bacteriocins than weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed that weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. have developed defense mechanisms for enhanced glycolysis and defense against oxidative stress. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. possess a limited ability to breakdown fructose or glucose and might reduce ileal brake effects. PMID:24567124

Drissi, F; Merhej, V; Angelakis, E; El Kaoutari, A; Carrière, F; Henrissat, B; Raoult, D

2014-01-01

295

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.  

PubMed

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

296

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt  

PubMed Central

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

297

Peptidoglycan hydrolases as species-specific markers to differentiate Lactobacillus helveticus from Lactobacillus gallinarum and other closely related homofermentative lactobacilli.  

PubMed

We propose a new method that allows accurate discrimination of Lactobacillus helveticus from other closely related homofermentative lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus gallinarum. This method is based on the amplification by PCR of two peptidoglycan hydrolytic genes, Lhv_0190 and Lhv_0191. These genes are ubiquitous and show high homology at the intra-species level. The PCR method gave two specific PCR products, of 542 and 747 bp, for 25 L. helveticus strains coming from various sources. For L. gallinarum, two amplicons were obtained, the specific 542 bp amplicon and another one with a size greater than 1,500 bp. No specific PCR products were obtained for 12 other closely related species of lactobacilli, including the L. acidophilus complex, L. delbrueckii, and L. ultunensis. The developed PCR method provided rapid, precise, and easy identification of L. helveticus. Moreover, it enabled differentiation between the two closely phylogenetically related species L. helveticus and L. gallinarum. PMID:24362553

Jebava, Iva; Chuat, Victoria; Lortal, Sylvie; Valence, Florence

2014-04-01

298

Comparison of exopolysaccharide production by strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei grown in chemically defined medium and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was compared among three strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 9595M can be classified among the highest EPS-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria reported to date with a maximum\\u000a EPS production of 1275?mg?L?1. Under controlled pH, no significant differences in the quantity of EPS produced could be detected between carbon source\\u000a (glucose or lactose) or fermentation temperature

I Dupont; D Roy; G Lapointe

2000-01-01

299

Fecal recovery following oral administration of Lactobacillus Strain GG (ATCC 53103) in gelatine capsules to healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of the suggested probiotic strain Lactobacillus GG in feces was studied after oral administration. Lactobacillus GG was given to 20 healthy human volunteers for 7 days in gelatine capsules with daily doses of 1.6 × 108 cfu and 1.2 × 1010 cfu. All the volunteers in the higher dose group had detectable numbers of Lactobacillus GG in their feces

Maija Saxelin; Tanja Pessi; Seppo Salminen

1995-01-01

300

Construction of vectors for inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus sakei and L. plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed vectors for inducible expression of genes in Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum. The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and sakacin P and the genes encoding the cognate histidine protein kinase and response regulator that are necessary to activate this promoter upon induction by a

Elisabeth Sørvig; Sonja Grönqvist; Kristine Naterstad; Geir Mathiesen; Vincent G. H. Eijsink; Lars Axelsson

2003-01-01

301

Restriction Endonuclease Patterns and Multivariate Analysis as a Classification Tool for Lactobacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Lactobacillus plantarum and seven Lactobacillus reuteri strains were studied by using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) combined with principal-component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Chromosomal DNAs from the strains were extracted and cleaved with restriction enzymes, and the DNA fragments were separated according to size by agarose gel electrophoresis. Band patterns were read by using

MARIE STAHL; GORAN MOLIN; ANDERS PERSSON; SIV AHRNE; STEN STAHL

1990-01-01

302

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

303

Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatants on body weight and leptin expression in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus extracts and supernatants have been used as probiotics in human and veterinary medicine for their ability to enhance wound healing and immunity. Previous data from our laboratory demonstrated that Lactobacillus supernatant (LS) stimulated wound healing, angiogenesis and proliferation of embryonic cells after topical application. This current study shows that LS after its administration into the cerebral ventricles of

Renato Sousa; Jaroslava Halper; Jian Zhang; Stephen J Lewis; Wan-I O Li

2008-01-01

304

Diversity and functional characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated throughout the ripening of a hard cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the Lactobacillus spp. intra- and inter- species diversity in a Piedmont hard cheese made of raw milk without thermal treatment and without addition of industrial starter, and to perform a first screening for potential functional properties. A total of 586 isolates were collected during the cheese production and identified by means of molecular methods: three hundred and four were identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two hundred and forty as Lactobacillus helveticus, twenty six as Lactobacillus fermentum, eleven as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, three as Lactobacillus pontis, and two as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. A high genetic heterogeneity was detected by using the repetitive bacterial DNA element fingerprinting (rep-PCR) with the use of (GTG)5 primer resulting in eight clusters of L. helveticus and sixteen clusters in the case of L. rhamnosus. Most of isolates showed a high auto-aggregation property, low hydrophobicity values, and a general low survival to simulated digestion process. However, sixteen isolates showed promising functional characteristics. PMID:24819414

Bautista-Gallego, J; Alessandria, V; Fontana, M; Bisotti, S; Taricco, S; Dolci, P; Cocolin, L; Rantsiou, K

2014-07-01

305

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108T and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202T, isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira

2014-01-01

306

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108(T) and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202(T), isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

307

Hydrolyzed caseinomacropeptide conjugated galactooligosaccharides support the growth and enhance the bile tolerance in Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

In this study bioactive caseinomacropeptide was conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (hCMP:GOS) by Maillard reaction to synthesize value added prebiotic compounds to Lactobacillus strains. Growth study showed the ability of hCMP:GOS to serve as a sole carbon source for Lactobacillus strains. A significant amount of acetate and lactate was detected in cell free culture supernatant by HPLC. It demonstrated the ability of Lactobacillus strains to ferment the hCMP:GOS as a carbon source. In addition, hCMP:GOS grown Lactobacillus cells exhibited enhanced bile tolerance and retained 90% viability. Overall results of this study indicate that the hCMP conjugated GOS can be potential multipurpose prebiotic substrates to enhance the growth and bile tolerance in Lactobacillus strains and serve as a fermentable substrate to produce beneficial metabolites in the host. PMID:22686275

Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Hernandez-Hernandez, Oswaldo; Moreno, F Javier; Sanz, Maria Luz; Ricke, Steven C

2012-07-11

308

Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

2014-10-01

309

The Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability, and Ruminal Degradability of Low Dry Matter Corn and Sorghum Silages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in com- bination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermen- tation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were ap- plied at 1 × 106 cfu\\/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiledin1.5-Lanaerobicjars.Threejarspertreatment were

I. Filya

2003-01-01

310

Growth and survival of Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 in yogurt for use as a functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 are considered probiotic agents with therapeutic properties. To prepare mother cultures for these organism bacteria, four formulations were made with milk (1% fat) with 0.33% yeast extract (T1); 0.4% inulin (T2); 0.33% yeast extract and 0.4% inulin (T3); and one with no additives (T4). The media were inoculated with 1% probiotic cultures

Sharareh Hekmat; Hoda Soltani; Gregor Reid

2009-01-01

311

Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 isolated from faeces of the same human infant produce identical cyclic bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericin 6, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 that was isolated from the faeces of a human infant at 2 months of age, was purified to homogeneity from broth culture-supernatant by reverse-phase chromatography. Molecular weight (5652) by mass spectrometry and primary structure of reutericin 6 were identical to that of gassericin A produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 which was

Yasushi Kawai; Yasuyuki Ishii; Koichiro Uemura; Haruki Kitazawa; Tadao Saito; Takatoshi Itoh

2001-01-01

312

Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host’s mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019)

J. S. Zhou; P. K. Gopal; H. S. Gill

2001-01-01

313

Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and ‘fishy’ odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme. The subjects were treated with oral metronidazole (500mg) twice daily from days 1 to 7, and randomized to receive oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (1×109) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (1×109) or placebo twice

Kingsley Anukam; Emmanuel Osazuwa; Ijeoma Ahonkhai; Michael Ngwu; Gibson Osemene; Andrew W. Bruce; Gregor Reid

2006-01-01

314

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did not affect the growth of gram-negative bacteria; however, the growth of lipopolysaccharide mutant strains of Escherichia coli was inhibited. Reutericyclin exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and B. subtilis and triggered the lysis of cells of L. sanfranciscensis in a dose-dependent manner. Germination of spores of B. subtilis was inhibited, but the spores remained unaffected under conditions that do not permit germination. The fatty acid supply of the growth media had a strong effect on reutericyclin production and its distribution between producer cells and the culture supernatant. Reutericyclin was purified from cell extracts and culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 cultures grown in mMRS by solvent extraction, gel filtration, RP-C8 chromatography, and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by rechromatography by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Reutericyclin was characterized as a negatively charged, highly hydrophobic molecule with a molecular mass of 349 Da. Structural characterization (A. Höltzel, M. G. Gänzle, G. J. Nicholson, W. P. Hammes, and G. Jung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2766–2768, 2000) revealed that reutericyclin is a novel tetramic acid derivative. The inhibitory activity of culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 corresponded to that of purified as well as synthetic reutericyclin. PMID:11010877

Gänzle, Michael G.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Walter, Jens; Jung, Günther; Hammes, Walter P.

2000-01-01

315

A system for heterologous expression of bacteriocins in Lactobacillus sake.  

