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1

Lactobacillus casei DN114 001 inhibits the increase in paracellular permeability of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-infected T84 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are living microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefits toward the host. For instance, probiotics might act through reinforcement of the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The goal of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could abrogate the increase in paracellular permeability induced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. We used the human colon

Nadège Parassol; Miguel Freitas; Karine Thoreux; Guillaume Dalmasso; Raphaelle Bourdet-Sicard; Patrick Rampal

2005-01-01

2

Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10{sup 8} CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale.

Giralt, Jordi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jgiralt@vhebron.net; Regadera, Jose Perez [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Verges, Ramona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Romero, Jesus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, Isabel de la [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Biete, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Villoria, Jesus [Medicest S. L. Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Cobo, Jose Maria [Red INDE, Barcelona (Spain); Guarner, Francisco [Department of Gastroenterology, Ciberehd, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)

2008-07-15

3

Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children.Subjects\\/Methods:We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3–6 years old in daycare\\/schools. The intervention

D Merenstein; M Murphy; A Fokar; R K Hernandez; H Nsouli; M E Sanders; B A Davis; V Niborski; F Tondu; N M Shara

2010-01-01

4

Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children. Subjects/Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3–6 years old in daycare/schools. The intervention was a fermented dairy drink containing a specific probiotic strain or matching placebo with no live cultures for 90 consecutive days. Two primary outcomes were assessed: incidence of CIDs and change of behavior because of illness (both assessed by parental report). Results: The rate of change of behavior because of illness was similar among active and control groups. However, the incidence rate for CIDs in the active group (0.0782) is 19% lower than that of the control group (0.0986) (incidence rate ratio=0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 099) P=0.046. Conclusions: Daily intake of a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 showed some promise in reducing overall incidence of illness, but was primarily driven by gastrointestinal infections and there were no differences in change of behavior.

Merenstein, D; Murphy, M; Fokar, A; Hernandez, R K; Park, H; Nsouli, H; Sanders, M E; Davis, B A; Niborski, V; Tondu, F; Shara, N M

2010-01-01

5

Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Ameliorates Colitis by Strengthening the Gut Barrier Function and Changing the Gut Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Background Probiotic bacteria can be used for the prevention and treatment of human inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the nature of active components and exact mechanisms of this beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate if lysate of probiotic bacterium L. casei DN-114 001 (Lc) could decrease the severity of intestinal inflammation in a murine model of IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings The preventive effect of oral administration of Lc significantly reduces the severity of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c but not in SCID mice. In order to analyze how this beneficial effect interferes with well-known phases of intestinal inflammation pathogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we evaluated intestinal permeability using the FITC-labeled dextran method and analysed tight junction proteins expression by immunofluorescence and PCR. We also measured CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells proportion by FACS analysis, microbiota composition by pyrosequencing, and local cytokine production by ELISA. Lc leads to a significant protection against increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction shown by preserved ZO-1 expression. We found that the Lc treatment increases the numbers of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IFN-?, and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in Peyer's patches and large intestine, and changes the gut microbiota composition. Moreover, Lc treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? expression in RAW 264.7 cell line by down-regulating the NF-?B signaling pathway. Conclusion/Significance Our study provided evidence that even non-living probiotic bacteria can prevent the development of severe forms of intestinal inflammation by strengthening the integrity of intestinal barrier and modulation of gut microenvironment.

Zakostelska, Zuzana; Kverka, Miloslav; Klimesova, Klara; Rossmann, Pavel; Mrazek, Jakub; Kopecny, Jan; Hornova, Michaela; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hudcovic, Tomas; Ridl, Jakub; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

2011-01-01

6

The association of yogurt starters with Lactobacillus casei DN 114.001 in fermented milk alters the composition and metabolism of intestinal microflora in germ-free rats and in human flora-associated rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of milk and of various fermented milks on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora. Groups of eight rats were fed for 6 wk a diet containing 30% nonfermented milk (M), yogurt (Y), milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei (LcFM) or milk fermented with the association of L. casei DN 114.001 and yogurt starters (LcYFM). In the first study, the survival of the lactic acid bacteria from the fermented milks was assessed by bacterial enumeration in feces of germ-free rats (GF rats) fed milk or fermented milks. The metabolic activities of the lactic acid bacteria were studied in these rats by the measurement of glycolytic activities and products of bacterial fermentation, i.e., acetate and lactate (isoforms L and D). In a second study, the effects of fermented milks on the composition and metabolism [gas, glycolytic activities, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), alcohol and ammonia] of human flora were studied using human flora-associated rats (HF rats). In GF rats, the survival of L. casei in the feces did not differ between those fed the LcFM and LcYFM diets. L. bulgaricus was detected in the feces of the rats fed Y, whereas Streptoccus thermophilus was found in the feces of the LcYFM group. In HF rats, fecal concentration of Bifidobacteria was greater in the LcFM group than in the others. beta-Glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) activity was lower in rats fed LcFM and Y than in those fed M and LcYFM, whereas beta-galactosidase (3.2.1.23), alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1 20) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities were higher in the LcYFM group compared with the others. Methane excretion was higher in rats fed Y than in other groups. Cecal SCFA concentrations did not differ in LcFM, Y and M groups, but total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly greater in the LcYFM group. These results suggest that milk fermented with the combination of L. casei and yogurt starters leads to specific effects that are different from the simple addition of the effects found with yogurt and milk fermented with L. casei. These specific effects are potentially beneficial to human health. PMID:9349856

Djouzi, Z; Andrieux, C; Degivry, M C; Bouley, C; Szylit, O

1997-11-01

7

Lactobacillus casei is able to survive and initiate protein synthesis during its transit in the digestive tract of human flora-associated mice.  

PubMed

Live Lactobacillus casei is present in fermented dairy products and has beneficial properties for human health. In the human digestive tract, the resident flora generally prevents the establishment of ingested lactic acid bacteria, the presence of which is therefore transient. The aim of this work was to determine if L. casei DN-114 001 survives during transit and how this bacterium behaves in the digestive environment. We used the human flora-associated (HFA) mouse model. L. casei DN-114 001 was genetically modified by the introduction of erm and lux genes, encoding erythromycin resistance and luciferase, respectively. For this modified strain (DN-240 041), light emission related to luciferase expression could easily be detected in the contents of the digestive tract. When inoculated into the digestive tract of HFA mice, L. casei (DN-240 041) survives but is eliminated with the same kinetics as an inert transit marker, indicating that it does not establish itself. In pure culture of L. casei, luciferase activities were high in the exponential and early stationary growth phases but decreased to become undetectable 1 day after inoculation. Viability was only slightly reduced even after more than 5 days. After transit in HFA mice, luciferase activity was detected even when 5-day-old L. casei cultures were given to the mice. In culture, the luciferase activity could be restored after 0.5 to 7 h of incubation in fresh medium or milk containing glucose, unless protein synthesis was inhibited by the addition of chloramphenicol or rifampin. These results suggest that in HFA mice L. casei DN-240 041, and thus probably L. casei DN-114 001, is able to initiate new protein synthesis during its transit with the diet. The beneficial properties of L. casei-fermented milk for human health might be related to this protein synthesis in the digestive tract. PMID:12089044

Oozeer, R; Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Alpert, C A; van de Guchte, M; Anba, J; Mengaud, J; Corthier, G

2002-07-01

8

Investigation of biomarkers of bile tolerance in Lactobacillus casei using comparative proteomics.  

PubMed

The identification of cell determinants involved in probiotic features is a challenge in current probiotic research. In this work, markers of bile tolerance in Lactobacillus casei were investigated using comparative proteomics. Six L. casei strains were classified on the basis of their ability to grow in the presence of bile salts in vitro. Constitutive differences between whole cell proteomes of the most tolerant strain (L. casei Rosell-215), the most sensitive one (L. casei ATCC 334), and a moderately tolerant strain (L. casei DN-114 001) were investigated. The ascertained subproteome was further studied for the six strains in both standard and bile stressing conditions. Focus was on proteins whose expression levels were correlated with observed levels of bile tolerance in vitro, particularly those previously reported to be involved in the bile tolerance process of lactobacilli. Analysis revealed that 12 proteins involved in membrane modification (NagA, NagB, and RmlC), cell protection and detoxification (ClpL and OpuA), as well as central metabolism (Eno, GndA, Pgm, Pta, Pyk, Rp1l, and ThRS) were likely to be key determinants of bile tolerance in L. casei and may serve as potential biomarkers for phenotyping or screening purposes. The approach used enabled the correlation of expression levels of particular proteins with a specific probiotic trait. PMID:22040141

Hamon, Erwann; Horvatovich, Peter; Bisch, Magali; Bringel, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Saïd

2012-01-01

9

Genomic adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei group.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

10

Discrimination of Dairy Industry Isolates of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli are a major part of the microflora of the gut and of many fermented dairy products, and are found in a variety of environments. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus zeae form a closely related taxonomic group within the facultatively heterofermentative lac- tobacilli. The classification and nomenclature of these bacteria are controversial. In this study, relationships between

A. R. Desai; N. P. Shah; I. B. Powell

2006-01-01

11

Lactobacillus casei potentiates induction of oral tolerance in experimental arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics have been shown to exert beneficial effects on modulation of diverse diseases. However, no information is available for the effect of probiotics in the induction of oral tolerance in autoimmune diseases. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate whether Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) affect the induction of oral tolerance in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Type II collagen

Jae-Seon So; Choong-Gu Lee; Ho-Keun Kwon; Hwa-Jung Yi; Chang-Suk Chae; Jin-A Park; Ki-Chul Hwang; Sin-Hyeog Im

2008-01-01

12

Inducible Promoter-Repressor System from the Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to extend the presently available inducible gene expression systems for lactobacilli, we have isolated a thermoinducible promoter-repressor cassette from the temperate Lactobacillus casei phage FSW-TI in Escherichia coli. The FSW-TI promoter fragment was abutted to the plasmid-borne promoterless -glu- curonidase (gusA) reporter gene and shown to direct its transcription in L. casei. In addition, the functionality of

Phage FSW; Bernhard Binishofer; Isabella Moll; Bernhard Henrich; Udo Blasi

2002-01-01

13

Production of lactic acid from soybean stalk hydrolysate with Lactobacillus sake and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make full use of soybean stalk produced in large quantity annually in China, a process is proposed for production of lactic acid from soybean stalk hydrolysate with Lactobacillus sake and Lactobacillus casei. Experiments were conducted using the proposed process and experimental results indicate that the potential of 242mg(gstalk)?1 fermentable sugar is released from hydrolysate through enzymatic saccharication

Zhong Xu; Qunhui Wang; Peng Wang; Guishi Cheng; Yongzhen Ji; Zhaohua Jiang

2007-01-01

14

Isolation and Characterization of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei from Various Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei isolated from yoghurt, different kinds of cheese and a traditional food named 'tarhana' (a fermented food made of a mixture of cereal, yoghurt and thyme), and to determine the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of these isolates. The identity of the culture was based on characteristics of

Özlem ERDO

15

Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-?) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-? mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-? protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-?, and found that induction with 0.8 % lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-?. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-? in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-? inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-? has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare. PMID:24818858

Ma, Shi-Jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

2014-09-01

16

Lactobacillus casei potentiates induction of oral tolerance in experimental arthritis.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been shown to exert beneficial effects on modulation of diverse diseases. However, no information is available for the effect of probiotics in the induction of oral tolerance in autoimmune diseases. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate whether Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) affect the induction of oral tolerance in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Type II collagen (CII) alone or together with L. casei was orally administered into collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats, and its effects on the clinical and histopathological aspects of RA were investigated. Co-administration of L. casei with CII more effectively suppressed clinical symptoms, paw swelling, lymphocyte infiltration and destruction of cartilage tissues of experimental arthritis than the rats treated with CII alone. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy was associated with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-beta) while decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha). Co-administration of L. casei with CII more effectively suppressed CII-reactive T cell proliferation and the levels of Th1-type IgG isotypes (IgG2a and IgG2b), while up-regulating Foxp3 expression levels and the population of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. Our study provides evidence that L. casei could potentiate antigen-specific oral tolerance and suppress Th1-type immune responses of arthritic inflammation. PMID:18804867

So, Jae-Seon; Lee, Choong-Gu; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Yi, Hwa-Jung; Chae, Chang-Suk; Park, Jin-A; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Im, Sin-Hyeog

2008-11-01

17

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut.  

PubMed

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2014-07-29

18

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage se- quences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described

Marco Ventura; Carlos Canchaya; Valentina Bernini; Eric Altermann; Rodolphe Barrangou; Stephen McGrath; Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carey D. Walker; Ralf Zink; Erasmo Neviani; Jim Steele; Jeff Broadbent; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Paul W. O'Toole; Douwe van Sinderen

2006-01-01

19

Effects of a Lactobacillus casei Synbiotic on Serum Lipoprotein, Intestinal Microflora, and Organic Acids in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effec- tiveness of 3 synbiotic diets: 1) containing Lactobacillus casei ASCC 292 and fructooligosaccharides (LF diet); 2) containing L. casei ASCC 292 and maltodextrin (LM diet); and 3) containing L. casei ASCC 292, fructooligo- saccharide, and maltodextrin (LFM diet) to reduce se- rum cholesterol in male Wistar rats. The effect

M. T. Liong; N. P. Shah

2006-01-01

20

Cell-Free Supernatants from Probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Invasion In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

Juanita Escamilla; Vatsala Maitin

2012-01-01

21

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

22

Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.  

PubMed

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

2012-12-01

23

Growth Response of Lactobacillus Casei (Atcc 7469) to Riboflavin, Fmn, and Fad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growth responses, measured turbidimetrically, of Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) to riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide differ significantly from each other. In the assay of acid extracts of tissues for flavin content, t...

B. W. Langer S. Charoensiri

1966-01-01

24

Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromo- somal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300

M. J. Gosalbes; CARLOS DAVID ESTEBAN; JOSELUIS GALAN; GASPAR PEREZ-MARTINEZ

2000-01-01

25

Microstructure and Physical Properties of a Reduced Fat Mozzarella Cheese Made Using Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei Adjunct Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced fat Mozzarella cheese was produced usingStreptococcus thermophilusandLactobacillus helveticus, and either total or partial replacement ofL. helveticuswithLactobacillus caseissp.casei. Stretch, melt and cook colour were determined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. All cheeses decreased in stretch during the first 7 d of storage, but there were no significant differences between culture types. Reduced fat cheese made withL. helveticusandS. thermophilusshowed

Richard K. Merrill; Craig J. Oberg; William R. McManus; Miloslav Kalab; Donald J. McMahon

1996-01-01

26

Evaluation of enzymic potential for biotransformation of isoflavone phytoestrogen in soymilk by Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, two of Lactobacillus casei and one of Bifidobacterium were screened for ?-glucosidase activity using ?-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside as a substrate and their potential for the breakdown of isoflavone glucosides to the biologically active aglycones in soymilk. Isoflavones quantification with HPLC and ?-glucosidase activity were performed after 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48h of incubation in soymilk at

Daniel O. Otieno; John F. Ashton; Nagendra P. Shah

2006-01-01

27

Comparative Sequence Analyses of the Genes Coding for 16s rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-Related Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the 16s rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lacto- bacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhumnosus were different. The K,,, values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the K,,, values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness

KATSUMI MORI; KOJI YAMAZAKI; TOMOHARU ISHIYAMA; KAYO KOBAYASH; HARUO SHINAN

1997-01-01

28

The Effect of Oral Feeding of Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on Immunoglobulin E Production in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of oral feeding of heat- killed Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on im- munoglobulin E (IgE) production in mice. The strain was orally administered to BALB\\/c mice that had been preinjected intraperitoneally with ovalbumin, and the level of IgE in serum was determined. Results indicated that the oral feeding of L. casei strain Shirota was effective in

T. Matsuzaki; R. Yamazaki; S. Hashimoto; T. Yokokura

1998-01-01

29

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described prophage sequences revealed that they have not followed an evolutionary development similar to that of their bacterial hosts and that they show a high degree of diversity, even within a species. The attachment sites were determined for all these prophage elements; LgaI as well as Sal1 integrates in tRNA genes, while prophage Sal2 integrates in a predicted arginino-succinate lyase-encoding gene. In contrast, Lca1 and the Sal3 and Sal4 prophage remnants are integrated in noncoding regions in the L. casei ATCC 334 and L. salivarius UCC 118 genomes. Northern analysis showed that large parts of the prophage genomes are transcriptionally silent and that transcription is limited to genome segments located near the attachment site. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blot hybridization with specific prophage probes indicates that these prophage sequences are narrowly distributed within lactobacilli.

Ventura, Marco; Canchaya, Carlos; Bernini, Valentina; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; McGrath, Stephen; Claesson, Marcus J.; Li, Yin; Leahy, Sinead; Walker, Carey D.; Zink, Ralf; Neviani, Erasmo; Steele, Jim; Broadbent, Jeff; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

2006-01-01

30

Oral ecology and virulence of Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans in gnotobiotic rats.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli comprise a small percentage of the normal oral microbial flora of humans and are isolated commonly from saliva and frequently from an active caries lesion. We have compared the pathogenesis and colonization pattern of Lactobacillus casei with that of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 in gnotobiotic rats. Of the two L. casei strains tested, L. casei strain ATCC 4646 caused slightly more caries than L. casei strain ATCC 11578. However, the level of caries induced by either L. casei strain was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than that observed in similar-aged rats monoassociated with S. mutans strain 6715. When groups of rats were infected with mixtures of L. casei strain ATCC 4646 and S. mutans strain 6715, or with L. casei followed by S. mutans, higher numbers of L. casei than S. mutans were found associated with the tongue and in saliva; S. mutans always predominated in plaque. The level of caries observed in these groups of rats was similar to that seen with rats monoassociated with S. mutans except when L. casei comprised greater than 1% of the plaque microflora. In this latter situation, the level of caries was significantly lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) than that obtained in S. mutans-monoassociated rats. The results of this study suggest that L. casei colonizes sites in the oral cavity (including the tongue and saliva) other than the tooth surface in rats. The effect of L. casei in plaque toward reduction of S. mutans-induced dental caries in rats is discussed.

Michalek, S M; Hirasawa, M; Kiyono, H; Ochiai, K; McGhee, J R

1981-01-01

31

Mode of action of lactocin 705, a two-component bacteriocin from Lactobacillus casei CRL705  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactocin 705 is a bacteriocin whose activity depends on the complementary action of two peptides (705? and 705?) of 33-amino-acid residues each and is produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL705. Biologically active, synthetic lactocin 705 was used to study the mode of action on sensitive cells of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691. The addition of 90 nmol l?1 of lactocin 705 to cells

Patricia Castellano; Raul Raya; Graciela Vignolo

2003-01-01

32

Construction of a food-grade cell surface display system for Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction. PMID:24598012

Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Kong, Jian; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

33

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

34

Enhancement of lactic acid production with ram horn peptone by Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ram horns are a waste material from the meat industry. The use of ram horn peptone (RHP) as a supplement for lactic acid production was investigated using Lactobacillus casei. For this purpose, first, RHP was produced. Ram horns were hydrolysed by treating with acids (3 M H2SO4 and 6 M HCl) and neutralizing the solutions to yield ram horn hydrolysate

Esabi Basaran Kurbanoglu

2004-01-01

35

Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b.  

PubMed

We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food. PMID:24435875

Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; Del Río, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

2014-01-01

36

Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b  

PubMed Central

We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food.

Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz

2014-01-01

37

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei LC2W?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei LC2W, a patented probiotic strain (Z. Wu, European patent EP 1642963 B1, February 2009), has been isolated from Chinese traditional dairy products and implemented in industrial production as starter culture. Here we present the complete genome sequence of LC2W and the identification of a gene cluster implicated in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides.

Chen, Chen; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-01-01

38

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23.

Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-01-01

39

Purification and amino acid sequence of lactocin 705, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL 705  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei CRL 705, isolated from a dry fermented sausage, produces an antibacterial peptide which is active against Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies have shown that this compound is potentially useful to control food-borne pathogens in ground meat. In view of the potential application of this antimicrobial substance in food fermentation, a detailed biochemical analysis of this peptide is required. In

J. Palacios; G. Vignolo; M. E. FarÍas; A. P. de Ruiz Holgado; G. Oliver; F. Sesma

1999-01-01

40

Effect of curing conditions and Lactobacillus casei CRL705 on the hydrolysis of meat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. F ADDA, G. V IGNOLO, M.-C. A RISTOY, G. O LIVER A ND F. T OLDRA ´ . 2001. Aims: The effect of the common curing conditions used during the manufacture of dry fermented sausage on the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus casei CRL705 against meat proteins was investigated. Methods and Results: Hydrolysis of pork muscle sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins

S. Fadda; G. Vignolo; M.-C. Aristoy; G. Oliver; F. Toldra

2001-01-01

41

Analysis of exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus casei CG11, isolated from cheese.  

PubMed Central

Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus casei CG11 was isolated from soft, white, homemade cheese. In basal minimal medium, it produces a neutral heteropolysaccharide consisting predominantly of glucose (about 75%) and rhamnose (about 15%). Plasmid curing experiments revealed that exopolysaccharide production by strain CG11 is linked to a plasmid approximately 30 kb in size. Images

Kojic, M; Vujcic, M; Banina, A; Cocconcelli, P; Cerning, J; Topisirovic, L

1992-01-01

42

Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide. PMID:22830611

Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

2012-08-01

43

Lactobacillus casei Inhibits Antigen-Induced IgE Secretion through Regulation of Cytokine Production in Murine Splenocyte Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Lactobacillus casei is a nonpathogenic gram-positive bacterium widely used in dairy products and has been shown to enhance the cellular immunity of the host. Methods: To examine the inhibitory effect of L. casei on IgE production, splenocytes obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c mice were restimulated in vitro with the same antigen in the presence of heat-killed L. casei. The effect

Kan Shida; Kumiko Makino; Aki Morishita; Kotaro Takamizawa; Satoshi Hachimura; Akio Ametani; Takehito Sato; Yoshihiro Kumagai; Sonoko Habu; Shuichi Kaminogawa

1998-01-01

44

Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.  

PubMed

Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-05-01

45

Growth Inhibition of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Huh7 Cells by Lactobacillus casei Extract  

PubMed Central

Purpose Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) is known to exert anti-proliferation effects on many types of cancer cells. However, the effect of L. casei on liver cancer has not been reported. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the anti-cancer effect of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells. Materials and Methods L. casei ATCC393 extract was prepared and purified. After the treatment of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells, cell viability, cell cycle arrest and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 1 (TNFR1) and death receptor 3 (DR3) mRNA related with extrinsic apoptosis were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins as well as Caspase-3, -8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins were analyzed by western blot analysis. To determine the effect of L. casei extract on cancer stem-like cells, we analyzed changes in side population fraction through flow cytometry. Results The cell viability of Huh7 cells treated with L. casei extract was decreased by 77%, potentially owing to increases in the rates of Huh7 cells arrested in the G2/M phase (3% increase) and that underwent apoptosis (6% increase). The expression levels of TNFR1 and DR3 mRNA, as well as P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins, were increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of caspase-8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 proteins decreased. However, in the case of side population cells, no remarkable changes were observed. Conclusion L. casei extract exerts a potent anti-tumor effect on the viability of liver cancer cells, although not on cancer stem-like cells.

Han, Dae Jong; Kim, Jong Bin; Park, Seo Young; Yang, Man Gil

2013-01-01

46

Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese.  

PubMed

In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per Ej

2013-01-01

47

Systemic augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effect of feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mixture of both micro-organisms on the specific and non-specific host defence mechanisms in Swiss mice. Animals fed with fermented milk for 8 days (100 micrograms/day) showed an increase in both phagocytic and lymphocytic activity. This activation of the immune system began on the 3rd day, reached a maximum on the 5th, and decreased slightly on the 8th day of feeding. In the 8-day treated mice, boosted with a single dose (100 micrograms) on the 11th day, the immune response increased further. The feeding with fermented milk produced neither hepatomegaly nor splenomegaly. These results suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus, associated with intestinal mucosae, can influence the level of activation of the immune system. The possible clinical application of fermented milks as immunopotentiators is also discussed.

Perdigon, G; de Macias, M E; Alvarez, S; Oliver, G; de Ruiz Holgado, A P

1988-01-01

48

Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promotes an Immunosuppressive Phenotype in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of the immunological tolerance and homeostasis in the gut is associated with the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We here report that cultivation of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 in the presence of human intestinal epithelial cells promotes functional changes in bacteria. In particular, the interaction enhanced the immunosuppressive phenotype of L. casei as demonstrated by the ability of L. casei to generate functional regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results indicate microbe-host cross-talk that changes features of microbes, and suggest that in vitro simulation of epithelial cell interaction can reveal functional properties of gut microbes more accurately than conventional cultivation.

Tiittanen, Minna; Keto, Joni; Haiko, Johanna; Matto, Jaana; Partanen, Jukka; Lahteenmaki, Kaarina

2013-01-01

49

Lactobacillus casei modulates the inflammation-coagulation interaction in a pneumococcal pneumonia experimental model  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration improved the resistance to pneumococcal infection in a mouse model. Methods This study examined the effects of the oral administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (L. casei) on the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems as well as their inhibitors during a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Results The alveolo-capillary membrane was damaged and the coagulation system was also activated by the infection. As a consequence, we could see fibrin(ogen) deposits in lung histological slices, increased levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and plasma, decrease in prothrombin activity (PT) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time test (APTT) values. Factor VII (FVII) and factor X (FX) were decreased in plasma, whereas fibrinogen (F) and factor VIII (FVIII) were increased. The low levels of protein C (PC) in BAL and plasma proved damage on inhibitory activity. The infected animals showed reduced fibrinolytic activity, evidenced by an increase in plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in BAL and plasma. The pathogen induced an increase of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in BAL and serum a few hours after challenge followed by a significant decrease until the end of the assayed period. IL-4 and IL-10 in BAL and serum were also augmented, especially at the end of the experiment. The animals treated with L. casei showed an improvement of alveolo-capillary membrane, lower fibrin(ogen) deposits in lung and decrease in TATc. APTT test and PT, FVII and FX activity were normalized. L. casei group showed lower F levels than control during whole experiment. In the present study no effect of L. casei on the recovery of the inhibitory activity was detected. However, L. casei was effective in reducing PAI-1 levels in BAL and in increasing anti-inflammatory ILs concentration. Conclusion L. casei proved effective to regulate coagulation activation and fibrinolysis inhibition during infection, leading to a decrease in fibrin deposits in lung. This protective effect of L. casei would be mediated by the induction of higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 which could regulate the anti-inflammatory, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6.

Haro, Cecilia; Villena, Julio; Zelaya, Hortensia; Alvarez, Susana; Aguero, Graciela

2009-01-01

50

Chromosomal Insertions in the Lactobacillus casei upp Gene That Are Useful for Vaccine Expression.  

PubMed

To develop a stable and marker-free Lactobacillus strain useful for the expression of vaccines, we developed a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing an HCE promoter, a PgsA anchor, the alpha-toxin gene, and an rrnB T1T2 terminator (PP?T) that uses a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) counterselectable marker for Lactobacillus casei. Three strains containing the correct PP?T expression cassettes were produced via the selective pressure of 5-FU screening. We confirmed that the upp gene was deleted and that the PP?T expression cassettes were inserted into the upp site of L. casei ATCC 393 by genomic PCR amplification and sequencing. 5-FU resistance in recombinant bacteria could be stably inherited for as long as 40 generations following insertion. However, bacteria containing the integrated DNA grew more slowly than wild-type L. casei. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis demonstrated that the alpha-toxin gene was expressed. Also, we visualized expression of the protein on the surface of L. casei cells using laser confocal microscopy. These results taken together demonstrate that these recombinant bacteria should provide a safe tool for effective vaccine production. PMID:24657853

Song, Bai-Fen; Ju, Long-Zhu; Li, Yi-Jing; Tang, Li-Jie

2014-06-01

51

Chromosomal Insertions in the Lactobacillus casei upp Gene That Are Useful for Vaccine Expression  

PubMed Central

To develop a stable and marker-free Lactobacillus strain useful for the expression of vaccines, we developed a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing an HCE promoter, a PgsA anchor, the alpha-toxin gene, and an rrnB T1T2 terminator (PP?T) that uses a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) counterselectable marker for Lactobacillus casei. Three strains containing the correct PP?T expression cassettes were produced via the selective pressure of 5-FU screening. We confirmed that the upp gene was deleted and that the PP?T expression cassettes were inserted into the upp site of L. casei ATCC 393 by genomic PCR amplification and sequencing. 5-FU resistance in recombinant bacteria could be stably inherited for as long as 40 generations following insertion. However, bacteria containing the integrated DNA grew more slowly than wild-type L. casei. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis demonstrated that the alpha-toxin gene was expressed. Also, we visualized expression of the protein on the surface of L. casei cells using laser confocal microscopy. These results taken together demonstrate that these recombinant bacteria should provide a safe tool for effective vaccine production.

Song, Bai-fen; Ju, Long-zhu

2014-01-01

52

Improved immunogenicity of oral D x RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for new strategies to improve oral vaccination, the effect of orally administered Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG) in conjunction with D x RRV rhesus-human reassortant live oral rotavirus vaccine was tested in 2–5-month-old infants. Infants who received LGG showed an increased response with regard to rotavirus-specific IgM secreting cells, measured using an ELISPOT technique, on day 8

Erika Isolauri; Jaana Joensuu; Hanna Suomalainen; Mari Luomala; Timo Vesikari

1995-01-01

53

Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve on urinary oxalate excretion in nephrolithiasis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

It had been suggested that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may degrade oxalate in the intestinal lumen, reducing urinary oxalate\\u000a excretion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a LAB mixture containing Lactobacillus casei (LC) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) (LC + BB) upon urinary oxalate reduction in stone-forming (SF) patients without hyperoxaluria under conditions of an\\u000a oxalate-rich diet. After an oxalate restriction period

Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz; Natália Cristina Marques; Leila Froeder; Viviane Barcellos Menon; Priscila Reina Siliano; Alessandra Calábria Baxmann; Ita Pfeferman Heilberg

2009-01-01

54

L(+)-lactic acid production using Lactobacillus casei in solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei was grown at 37 degrees C on sugarcane bagasse (5 g) soaked with cassava starch hydrolysate (final moistening volume 34 ml) containing 3 g reducing sugar in a solid-state condition. The maximum yield of L-lactic acid after various process optimisations was 2.9 g/5 g initial substrate corresponding to 97% conversion of sugar to lactic acid with initial substrate moisture of 72%. PMID:16247675

Rojan, Pappy John; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan; Nair, Athira Syamaprasad; Pandey, Ashok

2005-11-01

55

Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of Lactobacillus casei phage PL1 lysis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The genes encoding the host cell wall-lytic proteins were searched in the genome DNA of phage PL-1 active against Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 by comparing the amino acid sequences with those of others using a computer software of the DDBJ data base. The\\u000a gene regions found were cloned into E. coli by inserting PCR-amplified DNA fragments into the EcoRI site

N. Kashige; Y. Nakashima; F. Miake; K. Watanabe

2000-01-01

56

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally or intranasally administered recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing ETEC K99  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K99 infections, we have developed a surface antigen display system using pgsA (poly-?-glutamate synthetase A) as an anchoring matrix. The recombinant fusion proteins comprised of pgsA and fimbriae protein of ETEC K99 were stably expressed on Lactobacillus casei. Surface localization of the

Chun-Hua Wei; Jian-Kui Liu; Xi-Lin Hou; Li-Yun Yu; Jong-Soo Lee; Chul-Joong Kim

2010-01-01

57

Diagnostic difficulties of Lactobacillus casei bacteraemia in immunocompetent patients: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lactobacilli are currently proposed as probiotic agents in several dietary products. In blood cultures, they are usually considered as contaminants, but in recent years they have been recognized as causal infectious agents of endocarditis, urinary tract infections, meningitis, intra-abdominal infections and bacteraemia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Lactobacillus casei bacteraemia in a 66-year-old immunocompetent man with a

Chiara Tommasi; Francesco Equitani; Marcello Masala; Milva Ballardini; Marco Favaro; Marcello Meledandri; Carla Fontana; Pasquale Narciso; Emanuele Nicastri

2008-01-01

58

The Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei Induces Activation of the Gut Mucosal Immune System through Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria affect the immune system are unknown yet, but many of them are attributed to an increase in the innate or in the acquired immune response. To study the influence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei in the expression of receptors involved in the innate immune response, this bacterium was orally administered to BALB/c mice. After, they were sacrificed; the small intestine and intestinal fluids were collected to measure secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific for L. casei. Mononuclear cells from Peyer's patches were isolated to determine the CD-206 and TLR-2 receptors. In histological slices we determined the number of IgA+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD3+ cells and two cytokines (interleulin-5 [IL-5] and IL-6). CD-206 and TLR-2 increased with respect to the untreated control. We did not observe an increase in the T population or in the IL-5-positive cells. IgA+ cells and IL-6-producing cells increased after 7 days of L. casei administration. We did not find specific antibodies against L. casei. The main immune cells activated after oral L. casei administration were those of the innate immune response, with an increase in the specific markers of these cells (CD-206 and TLR-2), with no modification in the number of T cells.

Galdeano, C. Maldonado; Perdigon, G.

2006-01-01

59

Short communication: Effect of milk and milk containing Lactobacillus casei on the intestinal microbiota of mice.  

PubMed

BALB/c mice were fed milk or Lactobacillus casei BL23 in milk for 14d and fecal samples were collected at d 0, 4, and 7 as well as 1 and 8d after the last administration. According to high-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes extracted from the fecal microbiota, the bacterial diversity in the fecal samples of all mice increased over time. After 14d of administration, the consumption of milk and milk containing L. casei BL23 resulted in distinct effects on the microbial composition in the intestine. Specifically, the proportions of bacteria in the Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Comamonadaceae were significantly higher in mice fed the L. casei BL23-milk culture compared with one or more of the other groups of mice. The relative amounts of Lachnospiraceae were higher and Streptococcaceae were lower in mice fed milk alone. The changes were not found at d 4 and 7 during milk and L. casei feeding and were no longer detected 8d after administration was stopped. This study shows that consumption of milk or probiotic L. casei-containing milk results in non-overlapping, taxa-specific effects on the bacteria in the distal murine intestine. PMID:24508432

Yin, Xiaochen; Yan, Yinzhuo; Kim, Eun Bae; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

2014-04-01

60

Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications.

Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

2014-01-01

61

Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer's patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

In order to clarify the probiotic features of immunomodulation, cytokine production by murine spleen and Peyer’s patch (PP) cells was examined in response to probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. In spleen cells, probiotic Lactobacillus casei induced interleukin (IL)-12 production by CD11b+ cells more strongly than pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and effectively promoted the development of T helper (Th) type 1 cells followed by high levels of secretion of interferon (IFN)-?. Although the levels of IL-12 secreted by PP cells in response to L. casei were lower in comparison with spleen cells, Th1 cells developed as a result of this low-level induction of IL-12. However, IFN-? secretion by the L. casei-induced Th1 cells stimulated with a specific antigen was down-regulated in PP cells. Development of IL-17-producing Th17 cells was efficiently induced in PP cells by antigen stimulation. Lactobacillus casei slightly, but significantly, inhibited the antigen-induced secretion of IL-17 without a decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells. No bacteria tested induced the development of IL-10-producing, transforming growth factor-?-producing or Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells, thus suggesting that certain probiotics might regulate proinflammatory responses through as yet unidentified mechanisms in PP cells. These data show probiotic L. casei to have considerable potential to induce IL-12 production and promote Th1 cell development, but the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-17 may be well controlled in PP cells.

Chiba, Yukihide; Shida, Kan; Nagata, Satoru; Wada, Mariko; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Nanno, Msanobu; Nomoto, Koji

2010-01-01

62

Adjuvant effects of Lactobacillus casei added to a renutrition diet in a malnourished mouse model.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies are associated with impaired immune response, affecting the body's defence mechanisms. It is also known that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and fermented products such us yogurt have immunopotentiator activity and nutritional properties, and could thus be used as a valuable supplement in a renutrition diet. The aim of this study was to determine, in a non-severe malnutrition model, the effective dose of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which when is used as an adjuvant in a renutrition diet, would modulate the mucosal immune system and induce recovery of the integrity of the intestinal barrier. The experiments were performed on groups of malnourished and renourished BALB/c mice. They received after milk renutrition a supplement of different doses and periods of L. casei feeding. We measured body weight; hematologic values and serum proteins. We also characterized small intestine immunoglobulin secreting cells, intraepithelial leukocytes, mastocytes and goblet cells. Structural and ultrastructural studies were performed. Our results suggest that impaired gut barrier and mucosal immune function produced by malnutrition can be reversed by L. casei and that the dose of 10(7) cfu/day/mouse administered during 5 consecutive days was the optimal one for recovery of the gut mucosal immune system. The clinical significance of these findings suggests ways for improving mucosal immunity, and generating protection against enteropathogens in hosts immunosuppressed by malnutrition. PMID:12058380

Gauffin, Cano Paola; Agüero, Graciela; Perdigon, Gabriela

2002-04-01

63

Lactobacillus casei MYL01 modulates the proinflammatory state induced by ethanol in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Accumulating studies have suggested that probiotics have beneficial effects on liver injury but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLR) expressed on immune cells and hepatocytes recognize bacterial components that are translocated from the gut into the portal vein. To date, it has been demonstrated that ethanol alone, without microbial components, is able to activate TLR, leading to promotion of proinflammatory cytokine production. Because the enhanced signaling of TLR triggers persistent inflammation, we hypothesized that development of hepatocyte TLR tolerance to repetitive stimulation plays an important role in protecting the liver from hypergeneration of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we showed that Lactobacillus casei MYL01 modulated the proinflammatory state induced by ethanol and investigated in detail the mechanism underlying the observation that L. casei MYL01 gave rise to TLR tolerance toward ethanol stimulation. The effects of L. casei MYL01 in the attenuation of ethanol-induced liver damage were due to enhancement of IL-10 production, which limited the proinflammatory process. Furthermore, better defense of hepatocytes against ethanol challenge by treatment of L. casei MYL01 was attributed to previous induction of toll interacting protein (TOLLIP) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 expression via activation of TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and TLR9, an action that cross-regulated ethanol-TLR4-nuclear factor ?B signal transduction events. This finding might help establish an in vitro platform for selecting hepatoprotective probiotic strains in terms of ethanol-induced liver damage. PMID:24485689

Chiu, Yi-Heng; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Shiao-Lin; Lin, Meei-Yn

2014-04-01

64

Cloning and characterization of two Lactobacillus casei genes encoding a cystathionine lyase.  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds are key flavor compounds in several cheese types. To better understand the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, which certainly plays a key role in the release of volatile sulfur compounds, we searched the genome database of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 for genes encoding putative homologs of enzymes known to degrade cysteine, cystathionine, and methionine. The search revealed that L. casei possesses two genes that putatively encode a cystathionine beta-lyase (CBL; EC 4.4.1.8). The enzyme has been implicated in the degradation of not only cystathionine but also cysteine and methionine. Recombinant CBL proteins catalyzed the degradation of L-cystathionine, O-succinyl-L-homoserine, L-cysteine, L-serine, and L-methionine to form alpha-keto acid, hydrogen sulfide, or methanethiol. The two enzymes showed notable differences in substrate specificity and pH optimum. PMID:17993563

Irmler, Stefan; Raboud, Sylvie; Beisert, Beata; Rauhut, Doris; Berthoud, Hélène

2008-01-01

65

Cloning and Characterization of Two Lactobacillus casei Genes Encoding a Cystathionine Lyase?  

PubMed Central

Volatile sulfur compounds are key flavor compounds in several cheese types. To better understand the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, which certainly plays a key role in the release of volatile sulfur compounds, we searched the genome database of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 for genes encoding putative homologs of enzymes known to degrade cysteine, cystathionine, and methionine. The search revealed that L. casei possesses two genes that putatively encode a cystathionine ?-lyase (CBL; EC 4.4.1.8). The enzyme has been implicated in the degradation of not only cystathionine but also cysteine and methionine. Recombinant CBL proteins catalyzed the degradation of l-cystathionine, O-succinyl-l-homoserine, l-cysteine, l-serine, and l-methionine to form ?-keto acid, hydrogen sulfide, or methanethiol. The two enzymes showed notable differences in substrate specificity and pH optimum.

Irmler, Stefan; Raboud, Sylvie; Beisert, Beata; Rauhut, Doris; Berthoud, Helene

2008-01-01

66

Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by ?-acetolactate synthase and ?-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages.

Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio

2013-01-01

67

Production of beta-glucosidase and hydrolysis of isoflavone phytoestrogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus casei in soymilk.  

PubMed

The study determined beta-glucosidase activity of commercial probiotic organisms for hydrolysis of isoflavone to aglycones in fermenting soymilk. Soymilk made with soy protein isolate (SPI) was fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10, Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94, and Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L26 at 37 degrees C for 48 h and the fermented soymilk was stored for 28 d at 4 degrees C. beta-Glucosidase activity of organisms was determined using rho-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate and the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones by these organisms was carried out. The highest level of growth occurred at 12 h for L. casei L26, 24 h for B. lactis B94, and 36 h for L. acidophilus L10 during fermentation in soymilk. Survival after storage at 4 degrees C for 28 d was 20%, 15%, and 11% greater (P < 0.05) than initial cell counts, respectively. All the bacteria produced beta-glucosidase, which hydrolyzed isoflavone beta-glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. The decrease in the concentration of beta-glycosides and the increase in the concentration of aglycones were significant (P < 0.05) in the fermented soymilk. Increased isoflavone aglycone content in fermented soymilk is likely to improve the biological functionality of soymilk. PMID:18211356

Donkor, O N; Shah, N P

2008-01-01

68

Radioprotection of mice by a single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei after irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of whole-body gamma-irradiated mice with a preparation of Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018) immediately after irradiation caused a sustained increase in serum colony-stimulating activity which was followed by an enhanced repopulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells in the femoral marrow and spleen. Numbers of blood leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets were increased earlier in the treated mice than in the controls, and the survival rate was elevated significantly. The radioprotective effect was dependent on the dose of LC 9018 as well as on the dose of radiation. These results demonstrate the value of LC 9018 for the treatment of myelosuppression after radiotherapy or radiation accidents.

Nomoto, K.; Yokokura, T.; Tsuneoka, K.; Shikita, M. (Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-03-01

69

Vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei synthesize cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in lactate.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of acquired high-level resistance among Enterococcus species has renewed interest in mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria. In Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, resistance is encoded by the van gene cluster and is due to the production of a peptidoglycan precursor terminating in D-alanyl-D-lactate, to which vancomycin does not bind. Most Leuconostoc and many Lactobacillus species are intrinsically resistant to high levels of glycopeptide antibiotics, but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. To determine whether the mechanisms of resistance are similar in intrinsically resistant bacteria, cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors were isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei and analyzed by mass spectrometry, revealing structures consistent with UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-Glu-L-Lys-(L-Ala)-D-Ala-D-lactate and UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate, respectively.

Handwerger, S; Pucci, M J; Volk, K J; Liu, J; Lee, M S

1994-01-01

70

Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus and L. Casei Mix Sensitize Colorectal Tumoral Cells to 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei strains to increase the apoptosis of a colorectal cancer cell line in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), LS513 colorectal cancer cells were treated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of these lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the presence of 100 ? g\\/ml of 5-FU. In the presence of 10 CFU\\/ml

Cindy Baldwin; Mathieu Millette; Daniel Oth; Marcia T. Ruiz; François-Marie Luquet; Monique Lacroix

2010-01-01

71

The control of Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus sakei in broth and meat slurry with the bacteriocinogenic strain Lactobacillus casei CRL705  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus casei CRL705, in the control of Listeria innocua 7 and Lactobacillus sakei CRL1424 in MRS medium and meat slurry during the storage under vacuum at chill temperatures was evaluated. L. sakei CRL 1424 isolated from vacuum-packaged contaminated raw meat was identified as the predominant indigenous lactic acid bacterial flora. Co-inoculation of MRS broth

Patricia H. Castellano; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel; Graciela M. Vignolo

2004-01-01

72

PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEÍNA Y BIOMASA PROBIÓTICA DE Lactobacillus casei LIOFILIZADAS A PARTIR DE SUERO DE LECHE DE CABRA PRODUCTION OF FREEZE DRIED PROTEIN AND Lactobacillus casei PROBIOTIC BIOMASS FROM GOAT MILK WHEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen En este trabajo se documenta la factibilidad técnica de obtención de dos productos de valor agregado a partir de suero de leche de cabra? (a) proteína liofilizada y (b) biomasa probiótica liofilizada de Lactobacillus casei. Se presentan resultados de experimentos de ultrafiltración de suero de leche de cabra (SLC), del cual se retiene proteína con una alta relación proteína\\/lactosa.

E. J. Aguirre-Ezkauriatza; A. Ramírez-Medrano; J. M. Aguilar-Yáñez; M. M. Álvarez

2009-01-01

73

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Probiotic Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei has traditionally been recognized as a probiotic, thus needing to survive the industrial production processes and transit through the gastrointestinal tract before providing benefit to human health. The two-component signal transduction system (TCS) plays important roles in sensing and reacting to environmental changes, which consists of a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In this study we identified HKs and RRs of six sequenced L. casei strains. Ortholog analysis revealed 15 TCS clusters (HK-RR pairs), one orphan HKs and three orphan RRs, of which 12 TCS clusters were common to all six strains, three were absent in one strain. Further classification of the predicted HKs and RRs revealed interesting aspects of their putative functions. Some TCS clusters are involved with the response under the stress of the bile salts, acid, or oxidative, which contribute to survive the difficult journey through the human gastrointestinal tract. Computational predictions of 15 TCSs were verified by PCR experiments. This genomic level study of TCSs should provide valuable insights into the conservation and divergence of TCS proteins in the L. casei strains. PMID:24891736

Yu, Shuijing; Peng, Yanping; Chen, Wanyi; Deng, Yangwu; Guo, Yanhua

2014-09-01

74

Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development in a rodent model.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota alterations are associated with various disorders. In this study, gut microbiota changes were investigated in a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model, and the effects of administering Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the development of NASH were also investigated. Mice were divided into three groups, given the normal chow diet (NCD), MCD diet, or the MCD diet plus daily oral administration of LcS for 6 wk. Gut microbiota analyses for the three groups revealed that lactic acid bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were markedly reduced by the MCD diet. Interestingly, oral administration of LcS to MCD diet-fed mice increased not only the L. casei subgroup but also other lactic acid bacteria. Subsequently, NASH development was evaluated based on hepatic histochemical findings, serum parameters, and various mRNA and/or protein expression levels. LcS intervention markedly suppressed MCD-diet-induced NASH development, with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide concentrations, suppression of inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, and reduced colon inflammation. Therefore, reduced populations of lactic acid bacteria in the colon may be involved in the pathogenesis of MCD diet-induced NASH, suggesting normalization of gut microbiota to be effective for treating NASH. PMID:24113768

Okubo, Hirofumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Fujishiro, Midori; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Kamata, Hideaki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Iwashita, Misaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Asano, Tomoichiro

2013-12-01

75

Diagnostic difficulties of Lactobacillus casei bacteraemia in immunocompetent patients: A case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lactobacilli are currently proposed as probiotic agents in several dietary products. In blood cultures, they are usually considered as contaminants, but in recent years they have been recognized as causal infectious agents of endocarditis, urinary tract infections, meningitis, intra-abdominal infections and bacteraemia. Case presentation We report a case of Lactobacillus casei bacteraemia in a 66-year-old immunocompetent man with a history of fever of unknown origin. Leuconostoc bacteraemia was demonstrated by blood culture, but a later polymerase chain reaction analysis with sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA identified Lactobacillus casei and a successful antibiotic therapy was performed. Conclusion Bacteraemia caused by probiotic organisms is rare but underestimated, since they are normally regarded as contaminants and their role as primary invaders is not always easily established. Although the consumption of probiotic products cannot be considered a risk factor in the development of diseases caused by usually non-pathogenic bacteria, specific individual clinical histories should be taken into account. This report should alert both clinicians and microbiologists to the possibility of unusual pathogens causing serious illnesses and to the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for molecular identification as a powerful tool in confirming the diagnosis of infrequent pathogens.

Tommasi, Chiara; Equitani, Francesco; Masala, Marcello; Ballardini, Milva; Favaro, Marco; Meledandri, Marcello; Fontana, Carla; Narciso, Pasquale; Nicastri, Emanuele

2008-01-01

76

Metabolism of Biotin and Analogues of Biotin by Microorganisms. Iv. Degradation of Biotin, Oxybiotin, and Desthiobiotin by Lactobacillus Casei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lactobacillus casei degrades biotin when it is present in excess to products not utilizable for growth by L. plantarum or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Degrading activity was initiated in the early stationary phase and was controlled by the pH of the medium. ...

J. Birnbaum H. C. Lichstein

1966-01-01

77

Differential Activities of Four Lactobacillus casei Promoters during Bacterial Transit through the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Human-Microbiota-Associated Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study using fusion of the deregulated lactose promoter lacTp* and reporter genes, we suggested that Lactobacillus casei could initiate de novo protein synthesis during intestinal transit. In order to confirm this finding and extend it to other promoters, we adopted a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) approach combined with a transcriptional fusion system consisting of luciferase genes

R. Oozeer; J. P. Furet; N. Goupil-Feuillerat; J. Anba; J. Mengaud; G. Corthier

2005-01-01

78

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by ‘Lactocin 705’, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL 705  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of Lactobacillus casei CRL 705 as well as that of Lactocin 705, the associated bacteriocin produced, in reducing population levels and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sterile and non-sterile ground beef was studied. Predetermined numbers of L. monocytogenes and concentrations of Lactocin 705 were added to the meat slurries. Listeria in the bacteriocin-treated and control samples during incubation

G. Vignolo; S. Fadda; M. N. de Kairuz; G. Oliver

1996-01-01

79

Predictive modelling of Lactobacillus casei KN291 survival in fermented soy beverage.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to construct and verify predictive growth and survival models of a potentially probiotic bacteria in fermented soy beverage. The research material included natural soy beverage (Polgrunt, Poland) and the strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - Lactobacillus casei KN291. To construct predictive models for the growth and survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in the fermented soy beverage we design an experiment which allowed the collection of CFU data. Fermented soy beverage samples were stored at various temperature conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20°C) for 28 days. On the basis of obtained data concerning the survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in soy beverage at different temperature and time conditions, two non-linear models (r(2)= 0.68-0.93) and two surface models (r(2)=0.76-0.79) were constructed; these models described the behaviour of the bacteria in the product to a satisfactory extent. Verification of the surface models was carried out utilizing the validation data - at 7°C during 28 days. It was found that applied models were well fitted and charged with small systematic errors, which is evidenced by accuracy factor - Af, bias factor - Bf and mean squared error - MSE. The constructed microbiological growth and survival models of L. casei KN291 in fermented soy beverage enable the estimation of products shelf life period, which in this case is defined by the requirement for the level of the bacteria to be above 10(6) CFU/cm(3). The constructed models may be useful as a tool for the manufacture of probiotic foods to estimate of their shelf life period. PMID:24500482

Dorota, Zieli?ska; Danuta, Ko?o?yn-Krajewska; Antoni, Goryl; Motyl, Ilona

2014-02-01

80

Characterization of a Regulatory Network of Peptide Antibiotic Detoxification Modules in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Two-component systems (TCS) are major signal transduction pathways that allow bacteria to detect and respond to environmental and intracellular changes. A group of TCS has been shown to be involved in the response against antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These TCS are characterized by the possession of intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases, and they are usually associated with ABC transporters of the peptide-7 exporter family (Pep7E). Lactobacillus casei BL23 encodes two TCS belonging to this group (TCS09 and TCS12) that are located next to two ABC transporters (ABC09 and ABC12), as well as a third Pep7E ABC transporter not genetically associated with any TCS (orphan ABC). This study addressed the involvement of modules TCS09/ABC09 and TCS12/ABC12 in AMP resistance. Results showed that both systems contribute to L. casei resistance to AMPs, and that each TCS constitutes a functional unit with its corresponding ABC transporter. Analysis of transcriptional levels showed that module 09 is required for the induction of ABC09 expression in response to nisin. In contrast, module 12 controls a wider regulon that encompasses the orphan ABC, the dlt operon (d-alanylation of teichoid acids), and the mprF gene (l-lysinylation of phospholipids), thereby controlling properties of the cell envelope. Furthermore, the characterization of a dltA mutant showed that Dlt plays a major role in AMP resistance in L. casei. This is the first report on the regulation of the response of L. casei to AMPs, giving insight into its ability to adapt to the challenging environments that it encounters as a probiotic microorganism.

Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Gebhard, Susanne; Alcantara, Cristina; Staron, Anna

2013-01-01

81

Production of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Virus-Like Particles by Recombinant Lactobacillus casei Cells  

PubMed Central

Infections with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are closely associated with the development of human cervical carcinoma, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. At present, the most promising vaccine against HPV-16 infection is based on the L1 major capsid protein, which self-assembles in virus-like particles (VLPs). In this work, we used a lactose-inducible system based on the Lactobacillus casei lactose operon promoter (plac) for expression of the HPV-16 L1 protein in L. casei. Expression was confirmed by Western blotting, and an electron microscopy analysis of L. casei expressing L1 showed that the protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs intracellularly. The presence of conformational epitopes on the L. casei-produced VLPs was confirmed by immunofluorescence using the anti-HPV-16 VLP conformational antibody H16.V5. Moreover, sera from mice that were subcutaneously immunized with L. casei expressing L1 reacted with Spodoptera frugiperda-produced HPV-16 L1 VLPs, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The production of L1 VLPs by Lactobacillus opens the possibility for development of new live mucosal prophylactic vaccines.

Aires, Karina Araujo; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes; Villa, Luisa Lina; Boccardo, Enrique; Perez-Martinez, Gaspar; Perez-Arellano, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Leonor Sarno; Ho, Paulo Lee

2006-01-01

82

The effect of substrate analogs on the circular dichroic spectra of thymidylate synthetase from Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Circular dichroism studies from 290 to 400 nm with the thymidylate synthetase from Lactobacillus casei revealed characteristic Cotton effects in the presence of various folate analogs plus 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate. Omission of either substrate analog prevented the appearance of the Cotton effects. When 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate and (+/-)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate are mixed with the synthetase, a ternary complex results which yields distinctive minor negative ellipicity bands at 285 and 332 nm and a major negative ellipticity bands at 285 and 332 nm and a major positive band at 305 nm. Similar results were obtained with the ternary complex containing (+)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, but the enzymically inactive (-) diastereoisomer induced only the positive band at 305 nm. More intense Cotton effects were elicited by (+/-)-5,11-methylenetetrahydrohomofolate with a major positive ellipticity band at 308 nm and a minor negative band at 335 nm. A ternary complex was also formed with dihydrofolate, which provided a major circular dichroic band at 305 nm and a broad minor negative band in the region of 335 nm. Deoxyuridylate and thymidylate also formed ternary complexes with dihydrofolate, but their ellipicity bands were much less intense. Other folate analogs that formed ternary complexes with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate to provide characteristic circular dichroic spectra were tetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrohomofolate, 10-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a 2-amino-4-hydroxyquinazoline derivative. By measuring the increment in ellipticity at 305 nm on addition of specific ligands to enzyme solutions, it was determined that the L. casei thymidylate synthetase contains two binding sites for 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate and for each of the diastereoisomers of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. An improved procedure is presented for the large-scale purification and crystallization of L. casei thymidylate synthetase. PMID:807243

Galivan, J H; Maley, G F; Maley, F

1975-07-29

83

Epithelial Cell Proliferation Arrest Induced by Lactate and Acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut.

Regnault, Beatrice; Mulet, Celine; Hara, Taeko; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

2013-01-01

84

Assessment of in vitro removal of cholesterol oxidation products by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334.  

PubMed

Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are a group of compounds formed during processing and storage of foods from animal origin. After ingestion, COPs are absorbed in the intestine and can be distributed to serum and various tissues, potentially promoting a variety of toxic effects. Therefore, inhibition of their intestinal absorption may contribute to reduce the health risks associated with dietary intake of COPs. Some studies have shown that drugs and dietary compounds may inhibit the intestinal absorption of dietary COPs. However, proven cholesterol- and/or food toxins-binding lactic acid bacteria have not been previously evaluated as potential COPs removal agents. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 to remove COPs in aqueous solution. Results showed the ability of both growing and resting cells to remove COPs (ca. 30-60%). All COPs-bacterium interactions were specific and partly reversible, being resting cells the most efficient for COPs removal in a ranking order of 7-KC > 7?-OH/7?-OH > triol > 5,6?-EP > 5,6?-EP > 25-OH. Binding to the cell wall and/or cell membrane incorporation appears to be the most likely mechanisms involved on COPs removal by L. casei ATCC 334. PMID:23848962

Machorro-Méndez, I A; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Cardenia, V; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; García, H S

2013-11-01

85

Characterization and Heterologous Gene Expression of a Novel Esterase from Lactobacillus casei CL96  

PubMed Central

A novel esterase gene (estI) of Lactobacillus casei CL96 was localized on a 3.3-kb BamHI DNA fragment containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,800 bp. The ORF of estI was isolated by PCR and expressed in Escherichia coli, the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, and the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of T7, methanol dehydrogenase (PmxaF), and alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoters, respectively. The amino acid sequence of EstI indicated that the esterase is a novel member of the GHSMG family of lipolytic enzymes and that the enzyme contains a lipase-like catalytic triad, consisting of Ser325, Asp516, and His558. E. coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing estI expressed a novel 67.5-kDa protein corresponding to EstI in an N-terminal fusion with the S?·?tag peptide. The recombinant L. casei CL96 EstI protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a one-step affinity chromatography procedure on S-protein agarose. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 7.0 and 37°C, respectively. Among the pNP (p-nitrophenyl) esters tested, the most selective substrate was pNP-caprylate (C8), with Km and kcat values of 14 ± 1.08 ?M and 1,245 ± 42.3 S?1, respectively.

Choi, Young J.; Miguez, Carlos B.; Lee, Byong H.

2004-01-01

86

The gal genes for the Leloir pathway of Lactobacillus casei 64H.  

PubMed

The gal genes from the chromosome of Lactobacillus casei 64H were cloned by complementation of the galK2 mutation of Escherichia coli HB101. The pUC19 derivative pKBL1 in one complementation-positive clone contained a 5.8-kb DNA HindIII fragment. Detailed studies with other E. coli K-12 strains indicated that plasmid pKBL1 contains the genes coding for a galactokinase (GalK), a galactose 1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GalT), and a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE). In vitro assays demonstrated that the three enzymatic activities are expressed from pKBL1. Sequence analysis revealed that pKBL1 contained two additional genes, one coding for a repressor protein of the LacI-GalR-family and the other coding for an aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase). The gene order of the L. casei gal operon is galKETRM. Because parts of the gene for the mutarotase as well as the promoter region upstream of galK were not cloned on pKBL1, the regions flanking the HindIII fragment of pKBL1 were amplified by inverse PCR. Northern blot analysis showed that the gal genes constitute an operon that is transcribed from two promoters. The galKp promoter is inducible by galactose in the medium, while galEp constitutes a semiconstitutive promoter located in galK. PMID:9603808

Bettenbrock, K; Alpert, C A

1998-06-01

87

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK908.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK908, a patented probiotic strain (Polish patent no. 209987), was isolated from the feces of a healthy 6-year-old girl. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of LOCK908 and identify genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs). PMID:24558250

Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara

2014-01-01

88

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK908  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK908, a patented probiotic strain (Polish patent no. 209987), was isolated from the feces of a healthy 6-year-old girl. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of LOCK908 and identify genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs).

Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

2014-01-01

89

Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase.  

PubMed

Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) (EC 3.4.21.26), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in the future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

2014-08-01

90

[Modulation of gastrointestinal physiology through probiotic strains of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum].  

PubMed

The products called functional foods, which besides being merely nutritional have different beneficial effects on the organism, are situated in the context of diet and health promotion. Amongst these functional foods we can distinguish, amongst others, between probiotic and prebiotic compounds. The micro-organisms most widely used in probiotic foods belong to the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium types. In this article we have studied the effect of diets supplemented with Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium bifidum on animal development and especially on the intestinal function, centred on their immune, digestive and absorptive activity in growing animals. The bacteria strains used modify the activity of the small intestine of healthy mice, significantly affecting their enzymatic activity (sucrase, maltase and aminopeptidase) and the collection of nutrients (galactose and glycilsarcosine), as well as the intestinal immune activity (higher number of Peyer's patches). However, these effects do not appear to disturb the development of the growing animals since no significant differences are appreciated in their body weight or in their blood parameters. These results make clear the possible beneficial effects on intestinal physiology and contribute to the understanding of the possible mechanisms of action of the probiotics, which could be employed in the preventive treatment of different pathologies related to the digestive apparatus. PMID:17224936

Barrenetxe, J; Aranguren, P; Grijalba, A; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Marzo, F; Urdaneta, E

2006-01-01

91

Mode of action of lactocin 705, a two-component bacteriocin from Lactobacillus casei CRL705.  

PubMed

Lactocin 705 is a bacteriocin whose activity depends on the complementary action of two peptides (705alpha and 705beta) of 33-amino-acid residues each and is produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL705. Biologically active, synthetic lactocin 705 was used to study the mode of action on sensitive cells of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691. The addition of 90 nmol l(-1) of lactocin 705 to cells of L. plantarum dissipated both, the membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and the pH gradient (DeltapH). Energized membrane, obtained after the addition of glucose, were more susceptible to lactocin 705 action leading to the immediate release of intracellular K(+) and inorganic phosphate. When the role of various ions on sensitive cells were analyzed, only Ca(2+) ion exhibited a protective effect against lactocin 705. These data suggest that the presence of a proton motive force (PMF) promotes the interaction of the bacteriocin with the cytoplasmic membrane of energized cells, leading to pore formation which allows for the efflux of ions, thereby ensuring efficient killing of target bacteria. PMID:12810269

Castellano, Patricia; Raya, Raul; Vignolo, Graciela

2003-08-15

92

Properties of Lactose Plasmid pLY101 in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

A starter strain, Lactobacillus casei C257, was found to carry a lactose plasmid, pLY101. Restriction mapping showed that pLY101 DNA was 68.2 kilobases long. Since a non-lactose-utilizing variant of C257, MSK248, lost phospho-?-galactosidase (P-?-gal) activity and pLY101 DNA had a sequence(s) homologous to the streptococcal fragment including a P-?-gal gene, pLY101 is likely to encode a P-?-gal gene required for lactose metabolism in C257. MSK248 grew in galactose medium at a rate identical to that of C257 and retained phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system activity for lactose similar to that of C257. Therefore, the C257 chromosome appears to encode a complete set of genes for the lactose-phosphotransferase system and the predominant galactose metabolic pathway in C257. pLY101 DNA had a sequence homologous to a lactobacillus insertion sequence, ISL1, which mapped more than 12 kilobases from the sequence homologous to the streptococcal P-?-gal fragment. Images

Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko

1987-01-01

93

Immobilization of kefir and Lactobacillus casei on brewery spent grains for use in sourdough wheat bread making  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of bread were produced employing baker’s yeast, kefir or Lactobacillus casei immobilized on brewer’s spent grains. Bread was produced either by the straight-dough or the sourdough method. All the studied biocatalysts and their corresponding sourdoughs were found efficient for breadmaking. Good rising was achieved and the produced breads had good overall quality and remained fresher for longer, compared

Stavros Plessas; Marillena Trantallidi; Argyro Bekatorou; Maria Kanellaki; Poonam Nigam; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2007-01-01

94

Suppressive Effect on Activation of Macrophages by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota Genes Determining the Synthesis of Cell Wall-Associated Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many Lactobacillus strains used as probiotics are believed to modulate host immune responses, the molecular natures of the components of such probiotic microorganisms directly involved in immune modula- tion process are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the function of polysaccharide moiety of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota as a possible immune modulator which regulates cytokine

Emi Yasuda; Masaki Serata; Tomoyuki Sako

2008-01-01

95

Impact of lactose starvation on the physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the presence or absence of tween 80.  

PubMed

The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid. PMID:24066708

Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L

2013-11-01

96

Studies on identifying the binding sites of folate and its derivatives in Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthase  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that folate and its derivatives have a profound effect on stabilizing thymidylate synthase in vitro and in vivo, as a consequence of ternary formation between the folate, dUMP, or FdUMP, and the synthase. The degree to which complex formation is affected can be revealed qualitatively by circular dichroism and quantitatively by equilibrium dialysis using the Lactobacillus casei synthase. In contrast to the pteroylmonoglutamates, the pteroylpolyglutamates bind to thymidylate synthase in the absence of dUMP, but even their binding affinity is increased greatly by this nucleotide or its analogues. Similarly, treatment of the synthase with carboxypeptidase A prevents the binding of the pteroylmonoglutamates and reduces the binding of the polyglutamates without affecting dUMP binding. The latter does not protect against carboxypeptidase inactivation but does potentiate the protective effect of the pteroylpolyglutamates. To determine the region of the synthase involved in the binding of the glutamate residues, Pte(/sup 14/C)GluGlu6 was activated by a water soluble carbodiimide in the presence and absence of dUMP. This folate derivative behaved as a competitive inhibitor of 5,10-CH/sub 2/H/sub 4/PteGlu, in contrast to methotrexate which was non-competitive. Separation of the five cyanogen bromide peptides from the L. casei synthase revealed 80% of the radioactivity to be associated with CNBr-2 and about 15% with CNBr-4. Chymotrypsin treatment of CNBr-2 yielded two /sup 14/C-labeled peaks on high performance liquid chromatography, with the slower migrating one being separated further into two peaks by Bio-gel P2 chromatography. All three peptides came from the same region of CNBr-2, encompassing residues 47-61 of the enzyme. From these studies it would appear that the residues most probably involved in the fixation of PteGlu7 are lysines 50 and 58. In contrast, methotrexate appeared to bind to another region of CNBr-2.

Maley, F.; Maley, G.F.

1983-01-01

97

Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.  