PubMed

A system for efficient heterologous expression of class II bacteriocins is described that is based on introducing two plasmids in a bacteriocin-negative Lactobacillus sake strain. The first plasmid (pSAK20) contains the genes necessary for transcriptional activation of the Sakacin A promoter as well as export and processing of bacteriocin precursors. The second plasmid (a pLPV111 derivative) contains the structural and immunity genes for the bacteriocin of interest fused to the sakacin A promoter. Using this system, various bacteriocins were produced at levels equal to or higher than those obtained with the corresponding wild-type producer strains. PMID:9812374

Axelsson, L; Katla, T; Bjørnslett, M; Eijsink, V G; Holck, A

1998-11-01

316

Extent of Genetic Lesions of the Arginine and Pyrimidine Biosynthetic Pathways in Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, L. pentosus, and L. casei: Prevalence of CO2Dependent Auxotrophs and Characterization of Deficient arg Genes in L. plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria require rich media since, due to mutations in their biosynthetic genes, they are unable to synthesize numerous amino acids and nucleobases. Arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis have a common intermediate, carbamoyl phosphate (CP), whose synthesis requires CO2. We investigated the extent of genetic lesions in both the arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways in a collection of

Francoise Bringel; Jean-Claude Hubert

2003-01-01

317

Effect of the administration of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN114001 on intestinal microbiota and gut associated immune cells of nursing mice and after weaning until immune maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of bacterial colonization in the newborn. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) containing yogurt starter cultures

Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc; Cecilia A Dogi; Carolina Maldonado Galdeano; Esteban Carmuega; Ricardo Weill; Gabriela Perdigón

2008-01-01

318

Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus are currently used in a variety of clinical practices with limited evidence to support their use. Lactobacillus species are a normal part of gastrointestinal flora, and bacteremia with probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is very uncommon. We describe a case of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 17-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis managed with systemic corticosteroids and infliximab, who presented with fever to 102°F, flushing, and chills 1 week after starting Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG probiotics. Initial blood culture on day 2 of his fever was positive for Lactobacillus, however, subsequent blood cultures on day 3 and 5 were negative. He was treated empirically with antibiotics for 5 days and defervesced by day 8 of his illness. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis identified the organism from the patient's blood culture and probiotic capsule as L. rhamnosus with a 99.78% match for both the strains. This case report highlights the potential risk of Lactobacillus bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients with severe active ulcerative colitis. PMID:23426446

Vahabnezhad, Elaheh; Mochon, Albert Brian; Wozniak, Laura Joyce; Ziring, David Alexander

2013-01-01

319

B cells are not essential for Lactobacillus-mediated protection against lethal pneumovirus infection.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that priming of respiratory mucosa with live Lactobacillus species promotes robust and prolonged survival from an otherwise lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice, a property known as heterologous immunity. Lactobacillus priming results in a moderate reduction in virus recovery and a dramatic reduction in virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production; the precise mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. Because B cells have been shown to promote heterologous immunity against respiratory virus pathogens under similar conditions, in this study we explore the role of B cells in Lactobacillus-mediated protection against acute pneumovirus infection. We found that Lactobacillus-primed mice feature elevated levels of airway Igs IgG, IgA, and IgM and lung tissues with dense, B cell (B220(+))-enriched peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates with germinal centers consistent with descriptions of BALT. No B cells were detected in lung tissue of Lactobacillus-primed B cell deficient ?MT mice or Jh mice, and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice had no characteristic infiltrates or airway Igs. Nonetheless, we observed diminished virus recovery and profound suppression of virus-induced proinflammatory cytokines CCL2, IFN-?, and CXCL10 in both wild-type and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice. Furthermore, Lactobacillus plantarum-primed, B cell-deficient ?MT and Jh mice were fully protected from an otherwise lethal pneumonia virus of mice infection, as were their respective wild-types. We conclude that B cells are dispensable for Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity and were not crucial for promoting survival in response to an otherwise lethal pneumovirus infection. PMID:24748495

Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

2014-06-01

320

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov., isolated from subarctic timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage.  

PubMed

Four strains of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and non-motile lactic acid bacteria, LOOC260(T), LOOC253, LOOC273 and LOOC279, were isolated from timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage produced in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. These isolates grew at 4-37 °C, indicating the psychrotolerant nature of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these four strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LOOC260(T) demonstrated that the closest neighbours were the type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus (97.7 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans (96.7 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus (96.7 %). Strain LOOC260(T) showed low levels of DNA-DNA association with Lactobacillus suebicus JCM 9504(T) (14.7 ± 3.5 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans JCM 16175(T) (15.1 ± 4.8 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus JCM 1716(T) (10.7 ± 3.0 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LOOC260(T) ( = JCM 18461(T) = DSM 26202(T)). PMID:23223820

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-07-01

321

Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract. This pathogen causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in animals and humans. Antibiotic-associated diseases may be treated with probiotics, and interest is increasing in such uses of probiotics. This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus strains on the quorum-sensing signals and toxin production of C. difficile. In addition, an in vivo experiment was designed to assess whether Lactobacillus acidophilus GP1B is able to control C. difficile-associated disease. Autoinducer-2 activity was measured for C. difficile using the Vibrio harveyi coupled bioluminescent assay. Cell extract (10?g/mL) of L. acidophilus GP1B exhibited the highest inhibitory activity among 5 to 40?g/mL cell-extract concentrations. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional levels in luxS, tcdA, tcdB, and txeR genes in the presence of 10?g/mL of cell extract of L. acidophilus GP1B. Survival rates at 5d for mice given the pathogen alone with L. acidophilus GP1B cell extract or L. acidophilus GP1B were 10, 70, and 80%, respectively. In addition, the lactic acid-produced L. acidophilus GP1B exhibits an inhibitory effect against the growth of C. difficile. Both the L. acidophilus GP1B and GP1B cell extract have significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile. PMID:24856984

Yun, B; Oh, S; Griffiths, M W

2014-08-01

322

Functional analysis of three plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism. The host range of the pWCFS101 replicon includes Lactobacillus species and Lactococcus lactis, while that of the pWCFS102 replicon also includes Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Bacillus subtilis. The larger plasmid is predicted to replicate via the theta-type mechanism. The host range of its replicon seems restricted to L. plantarum. Cloning vectors were constructed based on the replicons of all three plasmids. Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers. PMID:15746322

van Kranenburg, Richard; Golic, Natasa; Bongers, Roger; Leer, Rob J; de Vos, Willem M; Siezen, Roland J; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-03-01

323

Functional Analysis of Three Plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism. The host range of the pWCFS101 replicon includes Lactobacillus species and Lactococcus lactis, while that of the pWCFS102 replicon also includes Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Bacillus subtilis. The larger plasmid is predicted to replicate via the theta-type mechanism. The host range of its replicon seems restricted to L. plantarum. Cloning vectors were constructed based on the replicons of all three plasmids. Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers. PMID:15746322

van Kranenburg, Richard; Golic, Natasa; Bongers, Roger; Leer, Rob J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

324

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G?+?C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

2013-01-01

325

Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored. PMID:25249745

Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Khoury, Charbel C.

2014-01-01

326

Exopolysaccharides producing Lactobacillus fermentum strain for enhancing rheological and sensory attributes of low-fat dahi.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus fermentum V10 was able to show large capsules surrounding the cell surface and produced 247.37?±?0.76 mg/L polysaccharides in fermentation medium. The effect on technological properties of low-fat dahi found to be significantly (P?Lactobacillus fermentum V10 than control dahi made by EPS(+) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 285 and EPS(-) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 09 cultures. Low fat dahi prepared by exopolysaccharides producing Lactobacillus fermentum V10 exhibited optimum acid production, lesser whey separation, higher viscosity, increased adhesiveness and stickiness whereas decreased firmness and work of shear as compared to control dahi. PMID:24426040

Behare, Pradip V; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ravinder; Rao, K H

2013-12-01

327

Dairy Sci. Technol. 88 (2008) 619629 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2008 www.dairy-journal.org  

E-print Network

with primers for Lactobacillus para- casei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. curvatus. pentosus or Lb. rhamnosus primers gave a unique PFGE pattern. PFGE indicated 52 different band patterns , DNA , PCR PFGE PCR , 468 Lactobacillus paracasei 79 , Lb

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Significant health benefits have been demonstrated for certain probiotic strains through intervention studies; however, there is a shortage of experimental evidence relative to the mechanisms of action. Here, noninvasive experimental procedure based on a colon organ culture system has been used that, in contrast to most experimental in vitro models reported, can preserve natural immunohistochemical features of the human mucosa. This system has been used to test whether commensal lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 299v (A(-))) were able to hinder inflammation-like signals induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO). Whole genome microarrays have been applied to analyze expression differences, from which mRNA markers could be inferred to monitor the effect of putative probiotic strains under such conditions. Regarding the gene expression, PMA/IO treatment induced not only interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-?), as expected, but also other relevant genes related to immune response and inflammation, such as IL-17A, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL11. The ex vivo culturing did not modify the pattern of expression of those genes or others related to inflammation. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that lactobacilli downregulated those genes and triggered a global change of the transcriptional profile that indicated a clear homeostasis restoring effect and a decrease in signals produced by activated T cells. PMID:22669626

Bäuerl, Christine; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Monedero, Vicente; Mata, Manuel; Zúñiga, Manuel; Guarner, Francisco; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

2013-03-01

329

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain FMNP01, Isolated from Mango Fruit  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum strain FMNP01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from Guangzhou, China. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism. PMID:25428967

Li, Xue-Fei; Liao, Xue-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei

2014-01-01

330

Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

331

Influence of Lactobacillus E1 on the storage stability in emulsion immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coacervation method with double emulsion strategy (w\\/o\\/w) was used to prepare immobilized Lactobacillus E1. Diatomite was chosen as the carrier for bacteria. Sodium alginate, dextrin and gelatin were used as protective solutes\\u000a for the preservation of Lactobacillus E1 and their effects on the storage viability during storage were discussed. The influence of storage temperature on the\\u000a storage viability was

Xin Sun; Xiguang Chen; Chengsheng Liu; Dongsu Cha; Hongni Peng

2009-01-01

332

Structure and functions of exopolysaccharide produced by gut commensal Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 together with a Lactobacillus-free mouse model, provides a system with which the molecular traits underpinning bacterial commensalism in vertebrates can be studied. A polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing liquid cultures of strain 100-23. Chemical analysis showed that this exopolysaccharide was a levan (?-2, 6-linked fructan). Mutation of the fructosyl transferase (ftf) gene resulted in loss of

Ian M Sims; Steven A Frese; Jens Walter; Diane Loach; Michelle Wilson; Kay Appleyard; Jocelyn Eason; Megan Livingston; Margaret Baird; Gregory Cook; Gerald W Tannock

2011-01-01

333

Differentiation of Lactobacillus-probiotic strains by visual comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, distinctive RAPD fingerprints were generated for 12 Lactobacillus-probiotic strains from 5 Lactobacillus species (L. brevis, L. reuteri, L. gallinarium, L. salivarius and L. panis) after optimization of the RAPD parameters such as MgCl2, Taq polymerase, primer concentration and type of primer. The strains were differentiated under the same PCR protocol but different concentration of primer OPM-05

Norlida Abdul Manan; Sieo Chin Chin; Norhani Abdullah; Ho Yin Wan

2009-01-01

334

Gut commensal Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 stimulates an immunoregulatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 is a bacterial commensal of the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Previous studies have shown that colonization of the murine gut by this strain stimulates small-bowel enterocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines. This is associated with a mild, transitory inflammatory response 6 days after inoculation of formerly Lactobacillus-free animals. The inflammation subsides by 21 days after colonization, although lactobacilli

Megan Livingston; Diane Loach; Michelle Wilson; Gerald W Tannock; Margaret Baird

2010-01-01

335

Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus -SDC 2012, 2013 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria exhibit a variety of properties, which are unique to a particular strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 are new strains isolated from Korean infants’ feces. The potential utility of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was studied. Forty IBS patients were randomized into a placebo (n = 20) and probiotics group (n = 20). Four weeks of treatment with L.

Dong Hyun Sinn; Ji Hyun Song; Hoi Jin Kim; Jun Haeng Lee; Hee Jung Son; Dong Kyung Chang; Young-Ho Kim; Jae J. Kim; Jong Chul Rhee; Poong-Lyul Rhee

2008-01-01

336

Antimicrobial activity of different Lactobacillus species against multi- drug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacilli are the well known friendly bacteria for their probiotic activities against pathogens. The inhibitory activity of different strains of lactobacilli either obtained as commercial products or isolated from human feces was investigated against the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates were selected as the most resistant strains when challenged with anti-pseudomonal antibiotics already in clinical practice. Materials and Methods Both the plate spot test as well as the agar cup method were used for screening of Lactobacillus strains against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results A Lactobacillus acidophilus strain isolated from feces of an Iranian child showed a strong anti-pseudomonal activity (90 percent after 72h incubation) against the multi-drug resistant clinical isolates while a Lactobacillus reuteri strain isolated from a commercial oral product resulted in relatively weak response and a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain isolated from a commercial vaginal product did not show any inhibitory activity. In a kinetic study the lactobacillus sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a significant bacteriostatic activity in vitro in the presence of lactobacillus supernatants. Conclusion Some lactobacilli exhibit significant inhibitory activity against the multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22347578

Jamalifar, H; Rahimi, HR; Samadi, N; Shahverdi, AR; Sharifian, Z; Hosseini, F; Eslahi, H; Fazeli, MR

2011-01-01

337

Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.  

PubMed

The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

2014-09-15

338

Characterization of a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene from Lactobacillus zymae.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented vegetable food. LAB accumulating GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) in the culture media were screened by TLC analysis. One isolate, GU240, produced the highest amount of GABA among the 3,000 isolates and identified as a Lactobacillus zymae strain. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene was cloned and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET26b(+). The recombinant GAD was purified by using a Ni-NTA column. Its size was 53 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was at pH 4.5 and 41 °C and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Km and Vmax of LzGAD were 1.7 mM and 0.01 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as a substrate. PMID:24770872

Park, Ji Yeong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-09-01

339

Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently found in the fermentation of plant-derived food products, where hydroxycinnamoyl esters are abundant. L. plantarum WCFS1 cultures were unable to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters; however, cell extracts from the strain partially hydrolyze methyl ferulate and methyl p-coumarate. In order to discover whether the protein Lp_0796 is the enzyme responsible for this hydrolytic activity, it was recombinantly overproduced and enzymatically characterized. Lp_0796 is an esterase that, among other substrates, is able to efficiently hydrolyze the four model substrates for feruloyl esterases (methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, and methyl sinapinate). A screening test for the detection of the gene encoding feruloyl esterase Lp_0796 revealed that it is generally present among L. plantarum strains. The present study constitutes the description of feruloyl esterase activity in L. plantarum and provides new insights into the metabolism of hydroxycinnamic compounds in this bacterial species. PMID:23793626

Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

2013-01-01

340

Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

341

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

2015-02-01

342

Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory gene rsiR modulates histamine production and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P; Gao, C; Pflughoeft, K J; Thomas, C M; Saulnier, D M; Spinler, J K; Versalovic, J

2013-12-01

343

Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

2013-01-01

344

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

345

Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous portions of their lungs or lobes removed as treatment for lung cancer (normal lung function controls (n=28), persons with mild (GOLD 1) (n=21) and moderate (GOLD 2) COPD (n=25)). Outcome measures Primary outcome measure was GD1 positivity within each group and whether or not this impacted quantitative histological measures of lung inflammation. Secondary outcome measures included Lactobacillus presence and quantification, and quantitative histological measurements of inflammation and remodelling in early COPD. Results Total bacterial count (p>0.05) and prevalence of Lactobacillus (p>0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the GD1 gene was detected more frequently in the controls (14%) than in either mild (5%) or moderate (0%) COPD (p<0.05) samples. Macrophage and neutrophil volume fractions (0.012±0.005 (mean±SD) vs 0.026±0.017 and 0.005±0.002 vs 0.015±0.014, respectively) in peripheral lung tissue were reduced in samples positive for the GD1 gene (p<0.0035). Conclusions A reduction in GD1 positivity is associated with an increased tissue immune inflammatory response in early stage COPD. There is potential for Lactobacillus to be used as a possible therapeutic, however, validation of these results need to be completed before an anti-inflammatory role of Lactobacillus in COPD can be confirmed. PMID:25652802

Sze, Marc A; Utokaparch, Soraya; Elliott, W Mark; Hogg, James C; Hegele, Richard G

2015-01-01

346

Arginine Catabolism by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Purification and Characterization of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and carbamate kinase (CK) activities, which comprise the ADI (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. Only obligately heterofermentative strains such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1; Lactobacillus brevis AM1, AM8, and 10A; Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B; and Lactobacillus fructivorans DD3

Maria De Angelis; Liberato Mariotti; Jone Rossi; Maurizio Servili; Patrick F. Fox; Graciela Rollan; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

347

A High-Molecular-Mass Surface Protein (Lsp) and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B (MsrB) Contribute to the Ecological Performance of Lactobacillus reuteri in the Murine Gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Lactobacillus are common inhabitants of the gut, yet little is known about the traits that contribute to their ecological performance in gastrointestinal ecosystems. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 persists in the gut of the reconstituted Lactobacillus-free mouse after a single oral inoculation. Recently, three genes of this strain that were specifically induced (in vivo induced) in the murine

Jens Walter; Patrice Chagnaud; Gerald W. Tannock; Diane M. Loach; Fabio Dal Bello; Howard F. Jenkinson; Walter P. Hammes; Christian Hertel

2005-01-01

348

Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry.  