PubMed

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2->NO->N2O->N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xu, Xi-Lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

98

Lactic acid fermentation in a recycle batch reactor using immobilized Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Lactic acid production by recycle batch fermentation using immobilized cells of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus was studied. The culture medium was composed of whey treated with an endoprotease, and supplemented with 2.5 g/L of yeast extract and 0.18 mM Mn(2+) ions. The fermentation set-up comprised of a column packed with polyethyleneimine-coated foam glass particles, Pora-bact A, and connected with recirculation to a stirred tank reactor vessel for pH control. The immobilization of L. casei was performed simply by circulating the culture medium inoculated with the organism over the beads. At this stage, a long lag period preceded the cell growth and lactic acid production. Subsequently, for recycle batch fermentations using the immobilized cells, the reducing sugar concentration of the medium was increased to 100 g/L by addition of glucose. The lactic acid production started immediately after onset of fermentation and the average reactor productivity during repeated cycles was about 4.3 to 4.6 g/L . h, with complete substrate utilization and more than 90% product yield. Sugar consumption and lactate yield were maintained at the same level with increase in medium volume up to at least 10 times that of the immobilized biocatalyst. The liberation of significant amounts of cells into the medium limited the number of fermentation cycles possible in a recycle batch mode. Use of lower yeast extract concentration reduced the amount of suspended biomass without significant change in productivity, thereby also increasing the number of fermentation cycles, and even maintained the D-lactate amount at low levels. The product was recovered from the clarified and decolorized broth by ion-exchange adsorption. PMID:18636595

Senthuran, A; Senthuran, V; Mattiasson, B; Kaul, R

1997-09-20

99

Prevention of urinary tract infection in rats with an indigenous Lactobacillus casei strain.  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have shown that indigenous bacteria are able to block the in vitro attachment of uropathogenic bacteria to human uroepithelial cells. In the present study, we applied the concept of competitive exclusion to an animal model. A chronic urinary tract infection was established in female rats with bacteria incorporated into agar beads injected periurethrally into the urinary bladder via a no. 3 French ureteral catheter. Five strains of uropathogenic organisms were used in the first set of experiments, and their colonization of the bladder and kidneys of the animals was confirmed up to 2 months after injection. The uropathogens stimulated an immune response, detected by serum antibodies against the uropathogens, and an inflammatory response noted in sections of the kidneys stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Using this animal model, we established the persistent adherence of bacteria in the urinary tract without the need for creation of obstruction or implantation of a foreign body. In a second set of experiments, an isolate of Lactobacillus casei GR1 taken from the urethra of a healthy woman was incorporated into agar beads, instilled within the rat bladders on day 1, and then swabbed twice weekly for 21 days onto the introitus before challenge with uropathogens instilled into the urinary bladder. In 21 of 25 animals, no uropathogenic bacteria were recovered from the bladder and kidney tissues up to 60 days after challenge, and no immune response was detected. Our results show that L. casei prevented onset of urinary tract infection in 84% of the animals tested. The lactobacilli appeared to exclude the uropathogens from colonizing the urinary tract, within the first 48 hours after challenge, and the net effect was a complete eradication of bacteria from the uroepithelium. It is hoped that the demonstration of a protective role for indigenous bacteria in preventing urinary tract infection in an animal model will lead to the application of this technology to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection in female patients. Images

Reid, G; Chan, R C; Bruce, A W; Costerton, J W

1985-01-01

100

Active and inactive state structures of unliganded Lactobacillus casei allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei L-lactate dehydrogenase (LCLDH) is activated through the homotropic and heterotropic activation effects of pyruvate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), respectively, and exhibits unusually high pH-dependence in the allosteric effects of these ligands. The active (R) and inactive (T) state structures of unliganded LCLDH were determined at 2.5 and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. In the catalytic site, the structural rearrangements are concerned mostly in switching of the orientation of Arg171 through the flexible intersubunit contact at the Q-axis subunit interface. The distorted orientation of Arg171 in the T state is stabilized by a unique intra-helix salt bridge between Arg171 and Glu178, which is in striking contrast to the multiple intersubunit salt bridges in Lactobacillus pentosus nonallosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase. In the backbone structure, major structural rearrangements of LCLDH are focused in two mobile regions of the catalytic domain. The two regions form an intersubunit linkage through contact at the P-axis subunit interface involving Arg185, replacement of which with Gln severely decreases the homotropic and hetertropic activation effects on the enzyme. These two regions form another intersubunit linkage in the Q-axis related dimer through the rigid NAD-binding domain, and thus constitute a pivotal frame of the intersubunit linkage for the allosteric motion, which is coupled with the concerted structural change of the four subunits in a tetramer, and of the binding sites for pyruvate and FBP. The unique intersubunit salt bridges, which are observed only in the R state structure, are likely involved in the pH-dependent allosteric equilibrium. PMID:19787773

Arai, Kazuhito; Ishimitsu, Toshihiro; Fushinobu, Shinya; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2010-02-15

101

A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their ability to colonize murine tissues following oral delivery and the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a nascent probiotic, to combat paratuberculosis. Oral inoculation of mice was able to establish paratuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner. Two consecutive doses of approximately 10(9) CFU per mouse resulted in a disseminated infection, whereas lower doses were not efficient to establish infection. All inoculated mice were colonized with M. paratuberculosis, maintained infection for up to 24 weeks post infection and generated immune responses that reflect M. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Notably, oral administration of L. casei ATCC 334 did not reduce the level of M. paratuberculosis colonization in treated animals. Interestingly, cytokine responses and histology indicated a trend for the immunomodulation and reduction of pathology in animals receiving L. casei ATCC 334 treatment. Overall, a reproducible oral model of paratuberculosis in mice was established that could be used for future vaccine experiments. Although the L. casei ATCC 334 was not a promising candidate for controlling paratuberculosis, we established a protocol to screen other probiotic candidates. PMID:24551602

Cooney, Meagan A; Steele, James L; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M

2014-01-01

102

Lactobacillus casei prevents the development of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Probiotics, defined as live or attenuated bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Recently, they have been shown to be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics on the development of experimental colitis using Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) mutant (lps–/lps–) mice. TLR-4lps–/lps– and wild-type (WT) mice were given 2·5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water to induce colitis with or without Lactobacillus casei pretreatment. Clinical and histological activity of DSS-colitis was attenuated markedly both in TLR-4lps–/lps– and WT mice pretreated with L. casei. Interestingly, histological activity was less severe in TLR-4lps–/lps– mice than in WT mice. The levels of myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin (IL)-12p40 were attenuated in pretreated TLR-4lps–/lps– mice after DSS administration. By contrast, transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and IL-10 mRNA and protein expressions were increased markedly in pretreated TLR-4lps–/lps– mice. The current results suggest that L. casei has a preventive effect in the development of acute DSS-induced colitis and its action depends largely upon TLR-4 status. L. casei modulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and down-regulates neutrophilic infiltration in the case of incomplete TLR-4 complex signalling.

Chung, Y W; Choi, J H; Oh, T-Y; Eun, C S; Han, D S

2008-01-01

103

NMR studies of multiple conformations in complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with analogues of pyrimethamine  

SciTech Connect

{sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR signals from bound ligands have been assigned in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with various pyrimethamine analogues. The signals were identified mainly by correlating signals from bound and free ligands by using 2D exchange experiments. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues containing asymmetrically substituted aromatic rings exist as mixtures of two rotational isomers (an enantiomeric pair) because of this hindered rotation and the NMR spectra revealed that both isomers (forms A and B) bind to the enzyme with comparable, though unequal, binding energies. In this case two complete sets of bound proton signals were observed. The relative orientations of the two forms have been determined from NOE through-space connections between protons on the ligand and protein. Ternary complexes with NADP{sup {plus}} were also examined.

Birdsall, B.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.; Carr, M.D. (National Institute for Medical Research, London (United Kingdom)); Arnold, J.R.P.; Thomas, J.A.; Roberts, G.C.K. (Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)); Griffin, R.J.; Stevens, M.F.G. (Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom))

1990-10-01

104

Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5?min at 100°C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

2014-01-01

105

Cooperative Interaction of CI Protein Regulates Lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by Bacteriophage A2  

PubMed Central

The temperate bacteriophage A2 forms stable lysogens in Lactobacillus casei. The A2-encoded cI product (CI), which is responsible for maintaining the A2 prophage in the lysogenic state, has been purified. The CI protein, which is a monomer of 25.3 kDa in solution, specifically binds to a 153-bp DNA fragment that contains two divergent promoters, PL and PR. These promoters mediate transcription from cI and a putative cro, respectively. Three similar, although not identical, 20-bp inverted repeated DNA segments (operator sites O1, O2, and O3) were found in this segment. CI selectively interacts with O1, which is placed downstream from the transcription start point of the cro gene, and with O2 and O3, which overlap with the ?35 region of the two promoters. Using a heterologous RNA polymerase, we have determined the transcription start points of PL and PR. CI exerts a negative effect on the in vitro transcription of PR by repositioning the RNA polymerase in a concentration-dependent manner. CI, when bound to O1 and O2, enhances the positioning of the RNA polymerase with the PL promoter. Our data indicate that the CI protein regulates the lytic and lysogenic pathways of the A2 phage.

Garcia, Pilar; Ladero, Victor; Alonso, Juan C.; Suarez, Juan E.

1999-01-01

106

Purification and amino acid sequence of lactocin 705, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL 705.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei CRL 705, isolated from a dry fermented sausage, produces an antibacterial peptide which is active against Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies have shown that this compound is potentially useful to control food-borne pathogens in ground meat. In view of the potential application of this antimicrobial substance in food fermentation, a detailed biochemical analysis of this peptide is required. In this work, the purification and amino acid sequence of this bacteriocin is presented. The adsorption-desorption pH-dependent property of lactocin 705 was exploited for purification. The active extract was further subjected to RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The active antimicrobial band was electroeluted from an SDS-PAGE gel and its amino acid sequence determined. Lactocin 705 had an estimated molecular weight of 3357.80 and an isoelectric point of 10.03. The peptide contains a high ratio of glycine residues and does not show any modified amino acids, like lanthionine or beta-methyllanthionine. The sequence was unique when compared to several databases. PMID:10522386

Palacios, J; Vignolo, G; Farías, M E; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; Oliver, G; Sesma, F

1999-09-01

107

Enhancement of hematopoietic response of mice by subcutaneous administration of Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

Mice that had received heat-killed Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018) subcutaneously (s.c.) showed enhanced resistance to systemic (i.e., intravenous) infection with Listeria monocytogenes, but the antilisterial resistance of mice was less augmented by s.c. administration of Propionibacterium acnes ("Corynebacterium parvum"). Though there was little change in the total number of splenic leukocytes after s.c. administration of LC 9018, the monocyte-macrophage ratio increased after treatment, reaching its peak on day 5 to 7 after injection. The number of progenitor cells that form macrophage colonies under the stimulus of L-cell-conditioned medium in a semisolid agar culture system increased in the spleens of mice pretreated s.c. with LC 9018, showing a peak response on day 5 after injection. The increase corresponded to the increase in the dose administered, and increased numbers were detected even 10 days after treatment. The number of macrophage colonies in the femurs of mice pretreated s.c. with LC 9018 showed a temporary increase on day 3 after injection but then a decrease until day 10. Colony-stimulating activity was detected in the sera of mice administered LC 9018 s.c. 18 h previously, and the colonies produced were of three types: granulocyte (8%), macrophage (56%), and granulocyte-macrophage (36%). Administration of C. parvum s.c. had little effect on these hematopoietic responses of mice.

Yokokura, T; Nomoto, K; Shimizu, T; Nomoto, K

1986-01-01

108

Antialcoholic liver activity of whey fermented by Lactobacillus casei isolated from koumiss.  

PubMed

Whey fermented liquid (WFL) was studied for its hepatoprotective effects by using chronic alcohol-induced mice. Whey fermented liquid, prepared by inoculating whey with 4% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus casei and then incubating at 41°C for 8h, was used to orally treat alcohol-induced mice at 3 dosages for 5 wk. Ethanol consumption significantly reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, while lowering glutathione content and increasing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and cytochrome P450 2E1. Treatment with WFL significantly attenuated the increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, and cytochrome P450 2E1, while decreasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels. Pathological changes in the livers of mice who had ingested alcohol were improved by the administration of WFL. These results suggest that WFL may exert a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease by increasing antioxidant activity, which supports the use of WFL as an antialcoholic liver disease treatment. PMID:24767886

Zhao, Z W; Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Sun, Y Y; Guo, Y X; Zeng, X Q

2014-07-01

109

Passive protection of mice pups through oral or intranasal immunization of dams with recombinant Lactobacillus casei vaccine against ETEC F41.  

PubMed

Mucosal immunization is advantageous over other routes of antigen delivery because it can induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this study, we have developed fimbriae protein of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41 was stably expressed on the surface Lactobacillus casei 525. The method of expressing vaccine antigens in L. casei induces both systemic and mucosal immunity after oral or intranasal administration. We demonstrate that an oral or intranasal vaccine based on live recombinant L. casei 525 protects infant mice from ETEC F41 infection. This platform technology can be applied to design oral or intranasal vaccine delivery vehicles against several microbial pathogens. PMID:24569297

Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Hou, Xi-Lin; Yu, Li-Yun

2014-04-01

110

Cation-Dependent Binding of Substrate to the Folate Transport Protein of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei cells grown in the presence of limiting folate contained large amounts of a membrane-associated binding protein which mediates folate transport. Binding to this protein at 4°C was time and concentration dependent and at low levels (1 to 10 nM) of folate required 60 min to reach a steady state. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for folate was 1.2 nM at pH 7.5 in 100 mM K-phosphate buffer, and it varied by less than twofold when measured over a range of pH values (5.5 to 7.5) or in buffered salt solutions of differing ionic compositions. Conversely, removal of ions and their replacement with isotonic sucrose (pH 7.5) led to a 200-fold reduction in binding affinity for folate. Restoration of the high-affinity state of the binding protein could be achieved by the readdition of various cations to the sucrose medium. Kd measurements over a range of cation concentrations revealed that a half-maximal restoration of binding affinity was obtained with relatively low levels (10 to 50 ?M) of divalent cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, and ethylenediammonium2+ ions). Monovalent cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and Tris+) were also effective, but only at concentrations in the millimolar range. The Kd for folate reached a minimum of 0.6 nM at pH 7.5 in the presence of excess CaCl2. In cells suspended in sucrose, the affinity of the binding protein for folate increased 20-fold by decreasing the pH from 7.5 to 4.5, indicating that protons can partially fulfill the cation requirement. These results suggest that the folate transport protein of L. casei may contain both a substrate- and cation-binding site and that folate binds with a high affinity only after the cation-binding site has been occupied. The presence of these binding sites would support the hypothesis that folate is transported across the cell membrane via a cation-folate symport mechanism.

Henderson, Gary B.; Potuznik, Suzana

1982-01-01

111

Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei supragenome and its influence in species evolution and lifestyle adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The broad ecological distribution of L. casei makes it an insightful subject for research on genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation. To explore evolutionary mechanisms that determine genomic diversity of L. casei, we performed comparative analysis of 17 L. casei genomes representing strains collected from dairy, plant, and human sources. Results Differences in L. casei genome inventory revealed an open pan-genome comprised of 1,715 core and 4,220 accessory genes. Extrapolation of pan-genome data indicates L. casei has a supragenome approximately 3.2 times larger than the average genome of individual strains. Evidence suggests horizontal gene transfer from other bacterial species, particularly lactobacilli, has been important in adaptation of L. casei to new habitats and lifestyles, but evolution of dairy niche specialists also appears to involve gene decay. Conclusions Genome diversity in L. casei has evolved through gene acquisition and decay. Acquisition of foreign genomic islands likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats, notably plant-associated niches. Loss of unnecessary ancestral traits in strains collected from bacterial-ripened cheeses supports the hypothesis that gene decay contributes to enhanced fitness in that niche. This study gives the first evidence for a L. casei supragenome and provides valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible and industrially important lactic acid bacterium. Additionally, our data confirm the Distributed Genome Hypothesis extends to non-pathogenic, ecologically flexible species like L. casei.

2012-01-01

112

Lactobacillus casei Shirota enhances the preventive efficacy of soymilk in chemically induced breast cancer.  

PubMed

Soy foods are known to be effective for breast cancer prevention. The habitual consumption of soy isoflavones in combination with the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) was shown to decrease the risk of breast cancer occurrence in our previous population-based case-controlled study among Japanese women. The present study aimed to elucidate the cooperative prevention mechanism of soymilk and LcS using an animal carcinogenic model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received a high-fat, AIN-76A diet containing soymilk, LcS, both soymilk and LcS, or none and were orally exposed to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-penylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine at a dose of 85 mg/kg bodyweight eight times for 2 weeks. The development of palpable mammary tumors was monitored for 17 weeks. Tumor tissues were immunohistochemically examined for estrogen receptor (ER)-?, Ki-67 and CD34. Compared with the control group, the incidence and multiplicity of mammary tumors were reduced by soymilk alone and soymilk in combination with LcS, while tumor volume was decreased by LcS alone and LcS in combination with soymilk. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that soymilk in combination with LcS more effectively reduced the numbers of ER-?-positive and Ki-67-positive cells in tumors than soymilk alone and that both soymilk and LcS inhibited tumor angiogenesis. These results demonstrated that soymilk prevents the development of mammary tumors and that LcS suppresses tumor growth, potentially enhancing the preventive efficacy of soymilk. The habitual consumption of LcS in combination with soymilk might be a beneficial dietary style for breast cancer prevention. PMID:23992486

Kaga, Chiaki; Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kado, Shoichi; Kato, Ikuo; Sakai, Masashi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nanno, Masanobu; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Ohashi, Yasuo; Toi, Masakazu

2013-11-01

113

Insertion of bacteriophage ?FSW into the chromosome of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (S-1): Characterization of the attachment sites and the integrase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrase gene (int) on the genome of ?FSW, which is a temperate bacteriophage of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (formerly denoted as S-1), and the four attachment sites on the genomes of the phage and its host were characterized by sequencing. The ?FSW integrase was found to belong to the integrase family of site-specific tyrosine recombinase. The attachment sites shared

Mariko Shimizu-Kadota; Mayumi Kiwaki; Saeko Sawaki; Yukio Shirasawa; Harue Shibahara-Sone; Tomoyuki Sako

2000-01-01

114

Lactobacillus casei addition to a repletion diet-induced early normalisation of cytokine profils during a pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studied the influence of Lactobacillus casei on cytokine production during repletion of malnourished mice in the face of an infectious challenge. In addition, the number and function of cells involved in the immune response against a respiratory infection was evaluated. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 days. Malnourished mice were fed a

Susana Salva; Julio Villena; Silvia Racedo; Susana Alvarez; Graciela Agüero

2008-01-01

115

Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers for Amplification of Priming Glycosyltransferase Genes of the Exopolysaccharide Locus in Strains of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primer design strategy named CODEHOP (consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer) for amplification of distantly related sequences was used to detect the priming glycosyltransferase (GT) gene in strains of the Lactobacillus casei group. Each hybrid primer consisted of a short 3 degenerate core based on four highly conserved amino acids and a longer 5 consensus clamp region based on six sequences

Cathy Provencher; Gisele LaPointe; Stephane Sirois; Marie-Rose Van Calsteren; Denis Roy

2003-01-01

116

Characterization of pMC11, a plasmid with dual origins of replication isolated from Lactobacillus casei MCJ and construction of shuttle vectors with each replicon.  

PubMed

Many lactic acid bacteria carry different plasmids, particularly those that replicate via a theta mechanism. Here we describe Lactobacillus casei MCJ(CCTCC AB20130356), a new isolate that contains pMC11, carrying two distinct theta-type replicons. Each replicon contained an iteron in the origin of replication (oriV1 or oriV2) and a gene coding for the replicase (RepA_1 or RepB_1), both of which are essential for plasmid replication. Escherichia coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vectors were constructed with each replicon, yielding pEL5.7 and pEL5.6 that are based on oriV2 and oriV1 replicons, respectively. These plasmids showed distinct properties: pEL5.7 was capable of replicating in L. casei MCJ?1 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1 but failed to do so in two other tested lactobacilli strains whereas pEL5.6 replicated in three different strains, including L. casei MCJ?1, L. casei NJ, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1. Plasmid stability was studied: pEL5.6 and pEL5.7 were very stably maintained in L. casei, as the loss rate was lower than 1 % per generation. pEL5.7 was also stable in L. delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1 with the loss rate estimated to be 3 %. These vectors were employed to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) using the promoter of S-layer protein SlpA from Lactobacillus acidophilus. And a growth-phase regulated expression of GFP was observed in different strains. In conclusion, these shuttle vectors provide efficient genetic tools for DNA cloning and heterologous gene expression in lactobacilli. PMID:24652065

Chen, Zhengjun; Lin, Jinzhong; Ma, Chengjie; Zhao, Shumiao; She, Qunxin; Liang, Yunxiang

2014-07-01

117

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD.

2014-01-01

118

Factors affecting substrate binding in Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthetase as studied by equilibrium dialysis.  

PubMed

The binding of deoxynucleoside 5'-monophosphates and various folate derivatives to Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthetase was measured by equilibrium dialysis. The substrate, deoxyuridylate (dUMP), and the product, thymidylate (dTMP), were bound to the enzyme at a ratio of unity and appeared to compete for the same site. The binding of each was tighter in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.1) than in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0). Folate derivatives increased the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate to a greater extent than for the product, although they themselves did not appear to be bound in the absence of substrate or substrate analogues. However, in the presence of enzyme, dUMP or 4-N-OH-dCMP, and either 7,8-dihydrofolate or methotrexate, a ternary complex was obtained, with the folate derivatives exhibiting single site binding. The binding of dUMP in the ternary complex was 25-fold greater than that of 7,8-dihydrofolate and 50-fold greater than that of methotrexate. Supporting evidence for the enhanced stability of the ternary complex was provided by heat inactivation studies. As in the case of deoxynucleotide binding to the synthetase, the ternary complex was more stable in Tris HCl than in potassium phosphate buffer. The binding characteristics of the substrate analogue 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate (FdUMP) could be clearly distinguished from that of dUMP by comparing their binding in phphate and Tris-HCl. While each deoxynucleotide exhibited only single site binding in phosphate, a second site was clearly demonstrated for FdUMP with Tris-HCl. The binding of FdUMP to each site appeared to be equal in the presence of methotrexate or (-)5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate and was increased about 17-fold in Tris-HCl. Two sites were also obtained for FdUMP in the presence of 7,8-dihydrofolate, but Scatchard analyses revealed a biphasic curve, with the second site possessing a higher dissociation constant than the first. A second low affinity FdUMP binding site was also detected in phosphate buffer when 7,8-dihydrofolate or (-)5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate was included in the binding assay. In the presence of (+)5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate, however, 2 mol of FdUMP was bound stoichoimetrically to 1 mol of enzyme regardless of the buffer used. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the presence of two apparently identical subunits in the native enzyme. PMID:813762

Galivan, J H; Maley, G F; Maley, F

1976-01-27

119

Analysis of the Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Complement of Lactobacillus casei and Characterization of the Major ?-D-Glutamyl-L-Lysyl-Endopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs) which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75) was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1) major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a ?-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23.

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Meyrand, Mickael; Claes, Ingmar J. J.; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

120

Oral administration of HPV-16 L2 displayed on Lactobacillus casei induces systematic and mucosal cross-neutralizing effects in Balb/c mice.  

PubMed

The human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein, L2, is a good candidate for prophylactic vaccine development because L2-specific antibodies have cross-neutralizing activity against diverse HPV types. Here, we developed a HPV mucosal vaccine candidate using the poly-?-glutamic acid synthetase A (pgsA) protein to display a partial HPV-16 L2 protein (N-terminal 1-224 amino acid) on the surface of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei). The oral immunization with L. casei-L2 induced productions of L2-specific serum IgG and vaginal IgG and IgA in Balb/c mice. To examine cross-neutralizing activity, we used a sensitive high-throughput neutralization assay based on HPV-16, -18, -45, -58, and bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) pseudovirions. Our results revealed that mice vaccinated with L. casei-L2 not only generated neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16, but they also produced antibodies capable of cross-neutralizing the HPV-18, -45, and -58 pseudovirions. Consistent with previous reports, vaccination with HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) failed to show cross-neutralizing activity. Finally, we found that oral administration of L. casei-L2 induced significant neutralizing activities against genital infection by HPV-16, -18, -45, and -58 pseudovirions encoding a fluorescence reporter gene. These results collectively indicate that oral administration of L2 displayed on L. casei induces systemic and mucosal cross-neutralizing effects in mice. PMID:22426329

Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Lee, Il-Han; Sung, Moon-Hee; Park, Jong-Sup; Poo, Haryoung

2012-05-01

121

Malic enzyme and malolactic enzyme pathways are functionally linked but independently regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE. PMID:23835171

Landete, José María; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

2013-09-01

122

Malic Enzyme and Malolactic Enzyme Pathways Are Functionally Linked but Independently Regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE.

Landete, Jose Maria; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

123

Differential expression of cro, the lysogenic cycle repressor determinant of bacteriophage A2, in Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Expression of bacteriophage A2-encoded cro in Escherichia coli gives rise to two co-linear polypeptides, Cro and Cro*, which were proposed to form a regulatory tandem to modulate the frequency with which the phage would choose between the lytic and the lysogenic cycles. In this communication, it is reported that Cro is the canonical product of the gene cro while Cro* results from a -1 ribosome frameshift during translation and is twelve amino acids shorter than Cro. However, frameshifting was not observed during phage development in Lactobacillus casei. Furthermore, wild type phages and cro-frameshifting negative mutants present the same phenotype, thus corroborating that only the canonical form of Cro is needed to produce a viable phage progeny. PMID:24457071

Escobedo, Susana; Rodríguez, Isabel; García, Pilar; Suárez, Juan E; Carrasco, Begoña

2014-04-01

124

Comparative therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs in murine giardiasis.  

PubMed

Various antiprotozoal drugs have been used to counteract the spread of giardiasis. However, due to increase in resistance to these compounds, there is an urgent need to find a natural biocompatible product to fight the pathogen in more healthy and effective way. The present study was designed to compare the therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs on the outcome of giardiasis in murine model. BALB/c mice were challenged with Giardia intestinalis trophozoites, and 1 day after infection, these mice were treated with either probiotic alone or in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs. Cyst, trophozoite, and lactobacilli counts were monitored vis-a-vis histopathological alterations in the small intestine. It was found that albendazole administered orally 1 day after Giardia infection was the most effective antiprotozoal drug among albendazole, tinidazole, metronidazole, and nitazoxanide. It reduced both the severity and duration of giardiasis. More specifically, oral administration of the probiotic L. casei in conjunction with albendazole further reduced the Giardia infection as was evident by the restored normal gut morphology. This suggests that probiotics and antiprotozoal drugs in combination may be the better alternative therapy for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and enhanced recovery. PMID:23559378

Shukla, Geeta; Kaur, Hemjeet; Sharma, Lalita

2013-06-01

125

Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.  

PubMed

The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-08-01

126

Osmotic stress adaptation in Lactobacillus casei BL23 leads to structural changes in the cell wall polymer lipoteichoic acid.  

PubMed

The probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus casei BL23 is naturally confronted with salt-stress habitats. It has been previously reported that growth in high-salt medium, containing 0.8 M NaCl, leads to modifications in the cell envelope of this bacterium. In this study, we report that L. casei BL23 has an increased ability to form biofilms and to bind cations in high-salt conditions. This behaviour correlated with modifications of surface properties involving teichoic acids, which are important cell wall components. We also showed that, in these high-salt conditions, L. casei BL23 produces less of the cell wall polymer lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and that this anionic polymer has a shorter mean chain length and a lower level of d-alanyl-substitution. Analysis of the transcript levels of the dltABCD operon, encoding the enzymes required for the incorporation of d-alanine into anionic polymers, showed a 16-fold reduction in mRNA levels, which is consistent with a decrease in d-alanine substitutions on LTA. Furthermore, a 13-fold reduction in the transcript levels was observed for the gene LCABL_09330 coding for a putative LTA synthase. To provide further experimental evidence that LCABL_09330 is a true LTA synthase (LtaS) in L. casei BL23, the enzymic domain was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein was able to hydrolyse the membrane lipid phosphatidylglycerol as expected for an LTA synthase enzyme, and hence LCABL_09330 was renamed LtaS. The purified enzyme showed Mn(2+)-ion dependent activity, and its activity was modulated by differences in NaCl concentration. The decrease in both ltaS transcript levels and enzyme activity observed in high-salt conditions might influence the length of the LTA backbone chain. A putative function of the modified LTA structure is discussed that is compatible with the growth under salt-stress conditions and with the overall envelope modifications taking place during this stress condition. PMID:24014660

Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Gründling, Angelika; Sanchez-Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

2013-11-01

127

Aseptic addition method for Lactobacillus casei assay of folate activity in human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An `aseptic addition' method is described for microbiological assay with Lactobacillis casei of folate activity in human serum. It has the following advantages over the previously reported `standard' method. 1 The manipulations involved in the assay are halved, by deleting autoclaving of serum in buffers. 2 The use of 1 g.% ascorbate better preserves serum folates than the lower amounts

Victor Herbert

1966-01-01

128

Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei upon the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K99 to the intestinal mucosa in gnotobiotic lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were carried out of the interactions between Lactobacillus casei 294\\/89 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CCM 612 (O101:K99) in vivo. In gnotobiotic lambs, inoculation with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) resulted in diarrhea with a typical clinical picture and patho-anatomical findings. E. coli adhered to the mucosa of the digestive tract at counts amounting to 105 per cm2. In these lambs,

A. Bomba; I. Kravjanský; R. Herich; Z. Juhásová; M. ?ížek; B. Kapitan?ík

1997-01-01

129

Short-chain organic acids produced on glucose, lactose, and citrate media by Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterobacter aerogenes strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Enterococcus faecalis, three of Lactobacillus casei and two of Enterobacter aerogenes, isolated from commercial Palmita-type cheese were cultured in peptone-yeast extract broth with glucose (PYG), lactose (PYL), or citrate (PYC) added as the main carbon sources. The short-chain volatile and non-volatile organic acids were extracted and their concentration determined by GC with a FID detector. The identity

D. Urdaneta; D. Raffe; A. Ferrer; B. Sulbarán de Ferrer; L. Cabrera; M. Pérez

1995-01-01

130

Display of  Amylase on the Surface of Lactobacillus casei Cells by Use of the PgsA Anchor Protein, and Production of Lactic Acid from Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new cell surface engineering system based on the PgsA anchor protein from Bacillus subtilis. In this system, the N terminus of the target protein was fused to the PgsA protein and the resulting fusion protein was expressed on the cell surface. Using this new system, we constructed a novel starch-degrading strain of Lactobacillus casei by genetically displaying

Junya Narita; Kenji Okano; Tomoe Kitao; Saori Ishida; Tomomitsu Sewaki; Moon-Hee Sung; Hideki Fukuda; Akihiko Kondo

2006-01-01

131

Induction of Immune Responses in Mice after Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus casei Strains Expressing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41 Fimbrial Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41 infections, we have developed a surface antigen display system using poly--glutamate synthetase A (PgsA) as an anchoring matrix. The recombinant fusion proteins comprised of PgsA and fimbrial protein of F41 were stably expressed in Lactobacillus casei 525. Surface localization of the

Jian-Kui Liu; Xi-Lin Hou; Chun-Hua Wei; Li-Yun Yu; Xiao-Jie He; Gui-Hua Wang; Jong-Soo Lee; Chul-Joong Kim

2009-01-01

132

Optimizing Conditions for the Growth ofLactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose Medium by Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth ofLactobacillus caseiYIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was

SEJONG OH; SUNGSUE RHEEM; JAEHUN SIM; SANGKYO KIM; ANDYOUNGJIN BAEK

1995-01-01

133

Transposon Mutagenesis of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Identifies asnH, an Asparagine Synthetase Gene Involved in Its Immune-Activating Capacity  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139.

Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

2014-01-01

134

Transposon mutagenesis of probiotic Lactobacillus casei identifies asnH, an asparagine synthetase gene involved in its immune-activating capacity.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:24416179

Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

2014-01-01

135

Effect of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 along with pressurized-purple-rice drinks on colonizing the colon in the digestive model.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to examine the influence of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 combining with two types of pressurized-purple-rice drinks on colonizing the colon using a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. Subsequently, the metabolic products of colon bacteria and various microflora were determined. The finding revealed that acetate which was the predominant short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) was found in both proximal and distal colons, while the combination of encapsulated L. casei 01 and germinated-purple-rice drinks gave rise to highest formation of SCFA. Significant impact of rice drinks could be observed on reducing ammonia production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that encapsulated L. casei 01 and encapsulated L. casei 01 plus rice drinks markedly increased concentration of colon lactobacilli and bifidobacteria by 2 and 1 log 16S rRNA gene copies/mL, respectively. On the contrary, undesirable bacteria such as clostridia and coliforms were significantly reduced with the influence of encapsulated L. casei 01 plus purple-rice drinks. PMID:24615387

Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chaikham, Pittaya; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Van de Wiele, Tom; Wirjantoro, Tri Indrarini

2014-06-01

136

The administration of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 exerts an immunomodulatory effect against a breast tumour in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to probiotics specially analysed from preclinical models, mostly murine. Here, the effect of milk fermented by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, on a murine breast cancer model was analysed. Mice were fed with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei or unfermented milk before and after tumour injection. Rate of tumour development, cytokines in serum, IgA, CD4, CD8, F4/80 and cytokines positive cells in mammary glands were determined. Microvasculature in the tumour tissues was monitored. The effect of fermented milk administration after tumour injection was also evaluated. It was observed that probiotic administration delayed or blocked tumour development. This effect was associated to modulation of the immune response triggered by the tumour. The area occupied by blood vessels decreased in the tumours from mice given fermented milk which agrees with their small tumours, and fewer side effects. Finally, it was observed that probiotic administration after tumour detection was also beneficial to delay the tumour growth. In conclusion, we showed in this study the potential of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL431 to stimulate the immune response against this breast tumour, avoiding or delaying its growth when it was preventively administrated and also when the administration started after tumour cells injection. PMID:24646876

Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de Leblanc, Alejandra

2014-06-01

137

Mechanism of Folate Transport in Lactobacillus casei: Evidence for a Component Shared with the Thiamine and Biotin Transport Systems  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei cells have been shown previously to utilize two separate binding proteins for the transport of folate and thiamine. Folate transport, however, was found to be strongly inhibited by thiamine in spite of the fact that the folate-binding protein has no measurable affinity for thiamine. This inhibition, which did not fluctuate with intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, occurred only in cells containing functional transport systems for both vitamins and was noncompetitive with folate but competitive with respect to the level of folate-binding protein. Folate uptake in cells containing optimally induced transport systems for both vitamins was inhibited by thiamine (1 to 10 ?M) to a maximum of 45%; the latter value increased to 77% in cells that contained a progressively diminished folate transport system and a normal thiamine system. Cells preloaded with thiamine could transport folate at a normal rate, indicating that the inhibition resulted from the entry of thiamine rather than from its presence in the cell. In a similar fashion, folate (1 to 10 ?M) did not interfere with the binding of thiamine to its transport protein, but inhibited thiamine transport (to a maximum of 25%). Competition also extended to biotin, whose transport was strongly inhibited (58% and 73%, respectively) by the simultaneous uptake of either folate or thiamine; biotin, however, had only a minimal effect on either folate or thiamine transport. The nicotinate transport system was unaffected by co-transport with folate, thiamine, or biotin. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the folate, thiamine, and biotin transport systems of L. casei each function via a specific binding protein, and that they require, in addition, a common component present in limiting amounts per cell. The latter may be a protein required for the coupling of energy to these transport processes.

Henderson, Gary B.; Zevely, Edward M.; Huennekens, F. M.

1979-01-01

138

The D-Alanyl carrier protein in Lactobacillus casei: cloning, sequencing, and expression of dltC.  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of D-alanine into membrane-associated D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei requires the 56-kDa D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and the 8.9-kDa D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). To identify and isolate the gene encoding Dcp, we have cloned and sequenced a 4.3-kb chromosomal fragment that contains dcl (dltA). In addition to this gene, the fragment contains three other genes, dltB, d1tC, and a partial dltD gene. dltC (246 nucleotides) was subcloned from this region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The product was identified as apo-Dcp lacking the N-terminal methionine (8,787.9 Da). The in vitro conversion of the recombinant apo-Dcp to holo-Dcp by recombinant E. coli holo-ACP synthase provided Dcp which accepts activated D-alanine in the reaction catalyzed by Bcl. The recombinant D-alanyl-Dcp was functionally identical to native D-alanyl-Dcp in the incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid. L. casei Dcp is 46% identical to the putative product of dltC in the Bacillus subtilis dlt operon (M. Perego, P. Glaser, A. Minutello, M. A. Strauch, K. Leopold, and W. Fischer, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15598-15606, 1995), and therefore, this gene also encodes Dcp. Comparisons of the primary sequences and predicted secondary structures of the L. casei and B. subtilis Dcps with that of the E. coli acyl carrier protein (ACP) were undertaken together with homology modeling to identify the functional determinants of the donor and acceptor specificities of Dcp. In the region of the phospho-pantetheine attachment site, significant similarity between Dcps and ACPs was observed. This similarity may account for the relaxed acceptor specificity of the Dcps and ACPs in the ligation Of D-alanine catalyzed by Dcl. In contrast, two Dcp consensus sequences, KXXVLDXLA and DXVKXNXD, share little identity with the rest of the ACP family and, thus, may determine the donor specificity of D-alanyl-Dcp in the D-alanylation of membrane-associated D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid.

Debabov, D V; Heaton, M P; Zhang, Q; Stewart, K D; Lambalot, R H; Neuhaus, F C

1996-01-01

139

Construction of upp deletion mutant strains of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis based on counterselective system using temperature-sensitive plasmid.  