PubMed

In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract. PMID:25477944

Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

2014-01-01

349

Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215T, was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced D-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215T had 98.7-99.6% sequence similarity to that of the type strain of three Lactobacillus (L. farciminis BCRC 14043T, L. futsaii BCRC 80278T and L. crustorum JCM 15951T). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215T was well separated from the reference strains of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain S15T had DNA related to the three types of Lactobacillus (33-66%). The DNA G+C content of strain S215T was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the D-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18:1 ?9c (41.5%), C16:0 (23.4%) and C19:0 cyclo ?10c/19?6 (22.8%). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represented a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain was S215T = NBRC 109509T = BCRC 80582T). PMID:25281727

Chang, Chi-Huan; Chen, Yi-Sheng; Lee, Tzu-Tai; Chang, Yu-Chung; Yu, Bi

2014-10-01

350

Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)  

PubMed Central

Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

2013-01-01

351

Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ?10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ?10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity. PMID:25153762

Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

2015-01-01

352

Effect of prebiotic carbohydrates on the growth and tolerance of Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Resistance to gastrointestinal conditions is a requirement for bacteria to be considered probiotics. In this work, we tested the resistance of six different Lactobacillus strains and the effect of carbon source to four different gastrointestinal conditions: presence of ?-amylase, pancreatin, bile extract and low pH. Novel galactooligosaccharides synthesized from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as well as commercial galactooligosaccharides synthesized from lactose (GOS-La) and lactulose were used as carbon sources and compared with glucose. In general, all strains grew in all carbon sources, although after 24 h of fermentation the population of all Lactobacillus strains was higher for both types of GOS than for glucose and lactulose. No differences were found among GOS-Lu and GOS-La. ?-amylase and pancreatin resistance was retained at all times for all strains. However, a dependence on carbon source and Lactobacillus strain was observed for bile extract and low pH resistance. High hydrophobicity was found for all strains with GOS-Lu when compared with other carbon sources. However, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids were higher in glucose and lactulose than GOS-Lu and GOS-La. These results show that the resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and hydrophobicity is directly related with the carbon source and Lactobacillus strains. In this sense, the use of prebiotics as GOS and lactulose could be an excellent alternative to monosaccharides to support growth of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and improve their survival through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22365348

Hernandez-Hernandez, O; Muthaiyan, A; Moreno, F J; Montilla, A; Sanz, M L; Ricke, S C

2012-06-01

353

Severe oral infection due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe oral infection with a high fever due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. The patient did not improve on treatment with meropenem, clindamycin, or vancomycin until neutrophil recovery. Since L. rhamnosus GG is used in dairy products, and the patient ingested dairy products daily before starting chemotherapy, we suspected an association between the ingestion of dairy products and the development of infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using two different restriction enzymes showed that the strain isolated from the patient was identical to the L. rhamnosus GG strain isolated from dairy products and ATCC #53103. This was confirmed by a PCR assay with species-specific L. rhamnosus GG primers. Since Lactobacillus infection, particularly L. rhamnosus infection, can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts, we should consider Lactobacillus as a causative organism when Gram-positive rods are detected during treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and vancomycin. The causal association between the ingestion of dairy products containing Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus infection in immunocompromised hosts warrants further study. PMID:25115834

Ishihara, Yuko; Kanda, Junya; Tanaka, Kaori; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Nishida, Junji; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

2014-12-01

354

Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of lactic acid bacteria as live vehicles for the production and delivery of therapeutic molecules is being actively investigated today. For future applications it is essential to be able to establish dose-response curves for the targeted biological effect and thus to control the production of a heterologous biopeptide by a live lactobacillus. We therefore implemented in Lactobacillus plantarum

SONIA PAVAN; PASCAL HOLS; JEAN DELCOUR; MARIE-CLAUDE GEOFFROY; CORINNE GRANGETTE; MICHIEL KLEEREBEZEM; ANNICK MERCENIER

2000-01-01

355

The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp. Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The

Nadja Larsen; Peter Nissen; William G. T. Willats

2007-01-01

356

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain wikim 22, Isolated from Kimchi in Chungcheong Province, South Korea  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei strain wikim 22, a Lactobacillus species isolated from kimchi in North Chungcheong Province, South Korea, having 155 contigs with 2,447 genes and an average G+C content of 40.61%. PMID:25502679

Lim, Hyeong In; Lee, Jina; Jang, Ja Young; Park, Hae Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Mi Ran

2014-01-01

357

The Adsorption of Ochratoxin A by Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-01-01

358

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.  

PubMed

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an essential component of the antimicrobial repertoire and represent an effective means by which neutrophils capture, contain, and kill microorganisms. However, the uncontrolled or excessive liberation of NETs also damages surrounding cells and can contribute to disease pathophysiology. Alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as the presence of local and systemic markers of inflammation, are strongly associated with the manifestation of a spectrum of intestinal disorders, including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotics exert beneficial effects on gut homeostasis, their direct effect on neutrophils, which are abundant in the setting of intestinal inflammation, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonpathogenic, enteropathogenic, and probiotic bacteria on the dynamics of NET formation. Using murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils and the neutrophil-differentiated human myeloid cell line d.HL-60, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG inhibits both PMA- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced formation of NETs. Moreover, probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG had potent antioxidative activity: dampening reactive oxygen species production and phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils while protecting against cell cytotoxicity. Within the milieu of the gut, this represents a novel mechanism by which probiotics can locally dampen innate immune responses and confer desensitization toward luminal Ags. PMID:24465012

Vong, Linda; Lorentz, Robert J; Assa, Amit; Glogauer, Michael; Sherman, Philip M

2014-02-15

359

The adsorption of ochratoxin a by lactobacillus species.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-09-01

360

CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

361

Lactobacillus rhamnosus as additive for maize and sorghum ensiling.  

PubMed

The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus AT195, a potential probiotic microorganism cultured in buffalo "scotta" whey, on chemical and microbiological composition in maize and sorghum ensiling were evaluated. Both crops were harvested, chopped, and treated or not with the selected strain prior to ensiling in fiberglass vertical silos; 90 days after ensiling, silages were sensorially evaluated and sampled. Different chemical components were evaluated both on fresh crops and silages: in particular, the water-soluble carbohydrates content was investigated by high-field NMR spectroscopy and the carbohydrate fermentation profile was performed by GC. Besides phenotypic identification and typing, microbiological studies included Lb. rhamnosus genotype typing by RAPD-PCR. All silages, inoculated or not, were well preserved, as their chemical and microbiological data along with the fermentation profiles showed. The selected strain used as inoculum influenced the lactic acid population of silages and evidenced a good survival performance during the ensiling process of both maize and sorghum. Moreover, the use of Lb. rhamnosus strain efficiently improved the quality of the multifactorial ensiling process by significantly reducing the ammonia nitrogen content of both maize and sorghum silages. PMID:17929890

Salimei, Elisabetta; Capilongo, Valeria; Simoni, Andrea; Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Maglieri, Cristina; Romano, Cristina A; Mannina, Luisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

2007-11-14

362

Induction of Pleomorphy and Calcium Ion Deficiency in Lactobacillus bifidus  

PubMed Central

The induction of pleomorphism of Lactobacillus bifidus by NaCl was completely inhibited by CaCl2. When the organism was cultivated in calcium-free medium, growth of the bifid form was exclusively observed. Supplementation of calcium ion in the medium caused bacilloid growth. Chemical analyses indicated that calcium content of the bifid form organisms was significantly less than that of the bacilloid form; i.e., in the former type, there was an approximately 30% decrease of calcium in the whole cells, and an 82% decrease in the cell wall, as compared with the respective content of the latter. These results indicate a suppressing role of calcium ion in the induction of pleomorphism of L. bifidus. Besides calcium content, sugar and amino acid compositions were shown to be different between the bifid and bacilloid forms. In the cell wall especially, the content of glucose in the bifid form was larger than that in the bacilloid form. Methionine and phenylalanine were present in the bifid form, but not in the bacilloid form. Cell walls of the bifid form organisms lacked a larger molecular weight peptidoglycan (7.5S) which was clearly detected in the bacilloid form. Evidence has been given for the relationships of calcium ion and cell wall components to the pleomorphism in L. bifidus. Images PMID:5437726

Kojima, Masami; Suda, Shozo; Hotta, Susumu; Hamada, Koyata

1970-01-01

363

Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - host interactions  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotic strains. Various health effects are well documented including the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhea, and stimulation of immune responses that promote vaccination or even prevent certain allergic symptoms. However, not all intervention studies could show a clinical benefit and even for the same conditions, the results are not univocal. Clearly, the host phenotype governed by age, genetics and environmental factors such as the endogenous microbiota, plays a role in whether individuals are responders or non-responders. However, we believe that a detailed knowledge of the bacterial physiology and the LGG molecules that play a key role in its host-interaction capacity is crucial for a better understanding of its potential health benefits. Molecules that were yet identified as important factors governing host interactions include its adhesive pili or fimbriae, its lipoteichoic acid molecules, its major secreted proteins and its galactose-rich exopolysaccharides, as well as specific DNA motifs. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to correlate specific health effects to these molecular effectors in LGG, and also in other probiotic strains. PMID:25186587

2014-01-01

364

Exclusion of uropathogen adhesion to polymer surfaces by Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

The ability of bacteria to adhere to surfaces is a major cause of concern in the use of biomaterial substrates. The adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1938 was examined using image analysis and was found not to correlate with polymer surface tension, unlike that of Lactobacillus acidophilus, which adhered to more hydrophobic polymers. A fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli strain showed very low levels of adherence to the biomaterials. Precoating the polymers with lactobacilli significantly reduced the staphylococcal and E. coli adhesion, a result which could have clinical significance. An additional finding was that the interaction of staphylococci and E. coli with lactobacilli coated polymers altered the adhesion profile of the latter. Lactobacilli appeared to detach from polymers of low surface tension and reattach to polymers with high surface tensions. This resulted in the highest levels of exclusion of uropathogens being found for lactobacilli-coated glass and sulfonated polystyrene, both of which are hydrophilic (with high surface tensions). These results demonstrate that lactobacilli can be used to coat biomaterial surfaces leading to a reduced adhesion of uropathogens. PMID:2105962

Hawthorn, L A; Reid, G

1990-01-01

365

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

366

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related probiotic genera.  

PubMed

Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4 Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic genomes than their pathogenic members. The pan- and core genome of each genus was defined. Pairwise BLASTP genome comparison was performed within and between genera. It turned out that pathogenic Streptococcus and Enterococcus shared more gene families than did the non-pathogenic genomes. In silico multilocus sequence typing was carried out for all genomes per genus, and the variable gene content of genomes was compared within the genera. Informative BLAST Atlases were constructed to visualize genomic variation within genera. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classes of all genes in the pan- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature. This study illustrates how over 80 genomes can be broadly compared using simple bioinformatic tools, leading to both confirmation of known information as well as novel observations. PMID:22031452

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W; Wassenaar, Trudy M

2012-04-01

367

Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

2012-01-01

368

Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the ?-(1?4) glucosidic type (?70%). This reuteran also contains ?-(1?6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted ?-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing ?-(1?4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of ?-(1?4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G. H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

2005-01-01

369

Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.  

PubMed

The effect of several biocides, thermal treatments, and photocatalysis on the viability of four Lactobacillus plantarum phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation (T99) of phages at 63, 72, and 90 degrees C were evaluated in four suspension media: deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, a commercial EM-glucose medium, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. The four phages studied were highly resistant to 63 degrees C (T99 > 45 min); however, counts < 10 PFU/ml were achieved by heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Higher thermal resistance at 72 degrees C was observed when reconstituted skim milk and EM-glucose medium were assayed. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied within 5 min of exposure. Sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm) inactivated the phages completely within 30 min. Ethanol (100%) did not destroy phage particles even after 45 min. Isopropanol did not have any effect on phage viability. Phage counts < 50 PFU/ml were obtained within 180 min of photocatalytic treatment. The results obtained in this work are important for establishing adequate methods for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments. PMID:19517728

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; De Antoni, Graciela L; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

2009-05-01

370

Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission. Methods Eleven patients with moderate to active Crohn's disease were enrolled in this trial to receive either L. GG (2 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for six months. All patients were started on a tapering steroid regime and received antibiotics for the week before the probiotic/placebo medication was initiated. The primary end point was sustained remission, defined as freedom from relapse at the 6 months follow-up visit. Relapse was defined as an increase in CDAI of >100 points. Results 5/11 patients finished the study, with 2 patients in each group in sustained remission. The median time to relapse was 16 ± 4 weeks in the L. GG group and 12 ± 4.3 weeks in the placebo group (p = 0.5). Conclusion In this study we could not demonstrate a benefit of L. GG in inducing or maintaining medically induced remission in CD. PMID:15113451

Schultz, Michael; Timmer, Antje; Herfarth, Hans H; Sartor, R Balfour; Vanderhoof, Jon A; Rath, Heiko C

2004-01-01

371

Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic type ( approximately 70%). This reuteran also contains alpha-(1-->6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted alpha-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing alpha-(1-->4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of alpha-(1-->4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

Kralj, S; Stripling, E; Sanders, P; van Geel-Schutten, G H; Dijkhuizen, L

2005-07-01

372

Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus plantarum – production, genetic organization and mode of action  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action towards usually closely related species. Numerous strains of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated in the last two decades from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and cereal products. Several of these plantaricins have been characterized and the aminoacid sequence determined. Different aspects of the mode of action, fermentation optimization and genetic organization of the bacteriocin operon have been studied. However, numerous of bacteriocins produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains have not been fully characterized. In this article, a brief overview of the classification, genetics, characterization, including mode of action and production optimization for bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in general, and where appropriate, with focus on bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, is presented. PMID:24031346

Todorov, Svetoslav D.

2009-01-01

373

Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

2010-01-01

374

Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9?%) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19?:?1)?6c and/or C(19?:?0) cyclo ?10c/19?6, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4? L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) (?=?DSM 26517(T)?=?CCM 8440(T)). PMID:24824637

Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

2014-08-01

375

Lactobacillus-mediated priming of the respiratory mucosa protects against lethal pneumovirus infection*  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response to respiratory virus infection can be complex and refractory to standard therapy. Lactobacilli, when targeted to the respiratory epithelium, are highly effective at suppressing virus-induced inflammation and protecting against lethal disease. Specifically, wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri were completely protected against lethal infection with the virulent rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM); significant protection (60% survival) persisted for at least thirteen weeks. Protection was not unique to Lactobacillus species, and was also observed in response to priming with non-pathogenic gram-positive Listeria innocua. Priming with live lactobacilli resulted in diminished granulocyte recruitment, diminished expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines (CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL2, and TNF) and reduced virus recovery, although we have demonstrated clearly that absolute virus titer does not predict clinical outcome. Lactobacillus priming also resulted in prolonged survival and protection against the lethal sequelae of PVM infection in MyD88 gene-deleted (MyD88?/?) mice, suggesting that the protective mechanisms may be Toll-like receptor-independent. Most intriguing, virus recovery and cytokine expression patterns in Lactobacillus-primed MyD88?/? mice were indistinguishable from those observed in control-primed MyD88?/? counterparts, In summary, we have identified and characterized an effective Lactobacillus-mediated innate immune shield, which may ultimately serve as critical and long-term protection against infection in the absence of specific antiviral vaccines. PMID:21169550

Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Bachar, Ofir; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Killoran, Kristin E.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2012-01-01

376

Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Induces a Protective Immune Response in Mice with Lyme Disease?  

PubMed Central

Mucosal immunization is advantageous over other routes of antigen delivery because it can induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Our goal was to develop a mucosal delivery vehicle based on bacteria generally regarded as safe, such as Lactobacillus spp. In this study, we used the Lyme disease mouse model as a proof of concept. We demonstrate that an oral vaccine based on live recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum protects mice from tick-transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Our method of expressing vaccine antigens in L. plantarum induces both systemic and mucosal immunity after oral administration. This platform technology can be applied to design oral vaccine delivery vehicles against several microbial pathogens. PMID:18632920

del Rio, Beatriz; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Aroso, Miguel; Neves, Vera; Meirelles, Luciana; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

2008-01-01

377

Tuning constitutive recombinant gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Background Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes a well-recognized food-grade system for the expression of recombinant proteins in the field of industrial and medical biotechnology. For applications in vivo or in biotechnological processes, the level of expression of e.g. antigens or enzymes is often critical, as expression levels should be of a certain effectiveness, yet, without putting too much strain to the overall system. The key factors that control gene expression are promoter strength, gene copy number and translation efficiency. In order to estimate the impact of these adjusting screws in L. plantarum CD033, we have tested several constitutive promoters in combination with high and low copy number plasmid backbones and varying space between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the start-codon.ResultsBy combining strong promoters, such as transcription elongation factor promoters, isolated from L. plantarum CD033 and L. buchneri CD034, a synthetic promoter, originally derived from L. plantarum WCSF1 and a heterologous promoter derived from L. buchneri CD034 with a high and a low copy number origin of replication we demonstrated various expression levels of the model protein mCherry. All promoters were feasible for protein expression and in all cases, the high copy number origin of replication increased expression twofold. We found that the optimal spacer between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the start codon in L. plantarum consists of 8 nucleotides and elongation as well as shortening this sequence gradually down-regulates gene expression.ConclusionsWe have evaluated the effects of a set of gene regulatory tools to fine tune recombinant gene expression in L. plantarum CD033. We have thus, provided potential expression vectors useful for constitutive protein expression in lactic acid bacteria ranging from moderate to strong production levels. PMID:25410118

Tauer, Christopher; Heinl, Stefan; Egger, Esther; Heiss, Silvia; Grabherr, Reingard

2014-11-20

378

Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Probiotics have proven to be useful in the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics may compete directly with Helicobacter pylori, possibly by interference with adherence or by the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to inhibit H. pylori in vitro and in vivo, and theoretically may play a role in eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of L. reuteri in H. pylori eradication therapy. This was an open label single center study. H. pylori infection was defined as positive gastric histopathology and (13)C-UBT. Intervention consisted of L. reuteri (DSM 17938) 10(8) cfu plus pantoprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. Eradication was defined as a negative (13)C-UBT, 4-6 weeks post therapy. Compliance was considered good if at least 90% of the total number of the pills were taken. 21 of 22 subjects completed the study without protocol violation (mean age 52 years; 36% men). L. reuteri plus pantoprazole twice a day cured 13.6% (3/22; 95% CI 2.9-34.9%) of patients with H. pylori infection by ITT analysis and 14.2% (3/21; 95% CI 3.0-36%) by PP analysis. Overall urease activity assessed before and 4-6 weeks post therapy showed a significant reduction with a difference of mean of 38.8 vs. 25.4 by one-tailed test (P = 0.002). In conclusion, L. reuteri may have a potential role in H. pylori eradication therapy if the cure rate can be improved by changes in dose, dosing interval, or duration of therapy. PMID:24178436

Dore, Maria Pina; Cuccu, Marianna; Pes, Gianni Mario; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Yates