PubMed

Integration plasmids are often used in constructing chromosomal mutations, as it enables the alternation of genes at any location by integration or replacement. Food-grade integration vectors can integrate into the host genome without introducing any selectable markers or residual bases, and the recombination often happens in non-coding region. In this study we used the temperature-sensitive pWV01 replicon to construct 2 chloramphenicol-resistant integration plasmids (pGBHC32-upp) containing the uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (upp) gene as a counterselective marker for Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) ATCC393 and Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) MG1363. We then ligated the designed homologous arms to the pGBHC32-upp plasmids to allow their integration to the bacterial chromosome, and selected upp deletion mutants of L. casei ATCC393 and L. lactis MG1363 in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Analysis of genetic stability, growth curve, carbon utilization and scanning electronic microscopy showed that, except for 5-FU resistance, there were no significant differences between the wild type and mutant lactic acid bacteria. The integration system and the upp deletion strains could be used in the insertion or deletion of genes at any location of the chromosome of both L. casei ATCC 393 and L. lactis MG1363, and the homologous recombination would not introduce any selectable markers or residual bases. These mutant strains can be further investigated for heterologous protein expression and construction of a live mucosal vaccine carrier. PMID:24798148

Song, Li; Cui, Hongyu; Tang, Lijie; Qiao, Xinyuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Li, Yijing

2014-07-01

140

Recombinant porcine rotavirus VP4 and VP4-LTB expressed in Lactobacillus casei induced mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine rotavirus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the swine industry necessitating the development of effective vaccines for the prevention of infection. Immune responses associated with protection are primarily mucosal in nature and induction of mucosal immunity is important for preventing porcine rotavirus infection. Results Lactobacillus casei expressing the major protective antigen VP4 of porcine rotavirus (pPG612.1-VP4) or VP4-LTB (heat-labile toxin B subunit from Echerichia coli) (pPG612.1-VP4-LTB) fusion protein was used to immunize mice orally. The expression of recombinant pPG612.1-VP4 and pPG612.1-VP4-LTB was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis and surface-displayed expression on L. casei was verified by immunofluorescence. Mice orally immunized with recombinant protein-expressing L. casei produced high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA. The IgA titters from mice immunized with pPG612.1-VP4-LTB were higher than titters from pPG612.1-VP4-immunized mice. The induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on RV infection. Conclusion These results demonstrated that VP4 administered in the context of an L. casei expression system is an effective method for stimulating mucosal immunity and that LTB served to further stimulate mucosal immunity suggesting that this strategy can be adapted for use in pigs.

2009-01-01

141

Marked Acceleration of Atherosclerosis following Lactobacillus casei induced Coronary Arteritis in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate if Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced Kawasaki Disease (KD) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Method and Resuslts Apoe?/? or Ldlr?/? mice were injected with LCWE (KD mice) or PBS, fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinuses (AS), arch (AC) and whole aorta were assessed. KD mice had larger, more complex aortic lesions with abundant collagen, and both extracellular and intracellular lipid and foam cells, compared to lesions in control mice despite similar cholesterol levels. Both Apoe?/? KD and Ldlr?/? KD mice showed dramatic acceleration in atherosclerosis vs. controls, with increases in en face aortic atherosclerosis and plaque size in both the AS and AC plaques. Accelerated atherosclerosis was associated with increased circulating IL-12p40, IFN-?, TNF-?, and increased macrophage, DC, and T cell recruitment in lesions. Furthermore, daily injections of the IL-1Ra, which inhibits LCWE induced KD vasculitis, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results suggest an important pathophysiologic link between coronary arteritis/vasculitis in the KD mouse model and subsequent atherosclerotic acceleration, supporting the concept that a similar relation may also be present in KD patients. These results also suggest that KD in childhood may predispose to accelerated and early atherosclerosis as adults.

Chen, Shuang; Lee, Young Ho; Crother, Timothy R.; Fishbein, Michael; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yilmaz, Atilla; Shimada, Kenichi; Schulte, Danica J; Lehman, Thomas J.A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Arditi, Moshe

2012-01-01

142

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues  

SciTech Connect

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. The authors propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition.

Childs, W.C. 3d.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

1985-06-01

143

Dysregulated Circulating Dendritic Cell Function in Ulcerative Colitis Is Partially Restored by Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota  

PubMed Central

Background. Dendritic cells regulate immune responses to microbial products and play a key role in ulcerative colitis (UC) pathology. We determined the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on human DC from healthy controls and active UC patients. Methods. Human blood DC from healthy controls (control-DC) and UC patients (UC-DC) were conditioned with heat-killed LcS and used to stimulate allogeneic T cells in a 5-day mixed leucocyte reaction. Results. UC-DC displayed a reduced stimulatory capacity for T cells (P < 0.05) and enhanced expression of skin-homing markers CLA and CCR4 on stimulated T cells (P < 0.05) that were negative for gut-homing marker ?7. LcS treatment restored the stimulatory capacity of UC-DC, reflecting that of control-DC. LcS treatment conditioned control-DC to induce CLA on T cells in conjunction with ?7, generating a multihoming profile, but had no effects on UC-DC. Finally, LcS treatment enhanced DC ability to induce TGF? production by T cells in controls but not UC patients. Conclusions. We demonstrate a systemic, dysregulated DC function in UC that may account for the propensity of UC patients to develop cutaneous manifestations. LcS has multifunctional immunoregulatory activities depending on the inflammatory state; therapeutic effects reported in UC may be due to promotion of homeostasis.

Mann, Elizabeth R.; You, Jialu; Horneffer-van der Sluis, Verena; Omar Al-Hassi, Hafid; Landy, Jon; Peake, Simon T.; Thomas, Linda V.; Tee, Cheng T.; Hart, Ailsa L.; Knight, Stella C.

2013-01-01

144

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues.  

PubMed Central

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-[14C]alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. We propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition.

Childs, W C; Taron, D J; Neuhaus, F C

1985-01-01

145

[Elimination from the digestive tract of a "gnotoxenic" child of a "Lactobacillus casei" strain, isolated from a commercial preparation: antagonistic effect of an "Escherichia coli" strain of human origin, demonstrated in "gnotoxenic" mice (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A strain of Lactobacillus casei from a pharmaceutical preparation became established in the digestive tract of an axenic child. It was eliminated by the first bacteria occurring after inoculation of the child's digestive tract with a human flora, before the child was taken out of the isolator. Using "gnotoxenic" mice, we found that the elimination of L. casei was due to a bactericidal effect of the Escherichia coli of human origin, within the digestive tract. PMID:828463

Hudault, S; Ducluzeau, R; Dubos, F; Raibaud, P; Ghnassia, J C; Griscelli, C

1976-07-01

146

Purification, crystallization and room-temperature X-ray diffraction of inositol dehydrogenase LcIDH2 from Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei BL23 contains two genes, iolG1 and iolG2, homologous with inositol dehydrogenase encoding genes from many bacteria. Inositol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of inositol with concomitant reduction of NAD(+). The protein encoded by iolG2, LcIDH2, has been purified to homogeneity, crystallized and cryoprotected for diffraction at 77?K. The crystals had a high mosaicity and poor processing statistics. Subsequent diffraction measurements were performed without cryoprotectant at room temperature. These crystals were radiation-resistant and a full diffraction data set was collected at room temperature to 1.6?Å resolution. PMID:25005103

Bertwistle, Drew; Vogt, Linda; Aamudalapalli, Hari Babu; Palmer, David R J; Sanders, David A R

2014-07-01

147

Antimetastatic effect of Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LC 9018) on a highly metastatic variant of B16 melanoma in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LC 9018) on a highly metastatic variant of B16 melanoma, B16-BL6, was determined in C57BL\\/6 mice. Intralesional (i.l.) injection of LC 9018 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival after s.c. inoculation of B16-BL6 into C57BL\\/6 mice. Injection of LC 9018 i.v. protected the mice against pulmonary metastasis after i.v. inoculation of B16-BL6. Injection

Takeshi Matsuzaki; Teruo Yokokura; Ichiro Azuma

1987-01-01

148

A Mixture of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus lactis, and Paenibacillus polymyxa Reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Finishing Feedlot Cattle.  

PubMed

A direct-fed microbial (DFM) containing Paenibacillus polymyxa, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus lactis was fed to cattle (n = 120) to determine impacts on shedding and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces. Cattle were individually penned and fed diets containing 0 (control), 4 × 10(7) CFU (DFM-4), 8 × 10(7) CFU (DFM-8), or 1.2 × 10(8) CFU (DFM-12) lactobacilli per kg of dietary dry matter over 84-day fall-winter growing and 140-day spring-summer finishing periods. Fecal grab samples were collected from cattle at 28-day intervals, E. coli O157:H7 was detected by immunomagnetic separation, and isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. During the growing period, feces negative for E. coli O157 from each dietary treatment were inoculated with 10(5) CFU/g nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and were incubated at 4 and 22(u) C for 11 weeks. Fecal pH and fecal dry matter were measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7 and weekly thereafter, with E. coli O157:H7 enumerated through dilution plating. Treatment with DFMs did not affect survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces or fecal pH (P > 0.05). Only one steer was positive for E. coli O157:H7 during the growing period, but during the finishing period, DFM-8 and DFM-12 reduced the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces (P < 0.05). Feeding DFMs also reduced the frequency of individual steers shedding E. coli O157:H7 during finishing (P < 0.05), with control steers shedding E. coli O157:H7 up to four times, whereas DFM-12 steers shed E. coli O157:H7 a maximum of twice. Treatment with DFMs influenced pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles; steers that were fed DFM-8 and DFM-12 shed more diverse subtypes of E. coli O157:H7 than did control or DFM-4 steers. Because a companion study found linear improvement in performance with increasing dosage of DFMs in the first 28 days of the growing period, targeted use of DFM-12 during this time and for the final 1 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter may optimize performance and reduce E. coli O157:H7 while minimizing feed costs. PMID:24780327

Stanford, Kim; Bach, Susan; Baah, John; McAllister, Tim

2014-05-01

149

A pilot study on the effect of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on intestinal microbiota parameters in Chinese subjects of different age.  

PubMed

Ageing of the population is an imminent global problem. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) was isolated from Inner Mongolian fermented milk, koumiss. LcZ possesses numerous probiotic properties in in vitro tests and in animal models. However, it has never been tested in any human trial. In the current study, the impact of oral consumption of LcZ on different age groups was tested. Chinese subjects, including 10 young, 7 middle-aged and 7 elderly volunteers (with mean age of 24.3, 47.6 and 64.7, respectively), were recruited. Each subject took 10.6 log10 cfu LcZ daily for a continuous period of 28 days. Several parameters, including the amounts of LcZ and four selected groups of bacteria, change of bacterial diversity, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and total bile acids (TBA), were monitored in faecal samples collected from the subjects before starting, during and after stopping oral LcZ consumption. The consumption of LcZ exhibited beneficial effects to the subjects by modulating faecal microbiota in a temporal manner with a prolonged elevation of SCFA and reduction of TBA. The potentially harmful Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera were suppressed by the probiotic administration. Furthermore, a moderately divergent response was observed in the indigenous gut populations of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides fragilis group in different age subjects. Taken together, the current study has provided proof on the positive effect of probiotic consumption and crucial insights into the design and application of probiotic-based products to users of different age segments. PMID:24854958

Kwok, L Y; Wang, L; Zhang, J; Guo, Z; Zhang, H

2014-09-01

150

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: D-alanyl-lipophilic compounds as intermediates.  

PubMed Central

D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains a poly(glycerol phosphate) moiety that is selectively acylated with D-alanine ester residues. To characterize further the mechanism of D-alanine substitution, intermediates were sought that participate in the assembly of this LTA. From the incorporation system utilizing either toluene-treated cells or a combination of membrane fragments and supernatant fraction, a series of membrane-associated D-[14C]alanyl-lipophilic compounds was found. The assay of these compounds depended on their extractability into monophasic chloroform-methanol-water (0.8:3.2:1.0, vol/vol/vol) and subsequent partitioning into chloroform. Four lines of evidence suggested that the D-alanyl-lipophilic compounds are intermediates in the synthesis of D-alanyl-LTA. First, partial degradation of the poly(glycerol phosphate) moiety of D-alanyl-LTA by phosphodiesterase II/phosphatase from Aspergillus niger generated a series of D-alanyl-lipophilic compounds similar to those extracted from the toluene-treated cells during the incorporation of D-alanine. Second, enzymatic degradation of the D-alanyl-lipophilic compounds by the above procedure gave D-alanyl-glycerol, the same degradation product obtained from D-alanyl-LTA. Third, the incorporation of D-alanine into these compounds required the same components as the incorporation of D-alanine into membrane-associated D-alanyl-LTA. Fourth, the phosphate-induced loss of D-[14C]alanine-labeled lipophilic compounds could be correlated with the stimulation of phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the presence of excess phosphate. We interpreted these experiments to indicate that the D-alanyl-lipophilic compounds are D-alanyl-LTA with short polymer chains and are most likely intermediates in the assembly of the completed polymer, D-alanyl-LTA. Images

Brautigan, V M; Childs, W C; Neuhaus, F C

1981-01-01

151

Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers for Amplification of Priming Glycosyltransferase Genes of the Exopolysaccharide Locus in Strains of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

A primer design strategy named CODEHOP (consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer) for amplification of distantly related sequences was used to detect the priming glycosyltransferase (GT) gene in strains of the Lactobacillus casei group. Each hybrid primer consisted of a short 3? degenerate core based on four highly conserved amino acids and a longer 5? consensus clamp region based on six sequences of the priming GT gene products from exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria. The hybrid primers were used to detect the priming GT gene of 44 commercial isolates and reference strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. casei, Lactobacillus zeae, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The priming GT gene was detected in the genome of both non-EPS-producing (EPS?) and EPS-producing (EPS+) strains of L. rhamnosus. The sequences of the cloned PCR products were similar to those of the priming GT gene of various gram-negative and gram-positive EPS+ bacteria. Specific primers designed from the L. rhamnosus RW-9595M GT gene were used to sequence the end of the priming GT gene in selected EPS+ strains of L. rhamnosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lactobacillus spp. form a distinctive group apart from other lactic acid bacteria for which GT genes have been characterized to date. Moreover, the sequences show a divergence existing among strains of L. rhamnosus with respect to the terminal region of the priming GT gene. Thus, the PCR approach with consensus-degenerate hybrid primers designed with CODEHOP is a practical approach for the detection of similar genes containing conserved motifs in different bacterial genomes.

Provencher, Cathy; LaPointe, Gisele; Sirois, Stephane; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Roy, Denis

2003-01-01

152

Induction of Immune Responses in Mice after Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus casei Strains Expressing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41 Fimbrial Protein?  

PubMed Central

In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41 infections, we have developed a surface antigen display system using poly-?-glutamate synthetase A (PgsA) as an anchoring matrix. The recombinant fusion proteins comprised of PgsA and fimbrial protein of F41 were stably expressed in Lactobacillus casei 525. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Oral inoculation of recombinant L. casei 525 into specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice resulted in significant mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers that remained elevated for >16 weeks. High levels of IgG responses in sera specific for F41 fimbriae were also induced, with prominent IgG1 titers as well as IgG2a and IgG2b titers. The helper T-cell (Th) response was Th2-cell dominant, as evidenced by increased mucosal and systemic interleukin-4-producing T cells and a concomitant elevation of serum IgG1 antibody responses. More than 80% of the mice were protected against challenge with a 2 × 104-fold 50% lethal dose of standard-type F41 (C83919). The induced antibodies were important for eliciting a protective immune response against F41 infection. These results indicated that the use of recombinant L. casei 525 could be a valuable strategy for future vaccine development for ETEC.

Liu, Jian-Kui; Hou, Xi-Lin; Wei, Chun-Hua; Yu, Li-Yun; He, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Gui-Hua; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong

2009-01-01

153

Induction of immune responses in mice after oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei strains expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41 fimbrial protein.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41 infections, we have developed a surface antigen display system using poly-gamma-glutamate synthetase A (PgsA) as an anchoring matrix. The recombinant fusion proteins comprised of PgsA and fimbrial protein of F41 were stably expressed in Lactobacillus casei 525. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Oral inoculation of recombinant L. casei 525 into specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice resulted in significant mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers that remained elevated for >16 weeks. High levels of IgG responses in sera specific for F41 fimbriae were also induced, with prominent IgG1 titers as well as IgG2a and IgG2b titers. The helper T-cell (Th) response was Th2-cell dominant, as evidenced by increased mucosal and systemic interleukin-4-producing T cells and a concomitant elevation of serum IgG1 antibody responses. More than 80% of the mice were protected against challenge with a 2 x 10(4)-fold 50% lethal dose of standard-type F41 (C83919). The induced antibodies were important for eliciting a protective immune response against F41 infection. These results indicated that the use of recombinant L. casei 525 could be a valuable strategy for future vaccine development for ETEC. PMID:19447955

Liu, Jian-Kui; Hou, Xi-Lin; Wei, Chun-Hua; Yu, Li-Yun; He, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Gui-Hua; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong

2009-07-01

154

Haemagglutination induced by Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin (FHA) is inhibited by antibodies produced against FHA(430-873) fragment expressed in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin (FHA) is an important virulence factor from Bordetella pertussis related to the adhesion and spread of the bacteria through the respiratory tract. Three distinct domains have been characterized in mature FHA, and among them, the FHA(442-863) fragment was suggested to be responsible for the heparin-binding activity. In this study, we cloned the gene encoding the HEP fragment (FHA(430-873)) in a Lactobacillus casei-inducible expression vector based on the lactose operon. The recombinant bacteria, transformed with the resulting construct (L. casei-HEP), were able to express the heterologous protein depending on the sugar added to the culture. Subcutaneous inoculation of L. casei-HEP in Balb/C mice, using the cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant, induced systemic anti-HEP antibodies that were able to inhibit in vitro erythrocyte haemagglutination induced by FHA. This is the first example of a B. pertussis antigen produced in lactic acid bacteria and opens new perspectives for alternative vaccine strategies against whooping cough. PMID:17106803

Colombi, Débora; Oliveira, Maria L S; Campos, Ivana B; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martinez, Gaspar; Ho, Paulo L

2006-12-01

155

Regulation of folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthesis in bacteria: in vivo and in vitro synthesis of pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamates by Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus faecalis.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus faecalis accumulated labeled folic acid and metabolized this compound to poly-gamma-glutamates of chain lengths of up to 11 and 5, respectively. Octa- and nonaglutamates predominated in L. casei, and tetraglutamates predominated in S. faecalis. The most effective monoglutamate substrates for the L. casei and S. faecalis folylpoly-gamma-glutamate (folylpolyglutamate) synthetases were methylene- and formyltetrahydrofolate, respectively. Methylenetetrahydropteroylpoly-gamma-glutamates were the preferred poly-gamma-glutamate substrates for both enzymes and, in each case, the highest activity was observed with the diglutamate substrate. The final distribution of folylpolyglutamates in these bacteria appeared to reflect the ability of folates with various glutamate chain lengths to act as substrates for the bacterial folylpolyglutamate synthetases. The proportions of individual folylpolyglutamates were markedly affected by culturing the bacteria in medium containing adenine, whereas thymine was without effect. Adenine did not affect the level of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in either organism but caused a large increase in the proportion of intracellular folates containing one-carbon units at the oxidation level of formate, folates which are substrates for enzymes involved in purine biosynthesis. The folates with shorter glutamate chain lengths in bacteria cultured in the presence of adenine resulted from primary regulation of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, regulation which caused an accumulation of formyltetrahydropteroyl-poly-gamma-glutamates (folate derivatives that are ineffective substrates for folylpolyglutamate synthetases), and did not result from regulation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase per se.

Shane, B; Bognar, A L; Goldfarb, R D; LeBowitz, J H

1983-01-01

156

Lactobacillus casei and bifidobacterium lactis supplementation reduces tissue damage of intestinal mucosa and liver after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid treatment in mice.  

PubMed

Probiotics (PB) are living microorganisms that act as a commensal population in normal intestines and confer numerous beneficial effects on the host. The introduction of probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prolongs remission. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal and hepatic effects of PB supplementation in an experimental IBD model in mice induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). In the first step of the experimental procedure, CD-1 male mice, 5 to 6 weeks old, were randomly divided into 3 groups and inoculated intrarectally with, respectively, saline, alcohol, or TNBS to assess the experimental IBD model. In the second step, mice treated, or not, with TNBS inoculation, were treated with PB (Lactobacillus Casei, Bifidobacterum Lactis) for 1, 2 or 3 weeks, on a daily basis. Large bowel (colon and rectum) and liver were processed for histological alterations, according to a scoring system. Large bowel was also assessed for apoptosis by TUNEL assay. TNBS induced, as expected, severe damage and inflammation in the large bowel, including nuclear alterations and apoptosis, and, to a lesser extent, to the liver. Administration of PB determined significant reduction of both histological alterations and apoptosis. PB administration in advance protects from inflammation. In conclusion, supplementation with Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterum lactis PB is able to ameliorate the colitis by reversing the histological changes caused by TNBS in mice. Experimentation in human subjects in needed to prove their efficacy in reducing histological alterations that may be present in subjects with IBD. PMID:25001657

Bellavia, M; Rappa, F; Lo Bello, M; Brecchia, G; Tomasello, G; Leone, A; Spatola, G; Uzzo, M L; Bonaventura, G; David, S; Damiani, P; Hajj Hussein, I; Zeenny, M N; Jurjus, A; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Cocchi, M; Zummo, G; Farina, F; Gerbino, A; Cappello, F; Traina, G

2014-01-01

157

Influence of pH and fluoride on properties of an oral strain of Lactobacillus casei grown in continuous culture.  

PubMed Central

A freshly isolated oral strain, Lactobacillus casei RB1014, was grown in continuous culture to compare the effects of pH and fluoride on growth and metabolism. The cells were grown at pH 7.0 to 3.2 in the absence of fluoride and from pH 7.0 to 5.4 with 20 mM NaF. Cell numbers varied from 3 X 10(9) to 30 X 10(9)/ml on blood agar during alterations in the growth pH from 7.0 to 4.27. Only when the culture was stressed by lowering the pH to 3.2 were cell numbers drastically reduced. Cells growing at pH 7.0 without fluoride were unable to grow when plated on fluoride agar (10.5 mM) at pH 5.5; however, when the growth pH was allowed to decrease to 4.94, cells grew on the fluoride plates in numbers equal to those growing on blood agar. This fluoride tolerance trait appeared rapidly once pH control was removed and was lost when the culture was returned to pH 7.0. The addition of 20 mM NaF to the culture medium did not adversely affect growth, provided that the pH was maintained at 6.0 or above; cells tolerant to 10.5 and 16 mM NaF appeared on pH 5.5 plates during this phase. In cells removed from the chemostat throughout the experiment and incubated at the pH of growth in a pH stat, glycolytic activity was optimum at pH 5.5 in the absence of NaF. Fluoride stimulated glycolytic activity by cells incubated at pH 7.0 and by cells growing with 20 mM NaF, provided that the pH of growth remained at or above 6.0. A more detailed examination of the adaptation to fluoride tolerance during shifts to acidic pH values revealed that cells capable of growth on acidic fluoride agar plates appeared within 2 h of the start of the fall in pH of the chemostat culture. Estimation of the intracellular pH during the period of the initial pH fall revealed that the intracellular pH was identical to the extracellular pH (i.e., no pH gradient [delta pH]), indicating that fluoride would not be transported into the cells to inhibit metabolism. However, once the pH of the medium was stabilized, delta pHs were generated, with the delta pH increasing as the pH declined. The inhibition of glycolysis by fluoride increased in proportion to the delta pH. Cells grown at pH 5.5 generated larger delta pHs than did cells grown at pH 7.0, although the values were normally small (approximately 0.9 U). The data suggest that the inherent fluoride tolerance of L. casei RB1014 was associated with relatively small delta pHs.

Hamilton, I R; Boyar, R M; Bowden, G H

1985-01-01

158

Lactobacillus casei Ferments the N-Acetylglucosamine Moiety of Fucosyl-?-1,3-N-Acetylglucosamine and Excretes l-Fucose  

PubMed Central

We have previously characterized from Lactobacillus casei BL23 three ?-l-fucosidases, AlfA, AlfB, and AlfC, which hydrolyze in vitro natural fucosyl-oligosaccharides. In this work, we have shown that L. casei is able to grow in the presence of fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine (Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc) as a carbon source. Interestingly, L. casei excretes the l-fucose moiety during growth on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, indicating that only the N-acetylglucosamine moiety is being metabolized. Analysis of the genomic sequence of L. casei BL23 shows that downstream from alfB, which encodes the ?-l-fucosidase AlfB, a gene, alfR, that encodes a transcriptional regulator is present. Divergently from alfB, three genes, alfEFG, that encode proteins with homology to the enzyme IIAB (EIIAB), EIIC, and EIID components of a mannose-class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) are present. Inactivation of either alfB or alfF abolishes the growth of L. casei on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc. This proves that AlfB is involved in Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc metabolism and that the transporter encoded by alfEFG participates in the uptake of this disaccharide. A mutation in the PTS general component enzyme I does not eliminate the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, suggesting that the transport via the PTS encoded by alfEFG is not coupled to phosphorylation of the disaccharide. Transcriptional analysis with alfR and ccpA mutants shows that the two gene clusters alfBR and alfEFG are regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor AlfR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This work reports for the first time the characterization of the physiological role of an ?-l-fucosidase in lactic acid bacteria and the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc as a carbon source for bacteria.

Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Rubio-del-Campo, Antonio

2012-01-01

159

Recombinant fusion protein of cholera toxin B subunit with YVAD secreted by Lactobacillus casei inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1 beta secretion in Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus species are used as bacterial vectors to deliver functional peptides to the intestine because they are delivered live to the intestine, colonize the mucosal surface, and continue to produce the desired protein. Previously, we generated a recombinant Lactobacillus casei secreting the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which can translocate into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) through GM1 ganglioside. Recombinant fusion proteins of CTB with functional peptides have been used as carriers for the delivery of these peptides to IECs because of the high cell permeation capacity of recombinant CTB (rCTB). However, there have been no reports of rCTB fused with peptides expressed or secreted by Lactobacillus species. In this study, we constructed L. casei secreting a recombinant fusion protein of CTB with YVAD (rCTB–YVAD). YVAD is a tetrapeptide (tyrosine–valine–alanine–aspartic acid) that specifically inhibits caspase-1, which catalyzes the production of interleukin (IL)-1?, an inflammatory cytokine, from its inactive precursor. Here, we examined whether rCTB–YVAD secreted by L. casei binds to GM1 ganglioside and inhibits caspase-1 activation in Caco-2 cells used as a model of IECs. Results We constructed the rCTB–YVAD secretion vector pSCTB–YVAD by modifying the rCTB secretion vector pSCTB. L. casei secreting rCTB–YVAD was generated by transformation with pSCTB–YVAD. Both the culture supernatant of pSCTB–YVAD-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB–YVAD bound to GM1 ganglioside, as did the culture supernatant of pSCTB-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB. Interestingly, although both purified rCTB–YVAD and rCTB translocated into Caco-2 cells, regardless of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), only purified rCTB–YVAD but not rCTB inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1? secretion in Caco-2 cells, without affecting cell viability. Conclusions The rCTB protein fused to a functional peptide secreted by L. casei can bind to GM1 ganglioside, like rCTB, and recombinant YVAD secreted by L. casei may exert anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. Therefore, rCTB secreted by L. casei has potential utility as a vector for the delivery of YVAD to IECs.

2014-01-01

160

Proteomics Analysis of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a New Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Traditional Home-made Koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China*  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei Zhang, isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, was considered as a new probiotic bacterium by probiotic selection tests. We carried out a proteomics study to identify and characterize proteins expressed by L. casei Zhang in the exponential phase and stationary phase. Cytosolic proteins of the strain cultivated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using pH 4–7 linear gradients. The number of protein spots quantified from the gels was 487 ± 21 (exponential phase) and 494 ± 13 (stationary phase) among which a total of 131 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and/or MALDI-TOF/TOF according to significant growth phase-related differences or high expression intensity proteins. Accompanied by the cluster of orthologous groups (COG), codon adaptation index (CAI), and GRAVY value analysis, the study provided a very first insight into the profile of protein expression as a reference map of L. casei. Forty-seven spots were also found in the study that showed statistically significant differences between exponential phase and stationary phase. Thirty-three of the spots increased at least 2.5-fold in the stationary phase in comparison with the exponential phase, including 19 protein spots (e.g. Hsp20, DnaK, GroEL, LuxS, pyruvate kinase, and GalU) whose intensity up-shifted above 3.0-fold. Transcriptional profiles were conducted to confirm several important differentially expressed proteins by using real time quantitative PCR. The analysis suggests that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, indicating that these proteins might play a potential important role for the adaptation to the surroundings, especially the accumulation of lactic acid in the course of growth, and the physiological processes in bacteria cell.

Wu, Rina; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Dongliang; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Yan; Sun, Zhihong; Wu, Junrui; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

2009-01-01

161

Resistance of Lactobacillus casei in plastic-composite-support biofilm reactors during liquid membrane extraction and optimization of the lactic acid extraction system.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentations were performed with plastic-composite-support (PCS) disks in solvent-saturated media with Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443). The PCS disks contained 50% (w/w) polypropylene, 35% (w/w) ground soybean hulls, 5% (w/w) yeast extract, 5% (w/w) soybean flour, and 5% (w/w) bovine albumin. Bioassays were performed by growing L. casei in solvent-saturated media after soaking the PCS disks. Eighteen different solvent and carrier combinations were evaluated. Overall, L. casei biofilm fermentation demonstrated the same lactic acid production in solvent-saturated medium as suspended cells in medium without solvents (control). To evaluate PCS solvent-detoxifying properties, two bioassays were developed. When solvent-saturated medium in consecutive equal volumes (10 mL then 10 mL) was exposed to PCS, both media demonstrated lactic acid fermentation equal to the control. However, when solvent-saturated medium with two consecutive unequal volumes (10 mL then 90 mL) was exposed to PCS, some degree of toxicity was observed. Furthermore, iso-octane, tributylphosphate (TBP), and Span 80 were optimized for recovery as 91%, 5%, and 4% (v/v), respectively, with a 1:1 ratio of 1.2 M Na(2)CO(3) stripping solution. Also, recovery by emulsion liquid extraction in the hollow-fiber contactor was minimal due to low recovery at pH 5.0 and incompatibility of the solvent and hollow-fiber material. These results suggest that PCS biofilm reactors can benefit lactic acid fermentation by eliminating the toxic effect from solvent leakage into the fermentation medium from liquid-liquid extractive integrated fermentations. PMID:12889015

Demirci, Ali; Cotton, Julie C; Pometto, Anthony L; Harkins, Kristi R; Hinz, Paul N

2003-09-30

162

Display of ?-Amylase on the Surface of Lactobacillus casei Cells by Use of the PgsA Anchor Protein, and Production of Lactic Acid from Starch  

PubMed Central

We developed a new cell surface engineering system based on the PgsA anchor protein from Bacillus subtilis. In this system, the N terminus of the target protein was fused to the PgsA protein and the resulting fusion protein was expressed on the cell surface. Using this new system, we constructed a novel starch-degrading strain of Lactobacillus casei by genetically displaying ?-amylase from the Streptococcus bovis strain 148 with a FLAG peptide tag (AmyAF). Localization of the PgsA-AmyA-FLAG fusion protein on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. The lactic acid bacteria which displayed AmyAF showed significantly elevated hydrolytic activity toward soluble starch. By fermentation using AmyAF-displaying L. casei cells, 50 g/liter of soluble starch was reduced to 13.7 g/liter, and 21.8 g/liter of lactic acid was produced within about 24 h. The yield in terms of grams of lactic acid produced per gram of carbohydrate utilized was 0.60 g per g of carbohydrate consumed at 24 h. Since AmyA was immobilized on the cells, cells were recovered after fermentation and used repeatedly. During repeated utilization of cells, the lactic acid yield was improved to 0.81 g per g of carbohydrate consumed at 72 h. These results indicate that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from soluble starch to lactic acid were carried out by recombinant L. casei cells with cell surface display of AmyA.

Narita, Junya; Okano, Kenji; Kitao, Tomoe; Ishida, Saori; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Sung, Moon-Hee; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

2006-01-01

163

Mucosal Vaccination with Recombinant Lactobacillus casei-Displayed CTA1-Conjugated Consensus Matrix Protein-2 (sM2) Induces Broad Protection against Divergent Influenza Subtypes in BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

To develop a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against pathogenic influenza viruses, we constructed recombinant Lactobacillus casei strains that express conserved matrix protein 2 with (pgsA-CTA1-sM2/L. casei) or without (pgsA-sM2/L. casei) cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) on the surface. The surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by cellular fractionation analyses, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Oral and nasal inoculations of recombinant L. casei into mice resulted in high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA. However, the conjugation of cholera toxin subunit A1 induced more potent mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In a challenge test with 10 MLD50 of A/EM/Korea/W149/06(H5N1), A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird /Korea/W81/2005(H5N2), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005(H7N3), and A/Chicken/Korea/116/2004(H9N2) viruses, the recombinant pgsA-CTA1-sM2/L. casei provided better protection against lethal challenges than pgsA-sM2/L. casei, pgsA/L. casei and PBS in mice. These results indicate that mucosal immunization with recombinant L. casei expressing CTA1-conjugated sM2 protein on its surface is an effective means of eliciting protective immune responses against diverse influenza subtypes.

Chowdhury, Mohammed Y. E.; Li, Rui; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Min-Eun; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Pathinayake, Prabuddha; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Song, Man Ki; Son, Hwa-Young; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Sung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong

2014-01-01

164

Mucosal Vaccination with Recombinant Lactobacillus casei-Displayed CTA1-Conjugated Consensus Matrix Protein-2 (sM2) Induces Broad Protection against Divergent Influenza Subtypes in BALB/c Mice.  