2014-09-01

379

Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods. PMID:25320437

Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-12-01

380

Gastric emptying is involved in Lactobacillus colonisation in mouse stomach.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are indigenous microbes of the stomach of rodents, with much lower numbers being present in mice fed a purified diet than in those fed a non-purified diet. We postulated that gastric emptying (GE) is responsible for the different colonisation levels of lactobacilli and tested this hypothesis in the present study. BALB/cCr Slc mice were fed either a non-purified diet or a purified diet for 2 weeks. The number of gastric tissue-associated lactobacilli was lower in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. GE, estimated by measuring the food recovered from the stomach, was higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet and correlated negatively with the number of lactobacilli. Mice fed the non-purified diet exhibited lower GE rates even when lactobacilli were eliminated by ampicillin administration through the drinking-water, suggesting that GE is the cause but not the consequence of different Lactobacillus colonisation levels. The plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, a gastric hormone that promotes GE, were higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. There was a negative correlation between GE and the number of lactobacilli in mice fed the non-purified diet, the purified diet, and the purified diet supplemented with sugarbeet fibre (200 g/kg diet) or carboxymethyl cellulose (40 g/kg diet). We propose that a higher GE rate contributes, at least in part, to lower gastric colonisation levels of lactobacilli in mice fed a purified diet. PMID:24933648

Sahasakul, Yuraporn; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei

2014-08-01

381

Rapid Adoption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A 2007 meta-analysis showed probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), shorten diarrhea from acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by 24 hours and decrease risk of progression beyond 7 days. In 2005, our institution published a guideline recommending consideration of probiotics for patients with AGE, but only 1% of inpatients with AGE were prescribed LGG. The objective of this study was to increase inpatient prescribing of LGG at admission to >90%, for children hospitalized with AGE, within 120 days. METHODS: This quality improvement study included patients aged 2 months to 18 years admitted to general pediatrics with AGE with diarrhea. Diarrhea was defined as looser or ?3 stools in the preceding 24 hours. Patients with complex medical conditions or with presumed bacterial gastroenteritis were excluded. Admitting and supervising clinicians were educated on the evidence. We ensured LGG was adequately stocked in our pharmacies and updated an AGE-specific computerized order set to include a default LGG order. Failure identification and mitigation were conducted via daily electronic chart review and e-mail communication. Primary outcome was the percentage of included patients prescribed LGG within 18 hours of admission. Intervention impact was assessed with run charts tracking our primary outcome over time. RESULTS: The prescribing rate increased to 100% within 6 weeks and has been sustained for 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Keys to success were pharmacy collaboration, use of an electronic medical record for a standardized order set, and rapid identification and mitigation of failures. Rapid implementation of evidence-based practices is possible using improvement science methods. PMID:23457156

Schaffzin, Joshua K.; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Yau, Connie; Vonderhaar, Karen; Guiot, Amy; Brinkman, William B.; White, Christine M.; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Gerhardt, Wendy E.; Kotagal, Uma R.; Conway, Patrick H.

2013-01-01

382

Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. Results: PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1?×?10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60?min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics. PMID:25265366

Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; P P Oliveira, Maria Beatriz

2014-09-29

383

LIFESTYLE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN THE MOUSE CECUM  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the ceca of adult germ-free C57Bl/6J mice fed a standard low-fat rodent chow diet rich in complex plant polysaccharides or a prototypic Western diet high in simple sugars and fat. L. plantarum colonized the digestive tracts of these animals to high levels, although L. plantarum was found in 10-fold higher amounts in the ceca of mice fed the standard chow. Metabolic reconstructions based on the transcriptional datasets revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism form the principal functional group that is up-regulated in vivo compared to exponential phase cells grown in three different culture media, and that a Western diet provides a more nutritionally-restricted, growth limiting milieu for the microbe in the distal gut. A set of bacterial genes encoding cell surface-related functions were differentially regulated in both groups of mice. This set included down-regulated genes required for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acids, extracellular structures of L. plantarum that mediate interactions with the host immune system. These results, obtained in a reductionist gnotobiotic mouse model of the gut ecosystem, provide insights about the niches (professions) of this lactic acid bacterium, and a context for systematically testing features that affect epithelial and immune cell responses to this organism in the digestive tract. PMID:19638173

Marco, Maria L.; Peters, Theodorus H.F.; Bongers, Roger S.; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hemert, Saskia; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2010-01-01

384

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan ('reuteran') with mainly alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with various acceptors. Alignments of the GTFA sequence with glucansucrases from Streptococcus and Leuconostoc identified conserved amino-acid residues in the catalytic core critical for enzyme activity. Mutants Asp1024Asn, Glu1061Gln and Asp1133Asn displayed 300- to 1000-fold-reduced specific activities. To investigate the role of the relatively large N-terminal variable domain (702 amino acids) and the relatively short C-terminal putative glucan-binding domain (267 amino acids, with 11 YG repeats), various truncated derivatives of GTFA (1781 amino acids) were constructed and characterized. Deletion of the complete N-terminal variable domain of GTFA (GTFA-Delta N) had little effect on reuteran characteristics (size, distribution of glycosidic linkages), but the initial transferase activity of the mutant enzyme increased drastically. Sequential C-terminal deletions (up to six YG repeats) in GTFA-Delta N also had little effect on reuteran characteristics. However, enzyme kinetics drastically changed. Deletion of 7, 8 or 11 YG repeats resulted in dramatic loss of total enzyme activity (43-, 63- and 1000-fold-reduced specific activities, respectively). Characterization of sequential C-terminal deletion mutants of GTFA-Delta N revealed that the C-terminal domain of reuteransucrase has an important role in glucan binding. PMID:15256553

Kralj, S; van Geel-Schutten, G H; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

2004-07-01

385

Environmental influences on exopolysaccharide formation in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of the corresponding reuteransucrase gene, gtfO, was investigated over time and the results indicated that the expression increased with growth during the exponential phase and subsequently decreased in the stationary phase. Fermentation with glucose and/or sucrose as carbon and energy source revealed that gtfO was constitutively expressed and that the activity profile was independent of the sugar source. In the applied ranges of parameter values, temperature and pH were the most important factors for EPS formation and only temperature for growth. The best EPS yield, 1.4 g g(-1) CDW, was obtained at the conditions 37 degrees C, pH 4.5 and 100 g l(-1) sucrose, which were close to the estimated optimal conditions: pH 4.56 and 100 g l(-1) sucrose. No EPS formation could be detected with glucose. In addition, no direct connection between the expression and the activity of reuteransucrase could be established. Finally, the strain ATCC 55730 was benchmarked against 14 other L. reuteri strains with respect to EPS production from sucrose and abilities to metabolise sucrose, glucose and fructose. Eight strains were able to produce glucan and a corresponding glucansucrase gene was confirmed for each of them. PMID:17316859

Arsköld, Emma; Svensson, Malin; Grage, Halfdan; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W J

2007-05-01

386

Rational transformation of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase into a dextransucrase.  

PubMed

Glucansucrase or glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes of lactic acid bacteria display high sequence similarity but catalyze synthesis of different alpha-glucans (e.g., dextran, mutan, alternan, and reuteran) from sucrose. The variations in glucosidic linkage specificity observed in products of different glucansucrase enzymes appear to be based on relatively small differences in amino acid sequences in their sugar-binding acceptor subsites. This notion was derived from mutagenesis of amino acids of GTFA (reuteransucrase) from Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 putatively involved in acceptor substrate binding. A triple amino acid mutation (N1134S:N1135E:S1136V) in a region immediately next to the catalytic Asp1133 (putative transition state stabilizing residue) converted GTFA from a mainly alpha-(1-->4) ( approximately 45%, reuteran) to a mainly alpha-(1-->6) ( approximately 80%, dextran) synthesizing enzyme. The subsequent introduction of mutation P1026V:I1029V, involving two residues located in a region next to the catalytic Asp1024 (nucleophile), resulted in synthesis of an alpha-glucan containing only a very small percentage of alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic linkages ( approximately 5%) and a further increased percentage of alpha-(1-->6) glucosidic linkages ( approximately 85%). This changed glucosidic linkage specificity was also observed in the oligosaccharide products synthesized by the different mutant GTFA enzymes from (iso)maltose and sucrose. Amino acids crucial for glucosidic linkage type specificity of reuteransucrase have been identified in this report. The data show that a combination of mutations in different regions of GTF enzymes influences the nature of both the glucan and oligosaccharide products. The amino acids involved most likely contribute to sugar-binding acceptor subsites in glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:15966745

Kralj, Slavko; van Geel-Schutten, Ineke G H; Faber, Elly J; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2005-06-28

387

Glucan synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus: isolation and characterization of glucansucrase genes, enzymes and glucan products from six different strains.  