PubMed

To develop a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against pathogenic influenza viruses, we constructed recombinant Lactobacillus casei strains that express conserved matrix protein 2 with (pgsA-CTA1-sM2/L. casei) or without (pgsA-sM2/L. casei) cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) on the surface. The surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by cellular fractionation analyses, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Oral and nasal inoculations of recombinant L. casei into mice resulted in high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA. However, the conjugation of cholera toxin subunit A1 induced more potent mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In a challenge test with 10 MLD50 of A/EM/Korea/W149/06(H5N1), A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird /Korea/W81/2005(H5N2), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005(H7N3), and A/Chicken/Korea/116/2004(H9N2) viruses, the recombinant pgsA-CTA1-sM2/L. casei provided better protection against lethal challenges than pgsA-sM2/L. casei, pgsA/L. casei and PBS in mice. These results indicate that mucosal immunization with recombinant L. casei expressing CTA1-conjugated sM2 protein on its surface is an effective means of eliciting protective immune responses against diverse influenza subtypes. PMID:24714362

Chowdhury, Mohammed Y E; Li, Rui; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Min-Eun; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Pathinayake, Prabuddha; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Song, Man Ki; Son, Hwa-Young; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Sung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong

2014-01-01

165

Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Background At present, available pneumococcal vaccines have failed to eradicate infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Search for effective vaccine continues and some serotype independent pneumococcal proteins are considered as candidates for the design of new vaccines, especially a mucosal vaccine, since pneumococci enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Selection of the appropriate adjuvant is important for mucosal vaccines, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunostimulant properties are promissory candidates. In this work, we assessed the adjuvant effect of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), when nasally administered with a pneumococcal antigen (pneumococcal protective protein A: PppA) for the prevention of pneumococcal infection. Adjuvanticity of both live (LcV) and heat-killed (LcM) was evaluated and humoral and cellular antigen-specific immune response was assessed in mucosal and systemic compartments. The potential mechanisms induced by nasal immunization were discussed. Results Nasal immunization of young mice with PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM induced anti-PppA IgA and IgG antibodies in mucosal and systemic compartments and levels of these specific antibodies remained high even at day 45 after the 3rd Immunization (3rd I). These results were correlated with IL-4 induction by the mixture of antigen plus LcV and LcM. Also, PppA+Lc (V and M) induced stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells involved in the defence against pneumococci. The protection against pneumococcal respiratory challenge at day 30 after the 3rd I showed that PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM immunizations significantly reduced pathogen counts in nasal lavages while prventing their passage into lung and blood. Survival of mice immunized with the co-application of PppA plus LcV and LcM was significantly higher than in mice immunized with PppA alone and control mice when intraperitoneal challenge was performed. No significant differences between the treatments involving LcV and LcM were found. Conclusions Live and heat-killed L. casei enhanced the antigen-specific immune response when administered nasally with a pneumococcal antigen. Considering the potential risk associated with live bacteria, the design of a nasal vaccine based on pneumococcal antigens and heat-killed L. casei emerges as a safe and effective strategy for the prevention of pneumococcal infections and opens new possibilities of application of dead LAB as adjuvants in vaccine formulations against other pathogens.

2011-01-01

166

Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract\\/corn steep liquor\\/glucose medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled

Mi-Young Ha; Si-Wouk Kim; Yong-Woon Lee; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2003-01-01

167

Influence of polysorbate 80 and cyclopropane fatty acid synthase activity on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 at low pH.  

PubMed

Lactic acid is an important industrial chemical commonly produced through microbial fermentation. The efficiency of acid extraction is increased at or below the acid's pKa (pH 3.86), so there is interest in factors that allow for a reduced fermentation pH. We explored the role of cyclopropane synthase (Cfa) and polysorbate (Tween) 80 on acid production and membrane lipid composition in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 at low pH. Cells from wild-type and an ATCC 334 cfa knockout mutant were incubated in APT broth medium containing 3 % glucose plus 0.02 or 0.2 % Tween 80. The cultures were allowed to acidify the medium until it reached a target pH (4.5, 4.0, or 3.8), and then the pH was maintained by automatic addition of NH?OH. Cells were collected at the midpoint of the fermentation for membrane lipid analysis, and media samples were analyzed for lactic and acetic acids when acid production had ceased. There were no significant differences in the quantity of lactic acid produced at different pH values by wild-type or mutant cells grown in APT, but the rate of acid production was reduced as pH declined. APT supplementation with 0.2 % Tween 80 significantly increased the amount of lactic acid produced by wild-type cells at pH 3.8, and the rate of acid production was modestly improved. This effect was not observed with the cfa mutant, which indicated Cfa activity and Tween 80 supplementation were each involved in the significant increase in lactic acid yield observed with wild-type L. casei at pH 3.8. PMID:24370881

Broadbent, J R; Oberg, T S; Hughes, J E; Ward, R E; Brighton, C; Welker, D L; Steele, J L

2014-03-01

168

A unique gene cluster for the utilization of the mucosal and human milk-associated glycans galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

The probiotic Lactobacillus casei catabolizes galacto-N-biose (GNB) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) by using a transport system and metabolic routes different from those of Bifidobacterium. L. casei contains a gene cluster, gnbREFGBCDA, involved in the metabolism of GNB, LNB and also N-acetylgalactosamine. Inactivation of gnbC (EIIC) or ptsI (Enzyme I) of the phosphoenolpyruvate?:?sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) prevented the growth on those three carbohydrates, indicating that they are transported and phosphorylated by the same PTS(Gnb) . Enzyme activities and growth analysis with knockout mutants showed that GnbG (phospho-?-galactosidase) hydrolyses both disaccharides. However, GnbF (N-acetylgalactosamine-6P deacetylase) and GnbE (galactosamine-6P isomerase/deaminase) are involved in GNB but not in LNB fermentation. The utilization of LNB depends on nagA (N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase), showing that the N-acetylhexosamine moieties of GNB and LNB follow different catabolic routes. A lacAB mutant (galactose-6P isomerase) was impaired in GNB and LNB utilization, indicating that their galactose moiety is channelled through the tagatose-6P pathway. Transcriptional analysis showed that the gnb operon is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the transcriptional repressor GnbR, which binds to a 26 bp DNA region containing inverted repeats exhibiting a 2T/2A conserved core. The data represent the first characterization of novel metabolic pathways for human milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate structures in Firmicutes. PMID:24942885

Bidart, Gonzalo N; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

2014-08-01

169

Utilization of D-ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 requires a mannose-type phosphotransferase system and three catabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment D-ribitol (also called D-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates D-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in D-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented D-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a D-ribitol-5-phosphate (D-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a D-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein D-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD(+) to oxidize D-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to D-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to D-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting D-xylulose-5-P is split by D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate D-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as D-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

Bourand, A; Yebra, M J; Boël, G; Mazé, A; Deutscher, J

2013-06-01

170

Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is an important problem in hospitalized patients. The use of probiotics is gaining interest in the scientific community as a potential measure to prevent this complication. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei that is widely available in Canada, in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized study, hospitalized patients were randomly assigned to receive either a lactobacilli-fermented milk or a placebo on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among 89 randomized patients, antibiotic-associated diarrhea occurred in seven of 44 patients (15.9%) in the lactobacilli group and in 16 of 45 patients (35.6%) in the placebo group (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.125 to 0.944; P=0.05). The median hospitalization duration was eight days in the lactobacilli group, compared with 10 days in the placebo group (P=0.09). Overall, the lactobacilli-fermented milk was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: The daily administration of a lactobacilli-fermented milk was safe and effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients.

Beausoleil, Melanie; Fortier, Nadia; Guenette, Stephanie; L'Ecuyer, Amelie; Savoie, Michel; Franco, Martin; Lachaine, Jean; Weiss, Karl

2007-01-01

171

Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 modulate gene expression of subset specific transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese and overweight people.  

PubMed

Probiotics are believed to have interaction with immune cells through sustained effects on gene expression of different cytokines and transcription factors. The present randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial was performed recruiting 75 individuals with BMI 25-35, who were randomly assigned to the following three groups: Group 1 (n = 25) who consumed regular yogurt as part of a low calorie diet [RLCD], group 2 (n = 25) who received probiotic yogurt with a LCD [PLCD] and group 3 (n = 25) who consumed probiotic yogurt without LCD [PWLCD] for 8 week. Participants in PLCD and PWLCD groups received 200 g/day yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium Bb12, and lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) cfu/gr. The expression of the FOXP3, T-bet, GATA3, TNF-?, IFN-?, TGF-?, and ROR-?t in PBMCs genes were assessed, before and after intervention. In three groups, ROR-?t expression was reduced (P = 0.007) and FOXP3 was increased (P < 0.001). The expression of TNF?, TGF?, and GATA3 genes did not change among all groups after intervention. Interestingly, the expression of T-bet gene, which was significantly decreased in PLCD and PWLCD groups (P < 0.001), whereas gene expression of IFN-? decreased in all three groups. Our results suggest that weight loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cell subset specific gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells among overweight and obese individuals. PMID:24019207

Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mofid, Vahid; Hossein zadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Bidad, Katayoon; Najafi, Forouzan; Gheflati, Zahra; Chamari, Maryam; Salehi, Eisa

2013-01-01

172

Lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans: purification, characterization, and crossed antigenicity with lactate dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces viscosus, and Streptococcus sanguis.  

PubMed Central

A cytoplasmic fructose-1,6-diphosphate-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) from Streptococcus mutans OMZ175 was purified to homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The purification consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation of the cytoplasmic fraction, DEAE-Sephacel and Blue-Sepharose CL.6B chromatography, and Sephacryl S200 gel permeation. The catalytic activity of the purified enzyme required the presence of fructose-1,6-diphosphate with a broad optimum between pH 5 and 6.2. The concentration of fructose-1,6-diphosphate required for half-maximal velocity was around 0.02 mM and was affected by the pyruvate concentration. The enzyme seemed to have at least two binding sites for the activator which interact in a cooperative manner. Increasing concentrations of fructose-1,6-diphosphate up to 2 mM enhanced the relative affinity of the enzyme for pyruvate and modified the pyruvate saturation curve from sigmoidal to hyperbolic. The enzyme activity showed also a sigmoidal response to NADH, exhibiting two binding sites for the cofactor with a Hill coefficient of about 1.9. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 150,000 as determined by gel permeation on Sephacryl S200. Monomers (38,000 daltons) and dimers (85,000 daltons) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis; the latter form was dissociated after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and the enzyme could be considered a tetramer. Antibodies obtained against the purified S. mutans OMZ175 LDH cross-reacted with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-dissociated forms of LDHs from different S. mutans serotypes, Streptococcus sanguis OMZ9, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, and Actinomyces viscosus NY 1. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay allowed us to detect a very close relationship between the native states of L-LDHs from S. mutans serotypes and S. sanguis. Cross-reactions were also observed with the LDHs from A. viscosus and L. casei, the latter being the least related. A very weak immunological relationship was obtained between the L-LDH from S. mutans OMZ175 and the D-LDH from Lactobacillus leichmannii, whereas no cross-reaction could be detected with mammal LDHs. Images

Sommer, P; Klein, J P; Scholler, M; Frank, R M

1985-01-01

173

Compound(s) secreted by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota YIT9029 irreversibly and reversibly impair the swimming motility of Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, respectively.  

PubMed

We conducted experiments in order to examine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota YIT9029 (LcS) in vitro and in vivo antagonism of Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella, involves inhibition of the swimming motility of these pathogens. We report the irreversible inhibition of the swimming motility of H. pylori strain 1101 and reversible inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) strain SL1344 by compound(s) secreted by LcS. In H. pylori 1101, irreversible inhibition results in the helical cells being progressively replaced by cells with 'c'-shaped and coccoid morphologies, accompanied by a loss of FlaA and FlaB flagellin expression. In S. Typhimurium SL1344, transient inhibition develops after membrane depolarization and without modification of expression of FliC flagellin. The inhibitory activity of strain LcS against both S. Typhimurium and H. pylori swimming motilities is linked with a small sized, heat-sensitive, and partially trypsin-sensitive, secreted compound(s), and needed the cooperation of the secreted membrane permeabilizing lactic acid metabolite. The inhibition of S. Typhimurium SL1344 swimming motility leads to delayed cell entry into human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells and a strong decrease of cell entry into human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells. PMID:23873784

Le Moal, Vanessa Liévin; Fayol-Messaoudi, Domitille; Servin, Alain L

2013-09-01

174

Assembly of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: mutants deficient in the D-alanyl ester content of this amphiphile  

SciTech Connect

D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 contains a poly(glycerophosphate) moiety that is acylated with D-alanyl ester residues. The physiological function of these residues is not well understood. Five mutant strains of this organism that are deficient in the esters of this amphiphile were isolated and characterized. When compared with the parent, strains AN-1 and AN-4 incorporated less than 10% of D-(/sup 14/C)alanine into LTA, whereas AN-2, AN-3, and AN-5 incorporated 50%. The synthesis of D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA was virtually absent in the first group and was approximately 30% in the second group. The mutant strains synthesized and selected the glycolipid anchor for LTA assembly. In addition, all of the strains synthesized the poly(glycerophosphate) moiety of LTA to the same extent as did the parent or to a greater extent. It was concluded that the membranes from the mutant strains AN-1 and AN-4 are defective for D-alanylation of LTA even though acceptor LTA is present. Mutant strains AN-2 and AN-3 appear to be partially deficient in the amount of the D-alanine-activating enzyme. Aberrant morphology and defective cell separation appear to result from this deficiency in D-alanyl ester content.

Ntamere, A.S.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

1987-04-01

175

Construction of recombinant Lactobacillus casei efficiently surface displayed and secreted porcine parvovirus VP2 protein and comparison of the immune responses induced by oral immunization  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was selected as a bacterial carrier for the development of mucosal vaccine against porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection. The PPV major structural polypeptide VP2 was used as the model parvovirus antigen. Two inducible expression systems, namely pPG611.1 of the cell-surface expression system and pPG612.1 of the secretion expression system based on the xylose operon promoter were used to express the VP2 protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant strains producing VP2 protein in two cellular locations, cell-surface exposed and secreted, was compared to each other by immunizing mice through the intragastric administration. The two types of constructs were able to induce strong specific immune responses against VP2 via intragastric administration and maximum titres of IgA and IgG were attained on days 46 post oral immunization, while the highest antibody levels were obtained with the strain producing the VP2 protein in extracellular milieu. The induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on PPV infection.

Yigang, X U; Yijing, L I

2008-01-01

176

Transport of amino acids in Lactobacillus casei by proton-motive-force-dependent and non-proton-motive-force-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei 393 cells which were energized with glucose (pH 6.0) took up glutamine, asparagine, glutamate, aspartate, leucine, and phenylalanine. Little or no uptake of several essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, arginine, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) was observed. Inhibition studies indicated that there were at least five amino acid carriers, for glutamine, asparagine, glutamate/aspartate, phenylalanine, or branched-chain amino acids. Transport activities had pH optima between 5.5 and 6.0, but all amino acid carriers showed significant activity even at pH 4.0. Leucine and phenylalanine transport decreased markedly when the pH was increased to 7.5. Inhibitors which decreased proton motive force (delta p) nearly eliminated leucine and phenylalanine uptake, and studies with de-energized cells and membrane vesicles showed that an artificial electrical potential (delta psi) of at least -100 mV was needed for rapid uptake. An artificial delta p was unable to drive glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate uptake, and transport of these amino acids was sensitive to a decline in intracellular pH. When intracellular pH was greater than 7.7, glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate was transported rapidly even though the proton motive force had been abolished by inhibitors.

Strobel, H J; Russell, J B; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

1989-01-01

177

A Novel Type of Peptidoglycan-binding Domain Highly Specific for Amidated d-Asp Cross-bridge, Identified in Lactobacillus casei Bacteriophage Endolysins*  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) are responsible for bacterial cell lysis. Most PGHs have a modular structure comprising a catalytic domain and a cell wall-binding domain (CWBD). PGHs of bacteriophage origin, called endolysins, are involved in bacterial lysis at the end of the infection cycle. We have characterized two endolysins, Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2, identified in prophages present in the genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23. These two enzymes have different catalytic domains but similar putative C-terminal CWBDs. By analyzing purified peptidoglycan (PG) degradation products, we showed that Lc-Lys is an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, whereas Lc-Lys-2 is a ?-d-glutamyl-l-lysyl endopeptidase. Remarkably, both lysins were able to lyse only Gram-positive bacterial strains that possess PG with d-Ala4?d-Asx-l-Lys3 in their cross-bridge, such as Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus faecium. By testing a panel of L. lactis cell wall mutants, we observed that Lc-Lys and Lc-Lys-2 were not able to lyse mutants with a modified PG cross-bridge, constituting d-Ala4?l-Ala-(l-Ala/l-Ser)-l-Lys3; moreover, they do not lyse the L. lactis mutant containing only the nonamidated d-Asp cross-bridge, i.e. d-Ala4?d-Asp-l-Lys3. In contrast, Lc-Lys could lyse the ampicillin-resistant E. faecium mutant with 3?3 l-Lys3-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges replacing the wild-type 4?3 d-Ala4-d-Asn-l-Lys3 bridges. We showed that the C-terminal CWBD of Lc-Lys binds PG containing mainly d-Asn but not PG with only the nonamidated d-Asp-containing cross-bridge, indicating that the CWBD confers to Lc-Lys its narrow specificity. In conclusion, the CWBD characterized in this study is a novel type of PG-binding domain targeting specifically the d-Asn interpeptide bridge of PG.

Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2013-01-01

178

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Lactobacillus casei gene for the D-alanine-activating enzyme.  

PubMed Central

The D-alanine-activating enzyme (Dae; EC 6.3.2.4) encoded by the dae gene from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 is a cytosolic protein essential for the formation of the D-alanyl esters of membrane-bound lipoteichoic acid. The gene has been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli, an organism which does not possess Dae activity. The open reading frame is 1,518 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 55.867 kDa, a value in agreement with the 56 kDa obtained by electrophoresis. A putative promoter and ribosome-binding site immediately precede the dae gene. A second open reading frame contiguous with the dae gene has also been partially sequenced. The organization of these genetic elements suggests that more than one enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid may be present in this operon. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the dae gene identified three regions with significant homology to proteins in the following groups of ATP-utilizing enzymes: (i) the acid-thiol ligases, (ii) the activating enzymes for the biosynthesis of enterobactin, and (iii) the synthetases for tyrocidine, gramicidin S, and penicillin. From these comparisons, a common motif (GXXGXPK) has been identified that is conserved in the 19 protein domains analyzed. This motif may represent the phosphate-binding loop of an ATP-binding site for this class of enzymes. A DNA fragment (1,568 nucleotides) containing the dae gene and its putative ribosome-binding site has been subcloned and expressed in E. coli. Approximately 0.5% of the total cell protein is active Dae, whereas 21% is in the form of inclusion bodies. The isolation of this minimal fragment without a native promoter sequence provides the basis for designing a genetic system for modulating the D-alanine ester content of lipoteichoic acid.

Heaton, M P; Neuhaus, F C

1992-01-01

179

Structural comparison of complexes of methotrexate analogues with Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase by two-dimensional /sup 1/H NMR at 500 MHz  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods to examine complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase and methotrexate (MTX) analogues having structural modifications of the benzoyl ring and also the glutamic acid moiety. Assignments of the /sup 1/H signals in the spectra of the various complexes were made by comparison of their 2D spectra with those complexes containing methotrexate where we have previously assigned resonances from 32 of the 162 amino acid residues. In the complexes formed with the dihalomethotrexate analogues, the glutamic acid and pteridine ring moieties were shown to bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to that found in the methotrexate-enzyme complex. Perturbations in /sup 1/H chemical shifts of protons in Phe-49, Leu-54, and Leu-27 and the methotrexate H7 and NMe protons were observed in the different complexes and were accounted for by changes in orientation of the benzoyl ring in the various complexes. Binding of oxidized or reduced coenzyme to the binary complexes did not result in different shifts for Leu-27, Leu-54, or Leu-19 protons, and thus, the orientation of the benzoyl ring of the methotrexate analogues is not perturbed greatly by the presence of either oxidized or reduced coenzyme. In the complex with the ..gamma..-monoamide analog, the /sup 1/H signals of assigned residues in the protein had almost identical shifts with the corresponding protons in the methotrexate-enzyme complex for all residues except His-28 and, to a lesser extent, Leu-27. This indicates that while the His-28 interaction with the MTX ..gamma..-CO/sub 2//sup -/ is no longer present in this complex with the ..gamma..-amide, there has not been a major change in the overall structure of the two complexes. This behavior contrasts to that of the ..cap alpha..-amide complex where /sup 1/H signals from protons in several amino acid residues are different compared with their values in the complex formed with methotrexate.

Hammond, S.J.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Searle, M.S.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Cheung, H.T.A.

1987-12-29

180

A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least 6·5 × 10? live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD, and (2) whether undernutrition and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are risk factors for AAD/CDAD. A total of 164 SCI patients (50·1 (sd 17·8) years) with a requirement for antibiotics (median 21 d, range 5-366) were randomly allocated to receive LcS (n 76) or no probiotic (n 82). LcS was given once daily for the duration of the antibiotic course and continued for 7 days thereafter. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Spinal Nutrition Screening Tool. The LcS group had a significantly lower incidence of AAD (17·1 v. 54·9%, P< 0·001). At baseline, 65% of patients were at undernutrition risk. Undernutrition (64·1 v. 33·3%, P< 0·01) and the use of PPI (38·4 v. 12·1 %, P= 0·022) were found to be associated with AAD. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrient intake between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor appetite ( < 1/2 meals eaten) (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·28, 19·84) and no probiotic (OR 8·46, 95% CI 3·22, 22·20) as the independent risk factors for AAD. The present study indicated that LcS could reduce the incidence of AAD in hospitalised SCI patients. A randomised, placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm this apparent therapeutic success in order to translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24044687

Wong, Samford; Jamous, Ali; O'Driscoll, Jean; Sekhar, Ravi; Weldon, Mike; Yau, Chi Y; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Grimble, George; Forbes, Alastair

2014-02-01

181

Extent of Genetic Lesions of the Arginine and Pyrimidine Biosynthetic Pathways in Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, L. pentosus, and L. casei: Prevalence of CO2-Dependent Auxotrophs and Characterization of Deficient arg Genes in L. plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria require rich media since, due to mutations in their biosynthetic genes, they are unable to synthesize numerous amino acids and nucleobases. Arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis have a common intermediate, carbamoyl phosphate (CP), whose synthesis requires CO2. We investigated the extent of genetic lesions in both the arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways in a collection of lactobacilli, including 150 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 strains of L. pentosus, 15 strains of L. paraplantarum, and 10 strains of L. casei. The distribution of prototroph and auxotroph phenotypes varied between species. All L. casei strains, no L. paraplantarum strains, two L. pentosus strains, and seven L. plantarum strains required arginine for growth. Arginine auxotrophs were more frequently found in L. plantarum isolated from milk products than in L. plantarum isolated from fermented plant products or humans; association with dairy products might favor arginine auxotrophy. In L. plantarum the argCJBDF genes were functional in most strains, and when they were inactive, only one gene was mutated in more than one-half of the arginine auxotrophs. Random mutation may have generated these auxotrophs since different arg genes were inactivated (there were single point mutations in three auxotrophs and nonrevertible genetic lesions in four auxotrophs). These data support the hypothesis that lactic acid bacteria evolve by progressively loosing unnecessary genes upon adaptation to specific habitats, with genome evolution towards cumulative DNA degeneration. Although auxotrophy for only uracil was found in one L. pentosus strain, a high CO2 requirement (HCR) for arginine and pyrimidine was common; it was found in 74 of 207 Lactobacillus strains tested. These HCR auxotrophs may have had their CP cellular pool-related genes altered or deregulated.

Bringel, Francoise; Hubert, Jean-Claude

2003-01-01

182

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

183

Immunogenicity of Recombinant Classic Swine Fever Virus CD8+ T Lymphocyte Epitope and Porcine Parvovirus VP2 Antigen Coexpressed by Lactobacillus casei in Swine via Oral Vaccination ?  

PubMed Central

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. Because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against CSFV and PPV at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. In this study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus strain coexpressing the CSFV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope 290 and the VP2 antigen of PPV was developed, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral vaccine in pigs was analyzed. The data demonstrated that in the absence of any adjuvant, the recombinant Lactobacillus strain can efficiently stimulate mucosal and systemic CSFV-specific CD8+ CTL responses to protect pigs against CSFV challenge. Moreover, anti-PPV-VP2 serum IgG and mucosal IgA were induced in pigs immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus strain, showing a neutralizing effect on PPV infection. The results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent may be a valuable component of a strategy for development of a vaccine against CSFV and PPV.

Xu, Yigang; Cui, Lichun; Tian, Changyong; Zhang, Guocai; Huo, Guicheng; Tang, Lijie; Li, Yijing

2011-01-01

184

Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431

Tatiana Rochat; Luis Bermúdez-Humarán; Jean-Jacques Gratadoux; Christel Fourage; Christine Hoebler; Gérard Corthier; Philippe Langella

2007-01-01

185

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Among Lactobacillus Species of the Subgenus Strepto bacterium Orla-Jensen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) relationship among Lacto bacillus species of the subgenus Streptobacterium Orla-Jensen was assessed by means of DNA\\/ DNA hybridization experiments. High genetic homologies were found among Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, L. cusei subsp. alactosus, L. cusei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans; however, there was only a low level of homology between the DNA of L.

F. DELLAGLIO; V. BOTTAZZI; MARISA VESCOVO

1975-01-01

186

Effect of the administration of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on intestinal microbiota and gut associated immune cells of nursing mice and after weaning until immune maturity  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of bacterial colonization in the newborn. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) containing yogurt starter cultures and the probiotic bacteria strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 to mothers during nursing or their offspring, on the intestinal bacterial population and on parameters of the gut immune system. Results Fifteen mice of each group were sacrificed at ages 12, 21, 28 and 45 days. Large intestines were taken for determination of intestinal microbiota, and small intestines for the study of secretory-IgA (S-IgA) in fluid and the study of IgA+ cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and goblet cells on tissue samples. The consumption of the PFM either by the mother during nursing or by the offspring after weaning modified the development of bifidobacteria population in the large intestine of the mice. These modifications were accompanied with a decrease of enterobacteria population. The administration of this PFM to the mothers improved their own immune system and this also affected their offspring. Offspring from mice that received PFM increased S-IgA in intestinal fluids, which mainly originated from their mother's immune system. A decrease in the number of macrophages, dendritic cells and IgA+ cells during the suckling period in offspring fed with PFM was observed; this could be related with the improvement of the immunity of the mothers, which passively protect their babies. At day 45, the mice reach maturity of their own immune system and the effects of the PFM was the stimulation of their mucosal immunity. Conclusion The present work shows the beneficial effect of the administration of a PFM not only to the mothers during the suckling period but also to their offspring after weaning and until adulthood. This effect positively improved the intestinal microbiota that are related with a modulation of the gut immune response, which was demonstrated with the stimulation of the IgA + cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.

de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Dogi, Cecilia A; Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Perdigon, Gabriela

2008-01-01

187

Binding specificity of Lactobacillus to glycolipids.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus, a representative useful bacterium, in the intestinal tract was found to bind to some specific glycosphingolipids, like the pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Thin layer chromatography overlay assays using rabbit antiserum against Lactobacillus casei revealed that the bacteria bound to GA1 and trihexosylceramide strongly, but not to any gangliosides. The bacteria generally bound to glycosphingolipids having short sugar chains and galactosyl moiety in the non-reducing terminal. L.casei did not bind to GM1, but bound to the product after sialidase treatment, GA1. This indicated that sialic acid inhibited the adhesion of L.casei to tissues. L.casei actually bound nonacid glycosphingolipids but not acid glycosphingolipids extracted from the small intestinal mucosa of rats. PMID:8912650

Yamamoto, K; Miwa, T; Taniguchi, H; Nagano, T; Shimamura, K; Tanaka, T; Kumagai, H

1996-11-01

188

Growth Stimulation of Lactobacillus Species by Lactic Streptococci1  

PubMed Central

Cell extracts of Streptococcus species important in cheese starters stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus species common to Cheddar cheese. All Lactobacillus strains employed, with the exception of a strain of L. casei, were significantly stimulated by a strain of S. diacetilactis. L. casei was highly stimulated by both a strain of S. lactis and a strain of S. diacetilactis. The stimulant(s) was dialyzable and was partially inactivated by heat. The stimulatory principle was active at 10 C, indicating that the stimulatory effect may be influencing the growth of lactobacilli in Cheddar cheese during curing. Viable Streptococcus cells did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus species.

Branen, A. L.; Keenan, T. W.

1969-01-01

189

Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4–5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the freeze-dried biosurfactants from both growth phases were compared. The mid-exponential and stationary phase biosurfactants were similar in their surface activities, but

Martine M. C. Velraeds; Henny C. van der Mei; Gregor Reid; Henk J. Busscher

1996-01-01

190

Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacil- lus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six

WEI ZHONG; KEVIN MILLSAP; HANNA BIALKOWSKA-HOBRZANSKA; GREGOR REID

1998-01-01

191

In vitro colonization ability of human colon mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested five Lactobacillus strains for their in vitro colonization ability in a human colon epithelium culture model. Positive colonization occurred in different degrees in the presence of four Lactobacillus strains. We have found that L. casei GG and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 induce an intermediate colonization. These two strains, largely investigated by others, have been reported to be

Leila-ouassila Sarem-Damerdji; Farzin Sarem; Luc Marchal; Jean-Pierre Nicolas

1995-01-01

192

Molecular analysis and clinical significance of Lactobacillus spp. recovered from clinical specimens presumptively associated with disease.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?10(5) CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

Martinez, Raquel M; Hulten, Kristina G; Bui, Uyen; Clarridge, Jill E

2014-01-01

193

Molecular Analysis and Clinical Significance of Lactobacillus spp. Recovered from Clinical Specimens Presumptively Associated with Disease  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry.

Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen

2014-01-01

194

The Requirement for Calcium in Infection with Lactobacillus Phage  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Calcium ions were specifically required for a stage in the formation of phage- infected cells in the growth cycle of PL-I phage active against Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092. Both the adsorption of phage on to the host cells and the intracellular multiplication of phage were independent of the presence or absence of calcium ions. The optimum pH for successful

K. Watanabe; S. Takesue

1972-01-01

195

Skim milk powder supplementation affects lactose utilization, microbial survival and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones in soymilk by Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461, L. acidophilus 4962, Lactobacillus casei 290 and L. casei 2607, were used for fermentation of soymilk (SM) prepared from soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with skim milk powder (SMP) (SSM). Soymilk and reconstituted skim milk (RSM) were used as controls. Lactose utilization in SSM by these probiotic organisms ranged from 14.97 to 18.15mg\\/ml, compared

Thuy T. Pham; Nagendra P. Shah

2008-01-01

196

Distribution Dynamics of Recombinant Lactobacillus in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Rats  

PubMed Central

One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates.

Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

2013-01-01

197

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

PubMed Central

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S–23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D.

2013-01-01

198

Diversity of stress tolerance in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus paraplantarum: A multivariate screening study.  

PubMed

Sixty-three strains of the taxonomically related species Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. paraplantarum and L. pentosus isolated from sourdoughs and other food and non-food sources and 14 strains of other members of the genus Lactobacillus were screened for their tolerance of acid, alkaline, heat, oxidative, osmotic, detergent and starvation stresses in order to evaluate the diversity of stress response. Most strains of the L. plantarum group were highly tolerant of acid, alkaline and osmotic stress and highly sensitive to detergent stress, while a larger diversity was found for other stress. Multivariate analysis allowed grouping the strains in clusters with similar response patterns. Stress response patterns in the L. plantarum group were similar to those of species of the L. casei/L. paracasei group but clearly different from those of other mesophilic Lactobacillus. No relationship was found between grouping obtained on the basis of stress response patterns and by genotypic fingerprinting (rep-PCR), nor with the taxonomic position or isolation source of the strains. Further experiments with selected strains showed that exponential phase cells were generally but not always more sensitive than stationary phase cells. The ability to grow under stressful conditions showed a slightly better correlation with the ecological conditions prevailing in the isolation niches of the strains. This study will be the basis for further investigations to identify and exploit the basis of diversity in the stress response of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:21035223

Parente, Eugenio; Ciocia, Felicia; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Zotta, Teresa; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra

2010-12-15

199

Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:We examined whether or not the lactobacilli administered to treat Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can suppress the colonization of H. pylori, and we also sought to elucidate the mechanism of such suppression.Methods:We used an in vitro culture system and an H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic murine model.Results:Among the lactobacillus species examined in vitro, Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) but not L. casei

Yuji Aiba; Nobuyuki Suzuki; Abu M. A. Kabir; Atushi Takagi; Yasuhiro Koga

1998-01-01

200

The microbial flora of sugary kefir grain (the gingerbeer plant): biosynthesis of the grain from Lactobacillus hilgardii producing a polysaccharide gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microflora of sugary kefir grains was principally mesophilic and consisted chiefly of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus hilgardii (=brevis),Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.dextranicum, Streptococcus lactis] and a small proportion of yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces florentinus, Torulospora pretoriensis, Kloeckera apiculata, Candida lambica andC. valida). Few coliforms and faecal streptococci were observed. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filamentous yeasts adhered

M. Pidoux

1989-01-01

201

Antibiotic resistance of potential probiotic bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from human gastrointestinal microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal microbiome of people from the territory of the former Soviet Union have been studied\\u000a for resistance to 15 antibiotics of different nature, namely, penicillins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, tetracyclines,\\u000a chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. The strains included four strains of L. plantarum, four of L. helveticus, three of L. casei\\/paracasei, one of L. rhamnosus, and one

S. G. Botina; E. U. Poluektova; A. A. Glazova; N. V. Zakharevich; N. V. Koroban; V. V. Zinchenko; M. M. Babykin; O. G. Zhilenkova; A. M. Amerkhanova; V. N. Danilenko

2011-01-01

202

Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

2012-01-01

203

Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates  

PubMed Central

In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics.

Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

2012-01-01

204

Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Lactobacillus includes a diverse group of bacteria consisting of many species that are associated with fermentations of plants, meat or milk. In addition, various lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Finally, several Lactobacillus strains are marketed as probiotics as their consumption can confer a health benefit to host. Presently, 154 Lactobacillus

R. Kant; R. J. Siezen; Vos de W. M

2011-01-01

205

Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

1996-06-01

206

Divergence in codon usage of Lactobacillus species.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed.

Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A

1994-01-01

207

Tyrosine and phenylalanine catabolism by Lactobacillus cheese flavor adjuncts.  

PubMed

Bacterial metabolism of Tyr and Phe has been associated with the formation of aromatic compounds that impart barny-utensil and floral off-flavors in cheese. In an effort to identify possible mechanisms for the origin of these compounds in Cheddar cheese, we investigated Tyr and Phe catabolism by Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus helveticus cheese flavor adjuncts under simulated Cheddar cheese-ripening (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl, 15 degrees C, no sugar) conditions. Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts indicated that L. casei strains catabolize Tyr and Phe by successive, constitutively expressed transamination and dehydrogenation reactions. Similar results were obtained with L. helveticus strains, except that the dehydrogenase enzymes were induced during incubation under cheese-ripening conditions. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of supernatants from L. casei and L. helveticus strains incubated under simulated cheese-ripening conditions confirmed that Tyr and Phe transamination and dehydrogenation pathways were active in both species and also showed these reactions were reversible. Major products of Tyr catabolism were phydroxy phenyl lactic acid and p-hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, while Phe degradation gave rise to phenyl lactic acid, phenyl acetic acid, and benzoic acid. However, some of these products were likely formed by nonenzymatic processes, since spontaneous chemical degradation of the Tyr intermediate p-hydroxy phenyl pyruvic acid produced p-hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, p-hydroxy phenyl propionic acid, and p-hydroxy benzaldehyde, while chemical degradation of the Phe intermediate phenyl pyruvic acid gave rise to phenyl acetic acid, benzoic acid, phenethanol, phenyl propionic acid, and benzaldehyde. PMID:11384026

Gummalla, S; Broadbent, J R

2001-05-01

208

Promotion of IgA Immune Response in Patients with Crohn’s Disease by Oral Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oral bacteriotherapy with human Lactobacillus casei strain GG (1010 colony-forming units twice daily for 10 days) was investigated in Crohn’s disease and in juvenile chronic arthritis which are chronic inflammatory diseases associated with impaired mucosal barrier function. During oral bacteriotherapy, the gut immune response was indirectly assessed by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay in 14 children with Crohn’s disease,

Merja Malin; Hanna Suomalainen; Maija Saxelin; Erika Isolauri

1996-01-01

209

Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2012-09-01

210

Tailoring the probiotic potential of non-starter Lactobacillus strains from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese by in vitro screening and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) inhabiting fermented food have been recently revised as source of probiotic strains. Here, we in vitro assessed the potential probiotic aptitude of a de-replicated set of NSLAB previously isolated from long ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses (22 Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 18 Lactobacillus paracasei, 3 Lactobacillus casei, 2 Lactobacillus harbinensis, and 2 Lactobacillus fermentum). Most strains showed moderate to good resistance to biological barriers, including bile salts, lysozyme, and simulated gastric and pancreatic juices. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against seven antimicrobials belonging to different categories showed that most strains are susceptible towards all the antibiotics, with the exception of vancomycin and streptomycin. The strains lost the streptomycin resistance when assayed on agar medium containing 0.5% bile salts, suggesting that detergent-like properties of cholic acids increase membrane permeability and mediate streptomycin susceptibility. No isolate showed bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activities, supporting that bile salts resistance and BSH activity are unpaired traits. Finally, NSLAB strains had moderate to high auto-aggregative and hydrophobic phenotypes, whereas two subsets of 22 and 8 strains co-aggregated with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica s. typhimurium, respectively. A multivariate analysis was effective to segregate one L. casei and two L. rhamnosus strains showing physiological characteristics compatible with probiotic properties. PMID:24290648

Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Mottolese, Giovanni; Lemmetti, Federico; Giudici, Paolo

2014-04-01

211

Characterization of bacteriocin ST8KF produced by a kefir isolate Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, isolated from kefir, produced a 3.5kDa bacteriocin (bacST8KF) active against Lb. casei, Lb. salivarius, Lb. curvatus and Listeria innocua. BacST8KF was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0 and 10.0, and heat resistant (20min at 121°C). BacST8KF did not adsorb to the surface of the producer cell. Maximum activity (25,600AUmL?1) was recorded in MRS broth

J. E. Powell; R. C. Witthuhn; S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

212

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as an Effective Probiotic for Murine Giardiasis  

PubMed Central

The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestinal mucosal barrier and has been introduced as the concept of probiotic therapy that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to explore the protective potential of various lactobacilli strains for murine giardiasis. By experimentation, it was found that the probiotic supplementation of either Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, or L. rhamnosus GG, 7 days prior to inoculation with G. lamblia trophozoites, reduced the rate of cyst excretion compared with Giardia-infected mice. Interestingly, L. GG was found to be the most effective probiotic in reducing the duration of giardia cycle and acts as an effective prophylactic probiotic for murine giardiasis but needs to be clinically correlated due to entirely different human microflora.

Goyal, Nisha; Tiwari, Ram Prakash; Shukla, Geeta

2011-01-01

213

Effects of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin on physicochemical surface properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

Under clinical conditions, during antibiotic treatment, micro-organisms often grow at sub-inhibitory concentrations. This may lead to altered adhesive cell surface properties and to a disruption of the indigenous microflora, in addition to the creation of a more pathogenic biofilm. The effects of growing Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and lactobacilli in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were determined. Growing the cells under antibiotic burden sometimes led to altered cell surface hydrophobicity (by adhesion to hexadecane), changes in the pH-dependence of zeta potentials, and elemental surface compositions or in different SDS-PAGE protein profiles. For several isolates only one of the surface properties was altered by the presence of an antibiotic in the growth medium and no systematic effects were observed for all isolates representing a certain species or even strain. The important conclusion to be drawn from the results of this study is that the effects of growing cells under antibiotic burden on their adhesive cell surface properties can only be established when using a variety of techniques. PMID:7791631

Cuperus, P L; Van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Bruce, A W; Khoury, A E; van der Kuijl-Booij, M; Noordmans, J; Busscher, H J

1995-01-01

214

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei Suppress Escherichia coli-Induced Chemokine Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to prevent the development of atopic dermatitis and to improve allergic symptoms, especially in young children. However, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not fully understood. Intestinal microbiota play critical roles in the development of host immune development and are recognized and regulated by the host through

Shinji Toki; Shinji Kagaya; Miwa Shinohara; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Takashi Matsumoto; Yoshihisa Takahata; Fumiki Morimatsu; Hirohisa Saito; Kenji Matsumoto

2009-01-01

215

The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates chloride/hydroxyl exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (Cl(-)/OH(-)) exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive (36)Cl uptake in base-loaded cells. Treatment with live, but not heat-killed, LA and LR significantly increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity (approximately 50%), whereas other species were ineffective. Similarly, the conditioned medium (supernatant) of live LA increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. The ability of LA or its conditioned culture medium to enhance Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibition but was unaffected by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Corresponding to the increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity, LA treatment increased the surface expression of the apical anion exchanger, SLC26A3 [Down Regulated in Adenoma (DRA)]. The increased DRA membrane localization might contribute to the increased Cl(-) absorption by LA. Our results suggest that LA secretes soluble effector molecule(s) into the culture medium that stimulate apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase mediated mechanism. PMID:18567760

Borthakur, Alip; Gill, Ravinder K; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Alrefai, Waddah A; Hecht, Gail A; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

2008-07-01

216

Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

2014-03-01

217

Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional pickle and sourdough.  

PubMed

Three Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, 11050(T), 7-19(T) and 11102(T), were isolated from traditional pickle and sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. These bacteria were characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, pheS gene sequence analysis, rpoA gene sequence analysis, dnaK gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 11050(T) belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group and shared 98.0-98.4?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and 84.7-88.9?% dnaK gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus fabifermentans and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis and had 75.9-80.7?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 90.7-92.5?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum LMG 6907(T), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis LMG 9205, Lactobacillus pentosus LMG 10755(T), Lactobacillus paraplantarum LMG 16673(T), Lactobacillus fabifermentans LMG 24284(T) and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis 3.1.1(T), respectively. Strain 7-19(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, having 94.1-96.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 71.5-82.3?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 71.2-83.4?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, respectively. Strain 11102(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus oligofermentans, Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis. Strain 11102(T) had 99.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 81.3?% pheS gene sequence similarity and 96.1?% rpoA gene sequence similarity with Lactobacillus oligofermentans LMG 22743(T), respectively. Strain 11102(T) shared 96.0-96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 73.3-81.0?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 74.6-76.9?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis, respectively. Based upon the data from polyphasic characterization obtained in the present study, three novel species, Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., are proposed and the type strains are 11050(T) (?=?LMG 27194(T)?=?CCUG 62991(T)), 7-19(T) (?=?LMG 27191(T)?=?NCIMB 14832(T)?=?CCUG 62990(T)) and 11102(T) (?=?LMG 27192(T)?=?NCIMB 14833(T)), respectively. PMID:23950151

Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

2013-12-01

218

Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of probiotic and clinical Lactobacillus strains in relation to safety aspects of probiotics.  

PubMed

The evaluation of the safety of probiotic strains includes the exclusion of antibiotic resistance of clinical importance. Ninety-two strains from the genus Lactobacillus isolated from probiotics, food, and clinical sources were included in the investigation. Species tested were the L. acidophilus group, L. casei group, L. reuteri/fermentum group, and L. sakei/curvatus group. Cell and colony morphology, fermentation patterns, and growth characteristics as well as soluble whole cell proteins were analyzed. Antibiotic resistance against clinically important agents was determined by broth dilution tests. The vanA and tet genes were confirmed. Resistances occurred mainly against gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, sulfonamides, and, in some cases, glycopeptides. The natural glycopeptide resistance within the L. casei group and L. reuteri appears to be not of clinical relevance, as there was no vanA gene present. Therefore, the transfer of this resistance is very unlikely. Tet-(A), -(B), -(C), -(M), or -(O) gene could not be detected. The protein fingerprinting within the L. casei group proved that L. rhamnosus strains of clinical origin clustered together with probiotic strains. For safety evaluations resistance patterns of a broad range of strains are a useful criterion together with the exclusion of known resistance genes (like the vanA gene) and can be used for decision making on the safety of probiotics, both by authorization bodies and manufacturers. PMID:21034236

Klein, Günter

2011-02-01

219

Mucosal Lactobacillus vectored vaccines.  

PubMed

Traditional non-gastrointestinal vaccines can prevent effectively the invasion of pathogens; however, these vaccines are less effective against mucosal infections because there is not a sufficient immune response at the mucosa. Most pathogens invade via a mucosal pathway (oral, intranasal, or vaginal). It is widely accepted that Lactobacillus species play a critical role as commensals in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Their ability to survive in the digestive tract, their close association with the intestinal epithelium, their immunomodulatory properties and their safety even when consumed in large amounts make lactobacilli attractive candidates for live vehicles for the delivery of immunogens to the intestinal mucosa. The oral or intranasal administration of Lactobacillus-based vaccines is a promising method to control mucosal infection because these vaccines could induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses both in the blood and at mucosal sites. PMID:23322214

Yu, Qinghua; Zhu, Liqi; Kang, Haihong; Yang, Qian

2013-04-01

220

Brevibacterium casei as a Cause of Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient ?  

PubMed Central

Coryneform bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacterium have emerged as opportunistic pathogens. Of the nine known species of Brevibacterium isolated from human clinical samples, Brevibacterium casei is the most frequently reported species from clinical specimens. We report the first case of B. casei brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy.

Kumar, V. Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Panikar, Dilip; Nandakumar, Aswathy; Dinesh, Kavitha R.; Karim, Shamsul; Philip, Rosamma

2011-01-01

221

Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium casei UCMA 3821, Isolated from a Smear-Ripened Cheese  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium casei is one of the most prevalent species present on the surfaces of smear-ripened cheeses, where it contributes to the production of the desired organoleptic properties. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium casei UCMA 3821 to provide insights into its physiology.

Loux, Valentin; Bento, Pascal; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Straub, Cecile; Bonnarme, Pascal; Landaud, Sophie; Irlinger, Francoise

2012-01-01

222

Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Brazilian regional ovine cheese.  

PubMed

Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. ?-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest ?-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties. PMID:23171587

Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano

2012-02-01

223

Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. PMID:22516247

Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

2012-06-01

224

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Metabolites from Lactobacillus Strains on Candida Species Implicated in Candida Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Research from developing countries, such as Nigeria, on Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract and their role as a barrier to vaginal infection is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical biotherapeutic potential of indigenous Lactobacillus species. Methods: Antimicrobial metabolites production were characterised using simple and easily reproducible qualitative and quantitative methods. The in vitro inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus antimicrobials on vulvovaginal candidiasis–associated Candida species was investigated using modified agar spot and agar well-diffusion methods. Results: The maximum levels of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl from 20 vaginal Lactobacillus strains from diseased subjects were 1.46 mg/L, 1.36 mmol/L, and 1.72 mg/L respectively. From the 4 healthy subjects, the maximum level of lactic acid was 1.08 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide, 1.36 mmol/L; and diacetyl, 0.86 mg/L. The maximum productions of these substances occurred between 72 and 120 hours of incubation. The in vitro antagonistic activities of vaginal L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. jensenii from diseased subjects inhibited a maximum of 5.71% of the 35 Candida species tested, while vaginal L. acidophilus and L. plantarum from healthy subjects inhibited between 57.1% and 68.6% of Candida species in vitro. Conclusion: Antimicrobial-producing lactobacilli can be considered as adjunct biotherapeutic candidates for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Mopelola A; Bello, Victoria B

2011-01-01

225

Probiotic Attributes of Autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains of Human Origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

226

Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 Infection in Experimentally Challenged Weaned Pigs Fed a Lactobacillus-Fermented Feed.  

PubMed

Abstract Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen and commonly present on pig farms. Probiotics have shown potential as a means of reducing Salmonella shedding in pigs. Three experimental challenge trials were conducted to investigate the potential application of newly isolated Lactobacillus isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in pigs. In each trial, 16 Yorkshire piglets (28-d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (BD), (2) naturally fermented (NF) feed, (3) Lactobacillus zeae-fermented (LZ-F) feed, and 4) Lactobacillus casei-fermented (LC-F) feed. All pigs consumed their assigned diets for 3?d prior to the challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (approximately 6 log colony-forming units/pig) through gavage. Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. zeae, and L. casei were most abundant in NF, LZ-F, and LC-F feed, respectively. After the challenge, pigs on fermented feed had lower rectal temperature, diarrhea scores, serum haptoglobin concentrations, and intestinal Salmonella counts than the control group (BD) (p?0.01). Salmonella spp. were detected in both ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) and spleens from all pigs on BD, NF, and LC-F, but only 50% of spleens from pigs on LZ-F. Pigs had a dynamic spatial and temporal immune response to Salmonella infection and dietary treatments, as indicated by up- and downregulation in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor) in the ileum, ICLN, and spleen. The alternation in cytokine expression by fermented feed, particularly LZ-F, appeared to benefit pigs in combating Salmonella infection. PMID:24826965

Yin, Fugui; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Wang, Qi Chuck; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Friendship, Robert; Gong, Joshua

2014-08-01

227

Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population.

2013-01-01

228

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

229

DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii  

SciTech Connect

From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

1990-06-01

230

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee.  

PubMed

This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically "Melaleuca in Terengganu". PMID:24516438

Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

2013-01-01

231

Skim milk powder supplementation affects lactose utilization, microbial survival and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones in soymilk by Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Four probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461, L. acidophilus 4962, Lactobacillus casei 290 and L. casei 2607, were used for fermentation of soymilk (SM) prepared from soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with skim milk powder (SMP) (SSM). Soymilk and reconstituted skim milk (RSM) were used as controls. Lactose utilization in SSM by these probiotic organisms ranged from 14.97 to 18.15mg/ml, compared to 14.12-16.06mg/ml for RSM. The pH in SSM dropped to 4.07-4.29 compared to 6.15-6.36 for SM and 4.10-4.96 for RSM. The microbial viable counts were also significantly enhanced by up to 0.98logCFU/ml by the supplementation of SMP to SM. The biotransformation level of isoflavone glycosides (IG) to isoflavone aglycones (IA) in SSM ranged from 81.4% to 85.1%, which was 13.9-19.0% higher than that for SM, after 24h of incubation. Most of IG in SSM was completely converted to IA, except malonyl glycitin and malonyl genistin. At the end of the incubation, IA comprised up to 76.8% of total isoflavones in SSM. PMID:18541163

Pham, Thuy T; Shah, Nagendra P

2008-08-01

232

The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection of human intestinal cells in vitro.  

PubMed

There are many examples of probiotic effects of various lactic bacteria on enteropathogens. In this study, Lactobacillus strains (L. rhamnosus, L. gasseri, L. casei and L. plantarum) were tested in an in vitro model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection of a human colon epithelial cell line, C2BBe1. While the adhesion and colonization of EHEC was not affected by any of the lactobacillus strains tested, the internalization of EHEC into the cell line was markedly suppressed by L. rhamnosus, though not by others. Concerning the possible mechanisms, the viabilities of EHEC and host cell were not affected by the presence of L. rhamnosus. Simple competitions at certain receptors were unlikely because the suppressive effect on EHEC internalization was strictly dependent on viable L. rhamnosus and could not be observed with the conditioned medium or killed L. rhamnosus. The fact that L. rhamnosus showed outstanding potential for adhering to the colon epithelial cell line, compared with other strains, suggested that an avid interaction between L. rhamnosus and the host cell might be modulating intra-cellular events responsible for the internalization of EHEC. PMID:12906100

Hirano, Jyunko; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Koide, Naoki; Mori, Isamu; Yokochi, Takashi

2003-01-01

233

Production of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Virus-Like Particles by Recombinant Lactobacillus casei Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are closely associated with the development of human cervical carcinoma, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. At present, the most promising vaccine against HPV-16 infection is based on the L1 major capsid protein, which self-assembles in virus-like particles (VLPs). In this work, we used a

Karina Araujo Aires; Aurora Marques Cianciarullo; Sylvia Mendes Carneiro; Luisa Lina Villa; Enrique Boccardo; Gaspar Perez-Martinez; Isabel Perez-Arellano; Maria Leonor Sarno Oliveira; Paulo Lee Ho

2006-01-01

234

Evaluation of plastic-composite supports in repeated fed-batch biofilm lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

A customized stirred-tank biofilm reactor was designed for plastic-composite supports (PCS). In repeated-batch studies, the PCS-biofilm reactors outperformed the suspended-cell reactors by demonstrating higher lactic acid productivities (2.45 g l(-1) h(-1) vs 1.75 g l(-1) h(-1)) and greater glucose consumption rates (3.27 g l(-1) h(-1) vs 2.09 g l(-1) h(-1)). In the repeated fed-batch studies, reactors were spiked periodically with concentrated glucose (75%) to maintain a concentration of approximately 80 g of glucose l(-1) in the bioreactor. In suspended-cell fermentations with 10 g of yeast extract (YE) l(-1) and zero, one, two, and three glucose spikes, the lactic acid productivities were 2.64, 1.58, 0.80, and 0.62 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. In comparison, biofilm reactors with 7 g of YE l(-1) and zero, one, two, and three glucose spikes achieved lactic acid productivities of 4.20, 2.78, 0.66, and 0.94 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The use of nystatin (30 U ml(-1)) subdued the contaminating yeast population with no effect on the lactic acid productivity of the biofilm reactors, but it did affect productivity in the suspended-cell bioreactor. Overall, in repeated fed-batch fermentations, the biofilm reactors consistently outperformed the suspended-cell bioreactors, required less YE, and produced up to 146 g of lactic acid l(-1) with 7 g of YE l(-1), whereas the suspended-cell reactor produced 132 g l(-1) with 10 g of YE l(-1). PMID:11398923

Velázquez, A C; Pometto, A L; Ho, K L; Demirci, A

2001-05-01

235

Ingredient selection for plastic composite supports for L-(+)-lactic acid biofilm fermentation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.  

PubMed

Plastic composite supports containing 50% agricultural products (oat hulls, soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, dried bovine erythrocytes, bovine albumin, and/or mineral salts) and 50% (wt/wt) polypropylene were produced by high-temperature twin-screw extrusion. The research employed two half sets of a five-factorial fractional design (2(5 - 1)) to evaluate the effects of different agricultural components on the properties of the plastic composite supports and to select the best plastic composite support formulation for lactic acid fermentation. The biofilm population was affected by the contact angle and relative hydrophobicity of the supports (r = 0.79 to 0.82). Lactic acid was produced by the suspended cells (r = 0.96) and the biofilm on the plastic composite support discs (r = 0.85). Incorporation of yeast extract into plastic composite supports enhanced growth of free and attached cells in minimal medium (P < 0.0001). The presence of soybean hulls, yeast extract, or mineral salts in plastic composite supports produced less hydrophobic supports (P < 0.0001) and enhanced cell attachment (P < 0.03). Under all conditions, suspended-cell and polypropylene disc controls gave negligible lactic acid production and cell density. Plastic composite supports containing soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, bovine albumin, and mineral salts gave the highest biofilm population (2.3 x 10(9) CFU/g of support), cell density (absorbance of 1.8 at 620 nm), and lactic acid concentration (7.6 g/liter) in minimal medium. PMID:9212402

Ho, K L; Pometto, A L; Hinz, P N; Dickson, J S; Demirci, A

1997-07-01

236

Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus casei GG–derived enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Processing of proteins in the gut and activation of T-cell suppression leads to systemic hyporesponsiveness to ingested protein antigens. Objective:The study was designed to determine whether lactobacilli, a major part of human intestinal microflora, can contribute to degradation of food antigens in the gut and modify their immunoactivities. Methods:Lymphocyte transformation tests were carried out in healthy adults to determine the

Yelda Sütas; Esa Soppi; Hannu Korhonen; Eeva-Liisa Syväoja; Maija Saxelin; Timo Rokka; Erika Isolauri

1996-01-01

237

A component of polysaccharide peptidoglycan complex on Lactobacillus induced an improvement of murine model of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signals play key roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We previously described that both intact cells and a cell wall-derived polysaccharide–peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) in a strain of lactobacillus [Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS)] inhibited IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) isolated from murine IBD. Diets with LcS improve murine IBD by suppression of IL-6 synthesis in LPMCs. Moreover, LcS supplementation with fermented milk ameliorates disease activity in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Here, we focused on the specific roles of PSPG in LcS concerning their anti-inflammatory actions. PSPG derived from LcS, and no other strain of lactobacilli, inhibited IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs. Purified PSPG-I from LcS inhibited IL-6 synthesis in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs through the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B. The anti-IL-6 action of LcS PSPG was abrogated by masking with monoclonal anti-PSPG-I. Furthermore, PSPG-I-negative L. casei strains (PSPG-I-negative mutant LcS: LC?PSPG-I, L. casei ATCC 334) did not inhibit IL-6 production. Finally, we confirmed the effects of PSPG-I on LcS in the models of both IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In the IBD model, ingestion of LcS improved ileitis and inhibited activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling, while ingestion of the LC?PSPG-I strain did not. In the CAC model, treatment with LcS, but not the LC?PSPG-I strain, showed tumour-suppressive effects with an inhibition of IL-6 production in the colonic mucosa. These results suggested that a specific polysaccharide component in an L. casei strain plays a crucial role in its anti-inflammatory actions in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders.

Matsumoto, S; Hara, T; Nagaoka, M; Mike, A; Mitsuyama, K; Sako, T; Yamamoto, M; Kado, S; Takada, T

2009-01-01

238

Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus suppresses DMH-induced procarcinogenic fecal enzymes and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci in early colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Diet makes an important contribution to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk implying risks for CRC are potentially reducible. Therefore, the probiotics have been suggested as the prophylactic measure in colon cancer. In this study, different probiotics were used to compare their protective potential against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced chemical colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals belonging to different probiotic groups were fed orally with 1 × 10(9) lactobacilli daily for 1 week, and then a weekly injection of DMH was given intraperitoneally for 6 wks with daily administration of probiotic. Lactobacillus GG and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated animals had maximum percent reduction in ACF counts. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in fecal nitroreductase activity was observed in L.casei + DMH and L.plantarum + DMH-treated rats whereas ?-glucuronidase activity decreased in L.GG + DMH and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated rats. Animals treated with Bifidobacterium bifidum + DMH had significant decreased ?-glucosidase activity. However, not much difference was observed in the colon morphology of animals belonging to various probiotic + DMH-treated rats compared with DMH-treated alone. The results indicated that probiotics, L.GG, and L.acidophilus can be used as the better prophylactic agents for experimental colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23368917

Verma, Angela; Shukla, Geeta

2013-01-01

239

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814 was isolated from raw fermented poultry salami. The species was present in high numbers and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814, isolated from poultry salami, and describe major findings from its annotation.

Kim, Dae-Soo; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ryong Nam; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kang, Aram; Kim, Aeri; Park, Hong-Seog

2011-01-01

240

Isolation and basic characterization of a ?-glucosidase from a strain of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from a malolactic starter culture  

PubMed Central

Aims To study glycosidase activities of a Lactobacillus brevis strain and to isolate an intracellular ?-glucosidase from this strain. Methods and Results Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a commercially available starter culture preparation for MLF were tested for ?-glycosidase activities. A strain of L .brevis showing high intracellular ?-d-glucosidase, ?-d-xylosidase and ?-l-arabinosidase activities was selected for purification and characterization of its ?-glucosidase. The pure glucosidase from L. brevis has also side activites of xylosidase, arabinosidase and cellobiosidase. It is a homo-tetramer of 330 kDa and has an isoelectric point at pH 3.5.The Km for p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xylopyranoside is 0.22 mM and 1.14 mM, respectively. The ?-glucosidase activity was strongly inhibited by gluconic acid ?-lactone, partially by glucose and gluconate, but not by fructose. Ethanol and methanol were found to increase the activity up to two fold. The free enzyme was stable at pH 7.0 (t1/2 = 50 d) but not at pH 4.0 (t1/2 = 4 d). Conclusions The ?-glucosidase from L. brevis is widely different to that characterized from Lactobacillus casei (Coulon et al. 1998) and Lactobacillus plantarum (Sestelo et al. 2004). The high tolerance to fructose and ethanol, the low inhibitory effect of glucose on the enzyme activity and the good long-term stability could be of great interest for the release of aroma compounds during winemaking. Significance and Impact of the study Although the release of aroma compounds by LAB has been demonstrated by several authors, little information exists on the responsible enzymes. This study contains the first characterization of an intracellular ?-glucosidase isolated from a wine related strain of L. brevis.

Michlmayr, H.; Schumann, C.; da Silva, N.M. Barreira Braz; Kulbe, K.D.; del Hierro, A.M.

2011-01-01

241

Gut Balance, a synbiotic supplement, increases fecal Lactobacillus paracasei but has little effect on immunity in healthy physically active individuals.  

PubMed

Synbiotic supplements, which contain multiple functional ingredients, may enhance the immune system more than the use of individual ingredients alone. A double blind active controlled parallel trial over a 21 d exercise training period was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gut Balance™, which contains Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. casei 431®), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5®), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), two prebiotics (raftiline and raftilose) and bovine whey derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins with acacia gum on fecal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut permeability, salivary lactoferrin and serum cytokines. All subjects randomized were included in the analysis. There was a 9-fold (1.2-fold to 64-fold; 95% confidence intervals p = 0.03) greater increase in fecal L. paracasei numbers with Gut Balance™ compared with acacia gum supplementation. Gut Balance™ was associated with a 50% (-12% to 72%; p = 0.02) smaller increase in the concentration of serum IL-16 in comparison to acacia gum from pre- to post-study. No substantial effects of either supplement were evident in fecal SCFA concentrations, measures of mucosal immunity or GI permeability. Clinical studies are now required to determine whether Gut Balance™ may exert beneficial GI health effects by increasing the recovery of fecal L. paracasei. Both supplements had little effect on immunity. Twenty two healthy physically active male subjects (mean age = 33.9 ± 6.5y) were randomly allocated to either daily prebiotic or synbiotic supplementation for 21 d. Saliva, blood, urine and fecal samples were collected pre-, mid and post-intervention. Participants recorded patterns of physical activity on a self-reported questionnaire. PMID:22572834

West, Nicholas P; Pyne, David B; Cripps, Allan W; Christophersen, Claus T; Conlon, Michael A; Fricker, Peter A

2012-01-01

242

Oxygen-Dependent Regulation of the Expression of the Catalase Gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677  

PubMed Central

The catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli UM2, Lactobacillus casei LK1, and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1432. The last host is a catalase-deficient plasmid-cured derivative of a starter organism used in meat fermentation. The regulation of katA expression was found to be the same in L. sakei LTH677 and the recombinant strains. The addition of H2O2 to anaerobic cultures, as well as a switch to aerobic conditions, resulted in a strong increase in KatA activity. The expression was investigated in more detail with L. sakei LTH677 and L. curvatus LTH4002. The recombinant strain LTH4002 did not accumulate H2O2 under glucose-limited aerobic conditions and remained viable in the stationary phase. Under inductive conditions, the katA-specific mRNA and the apoenzyme were synthesized de novo. Deletion derivatives of the katA promoter were produced, and the regulatory response was investigated by fusion to the ?-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and expression in L. sakei LTH677. The fact that gene expression was subject to induction was confirmed at the level of transcription and protein synthesis. A small putative regulatory sequence of at least 25 bp was identified located upstream of the ?35 site. Competition experiments performed with L. sakei LTH677 harboring the fusion constructs consisting of the katA promoter and gusA revealed that an activator protein is involved in the transcriptional induction of katA.

Hertel, Christian; Schmidt, Gudrun; Fischer, Marc; Oellers, Katja; Hammes, Walter P.

1998-01-01

243

Systematics of the Lactobacillus population on rat intestinal mucosa with special reference to Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systematics of theLactobacillus population of the intestines of 88 different rats was studied; 80 rats had been fed on fermented oat-meal soup (Molin et al. 1992). One-hundred-twenty-twoLactobacillus strains from the intestinal mucosa were phenotypically classified together with twenty-eight reference strains ofLactobacillus andLeuconostoc, using 49 unit characters. Data were examined using Jaccard coefficient, and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic

G. Molin; M. L. Johansson; M. Ståhl; S. Ahrné; R. Andersson; B. Jeppsson; S. Bengmark

1992-01-01

244

Fermentation of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III by Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum.  

PubMed

The in vitro fermentability of sago (Metroxylon sagu) resistant starch type III (RS(3)) by selected probiotic bacteria was investigated. Sago RS(3) with 12% RS content was prepared by enzymatic debranching of native sago starch with pullulanase enzyme, followed by autoclaving, cooling, and annealing. The fermentation of sago RS(3) by L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. casei FTCC 0442, and B. bifidum BB12 was investigated by observing the bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption profiles, pH changes, and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the fermentation media. Comparisons were made with commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), Hi-maize 1043, and Hi-maize 240. Submerged fermentations were conducted in 30 mL glass vials for 24 h at 37 degrees C in an oven without shaking. The results indicated that fermentation of sago RS(3) significantly (P < 0.05) yielded the highest count of Lactobacillus sp. accompanied by the largest reduction in pH of the medium. Sago RS(3) was significantly the most consumed substrate compared to FOS and Hi-maizes. PMID:20121195

Siew-Wai, Loo; Zi-Ni, Tan; Karim, Alias A; Hani, Norziah M; Rosma, Ahmad

2010-02-24

245

Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov., from wine.  

PubMed

Ten Lactobacillus strains, previously isolated from different Bobal grape wines from the Utiel-Requena Origin Denomination of Spain, were characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a tight phylogenetic clade that is closely related to reference strains Lactobacillus satsumensis NRIC 0604T, 'Lactobacillus uvarum' 8 and Lactobacillus mali DSM 20444T. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separation of the strains from other Lactobacillus species. Genotypically, the strains could be differentiated from their closest neighbours by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The strains were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not exhibit catalase activity. Phenotypically, they could be distinguished from their closest relatives by several traits such as their inabilities to grow at pH 3.3, to ferment sucrose, amygdalin and arbutin or to hydrolyse aesculin. The characteristics of the ten wine isolates suggest that they represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59bT (=CECT 7334T=DSM 19972T). PMID:19567555

Mañes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Pardo, Isabel

2009-08-01

246

Hydrolysis of muscle myofibrillar proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic enzyme activities of whole cells and cell free extracts (CFE) of Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were characterised using synthetic chromogenic compounds and myofibrillar proteins as substrates. The hydrolytic action was monitored by SDS–PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC analyses. The CFE of L. sake partially contributed, together with muscle enzymes, to the initial hydrolysis of myofibrillar

Yolanda Sanz; Silvina Fadda; Graciela Vignolo; M-Concepción Aristoy; Guillermo Oliver; Fidel Toldrá

1999-01-01

247

Genotypic diversity of stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus paraplantarum are three closely related species which are widespread in food and non-food environments, and are important as starter bacteria or probiotics. In order to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of stress tolerance in the L. plantarum group and the ability to mount an adaptive heat shock response, the survival of exponential and stationary phase and of heat adapted exponential phase cells of six L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, one L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, one L. pentosus and two L. paraplantarum strains selected in a previous work upon exposure to oxidative, heat, detergent, starvation and acid stresses was compared to that of the L. plantarum WCFS1 strain. Furthermore, to evaluate the genotypic diversity in stress response genes, ten genes (encoding for chaperones DnaK, GroES and GroEL, regulators CtsR, HrcA and CcpA, ATPases/proteases ClpL, ClpP, ClpX and protease FtsH) were amplified using primers derived from the WCFS1 genome sequence and submitted to restriction with one or two endonucleases. The results were compared by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, the amplicons for hrcA and ctsR were sequenced and compared by multiple sequence alignment and polymorphism analysis. Although there was evidence of a generalized stress response in the stationary phase, with increase of oxidative, heat, and, to a lesser extent, starvation stress tolerance, and for adaptive heat stress response, with increased tolerance to heat, acid and detergent, different growth phases and adaptation patterns were found. Principal component analysis showed that while heat, acid and detergent stresses respond similarly to growth phase and adaptation, tolerance to oxidative and starvation stresses implies completely unrelated mechanisms. A dendrogram obtained using the data from multilocus restriction typing (MLRT) of stress response genes clearly separated two groups of L. plantarum strains from the other species but there was no correlation between genotypic grouping and grouping obtained on the basis of the stress response pattern, nor with the phylograms obtained from hrcA and ctsR sequences. Differences in sequence in L. plantarum strains were mostly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms with a high frequency of synonymous nucleotide changes and, while hrcA was characterized by an excess of low frequency polymorphism, very low diversity was found in ctsR sequences. Sequence alignment of hrcA allowed a correct discrimination of the strains at the species level, thus confirming the relevance of stress response genes for taxonomy. PMID:22704047

Ricciardi, Annamaria; Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Ianniello, Rocco Gerardo; Zotta, Teresa; Abu Sayem, S M; Varcamonti, Mario

2012-07-01

248

Lactobacillus  

MedlinePLUS

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely ... also been used. For preventing and shortening the duration of diarrhea in newborns within the first year ...

249

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus H10 ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus strain H10 was isolated from traditional fermented milk in Tibet, China. We sequenced the whole genome of strain H10 and compared it to the published genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571.

Zhao, Wenjing; Chen, Yongfu; Sun, Zhihong; Wang, Jicheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping

2011-01-01

250

Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain of a species ofLactobacillus of human origin, designated GG (Lactobacillus GG), has been studied to determine its ability to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. When fed to 76 volunteers as a frozen concentrate or as a fermented preparation in milk or whey,Lactobacillus GG was recovered in the feces of all subjects receiving the fermented milk

Barry R. Goldin; Sherwood L. Gorbach; Maija Saxelin; Susan Barakat; Lisa Gualtieri; Seppo Salminen

1992-01-01

251

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301T  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301T is a novel Lactobacillus species previously isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia) in Taiwan. Phylogenetically, this strain is closest to Lactobacillus acidipiscis, but its phenotypic characteristics can be clearly distinguished from those of L. acidipiscis. We present the draft genome sequence of strain L. pobuzihii E100301T.