PubMed

Members of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc synthesize various alpha-glucans (dextran, alternan and mutan). In Lactobacillus, until now, the only glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme that has been characterized is gtfA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121, the first GTF enzyme synthesizing a glucan (reuteran) that contains mainly alpha-(1-->4) linkages together with alpha-(1-->6) and alpha-(1-->4,6) linkages. Recently, partial sequences of glucansucrase genes were detected in other members of the genus Lactobacillus. This paper reports, for the first time, isolation and characterization of dextransucrase and mutansucrase genes and enzymes from various Lactobacillus species and the characterization of the glucan products synthesized, which mainly have alpha-(1-->6)- and alpha-(1-->3)-glucosidic linkages. The four GTF enzymes characterized from three different Lb. reuteri strains are highly similar at the amino acid level, and consequently their protein structures are very alike. Interestingly, these four Lb. reuteri GTFs have relatively large N-terminal variable regions, containing RDV repeats, and relatively short putative glucan-binding domains with conserved and less-conserved YG-repeating units. The three other GTF enzymes, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus parabuchneri, contain smaller variable regions and larger putative glucan-binding domains compared to the Lb. reuteri GTF enzymes. PMID:15528655

Kralj, S; van Geel-Schutten, G H; Dondorff, M M G; Kirsanovs, S; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

2004-11-01

388

The Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, or a Chemical Preservative on the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability of Corn Silage1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several microorganisms and one chemical preserva- tive were tested for their effects on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. Whole-plant corn (one-half milk line, 31.3% dry matter) was ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos untreated or after the following treatments: Lactobacillus buchneri at 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 cfu\\/g of fresh forage; two different strains of

N. K. Ranjit; L. Kung Jr

2000-01-01

389

Glutaminase activity of Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594 and expression of the activity in other Lactobacillus spp. by introduction of the glutaminase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the properties of glutaminase activity of Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594 and expressed the glutaminase gene (EC 3.5.1.2) heterologously. The enzyme activity was optimal at pH 7.5 and 40°C. High salt-tolerance of the enzyme was observed as 50% of the initial activity although it still remained at 20% (w\\/v) NaCl for 30 min. The glutaminase gene was cloned from L.

Jeong-Min Jeon; Hae-In Lee; Jae-Seong So

390

Modulation of the murine microbiome with a concomitant anti-obesity effect by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28.  

PubMed

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitutes the major part of the total human microbiome and is considered to be an important regulator of human health and host metabolism. Numerous investigations in recent years have focused on the connection between the human microbiota and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Yet, little is known about the impact of probiotic consumption on the GIT microbial population and the potential effect on chronic diseases. In this study, the modulation of the microbial community in the murine small intestine resulting from probiotic feeding was investigated and was found to be associated with an anti-obesity effect. Changes in the microbiota of the mouse faeces and small intestine were monitored using quantitative real-time PCR and by following the mRNA expression levels of various obesity-related biomarkers following probiotic feeding in a mouse model. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28 (a putative probiotic strain isolated from kimchi) were administered at a daily level of approximately 1×10(8) viable bacteria per mouse (C57BL/6J mice) for up to three weeks. Feeding these strains resulted in a significant reduction of epididymal fat mass, as well as obesity-related biomarkers like acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. The total number and ratio of the microbial groups, i.e. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp. were modulated in the small intestine, and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was decreased. In contrast, no noticeable effect of probiotic feeding could be detected on the faecal microbiota, neither quantitatively, nor with regard to the bacterial groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp.) studied. PMID:22348905

Ji, Y S; Kim, H N; Park, H J; Lee, J E; Yeo, S Y; Yang, J S; Park, S Y; Yoon, H S; Cho, G S; Franz, C M A P; Bomba, A; Shin, H K; Holzapfel, W H

2012-03-01

391

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 differently influence metabolic and immunological parameters in high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis.  

PubMed

In this study, two Lactobacillus strains (L. rhamnosus LA68 and L. plantarum WCFS1) were evaluated for their effects on high fat diet induced pathology in mice. The aim was to determine whether the administration of lactic acid bacteria had beneficial effects on ameliorating pathology. C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet were orally administered with the Lactobacillus strains. Both the metabolic and immunological parameters were analyzed. The administration of both of the strains had beneficial effects on mouse weight, serum cholesterol, TNF-? levels and liver histology. LA68 lowered the total cholesterol and HDL levels more prominently, whereas WCFS1 was more potent in lowering the TG and LDL levels. Leptin and adiponectin levels were increased in all experimental groups to different extents. The administration of L. plantarum WCFS1 led to a marked increase in leptin levels, as well as an increase in CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ cells, and a decrease of CD25+ cells, and had a lowering effect on IL-6 production and cell metabolic activity. In conclusion, active administration of both Lactobacillus strains had a positive effect on HFD-induced pathology. Although both of the tested strains had beneficial effects, oral administration of WCFS1 increased leptin levels and had a more prominent immunomodulatory effect, which should be taken into consideration in case of humane usage. PMID:25518825

Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Radojevic Skodric, Sanja; Zivkovic, Irena; Djordjevic, Brizita

2015-02-11

392

Parameters affecting the adsorption of plantaricin 423, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 423 isolated from sorghum beer.  

PubMed

Plantaricin 423 is bactericidal to logarithmic and stationary-phase cells of Enterococcus sp. HKLHS and L. sakei DSM 20017. Detection of extracellular DNA and beta-galactosidase suggests that the mode of action is most probably by destabilizing of the cell membrane. Adsorption of plantaricin 423 to target cells ranged from 17% for Streptococcus caprinus ATCC 700066 to 67% for Lactobacillus plantarum LMG 13556, Lactobacillus curvatus DF38, Listeria innocua LMG 13568 and Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017. Treatment of Enterococcus sp. HKLHS and L. sakei DSM 20017 with Triton X-100, Triton X-114 and chloroform increased the adsorption of plantaricin. PMID:16892267

Todorov, Svetoslav D; Dicks, Leon M T

2006-04-01

393

Characterization of the tre Locus and Analysis of Trehalose Cryoprotection in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing and lyophilization are common methods used for preservation and storage of microorganisms during the production of concentrated starter cultures destined for industrial fermentations or product formulations. The compatible solute trehalose has been widely reported to protect bacterial, yeast and animal cells against a variety of environmental stresses, particularly freezing and dehydration. Analysis of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome revealed

Tri Duong; Rodolphe Barrangou; W. Michael Russell; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2006-01-01

394

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

2014-01-01

395

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production from  

E-print Network

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production little information published on the effects of these inoculants on animal performance. The purpose and finishing beef animals fed untreated and ECOSYL (ECOSUR in France) treated silage. A similar review has

Boyer, Edmond

396

Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides by Lactobacillus plantarum strains from spontaneous cassava fermentation and other microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium sclerotiorum were screened for 19 enzymatic activities using the commercial kit API zym (Bio Mérieux). This activity was compared to the ability of degrading the toxic cyanogenic glycosides amygdalin, linamarin, and linseed cyanogens (a mixture of linustatin and neolinustatin). Good correlation between the ?-glucosidase activity found in the API zym

Vicki Lei; Wisdom Kofi Asa Amoa-Awua; Leon Brimer

1999-01-01

397

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The short-chain fatty acids formed in the human colon by the bacterial fermentation of fiber may have an antiin- flammatory effect, may reduce insulin production, and may improve lipid metabolism. We previously showed in hypercholes- terolemic patients that supplementation with the probiotic bacte- ria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v significantly lowers concentra- tions of LDL cholesterol and fibrinogen. Objective: We determined

Marek Naruszewicz; Marie-Louise Johansson; Danuta Zapolska-Downar; Hanna Bukowska

398

Enhancement of polyphenols in olive oil by contact with fermented olive mill wastewater by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) phenolic compounds with low and high molecular weight depolymerisation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the transport of phenolics from OMW to olive oil was studied. Incubation of olive oil samples with fermented OMW by L. plantarum caused polyphenols to decrease in OMW and increase in oil with multiple biological effects. The lower total phenolic

Faten Kachouri; Moktar Hamdi

2004-01-01

399

Lactobacillus plantarum—survival, functional and potential probiotic properties in the human intestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile lactic acid bacterium that is encountered in a range of environmental niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies describe the effects of L. plantarum consumption on human physiology. The availability of the complete genome sequence of L. plantarum WCFS1 makes

Maaike C. de Vries; Elaine E. Vaughan; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

2006-01-01

400

Carbohydrates and the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum: The role of moisture distribution and water activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol were tested for their ability to minimize the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum during fluidized bed drying. Desorption isotherms were measured for starch and L. plantarum, for binary mixtures containing starch and a carbohydrate, and for ternary mixtures composed of L. plantarum, starch and a carbohydrate. The moisture distribution inside the drying

Leonie J. M. Linders; Gerard I. W. de Jong; Gerrit Meerdink; Klaas van't Riet

1997-01-01

401

Spatial and temporal expression of Lactobacillus plantarum genes in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, and L. plantarum strain WCFS1 is a human isolate with a known genome sequence. L. plantarum WCFS1 survives intestinal passage in an active form, and its transit time and transcriptional activities were monitored in 15 BALB\\/c mice at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h after being fed a single

Maria L. Marco; Roger S. Bongers; Vos de W. M; Michiel Kleerebezem

2007-01-01

402

Transformation of Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation with in vitro modified plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 (ATCC 8014) with plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli is described. The two main modifications with respect to existing methods are: (i) isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli JM110 grown in minimal medium and (ii) in vitro modification of the DNA by cell-free extracts of the host L.