Chiu, Chi-ming; Chang, Chi-huan; Pan, Shwu-fen; Wu, Hui-chung; Li, Shiao-wen; Chang, Chuan-hsiung; Lee, Yun-shien; Chiang, Chih-ming

2013-01-01

252

Lactobacillus saerimneri and Lactobacillus ruminis: novel human-derived probiotic strains with immunomodulatory activities  

PubMed Central

Human-derived lactobacilli were isolated from fecal samples of healthy volunteers. Forty-six isolates from different volunteers were selected and investigated for their immunomodulatory properties. Conditioned medium from each isolate was assessed for its effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - activated THP-1 monocytes. Of 46 Lactobacillus isolates, 12 significantly inhibited TNF production in varying magnitude. Lactobacillus strain TH58 displayed the most potent TNF - inhibitory activity (70% inhibition). In contrast, Lactobacillus strain TH14 exhibited immunostimulatory property by activating TNF production in THP-1 monocytes. Lactobacillus TH14 induced NF-?B activation in the absence of LPS stimulation, whereas Lactobacillus TH58 had no effect on NF-?B signaling, irrespective of LPS stimulation. Strain TH58 was identified as Lactobacillus saerimneri and strain TH14 as Lactobacillus ruminis by sequence analysis of the16S rRNA gene. This is the first report of a human isolate of L. saerimneri with TNF inhibitory activity and L. ruminis, an indigenous species to humans, with TNF stimulatory activity. Our data suggest the potential use of these two strains as immunoprobiotic candidates.

Taweechotipatr, Malai; Iyer, Chandra; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Versalovic, James; Tumwasorn, Somying

2014-01-01

253

Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties.

Griffiths, M. W.; Tellez, A. M.

2012-01-01

254

Intervention of Acidophilus-casei dahi and Wheat bran against molecular alteration in colon carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vivo trial was conducted on seventy five rats allocated to three groups, first group was DMH control group, second group\\u000a was Wheat bran-DMH group (WB-DMH) in which wheat bran was given along with DMH (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) injection, third group\\u000a was Wheat bran-DMH-Ac Dahi group in which both wheat bran and Acidophilus-casei dahi (a probiotic microorganisms fermented\\u000a dairy product) was

Arvind Kumar; Nikhlesh Kumar Singh; Pushpalata Rabindra Sinha; Raj Kumar

2010-01-01

255

Hydrolysis of Pork Muscle Sarcoplasmic Proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were selected on the basis of their proteolytic activities against synthetic substrates. Further, the effects of whole cells, cell extracts, and a combination of both enzymatic sources on muscle sarcoplasmic proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography anal- yses. Strains of both species displayed

Silvina Fadda; Yolanda Sanz; Graciela Vignolo; M. concepcio N Aristoy; Guillermo Oliver; Fidel Toldra

1999-01-01

256

Ensiling whole-crop wheat and corn in large containers with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effect of applying Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, at ensiling, on the aerobic stability of wheat and corn silages was studied in 50-l plastic containers. Treatments comprised\\u000a control (no additives), L. plantarum, L. buchneri and a combination of L. plantarum+L. buchneri. After 3 months of storage, the wheat silages treated with L. buchneri had higher

ZG Weinberg; G Ashbell; Y Hen; A Azrieli; G Szakacs; I Filya

2002-01-01

257

Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of homofermentative lactobacilli and two strains of heterofermentative lactobacilli were isolated from kefir grains by using R-CW agar medium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics, DNA guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these isolates and previously described lactobacilli were compared. Our results indicated that two new species, Lactobacillus kefirgranurn and Lactobacillus parakefir, could be distinguished. The type

S. TAKIZAWA; S. KOJIMA; S. TAMURA; S. FUJINAGA; Y. BENNO

1994-01-01

258

Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum  

SciTech Connect

Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

1984-04-01

259

CD4 detected from Lactobacillus helps understand the interaction between Lactobacillus and HIV.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects and destroys CD4+ cells and leads to a gradual decline in the number of CD4 cells. Despite evidence that probiotics increase CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and lower the risk of HIV transmission, little is known about the detailed mechanism underlying these effects. In this study, we investigated the cell surface protein of Lactobacillus and its role in blocking HIV-1 transmission by lactobacilli. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), we detected the CD4 receptor on the surface of Lactobacillus. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) for the CD4 receptor could partially inhibit HIV-1 binding to Lactobacillus. In addition, Lactobacillus could decrease HIV-1 pseudovirus infection of TZM-bl cells in vitro by 60-70%. Our data suggest that Lactobacillus can use this receptor to bind HIV and block HIV infection. This may in turn increase the CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV. These data provide direct evidence that Lactobacillus expresses the CD4 receptor and utilizes it to block HIV transmission. PMID:23318049

Su, Yan; Zhang, Baojiang; Su, Lingling

2013-06-12

260

Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40 60 nm are found.

Prasad, K.; Jha, Anal K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

2007-05-01

261

The peptide hydrolase system of Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptide hydrolase system of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098, a lactic acid bacteria of sourdough origin, was investigated. This microorganism has a broad range of peptidases consisting of an active aminopeptidase, X-Prolyl-dipeptidylaminopeptidase, dipeptidase and tripeptidase. Aminopeptidase, iminopeptidase and endopeptidase are most likely located in the cytoplasmic fraction showing no detectable association with the cell membrane, while dipeptidase and tripeptidase are mainly

G Rollán

2001-01-01

262

Amino acid transport in Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid transport in Lactobacillus helveticus was analyzed. Strain specificity of amino acid transport was speculated between L. helveticus NCDO2712 and SBT2171. Glucose energized L. helveticus NCDO2712 actively transported and accumulated the essential and growth stimulating amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, arginine, and histidine). Uptake of proline, phenylalanine and tryptophan was not observed.

Hadjime Nakajima; Edmund R. S. Kunji; Bert Poolman; Wil N. Konings

1998-01-01

263

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains.

Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Kosarev, Igor V.; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.

2014-01-01

264

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus 2029.  

PubMed

This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus 2029. The reads generated by the Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs with a total size of 2.2 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. A comparison with the reference strain revealed specific features of the genome. PMID:24558253

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Khlebnikov, Valentin C; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2014-01-01

265

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. 184.1924 Section...1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation...nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains...

2009-04-01

266

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. 184.1924 Section...1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation...nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains...

2010-01-01

267

The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108) bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with ConA reactive sugars at the serine residues at 106 and 107. Glycosylation is not required for the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1 nor for Akt activation capacity in epithelial cells, but appears to be important for its stability and protection against proteases.

2012-01-01

268

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

269

Oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNF?, IFN?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9) expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNF?, IFN? and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches). Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNF? and increasing IFN?, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing an alternative way to reduce the severity of the infection.

2011-01-01

270

Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.  

PubMed

A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p < 0.05). The present work showed that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. PMID:23764216

Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

2013-10-01

271

A selective differential medium for Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The quantification of exogenous lactobacilli in faecal samples is frequently required for the evaluation of the intestinal colonization by probiotic bacteria. In this study, a selective and differential medium, designated LPSM, was developed for the culture of exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum. In quantitative assays, LPSM showed a sensitivity similar to those of enriched and Lactobacillus-adapted media. The presence of ciprofloxacin made LPSM inhibitory to most intestinal bacteria, including endogenous acid lactic bacteria, whereas exogenous L. plantarum strains grew producing a yellow color caused by acid production from sorbitol in the presence of bromocresol purple. The results showed that LPSM is suitable for detection and enumeration of L. plantarum in faecal samples. PMID:16554099

Bujalance, Carmen; Jiménez-Valera, Maria; Moreno, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso

2006-09-01

272

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098 Produces Cobalamin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B12-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-pro- panediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement

María P. Taranto; J. L. Vera; J. Hugenholtz; G. F. De Valdez; F. Sesma

2003-01-01

273

Susceptibility of Lactobacillus spp. to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Bacteria used as probiotics or in starter cultures may serve as hosts of antibiotic resistance genes, which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. Before launching a starter culture or a probiotic product into the market, it is therefore important to verify that the single bacterial isolates (strains) do not contain transferable resistance genes. A study has been undertaken to establish the levels of susceptibility of Lactobacillus spp. to various antimicrobial agents. This is a prerequisite for differentiating putative transferable resistance from natural resistance. A selection of 62 strains has been screened with the use of the Etest (ABBiodisk, Stockholm, Sweden) for their susceptibility to 25 antimicrobial agents. The strains belonged to the following species: Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. sakei, L. curvatus and species of the L. acidophilus group: L. johnsonii, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, and L. acidophilus. The results from the Etests have shown that the level of susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents is species-dependent. For the following antimicrobial agents, susceptibility varied several folds between species: vancomycin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, and clindamycin. The differences between the species were more subtle for the rest of the tested antimicrobial agents. On the basis of the result, it was possible to suggest minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) for the individual Lactobacillus species to be used as a microbiological breakpoint when screening strains for transferable resistance genes. PMID:12505455

Danielsen, Morten; Wind, Anette

2003-01-26

274

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the effects of ligand binding on ryptophan residues of selectively deuterated dihydrofolate reductase from Lactobacillus casei  

SciTech Connect

We have prepared a selectively deuterated dihydrofolate reductase in which all the aromatic protons except the C(2) protons of tryptophan have been replaced by deuterium and have examined the 1H NMR spectra of its complexes with folate, trimethoprim, methotrexate, NADP+, and NADPH. One of the four Trp C(2)-proton resonance signals (signal P at 3.66 ppm from dioxane) has been asigned to Trp-21 by examining the NMR spectrum of a selectively deuterated N-bromosuccinimide-modified dihydrofolate reductase. This signal is not perturbed by NADPH, indicating that the coenzyme is not binding close to the 2 position of Trp-21. This contrasts markedly with the 19F shift (2.7 ppm) observed for the 19F signal of Trp-21 in the NADPH complex with the 6-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme. In fact the crystal structure of the enzyme . methotrexate . NADPH shows that the carboxamide group of the reduced nicotinamide ring is near to the 6 position of Trp-21 but remote from its 2 position. The nonadditivity of the 1H chemical-shift contributions for signals tentatively assigned to Trp-5 and -133 indicates that these residues are influenced by ligand-induced conformational changes.

Feeney, J.; Roberts, G.C.; Thomson, J.W.; King, R.W; Griffiths, D.V.; Burgen, A.S.

1980-05-01

275

Protective Effect of Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in Infant Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined colonization patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), concentrations of Shiga toxins (Stxs) and specific immunoglobulin A (lgA) against Stxs and STEC bacterial cell surface antigen in various portions of the gastrointestinal tract in an infant rabbit infection model. After inoculation of 3- day-old infant rabbits with STEC strain 89020087 at low doses (;103 CFU\\/body), numbers of colonizing

MICHINAGA OGAWA; KENSUKE SHIMIZU; KOJI NOMOTO; MASATOSHI TAKAHASHI; MASAAKI WATANUKI; RYUICHIRO TANAKA; TETSUYA TANAKA; TAKASHI HAMABATA; SHINJI YAMASAKI; YOSHIFUMI TAKEDA

2001-01-01

276

Rapid screening of solvents and carrier compounds for lactic acid recovery by emulsion liquid extraction and toxicity on Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 11443)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a rapid method to identify the best solvent and carrier compound combinations with the highest extraction capability and the lowest microbial toxicity characteristics for product recovery from microbial fermentation. The extraction system has an aqueous phase, and an emulsion phase, which was a blend of sodium carbonate and organic phase [91% (v\\/v) organic solvent, 5% (v\\/v or

Ali Demirci; Anthony L. Pometto; Kristi R. Harkins

1998-01-01

277

Hydrolysis of muscle myofibrillar proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake.  

PubMed

Proteolytic enzyme activities of whole cells and cell free extracts (CFE) of Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were characterised using synthetic chromogenic compounds and myofibrillar proteins as substrates. The hydrolytic action was monitored by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC analyses. The CFE of L. sake partially contributed, together with muscle enzymes, to the initial hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. Whole-cells of both L. curvatus and L. sake generated peptides considered important for cured-meat taste. The peptide mapping, resulting from the action on the substrates assayed, revealed a profile of extra and intracellular enzymes. Both strains expressed strong amino acid metabolism. PMID:10634703

Sanz, Y; Fadda, S; Vignolo, G; Aristoy, M C; Oliver, G; Toldrá, F

1999-12-15

278

Decolorization of water and oil-soluble azo dyes by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum to degrade azo dyes was investigated. The bacteria were incubated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 6 µg\\/ml Methyl\\u000a Red, Ponceau BS, Orange G, Amaranth, Orange II, and Direct Blue 15; 5 µg\\/ml Sudan I and II; or 1.5 µg\\/ml Sudan III and IV\\u000a in deMann–Rogosa–Sharpe broth at 37°C for 36 h, and reduction of

Huizhong Chen; Haiyan Xu; Thomas M. Heinze; Carl E. Cerniglia

2009-01-01

279

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spec- trum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did

MICHAEL G. GANZLE; ALEXANDRA HOLTZEL; JENS WALTER; GUNTHER JUNG; WALTER P. HAMMES

2000-01-01

280

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a levansucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 employs a fructosyltransferase (FTF) to synthesize a fructose polymer [a fructan of the levan type, with ?(2?6) linkages] from sucrose or raffinose. Purification of this FTF (a levansucrase), and identification of peptide amino acid sequences, allowed isolation of the first Lactobacillus levansucrase gene (lev), encoding a protein (Lev) consisting of 804 amino acids. Lev showed highest

E. Szalowska; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

281

Construction of a new shuttle vector for Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

To clone the malolactic enzyme gene from Lactobacillus sp. 89, construction of a shuttle vector able to express itself in Lactobacillus sp. 89 and Escherichia coli was undertaken. The shuttle plasmid pLE16 resulted from the union of pBR328 and of the pLB10 plasmid extracted from Lactobacillus bulgaricus 10. The bacterial transformation in Lactobacillus sp. 89 was performed by electroporation, and the clones were selected on MRS medium with 30 micrograms.mL-1 chloramphenicol added. Fifty percent of the clones from Lactobacillus sp. 89 lost their resistance to chloramphenicol following 28 generations when the selection pressure was not maintained. The restriction map of pLE16 (7600 bp) was established using several restriction enzymes. PMID:1581865

Chagnaud, P; Chan Kwo Chion, C K; Duran, R; Naouri, P; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1992-01-01

282

Complete Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus johnsonii Strain N6.2 and Lactobacillus reuteri Strain TD1  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequences of Lactobacillus johnsonii strain N6.2, a homofermentative lactic acid intestinal bacterium, and Lactobacillus reuteri strain TD1, a heterofermentative lactic acid intestinal bacterium, both isolated from a type 1 diabetes-resistant rat model.

Leonard, Michael T.; Valladares, Ricardo B.; Ardissone, Alexandria; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2014-01-01

283

Complete Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus johnsonii Strain N6.2 and Lactobacillus reuteri Strain TD1.  

PubMed

We report here the complete genome sequences of Lactobacillus johnsonii strain N6.2, a homofermentative lactic acid intestinal bacterium, and Lactobacillus reuteri strain TD1, a heterofermentative lactic acid intestinal bacterium, both isolated from a type 1 diabetes-resistant rat model. PMID:24812223

Leonard, Michael T; Valladares, Ricardo B; Ardissone, Alexandria; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L; Triplett, Eric W

2014-01-01

284

[Influence of nutritional status on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus to prevent and cure diarrhoea in children].  

PubMed

The influence of undernutrition on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus regarding prevention and treatment of infantile diarrhoea was studied on 200 children 6 to 24m old. Children, undernourished (D) or controls (C), received for 90 days, in a blind experiment, a fermented milk providing L. Acidofilus y L. Casei (10(7)-10(8)/ml) (LB) or an equivalent amount of fluid milk (L). diarrhoea episodes were recorded and classified according duration: 1-4, 5-14 days, and protracted diarrhea (DP) those lasting beyond 14 days. Study requirements were fulfilled by 119 children: D-L: n=25; D-LB: n=32; C-L: n=27 y C-LB: n=35. Preventive aspects were evaluated through number of episodes and through their lasting the therapeutic ones. Episodes recorded were 134: 29 in D-L; 48 in D-LB; 37 in C-L and 20 in C-LB. In the D-LB group over 90% episodes were very short (1-4 days), percentage far higher to that observed in D-L and similar to C-LB. There were 12 episodes of DP, 9 D and 3 in C, all in the L groups. In conclusion, although the fermented milk prevent half episode in the controls but not in the undernourished, it was able to shorter episodes duration and prevent protracted diarrhoea irrespectively of nutritional status. Therefore, undernutrition impaired the ability of the lactobacillus supplement to prevent children diarrhoea, which implicates immune system, but not curative effects which are the result of local actions. PMID:15807203

Río, María Esther; Zago, Liliana Beatriz; Garcia, Hugo; Winter, Luis

2004-09-01

285

Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs)  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria is one of the most frequent infections in human population. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, often leads to appearance of drug resistance in bacteria. However, use of probiotic bacteria has been suggested as a partial replacement. This study was aimed to assess the antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus standard strains against bacteria isolated from UTI infections. Materials and Methods: Among 600 samples; those with ?10,000 cfu/ml were selected as UTI positive samples. Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli were found the most prevalent UTI causative agents. All isolates were screened for multi drug resistance and subjected to the antimicrobial effects of three Lactobacillus strains by using microplate technique and the MICs amounts were determined. In order to verify the origin of antibiotic resistance of isolates, plasmid curing using ethidium bromide and acridine orange was carried out. Results: No antagonistic activity in Lactobacilli suspension was detected against test on Enterococcus and Enterobacter strains and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to most antibiotics. However, an inhibitory effect was observed for E. coli which were resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. In addition, L. casei was determined to be the most effective probiotic. Results from replica plating suggested one of the plasmids could be related to the gene responsible for ampicillin resistance. Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.

Naderi, Atiyeh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Saffarian, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

286

Probiotic table olives: microbial populations adhering on olive surface in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in an industrial plant.  

PubMed

This study reports the dynamics of microbial populations adhering on the surface of debittered green olives cv. Bella di Cerignola in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in different brining conditions (4% and 8% (w/v) NaCl) at room temperature and 4 degrees C. The probiotic strain successfully colonized the olive surface dominating the natural LAB population and decreasing the pH of brines to Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. rhamnosus, L. brevis, L. mali, L. vaccinostercus, L.casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Weissella paramesenteroides, W. cibaria, Enterococcus casseliflavus group and E. italicus were identified during the whole process. In particular, L. pentosus was the most frequently isolated species and it showed a high strain diversity throughout fermentation in all processes except for the one held at 4 degrees C. Also a notable incidence of Leuc. mesenteroides on olives was highlighted in this study during all fermentation. Results indicated that the human strain L. paracasei IMPC2.1 can be considered an example of a strain used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture which allowed the control of fermentation processes and the realization of a final probiotic product with functional appeal. PMID:20226556

De Bellis, Palmira; Valerio, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

2010-05-30

287

Dose–Response Efficacy of a Proprietary Probiotic Formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea Prophylaxis in Adult Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Standard therapies for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) have limited efficacy. Probiotic prophylaxis is a promising alternative for reduction of AAD and CDAD incidence.METHODS:In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study, we randomized 255 adult inpatients to one of three groups: two probiotic capsules per day (Pro-2, n=86), one probiotic capsule and one placebo capsule per day

Xing Wang Gao; Mohamed Mubasher; Chong Yu Fang; Cheryl Reifer; Larry E Miller

2010-01-01

288

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098 Produces Cobalamin  

PubMed Central

We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B12-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-propanediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 7830 and allowed the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (metE cbiB) and Escherichia coli (metE) in minimal medium. Preliminary genetic studies of cobalamin biosynthesis genes from L. reuteri allowed the identification of cob genes which encode the CobA, CbiJ, and CbiK enzymes involved in the cobalamin pathway. The cobamide produced by L. reuteri, isolated in its cyanide form by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, showed a UV-visible spectrum identical to that of standard cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).

Taranto, Maria P.; Vera, Jose L.; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; De Valdez, Graciela F.; Sesma, Fernando

2003-01-01

289

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile.

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sanchez, Borja

2013-01-01

290

Lactobacillus Decelerates Cervical Epithelial Cell Cycle Progression  

PubMed Central

We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells.

Vielfort, Katarina; Weyler, Linda; Soderholm, Niklas; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Lofmark, Sonja; Aro, Helena

2013-01-01

291

Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

2014-12-01

292

Homodimeric ?-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ?170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS.

2012-01-01

293

Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the facultative jejunal Lactobacillus microbiota of fistulated beagles.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern. PMID:22843523

Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J K; Saris, Per E J

2012-10-01

294

Isolation and characterization of exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains grown on skim milk produce a viscosifying exocellular watersoluble heteropolysaccharide composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in an approximately molar ratio of 4:1:1. The molecular weight is approximately 500.000.

Jutta Cerning; C. Bouillanne; M. J. Desmazeaud; Michèle Landon

1986-01-01

295

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28 is an integral component of a multistrain commercial culture with food biopreservative and pathogen biocontrol functionality. A draft sequence of the L. animalis 381-IL-28 genome is described in this paper. PMID:24874675

Sturino, Joseph M; Rajendran, Mahitha; Altermann, Eric

2014-01-01

296

Distribution of genital Lactobacillus strains shared by female sex partners.  

PubMed

The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among lesbians is high. We assessed whether unique Lactobacillus strains were shared by female sex partners. Cultures of vaginal and rectal specimens for detection of Lactobacillus organisms were performed for women who reported having had sex with women. Lactobacilli were identified on the basis of DNA homology and were typed and fingerprinted by repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Of 237 women, Lactobacillus crispatus was detected in 98% and Lactobacillus gasseri in 21%. Detection of L. gasseri was associated with recent receptive digital-vaginal sex (P = .04) and increased bacterial vaginosis risk (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-13.4). Of 31 couples monogamous for >3 months, rep-PCR fingerprints were identical in both members in 23 (77%). PMID:19199538

Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Antonio, May; Agnew, Kathy; Hillier, Sharon L

2009-03-01

297

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28 is an integral component of a multistrain commercial culture with food biopreservative and pathogen biocontrol functionality. A draft sequence of the L. animalis 381-IL-28 genome is described in this paper.

Rajendran, Mahitha; Altermann, Eric

2014-01-01

298

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

299

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain UCMA 3037  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid of the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UCMA 3037, isolated from raw milk camembert cheese in our laboratory, was sequenced. We present its draft genome sequence with the aim of studying its functional properties and relationship to the cheese ecosystem.

Naz, Saima; Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Vaisse, Melissa; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Rechenmann, Mathias

2013-01-01

300

Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40°C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30°C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20°C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40°C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20°C and day 6 at 30°C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30°C but survived the entire test period at 20°C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20°C and day 2 at 30°C.

Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

1983-01-01

301

Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.

Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

1987-05-01

302

Surface Display of Foreign Epitopes on the Lactobacillus brevis SLayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, the inability to establish viable Lactobacillus surface layer (S-layer) null mutants has hampered the biotechnological applications of Lactobacillus S-layers. In this study, we demonstrate the utilization of Lacto- bacillus brevis S-layer subunits (SlpA) for the surface display of foreign antigenic epitopes. With an inducible expression system, L. brevis strains producing chimeric S-layers were obtained after testing of four

S. Avall-Jaaskelainen; K. Kyla-Nikkila; Minna Kahala; Terhi Miikkulainen-Lahti; Airi Palva

2002-01-01

303

Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.  

PubMed

Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9?% sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96?%) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10?%). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5?%) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18?:?1?9c (78.85 and 74.29?%) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) (?=?CCTCC M 2011481(T)?=?KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23002044

Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

2013-05-01

304

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

305

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

2012-02-01

306

Purification of a novel fructosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 and characterization of the levan produced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes have been characterized from various Gram-positive bacteria, but not from Lactobacillus sp. In a screening of 182 lactobacilli for polysaccharide production only one strain, Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121, was found to produce a fructan being a levan. Here we report the first-time identification and biochemical characterization of a Lactobacillus FTF enzyme. When incubated with sucrose the enzyme

Kees Bonting; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2001-01-01

307

Growth phase of orally administered Lactobacillus strains differentially affects T helper-cell pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus strains with probiotic activity are major constituents of numerous common food products. Due to their `generally regarded as safe¿-status (GRAS-status), Lactobacillus strains can also be genetically engineered for use in oral immunotherapeutic applications, such as vaccination and T lymphocyte tolerance induction in autoimmune disease. In the current study, we demonstrate that the growth phase of orally administered individual Lactobacillus

C. B. M. Maassen; W. J. A. Boersma; Holten-Neelen van J. C. P. A; E. A. W. Claassen; J. D. Laman

2003-01-01

308

Decolorization of water and oil-soluble azo dyes by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum.  

PubMed

The capability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum to degrade azo dyes was investigated. The bacteria were incubated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 6 microg/ml Methyl Red, Ponceau BS, Orange G, Amaranth, Orange II, and Direct Blue 15; 5 microg/ml Sudan I and II; or 1.5 microg/ml Sudan III and IV in deMann-Rogosa-Sharpe broth at 37 degrees C for 36 h, and reduction of the dyes was monitored. Both bacteria were capable of degrading all of the water-soluble azo dyes to some extent. They were also able to completely reduce the oil-soluble diazo dyes Sudan III and IV but were unable to reduce the oil-soluble monoazo dyes Sudan I and II to any significant degree in the concentrations studied. Growth of the bacteria was not significantly affected by the presence of the Sudan azo dyes. Metabolites of the bacterial degradation of Sudan III and IV were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses and compared with authentic standards. Aniline and o-toluidine (2-methylaniline), both potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, were metabolites of Sudan III and IV, respectively. PMID:19727875

Chen, Huizhong; Xu, Haiyan; Heinze, Thomas M; Cerniglia, Carl E

2009-12-01

309

Hydrolysis of Pork Muscle Sarcoplasmic Proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were selected on the basis of their proteolytic activities against synthetic substrates. Further, the effects of whole cells, cell extracts, and a combination of both enzymatic sources on muscle sarcoplasmic proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strains of both species displayed proteinase activities on five sarcoplasmic proteins. The inoculation of whole cells caused a degradation of peptides, whereas the addition of cell extracts resulted in the generation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides. This phenomenon was remarkably more pronounced when L. curvatus was involved. Whole cells also consumed a great amount of free amino acids, while the addition of intracellular enzymes contributed to their generation. L. sake accounted for a greater release of free amino acids. In general, cell viability and also proteolytic events were promoted when cell suspensions were provided with cell extracts as an extra source of enzymes.

Fadda, Silvina; Sanz, Yolanda; Vignolo, Graciela; Aristoy, M.-Concepcion; Oliver, Guillermo; Toldra, Fidel

1999-01-01

310

The characterization of undecaprenol of Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the presence of undecaprenol in the unsaponifiable lipid of Lactobacillus plantarum (N.C.I.B. 6376) is presented. Characterization of the compound was based mainly on mass, i.r. and n.m.r. spectrometry. The prenol was isolated at a concentration of 40?g/g wet wt. of bacteria and contained over 90% (1.0–5.4% of the dose) of the 14C present in the unsaponifiable lipid after incubation of the bacteria with [2-14C]mevalonate. N.m.r. spectrometry indicated the presence of two internal trans-, one ?-cis- and seven internal cis-isoprene residues per molecule. The 3H/14C ratios of the prenol after incubation of the bacteria with [2-14C,(4R)-4-3H1]- and [2-14C,(4S)-4-3H1]-mevalonate were in agreement with this stereochemistry. There was no evidence of saturated isoprene residues in the molecule. The undecaprenol appeared to be accompanied by much smaller quantities of decaprenol and nonaprenol.

Gough, Doreen P.; Kirby, Alison L.; Richards, J. B.; Hemming, F. W.

1970-01-01

311

Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.  

PubMed

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Sybesma, Wilbert; Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen; Kort, Remco

2013-04-01

312

Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies.

Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

2013-01-01

313

Lactobacillus bulgaricus mutants decompose uremic toxins.  

PubMed

Abstract Background/Aims: We aim to obtain a probiotic strain from Lactobacillus bulgaricus by testing its capability to decompose uremic toxins to provide new intestinal bacteria for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Methods: Original L. bulgaricus was cultured with the serum of uremic patients and then mutated by physical (ultraviolet) and chemical (diethyl sulfate) methods repeatedly. Using creatinine decomposition rate as an observed index, we selected the best strains which decreased the most concentration of the creatinine. We then tested its ability to decompose urea, uric acid, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and homocysteine and its genetic stability. Results: After inductive and mutagenic treatment, DUC3-17 was selected. Its decomposition rate of creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and homocysteine were 17.23%, 36.02%, 9.84%, 15.73%, 78.26%, and 12.69%, respectively. The degrading capacity was sustained over five generations. Conclusions: After directional induction and compound mutation, L. bulgaricus has greater capacity to decompose uremic toxins, with a stable inheritance. PMID:24575979

Bai, Yun-Huan; Jiang, Ya-Fen; Jiang, Yun-Sheng

2014-06-01

314

Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated with peritonitis caused by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. rarely causes human disease. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and vascular disease admitted to our hospital with severe abdominal pain and fever. Signs of peritonitis were found upon examination. The patient underwent surgery, and a diagnosis of perforated cholecystitis with purulent peritonitis was made intra-operatively. A cholecystectomy was performed, and therapy with imipenem was initiated. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from bile and peritoneal fluid cultures 2 days later. The patient recovered well and was discharged on post-operative day 16 after 14 days of treatment with imipenem. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported of acute cholecystitis caused by Lactobacillus spp. This organism should be considered as a cause of biliary infections, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Correct identification is often difficult, but it is very important because these organisms are usually resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics. PMID:23886436

Tena, Daniel; Martínez, Nora Mariela; Losa, Cristina; Fernández, Cristina; Medina, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

2013-08-01

315

Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov., isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia).  

PubMed

Twenty-one homofermentative lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented cummingcordia (pobuzihi), a traditional food in Taiwan. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were distinct from those of other lactobacilli, and their closest neighbours in the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree were strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between representative pobuzihi isolates and strains of L. acidipiscis were 17% and below. Furthermore, the new isolates could be differentiated clearly from L. acidipiscis NBRC 102163T and NBRC 102164 in terms of acid production from L-arabinose, rhamnose, mannitol, lactose and 5-ketogluconate. It was concluded that the new isolates represent a single novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E100301T (=RIFY 6501T =NBRC 103219T =KCTC 13174T). PMID:19783610

Chen, Yi-Sheng; Miyashita, Mika; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Sato, Hajime; Hsu, Jar-Sheng; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-08-01

316

Quantitative transcript analysis of the inducible expression system pSIP: comparison of the overexpression of Lactobacillus spp. ?-galactosidases in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Two sets of overlapping genes, lacLMReu and lacLMAci, encoding heterodimeric ?-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively, have previously been cloned and expressed using the pSIP vector system and Lactobacillus plantarum WCSF1 as host. Despite the high similarity between these lacLM genes and the use of identical cloning and expression strategies, strains harboring lacLMReu produced about twenty-fold more ?-galactosidase

Tien-Thanh Nguyen; Thu-Ha Nguyen; Thomas Maischberger; Philipp Schmelzer; Geir Mathiesen; Vincent GH Eijsink; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens K Peterbauer

2011-01-01

317

Lactobacillus cypricasei sp. nov., isolated from Halloumi cheese.  

PubMed

Four strains of a hitherto unknown bacterium isolated from Halloumi cheese were compared by using phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the strains were identical to each other and represent a new subline within the genus Lactobacillus. The unknown bacterium was readily distinguished from other described Gram-positive catalase-negative taxa by means of biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Lactobacillus cypricasei sp. nov. The type strain of L. cypricasei is CCUG 42961T (= CIP 106393T). PMID:11211271

Lawson, P A; Papademas, P; Wacher, C; Falsen, E; Robinson, R; Collins, M D

2001-01-01

318

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

319

Crystal structure of tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in plants. Hydrolyzable tannins are derivatives of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) or its meta-depsidic forms that are esterified to polyol, catechin, or triterpenoid units. Tannases are a family of esterases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the galloyl ester bond in hydrolyzable tannins to release gallic acid. The enzymes have found wide applications in food, feed, beverage, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries since their discovery more than a century ago, although little is known about them at the molecular level, including the details of the catalytic and substrate binding sites. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of a tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme displays an ?/? structure, featured by a large cap domain inserted into the classical serine hydrolase fold. A catalytic triad was identified in the structure, which is composed of Ser163, His451, and Asp419. During the binding of gallic acid, the carboxyl group of the molecule forges hydrogen-bonding interactions with the catalytic triad of the enzyme while the three hydroxyl groups make contacts with Asp421, Lys343, and Glu357 to form another hydrogen-bonding network. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that these residues are indispensable for the activity of the enzyme. Structural studies of the enzyme in complex with a number of substrates indicated that the interactions at the galloyl binding site are the determinant force for the binding of substrates. The single galloyl binding site is responsible for the esterase and depsidase activities of the enzyme. PMID:23648840

Ren, Bin; Wu, Mingbo; Wang, Qin; Peng, Xiaohong; Wen, Hua; McKinstry, William J; Chen, Qianming

2013-08-01

320

Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.  

PubMed Central

An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. Images

Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

1994-01-01

321

Adherence of Lactobacillus Species to Human Fetal Intestinal Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two lactobacilli were tested for ability to adhere to a human fetal in- testinal epithelial cell line. By an in vitro system, two adherence mechanisms were found. One mechanism, requiring calcium in the adherence reaction, was nonspecific and allowed all lactobacilli tested to adhere. The other system, not requiring calcium, was found in four strains, all human Lactobacillus acidopbilus isolates.