M. Teresa Alegre; M. Carmen Rodr??guez; Juan M. Mesas

2004-01-01

403

Cloning of a novel specific SCAR marker for species identification in Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Identifying Lactobacillus species using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques yields inaccurate results. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific primers based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to distinguish species within the closely related Lactobacillus plantarum group. One of these primers, OPD-3, produced a species-specific band that was found only in the tested Lactobacillus pentosus. This specific fragment was isolated from agarose gel and ligated into a vector for DNA sequencing. A pair of primers, SpOPD3Lpen-F1/R1, that were highly specific sequence-characterized-amplified-regions (SCARs) were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of the specific RAPD marker. These primers were used for PCR analysis of the template DNA of the Lactobacillus strains, and a single 542 bp species-specific band was found only in L. pentosus. Using PCR, a novel species-specific primer pair is shown to rapidly, accurately and effectively distinguish L. pentosus from other species in the L. plantarum group of probiotic bacteria. PMID:24675147

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina

2014-08-01

404

Biodiversity-based identification and functional characterization of the mannose-specific adhesin of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a frequently encountered inhabitant of the human intestinal tract, and some strains are marketed as probiotics. Their ability to adhere to mannose residues is a potentially interesting characteristic with regard to proposed probiotic features such as colonization of the intestinal surface and competitive exclusion of pathogens. In this study, the variable capacity of 14 L. plantarum strains

Gabriele Pretzer; Johannes Snel; Douwe Molenaar; Anne Wiersma; Peter A. Bron; Jolanda Lambert; Vos de W. M; Roelof van der Meer; Mari A. Smits; Michiel Kleerebezem

2005-01-01

405

Contribution of reutericyclin production to the stable persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri in an industrial sourdough fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericyclin is a small molecular weight antibiotic produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584. This strain was isolated from an industrial sourdough, SER, in 1988. To determine whether reutericyclin formation contributes to the stable persistence of L. reuteri in sourdough, evaluations were made on whether reutericyclin-producing strains were among L. reuteri isolates from the SER sourdough obtained in 1994

Michael G Gänzle; Rudi F Vogel

2003-01-01

406

Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different Lactobacillus strains are frequently used in consumer food products. In addition, recombinant lactobacilli which contain novel expression vectors can now be used in immunotherapeutic applications such as oral vaccination strategies and in T cell tolerance induction approaches for autoimmune disease. Both for food and clinical applications of lactobacilli, proper selection of wild type strains is crucial.For that purpose, eight

Catharina B. M. Maassen; Conny van Holten-Neelen; Fräncis Balk; Marie-Joan Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer; Rob J. Leer; Jon D. Laman; Wim J. A. Boersma; Eric Claassen

2000-01-01

407

The potential of biodetoxification activity as a probiotic property of Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on the metabolism of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 anticipated a variability in the use of organic electron acceptors as a means to relieve metabolic redox problems. Therefore, investigations focusing on this unique metabolism of L. reuteri may reveal a basis for new probiotic properties. For instance, L. reuteri may use reactive aldehydes and ketones as electron acceptors to

Ed W. J. van Niel; Christer U. Larsson; Elke M. Lohmeier-Vogel; Peter Rådström

408

Quantitation by enzyme immunoassay of spirosin from Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three EIA methods (Direct, Indirect and Sandwich EIA) were studied to quantify spirosin in Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli cultured under various conditions in an attempt to get some insight into the function of spirosome. Both Direct and Indirect EIA were suited well for the quantitation of L. reuteri spirosin while Direct EIA was appropriate for spirosin of E. coli.

Masayuki Yamato; Mie Hayashi; Yasuhisa Shiomoto; Fusao Ota

1997-01-01

409

Arginine catabolism and acid tolerance response in Lactobacillus reuteri isolated from sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological role of arginine degradation by the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway and its relationship with the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 cells, a lactic acid bacterium of sourdough origin, were studied. The activity of the ADI pathway enzymes (ADI, ornithine transcarbamoylase and carbamate kinase) in L. reuteri CRL 1098 grown in presence of arginine and

G. Rollan; G. L. Lorca

2003-01-01

410

Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri biofilms produce antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Commensal-derived probiotic bacteria inhibit enteric pathogens and regulate host immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract, but studies examining specific functions of beneficial microbes in the context of biofilms have been limited in scope. RESULTS: Lactobacillus reuteri formed biofilms that retained functions potentially advantageous to the host including modulation of cytokine output and the production of the antimicrobial agent, reuterin.

Sara E Jones; James Versalovic

2009-01-01

411

Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic supplementation may provide health benefits, especially for individuals with an underlying disease state that makes them more susceptible to infections. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri ingestion by subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-nine subjects consumed a freeze-dried preparation of L. reuteri or a placebo for 21

B. W. Wolf; K. B. Wheeler; D. G. Ataya; K. A. Garleb

1998-01-01

412

The Evolution of Host Specialization in the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiota to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped this symbiosis. In the present study, we showed in experiments with gnotobiotic mice that the evolution of Lactobacillus reuteri with rodents resulted in the emergence of host specialization. To identify genomic events marking

Steven A. Frese; Andrew K. Benson; Gerald W. Tannock; Diane M. Loach; Jaehyoung Kim; Min Zhang; Phaik Lyn Oh; Nicholas C. K. Heng; Prabhu B. Patil; Nathalie Juge; Donald A. MacKenzie; Bruce M. Pearson; Alla L. Lapidus; Eileen Dalin; Hope Tice; Eugene Goltsman; Miriam L Land; Loren John Hauser; Natalia Ivanova; Nikos C. Kyrpides; Jens Walter

2011-01-01

413

Lactobacillus reuteri-induced Regulatory T cells Protect against an Allergic Airway Response in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: We have previously demonstrated that oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri can attenuate major characteristics of the asthmatic response in a mouse model of allergic airway in- flammation. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that regulatory T cells play a major role in mediating L. reuteri-induced attenuation of the allergic

Khalil Karimi; Mark D. Inman; John Bienenstock; Paul Forsythe

414

Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent

Nana Valeur; Peter Engel; Noris Carbajal; Eamonn Connolly; Karin Ladefoged

2004-01-01

415

Proteomic analysis of the effect of bile salts on the intestinal and probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is a resident of the human and animal intestinal tracts. The ability of L. reuteri to survive passage through the intestinal tract is a key point in its function as a probiotic. In order to examine the nature of bile salt tolerance by L. reuteri, its protein synthesis was analyzed in liquid cultures containing two different bile salt

KiBeom Lee; Hong-Gu Lee; Yun-Jaie Choi

2008-01-01

416

Genomic and Genetic Characterization of the Bile Stress Response of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression

Kristi Whitehead; James Versalovic; Stefan Roos; Robert A. Britton

2008-01-01

417

A comprehensive approach to determine the probiotic potential of human-derived Lactobacillus for industrial use.  

PubMed

Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. PMID:23498174

Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A

2013-05-01

418

Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 with antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 is a probiotic bacterium, which shows high antibacterial activity. The genome consists of a circular 3,033,693-bp chromosome and six plasmids. Bioinformatics inspection of the genome revealed a gene cluster relating to bacteriocin production. Genome information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the bacteriocin production. PMID:25444879

Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping

2015-01-10

419

Genome Sequence of the Heteropolysaccharide-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharide-synthesizing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 is a heterofermentative strain, which has demonstrated cholesterol-lowering properties in an animal model of lipid-driven atherosclerosis. The genome revealed a plethora of homologues linked to carbohydrate metabolism and mucin binding. PMID:25593248

Ryan, Paul M; Guinane, Caitriona M; London, Lis E E; Kelleher, Philip R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Caplice, Noel M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

2015-01-01

420

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

421

Role of asparagine 1134 in glucosidic bond and transglycosylation specificity of reuteransucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria convert sucrose into various ?-glucans that differ greatly with respect to the glucosidic bonds present (e.g. dextran, mutan, alternan and reuteran). This study aimed to identify the structural features of the reuteransucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 (GTFA) that determine its reaction specificity. We here report a detailed mutational analysis of a conserved region immediately next

Slavko Kralj; Wieger Eeuwema; Tom H. Eckhardt; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2006-01-01

422

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J.; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos

2014-01-01

423

Protective action of Lactobacillus kefir carrying Slayer protein against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Lactobacillus kefir strains isolated from different kefir grains were tested for their ability to antagonize Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis) interaction with epithelial cells. L. kefir surface properties such as autoaggregation and coaggregation with Salmonella and adhesion to Caco-2\\/TC-7 cells were evaluated. L. kefir strains showed significantly different adhesion capacities, six strains were able to autoaggregate and four

M. A. Golowczyc; P. Mobili; G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

2007-01-01

424

Reduction of acetophenone to R (+)-phenylethanol by a new alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alcohol dehydrogenase catalysing the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to R(+)-phenylethanol was found in a strain of Lactobacillus kefir. A 70-fold enrichment of the enzyme with an overall yield of 76% was obtained in two steps. The addition of Mg2+ ions was found to be necessary to prevent rapid deactivation. The enzyme depends essentially on NADPH and was inactive

Werner Hummel

1990-01-01

425

Bacteremia due to Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium or Lactobacillus; twenty-one cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one cases of bacteremia due to Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus are described. Transient bacteremic episodes with these organisms may follow trauma to the mouth, intestine, or vagina. The majority of the patients were female and most had an underlying condition that may have predisposed to bacteremia. Ten of the patients died despite antibiotic treatment. PMID:749356

Bourne, K. A.; Beebe, J. L.; Lue, Y. A.; Ellner, P. D.

1978-01-01

426