E. G. Kleeman; T. R. Klaenhammer

1982-01-01

322

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan (‘reuteran’) with mainly ?-(1?4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with

S. Kralj; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

323

Effect of glucose on glycerol bioconversion by Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of glucose on glycerol metabolism, especially on 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) accumulation by resting cells of Lactobacillus reuteri has been investigated. Two systems were used in the study: MRS- (modified MRS - omitting glucose, acetate and Tween 80) and distilled water (H2O). In MRS-, addition of glucose enhanced glycerol metabolism in resting cells of L. reuteri, consequently increasing the accumulation

Q. Lüthi-Peng; F. Dileme; Z. Puhan

2002-01-01

324

Production and stability of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) is considered as a potent antimicrobial substance. Exploration of its application as a food preservative or as a therapeutic auxiliary agent has been documented in the literature. In the present work, factors that may impact on 3-HPA accumulation by Lactobacillus reuteri and on the stability of 3-HPA were investigated. Three media - H2O, milk and MRS broth -

Q. Lüthi-Peng; S. Schärer; Z. Puhan

2002-01-01

325

Kinetic properties of an inulosucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inulosucrases catalyze transfer of a fructose moiety from sucrose to a water molecule (hydrolysis) or to an acceptor molecule (transferase), yielding inulin. Bacterial inulin production is rare and a biochemical analysis of inulosucrase enzymes has not been reported. Here we report biochemical characteristics of a purified recombinant inulosucrase enzyme from Lactobacillus reuteri. It displayed Michaelis–Menten type of kinetics with substrate

M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2003-01-01

326

Combination of marker genes for characterizing a Lactobacillus sakei strain  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a new combination of marker genes for characterizing a Lactobacillus sakei strain. In particular, the present invention concerns the use of a pattern of presence or absence of marker genes in the genome of the strain to be characterized for classifying and identifying said strain.

2012-12-11

327

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri Strain 2016  

PubMed Central

Different common factors contribute to the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus gasseri toward various pathogens. However, there is strain-to-strain variation in the probiotic properties of this bacterium. The draft genome sequence of L. gasseri strain 2016 determined in this study will assist in understanding the genetic basis for such variation.

Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Kosarev, Igor V.; Khlebnikov, Valentin C.; Sukhikh, Gennady T.; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.

2013-01-01

328

Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 is a commercially available probiotic that is widely used in human dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products. We prepared a draft genome sequence consisting of 10 contigs totaling 2,900,620 bases and a G+C content of 46.7% for this strain.

Barreau, Guillaume; de Carvalho, Vanessa G.

2012-01-01

329

Myoglobin as an Inhibitor of Exopeptidases from Lactobacillus sake  

PubMed Central

The effects of myoglobin on exopeptidases of Lactobacillus sake were determined. Inhibition of the aminopeptidases increased as the myoglobin concentration increased; aminopeptidase 3 was the most affected (90% inhibition). Aminopeptidases 1, 2, and 4 showed similar inhibition levels (around 60%). Myoglobin did not affect tripeptidase activity. Thus, myoglobin could limit amino acid generation in meat systems.

Sanz, Yolanda; Toldra, Fidel

1998-01-01

330

Draft genome sequence of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 is a commercially available probiotic that is widely used in human dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products. We prepared a draft genome sequence consisting of 10 contigs totaling 2,900,620 bases and a G+C content of 46.7% for this strain. PMID:22275100

Tompkins, Thomas A; Barreau, Guillaume; de Carvalho, Vanessa G

2012-02-01

331

Role of transporter proteins in bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM derivatives containing deletion mutations in the transporter genes LBA0552, LBA1429, LBA1446, and LBA1679 exhibited increased sensitivity to bile. These strains showed unique patterns of sensitivity to a variety of inhibitory compounds, as well as differential accumulations of ciprofloxacin and taurocholate. PMID:19633113

Pfeiler, Erika A; Klaenhammer, Todd R

2009-09-01

332

Antibacterial Effect of the Adhering Human Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Kleb- siella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

MARIE-HELENE COCONNIER; VANESSA LIEVIN; MARIE-FRANCOISE BERNET-CAMARD; SYLVIE HUDAULT; ALAIN L. SERVIN

1997-01-01

333

Sequence of ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a.  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding biodegradative ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a was isolated from a genomic DNA library and sequenced. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription initiation sites. The deduced amino acid sequence is compared with the amino acid sequences of five previously reported bacterial decarboxylases, and conserved pyridoxal phosphate motif residues are identified.

Hackert, M L; Carroll, D W; Davidson, L; Kim, S O; Momany, C; Vaaler, G L; Zhang, L

1994-01-01

334

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rossiae DSM 15814T  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus rossiae DSM 15814T (CS1, ATCC BAA-88) was determined by a whole-genome shotgun approach. Reads were assembled to a 2.9-Mb draft version. RAST genome annotation evidenced 2,723 predicted coding sequences. Many carbohydrate, amino acid, and amino acid derivative subsystem features were found.

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cattonaro, Federica; Gobbetti, Marco

2012-01-01

335

The PTS transporters of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacilli can utilize a variety of carbohydrates which reflects the nutrient availability in their respective environments. A common lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract, Lactobacillus gasseri, was selected for further study. The currently available annotation of the L. gasseri ATCC 33323 genome describes numerous putative genes involved in carbohydrate utilization, yet the specific functions of many of these genes

Alyssa L Francl; Taksawan Thongaram; Michael J Miller

2010-01-01

336

Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus sake isolated from meat.  

PubMed Central

A total of 221 strains of Lactobacillus isolated from meat and meat products were screened for antagonistic activities under conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Nineteen strains of Lactobacillus sake, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, and one strain of Lactobacillus curvatus were shown to inhibit the growth of some other lactobacilli in an agar spot test; and cell-free supernatants from 6 of the 19 strains of L. sake exhibited inhibitory activity against indicator organisms. Comparison of the antimicrobial spectra of the supernatants suggested that the inhibitory compounds were not identical. One of the six strains, L. sake Lb 706, was chosen for further study. The compound excreted by L. sake Lb 706 was active against various lactic acid bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes. Its proteinaceous nature, narrow inhibitory spectrum, and bactericidal mode of action indicated that this substance is a bacteriocin, which we designated sakacin A. Curing experiments with two bacteriocin-producing strains of L. sake resulted in mutants that lacked both bacteriocin activity and immunity to the bacteriocin. Plasmid profile analysis of L. sake Lb 706 and two bacteriocin-negative variants of this strain indicated that a plasmid of about 18 megadaltons may be involved in the formation of bacteriocin and immunity to this antibacterial compound. In mixed culture, the bacteriocin-sensitive organisms were killed after the bacteriocin-producing strain reached maximal cell density, whereas there was no decrease in cell number in the presence of the bacteriocin-negative variant. Images

Schillinger, U; Lucke, F K

1989-01-01

337

Lactobacillus rhamnosus polynucleotides, polypeptides and methods for using them  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel polynucleotides isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus, as well as probes and primers, genetic constructs comprising the polynucleotides, biological materials, including plants, microorganisms and multicellular organisms incorporating the polynucleotides, polypeptides expressed by the polynucleotides, and methods for using the polynucleotides and polypeptides are disclosed.

2006-05-30

338

Probiotic-Associated Aspiration Pneumonia Due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are low-virulence, commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and are commonly used as "probiotic supplements." Herein, we describe an episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis with bacterial superinfection secondary to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an 11-month-old female with trisomy 21. PMID:24899028

Doern, Christopher D; Nguyen, Sean T; Afolabi, Folashade; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-08-01

339

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain UCMA 3037.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid of the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UCMA 3037, isolated from raw milk camembert cheese in our laboratory, was sequenced. We present its draft genome sequence with the aim of studying its functional properties and relationship to the cheese ecosystem. PMID:23704179

Naz, Saima; Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Vaisse, Melissa; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Rechenmann, Mathias; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

340

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

2014-01-01

341

Development of a host-vector system for Lactobacillus plantarum L137 isolated from a traditional fermented food produced in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum NC13, a strain derived from the L. plantarum strain L137 isolated from a traditional fermented food produced in the Philippines, contains 9 of the 15 plasmids in the parental strain. To construct a shuttle vector between L. plantarum and Escherichia coli for genetic manipulation of L137 and its derivatives, recombinant plasmids were prepared by using the 9-plasmid DNA mixture and an E. coli vector, pBluescript II SK+. The resultant recombinant plasmids were re-transferred to L. plantarum NCL21, an NC13-derived strain cured of 3 of the 9 plasmids, and 3 recombinant plasmids were obtained. The smallest plasmid, pRN14, contained a small cryptic plasmid, pLTK2, which is one of the plasmids in L. plantarum L137. Thus, the complete nucleotide sequence of pLTK2 was determined. The pLTK2 is 2295 bp in length, and has a major open reading frame of 951 bp. An encoded sequence of 317-amino acids showed extensive similarity with genes encoding replication protein (repA). A putative replication origin in pLTK2 also showed high homology to those of other gram-positive bacterial plasmids that replicate by the rolling circle mechanism. The shuttle vector pRN14 contained the erythromycin resistance gene and the ColE1 and pLTK2 replication origins. Transformation of L. plantarum strains with pRN14 by electroporation was optimized to give a transformation efficiency of 2 x 10(4) transformants/ mug plasmid. Plasmid pRN14 was stably maintained in strain NCL21, as well as in L. casei K95-5. PMID:16232699

Kaneko, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kiatpapan, P; Nishimoto, T; Napitupulu, R; Ono, H; Murooka, Y

2000-01-01

342

Metabolism of biodiesel-derived glycerol in probiotic Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

Three probiotic Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, were tested for their ability to assimilate and metabolize glycerol. Biodiesel-derived glycerol was used as the main carbon and energy source in batch microaerobic growth. Here, we show that the tested strains were able to assimilate glycerol, consuming between 38 and 48 % in approximately 24 h. L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii showed a similar growth, higher than L. plantarum. The highest biomass reached was 2.11 g?L?¹ for L. acidophilus, with a cell mass yield (Y (X/S)) of 0.37 g?g?¹. L. delbrueckii and L. plantarum reached a biomass of 2.06 and 1.36 g?L?¹. All strains catabolize glycerol mainly through glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30). For these lactobacillus species, kinetic parameters for glycerol kinase showed Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) ranging from 1.2 to 3.8 mM. The specific activities for glycerol kinase in these strains were in the range of 0.18 to 0.58 U?mg?protein?¹, with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showing the maximum specific activity after 24 h of cultivation. Glycerol dehydrogenase activity was also detected in all strains studied but only for the reduction of glyceraldehyde with NADPH (K(m) for DL-glyceraldehyde ranging from 12.8 to 32.3 mM). This enzyme shows a very low oxidative activity with glycerol and NADP+ and, most likely, under physiological conditions, the oxidative reaction does not occur, supporting the assumption that the main metabolic flux concerning glycerol metabolism is through the glycerol kinase pathway. PMID:23229571

Rivaldi, Juan Daniel; Sousa Silva, Marta; Sousa Silva, Marta Luís C; Duarte, Luis C; Ferreira, António E N; Cordeiro, Carlos; de Almeida Felipe, Maria das Graças; de Ponces Freire, Ana; de Mancilha, Ismael Maciel

2013-02-01

343

First Functional and Mutational Analysis of Group 3 N-Acetylneuraminate Lyases from Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23K  

PubMed Central

N-acetyl neuraminate lyases (NALs) catalyze the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Previous phylogenetic studies divided NALs into four different groups. Groups 1 and 2 have been well characterized at both kinetic and molecular levels, but no NAL from group 3 has been studied to date. In this work, a functional characterization of two group 3 members was performed using the recombinant NALs from Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23K, revealing an optimal pH of between 6.0 and 7.0, low stability at basic pHs (>8.0), low optimal temperatures and, especially, low catalytic efficiency compared with their counterparts in group 1 and 2. The mutational analysis carried out showed that a plausible molecular reason for the low activity shown by Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23k NALs compared with group 1 and 2 NALs could be the relatively small sugar-binding pocket they contain. A functional divergence analysis concluding that group 3 is more closely related to group 2 than to group 1.

Garcia-Garcia, Maria Inmaculada; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Garcia-Carmona, Francisco; Sanchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

2014-01-01

344

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.

2013-01-01

345

Heat Shock Response in Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Heat stress resistance and response were studied in strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 had decimal reduction times (D values) (D value was the time that it took to reduce the number of cells by 1 log cycle) in sterile milk of 32.9, 14.7, and 7.14 s at 60, 72, and 75°C, respectively. When mid-exponential-phase cells were used, the D values decreased. The temperature increases which caused a 10-fold reduction in the D value ranged from 9 to 20°C, depending on the strain. Part of the cell population treated at 72°C for 90 s recovered viability during incubation at 7°C in sterile milk for 20 days. When mid-exponential- or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were adapted to 42°C for 1 h, the heat resistance at 72°C for 90 s increased ca. 3 and 2 log cycles, respectively. Heat-adapted cells also showed increased growth at pH 5 and in the presence of 6% NaCl. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins expressed by control and heat-adapted cells revealed changes in the levels of expression of 31 and 18 proteins in mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Twelve proteins were commonly induced. Nine proteins induced in the heat-adapted mid-exponential- and/or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. These proteins were identified as DnaK, GroEL, trigger factor, ribosomal proteins L1, L11, L31, and S6, DNA-binding protein II HlbA, and CspC. All of these proteins have been found to play a role in the mechanisms of stress adaptation in other bacteria. Antibodies against GroES detected a protein which was induced moderately, while antibodies against DnaJ and GrpE reacted with proteins whose level of expression did not vary after heat adaptation. This study showed that the heat resistance of L. plantarum is a complex process involving proteins with various roles in cell physiology, including chaperone activity, ribosome stability, stringent response mediation, temperature sensing, and control of ribosomal function. The physiological mechanisms of response to pasteurization in L. plantarum are fundamental for survival in cheese during manufacture.

De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Huet, Claude; Crecchio, Carmine; Fox, Patrick F.; Gobbetti, Marco

2004-01-01

346

Lactobacillus role during conditioning of refrigerated and vacuum-packaged Argentinean meat.  

PubMed

The role of Lactobacillus strains with bioprotective and technological potential on raw beef during 15days of storage under vacuum at 7°C was investigated. The assayed strains were able to grow on the meat, Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 and Lactobacillus sakei 23K showing the highest competitiveness. A net increase of amino acids was determined in inoculated samples when compared to the control, this being maximal for Lactobacillus plantarum CRL681. Although an important endogenous activity of meat sarcoplasmic proteins was observed, the disappearance of protein bands and the generation of a new one were detected as a consequence of Lactobacillus growth. A synergistic effect of Lactobacillus in combination with the muscle proteolytic enzyme complex can be suggested. From the studied strains, the bacteriocin producer L. curvatus CRL705 may be considered as a good candidate to contribute to meat ageing by means of small peptides and free amino acids generation while improving shelf life. PMID:22062923

Fadda, S; Chambon, C; Champomier-Vergès, M C; Talon, R; Vignolo, G

2008-07-01

347

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Diversity in Horse Feces, Revealed by PCR-DGGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus equi, Lactobacillus hayakitensis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Weissella confusa\\/cibaria were the dominant species in 12 South African horses. The Bifidobacterium-group was detected in the feces of only one of the 12 horses. Sequencing of the nested-PCR amplicon identified the Bifidobacterium-group as Parascardovia denticolens. Cell numbers of L. equi, L. hayakitensis, and W. confusa\\/cibaria were consistent in all samples. P. denticolens,

Akihito Endo; Y. Futagawa-Endo; L. M. T. Dicks

2009-01-01

348

Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of theLactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp.lactisBacteriophage LL-H Lysin  

Microsoft Academic Search

LL-H, a virulent phage ofLactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp.lactis, produces a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme, Mur, that is effective on L. delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Pediococcus damnosuscell walls. In this study, the LL-H genemurwas cloned intoEscherichia coli, its nucleotide sequence was determined, and the enzyme produced in E. coli was purified and biochemically characterized. Mur was purified 112-fold by means of ammonium sulfate

ANTTI VASALA; MERJA VALKKILA; JAVIER CALDENTEY; ANDTAPANI ALATOSSAVA

1995-01-01

349

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric\\u000a juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract.

Pyoung Il Kim; Min Young Jung; Young-Hyo Chang; Saehun Kim; Seong-Jae Kim; Yong-Ha Park

2007-01-01

350

Colonization and Fecal Enzyme Activities after Oral Lactobacillus GG Administration in Elderly Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 2-week oral administration of a Lactobacillus-GG-fermentedwhey drink on fecal enzymes in elderly nursing home residents complaining of difficulties in defecation. The study was divided into three 2-week periods: baseline (2 dl placebo drink\\/day); Lactobacillus GG treatment (2 dl of a Lactobacillus-GG-fermented whey drink containing 108 cfu lactobacilli\\/ml); follow-up (2 dl placebo

W. H. Ling; O. Hänninen; H. Mykkänen; M. Heikura; S. Salminen; A. Von Wright

1992-01-01

351

Should Lactobacillus sporogenes and Bacillus coagulans have a future?  

PubMed

Probiotics are gaining increasing scientific and commercial interest as functional foods. Their success has led to the development and marketing of a broad range of products based on probiotics. In this context, resolution of the taxonomy of microbial species remains a key point, since different species belonging to the same genus may have different beneficial properties. Lactobacillus sporogenes, which should be correctly classified as Bacillus coagulans, represents the archetypal misidentified probiotic and its inclusion among probiotics has often been a matter of debate. Since this bacterium shows characteristics of both genera Lactobacillus and Bacillus, its taxonomic position between the families lactobacillaceae and bacillaceae has often been discussed.This review summarizes the salient probiotic features of L. sporogenes /B. coagulans by examining currently available information. Although the use of L. sporogenes spores as a probiotic has increased in recent years, clinical evidence of its benefits are limited to only a few studies involving small patient populations. PMID:19622453

Drago, L; De Vecchi, E

2009-08-01

352

Biowaste: a Lactobacillus habitat and lactic acid fermentation substrate.  

PubMed

Composite organic waste was assessed for its physical, chemical and microbial suitability to serve as a substrate for the fermentative production of lactic acid. The biowaste studied was highly acidic (pH 4.3) and had high organic carbon content (45%). A clone library identified 90% of the bacterial community were lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by Lactobacilli (70%). Cultivation using semiselective media identified Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and their closest relatives as the dominating taxa. PCR-DGGE using general bacterial and lactic acid bacterial specific primers resulted in little heterogeneity of microbial community. These data indicate that biowaste is a preferred habitat of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting that the unsterilized biowaste and its natural flora could be used in a fermentation process for lactic acid production. Such kind of biowaste application could be an alternative for current substrates and provide a modern, efficient and environmental friendly waste treatment technology. PMID:23816359

Probst, Maraike; Fritschi, Annika; Wagner, Andreas; Insam, Heribert

2013-09-01

353

Comparison of the Phospholipid Composition of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid composition of 10 Bifidobacterium strains of human intestinal origin and of 9 Lactobacillus strains was determined by quantitative two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Phospholipids of three Bifidobacterium strains from honey bees and of two strains from bovine rumen liquor were qualitatively investigated. Diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol were present in strains of both genera. All Bifidobacterium strains contained as specific phospholipids a new polyglycerolphospholipid, compound 15, and its lyso derivatives, earlier detected in B. bifidum var. pennsylvanicus. Also, lyso compounds of diphosphatidylglycerol and alanyl phosphatidylglycerol were only present in this genus in variable amounts. Lysyl phosphatidylglycerol was the only ninhydrin-positive phospholipid in seven Lactobacillus strains. In L. delbrückii and L. helveticus it was absent and partially replaced by an unidentified ninhydrin-negative phospholipid. The differences in phospholipid composition between bifidobacteria and lactobacilli may be another argument to differentiate these two genera. Images

Exterkate, F. A.; Otten, B. J.; Wassenberg, H. W.; Veerkamp, J. H.

1971-01-01

354

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14.  

PubMed

We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified. PMID:23788546

Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

2013-01-01

355

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14  

PubMed Central

We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified.

Stahl, Buffy

2013-01-01

356

Formation of tyramine by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Der Einfluß von Lebensmittel kennzeichnenden ökologischen Faktoren auf die Bildung von Tyramin durchLactobacillus curvatus LTH 972 wurde in Flüssigkultur mit Tyrosinzusatz untersucht. Höchste Konzentrationen an Tyramin (bis zu 201 mg\\/l) wurden bei 30 °C, pH 5,2 und aw 0,97 gebildet. Bei niedrigeren Temperaturen (15 °C) sowie höheren pH- und aw-Werten wurde eine verlangsamte, aber dennoch deutliche Tyraminbildung beobachtet. Glucose,

Bernhard W. Straub; Petra S. Tichaczek; Martin Kicherer; Walter P. Hammes

1994-01-01

357

Heterogeneity of Putative Surface Layer Proteins in Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The S-layer-encoding genes of 21 Lactobacillus helveticus strains were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on the identified S-layer genes revealed two main clusters, one which includes a sequence similar to that of the slpH1 gene of L. helveticus CNRZ 892 and a second cluster which includes genes similar to that of prtY. These results were further confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. This study demonstrates S-layer gene variability in the species L. helveticus.

Gatti, Monica; Rossetti, Lia; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Lazzi, Camilla; Giraffa, Giorgio; Neviani, Erasmo

2005-01-01

358

Purification and cloning of a protein secreted from lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the proteins secreted from Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3151, a 36 kDa and 24 kDa protein, whose amounts were relatively abundant, were purified and their N?terminal amino acid sequences determined. The N?terminal amino acid sequence of 36 kDa protein exhibited high homology with thymidine phosphorylase and glyceraldehyde?3?phosphate dehydrogenase. The N?terminal amino acid sequence of the 24 kDa protein did not

Seoyoung Han; Yong Sun Lee; Deog Su Hwang

1998-01-01

359

Comparative Genomics of the Late Gene Cluster from Lactobacillus Phages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three prophage sequences were identified in the Lactobacillus johnsoni strain NCC533. Prophage Lj965 predicted a gene map very similar to those of pac-site Streptococcus thermophilus phages over its DNA packaging and head and tail morphogenesis modules. Sequence similarity linked the putative DNA packaging and head morphogenesis genes at the protein level. Prophage Lj965\\/S. thermophilus phage Sfi11\\/Lactococcus lactis phage TP901-1 on

Frank Desiere; R. David Pridmore; Harald Brüssow

2000-01-01

360

Lactobacillus kimchiensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented food.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium was isolated from a traditional fermented food, kimchi. The morphology, physiology, biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain L133(T) were studied. Strain L133(T) was Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative, with rod-shaped cells that formed cream colonies. Cells grew in the presence of 0-5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1-2?%), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C). Comparative 16S rRNA gene and pheS sequence analysis of strain L133(T) indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. The major fatty acids were identified as C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?0 and C18?:?0, and the cell wall contained peptidoglycan of the L-Lys-D-Asp type. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L133(T) and related species were below 11±0.4?%. The DNA G+C content of strain L133(T) was 35.7 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as physiological and biochemical tests, identified genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain L133(T) and other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Based on these analyses, strain L133(T) is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, named Lactobacillus kimchiensis. The type strain is L133(T) (?=?KACC 15533(T)?=?JCM 17702(T)?=?DSM 24716(T)). PMID:22798657

Kim, Jandi; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

2013-04-01

361

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

362

From the Cover: Multireplicon genome architecture of Lactobacillus salivarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius strain UCC118 is a bacteriocin-producing strain with probiotic characteristics. The 2.13-Mb genome was shown by sequencing to comprise a 1.83 Mb chromosome, a 242-kb megaplasmid (pMP118), and two smaller plasmids. Megaplasmids previously have not been characterized in lactic acid bacteria or intestinal lactobacilli. Annotation of the genome sequence indicated an intermediate level of auxotrophy compared with

Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carlos Canchaya; Jan Peter van Pijkeren; Ana M. Cerdeño-Tárraga; Julian Parkhill; Sarah Flynn; Gerald C. O'Sullivan; J. Kevin Collins; Des Higgins; Fergus Shanahan; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Douwe van Sinderen; Paul W. O'Toole

2006-01-01

363

Purification and characterization of a dipeptidase from Lactobacillus sake.  

PubMed Central

A dipeptidase was purified from cell extracts of Lactobacillus sake. This compound was a monomer having a molecular weight of 50,000 and a pI of 4.7 and exhibited broad specificity against all dipeptides except those with proline or glycine at the N terminus. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA or 1,10-phenanthroline but could be reactivated with CoCl2 and MnCl2.

Montel, M C; Seronie, M P; Talon, R; Hebraud, M

1995-01-01

364

Physiological responses to folate overproduction in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. RESULTS: Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the

Arno Wegkamp; Astrid E Mars; Magda Faijes; Douwe Molenaar; Ric CH de Vos; Sebastian MJ Klaus; Andrew D Hanson; Willem M de Vos; Eddy J Smid

2010-01-01

365

Development of an immunochemical method to detect Lactobacillus kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kefir is a fermented milk elaborated with kefir grains. It constitutes an ecological system composed by a protein-polysaccharide matrix on which a complex microbiota is naturally immobilized. The objective of this work was to develop an antibody-based method in order to achieve a simple and rapid way to quantify Lactobacillus kefir in a complex environment. Rabbit antisera against isolated S-layer

Graciela L. Garrote; Maria A. Serradell; Analia G. Abraham; Maria C. Añon; Carlos A. Fossati; Graciela L. De Antoni

2005-01-01

366

Antitumor Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Cytoplasm on Teratocarcinoma Bearing Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential antitumor activity of Lactobacillus plantarum cytoplasm was examined using F9 teratocarcinoma-bearing BALB\\/c mice. The cytoplasmic fraction of L. plantarum was separated by sonication followed by ultracentrifugation. The fraction at a dose of 100 or 200 mg\\/kg\\/day was orally administered for 7 consecutive days before or after tumor inoculation to 16 mice. As a control, heat-killed whole cell was used

KYOUNG HEON KIM; EUNG-RYOOL KIM; HOO-KIL JUNG; HO-NAM JUHN; HYONG JOO LEE

2002-01-01

367

Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0–4.2), citric acid (6–40g\\/L), and

Sawaminee Nualkaekul; Dimitris Charalampopoulos

2011-01-01

368

Prophylaxis against ampicillin-associated diarrhea with a lactobacillus preparation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a lactobacillus preparation (Lactinex) in preventing ampicillin-associated diarrhea in adult inpatients was studied. In a double-blind procedure, 98 patients were assigned randomly to receive one packet of Lactinex (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L bulgaricus) or placebo four times daily for the first five days of ampicillin therapy. Cases of diarrhea were reviewed independently and classified according to etiology. Complete data were obtained for 79 patients--43 received placebo and 36 received Lactinex. Diarrhea occurred in nine (21%) patients receiving placebo and in three (8.3%) patients receiving Lactinex; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.21, Fisher's Exact Test). When the patients with diarrhea unrelated to ampicillin were excluded (50%), the incidence of ampicillin-induced diarrhea in the placebo group (14%) was significantly greater (p = 0.03, Fisher's Exact Test) than in the Lactinex group (0%). Prophylactic administration of lactobacillus preparations may be effective in preventing ampicillin-induced diarrhea; however, prophylactic administration appears to be justified, on a cost/benefit basis, only in patients with a history of antibiotic-induced diarrhea. PMID:111546

Gotz, V; Romankiewicz, J A; Moss, J; Murray, H W

1979-06-01

369

Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications.

Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

2014-01-01

370

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery.  

PubMed

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

371

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery.

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

372

Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan.  

PubMed

Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications. PMID:24790899

Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

2014-01-01

373

The effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) on the availability of minerals from Dutch-type cheese.  

PubMed

The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese. PMID:24913654

Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Gra?yna; To?ska, El?bieta

2014-08-01

374

Puri¢cation of a novel fructosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 and characterization of the levan produced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes have been characterized from various Gram-positive bacteria, but not from Lactobacillus sp. In a screening of 182 lactobacilli for polysaccharide production only one strain, Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121, was found to produce a fructan being a levan. Here we report the first-time identification and biochemical characterization of a Lactobacillus FTF enzyme. When incubated with sucrose the enzyme

Sacha A. F. T. van Hijum; Kees Bonting; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2001-01-01

375

Fecal recovery following oral administration of Lactobacillus Strain GG (ATCC 53103) in gelatine capsules to healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of the suggested probiotic strain Lactobacillus GG in feces was studied after oral administration. Lactobacillus GG was given to 20 healthy human volunteers for 7 days in gelatine capsules with daily doses of 1.6 × 108 cfu and 1.2 × 1010 cfu. All the volunteers in the higher dose group had detectable numbers of Lactobacillus GG in their feces

Maija Saxelin; Tanja Pessi; Seppo Salminen

1995-01-01

376

Synergistic impact of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and vincristine on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. is the most dominant probiotic strain of bacteria. Evidence indicates that the consumption of Lactobacillus sp. reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in animal models. The present study was carried out to determine whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum/ Lactobacillus plantarum alone or in combination with vincristine have a synergistic impact on the control of colorectal cancer in an animal model. Mice with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) hydrochloride-induced colon cancer were fed with L. fermentum and L. plantarum isolated along with vincristine. An increase in body weight, a decrease in ammonia concentration, a decrease in ? glucosidase and ? glucuronidase enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of crypts in the mice in the pre-carcinogen-induced group was noted when compared to these variables in the post-carcinogen-induced group. The body weight of the mice fed L. fermentum along with vincristine was increased (6.5 g), and was found to be 3.5 times higher compared to that of the control. A marked decrease in the ammonia concentration (240 mg), and ? glucosidase (0.0023 IU) and ? glucopyranose enzyme activity (0.0027 IU) was observed; 22.59% less ammonia concentration, 73.26% less ? glucosidase activity and 56.46% less ? glucuronidase enzyme activity was noted when compared to the control. A significant reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (90%) was observed when compared to the control. Maximum protection was observed in the mice fed the probiotics and vincristine prior to cancer induction. Among the different dietary combinations tested in the present study, L. fermentum and vincristine showed a more extensive reduction in ammonia concentration, ? glucosidase, ? glucuronidase activity and the number of ACF.

ASHA; GAYATHRI, DEVARAJA

2012-01-01

377

Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf

Luz-Adriana Sarmiento-Rubiano; Bernard Berger; Déborah Moine; Manuel Zúñiga; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; María J Yebra

2010-01-01

378

Synergistic impact of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and vincristine on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus sp. is the most dominant probiotic strain of bacteria. Evidence indicates that the consumption of Lactobacillus sp. reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in animal models. The present study was carried out to determine whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum/ Lactobacillus plantarum alone or in combination with vincristine have a synergistic impact on the control of colorectal cancer in an animal model. Mice with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) hydrochloride-induced colon cancer were fed with L. fermentum and L. plantarum isolated along with vincristine. An increase in body weight, a decrease in ammonia concentration, a decrease in ? glucosidase and ? glucuronidase enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of crypts in the mice in the pre-carcinogen-induced group was noted when compared to these variables in the post-carcinogen-induced group. The body weight of the mice fed L. fermentum along with vincristine was increased (6.5 g), and was found to be 3.5 times higher compared to that of the control. A marked decrease in the ammonia concentration (240 mg), and ? glucosidase (0.0023 IU) and ? glucopyranose enzyme activity (0.0027 IU) was observed; 22.59% less ammonia concentration, 73.26% less ? glucosidase activity and 56.46% less ? glucuronidase enzyme activity was noted when compared to the control. A significant reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (90%) was observed when compared to the control. Maximum protection was observed in the mice fed the probiotics and vincristine prior to cancer induction. Among the different dietary combinations tested in the present study, L. fermentum and vincristine showed a more extensive reduction in ammonia concentration, ? glucosidase, ? glucuronidase activity and the number of ACF. PMID:22970015

Asha; Gayathri, Devaraja

2012-06-01

379

Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche.

2010-01-01

380

Comparison of exopolysaccharide production by strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei grown in chemically defined medium and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was compared among three strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 9595M can be classified among the highest EPS-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria reported to date with a maximum\\u000a EPS production of 1275?mg?L?1. Under controlled pH, no significant differences in the quantity of EPS produced could be detected between carbon source\\u000a (glucose or lactose) or fermentation temperature

I Dupont; D Roy; G Lapointe

2000-01-01

381

The Barrier to HIV Transmission Provided by Genital Tract Lactobacillus Colonization.  

PubMed

While resistance to HIV transmission is due to multiple mechanisms such as the epithelium, a lower genital tract microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus appears to play an important role. This article reviews selected recent research on genital tract microbiota in women including how microbiota impacts HIV resistance and factors affecting Lactobacillus colonization. PMID:24661438

Mirmonsef, Paria; Spear, Gregory T

2014-06-01

382

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, a Commercial Probiotic Strain  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 is a commercially available strain that is widely used in probiotic preparations. The genome sequence consisted of 2,129,425 bases. Comparative analysis showed that it was unique among L. helveticus strains in that it contained genes encoding mucus-binding proteins similar to those found in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Barreau, Guillaume; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

2012-01-01

383

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, a commercial probiotic strain.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 is a commercially available strain that is widely used in probiotic preparations. The genome sequence consisted of 2,129,425 bases. Comparative analysis showed that it was unique among L. helveticus strains in that it contained genes encoding mucus-binding proteins similar to those found in Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:23105080

Tompkins, Thomas A; Barreau, Guillaume; Broadbent, Jeffery R

2012-11-01

384

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5462, a Strain with Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5462 was isolated from infant gastrointestinal flora. The strain exhibited an ability to reduce cholesterol and stimulate immunity. The strain has exhibited positive results in alleviating gastrointestinal discomfort and good potential as a probiotic. We sequenced the whole genome of the strain and compared it to the published genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103).

Prajapati, J. B.; Khedkar, C. D.; Chitra, J.; Suja, Senan; Mishra, V.; Sreeja, V.; Patel, R. K.; Ahir, V. B.; Bhatt, V. D.; Sajnani, M. R.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2012-01-01

385

Adhesion of Lactobacillus species in urine and phosphate buffer to silicone rubber and glass under flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coating uroepithelial cells or catheter materials with lactobacilli has been shown to retard the development of a uropathogenic biofilm, with biosurfactant production and strong adhesion being two prerequisite properties of the Lactobacillus strains to be employed. In this paper, adhesion of six selected Lactobacillus strains to silicone rubber and glass in urine and in a phosphate buffer was studied using

K. W. Millsap; G. Reid; H. C. van der Mei; H. J. Busscher

1997-01-01

386

Removal of pathogenic bacteria and nitrogens by Lactobacillus spp. JK-8 and JK-11  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using Lactobacillus strains for the simultaneous removal of pathogenic bacteria and nitrogens, with the ultimate aim of application for the improvement of water quality in shrimp farms, was explored. Initially, strains of Lactobacillus spp. JK-8 and JK-11 in shrimp ponds were screened for their ability to remove pathogenic bacteria and nitrogen compounds. At the end of the

Chae-Woo Ma; Yun-Seok Cho; Kye-Heon Oh

2009-01-01

387

Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: Symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to com- pare the response of symptoms and cytokine ratios in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with ingestion of probiotic preparations containing a lactobacillus or bifidobacterium strain. Methods: Seventy-seven subjects with IBS were ran- domized to receive either Lactobacillus salivarius UCC4331 or Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, each in a dose of 1 10

Liam O’Mahony; Jane McCarthy; Peter Kelly; George Hurley; Fangyi Luo; Kersang Chen; Gerald C. O’Sullivan; Barry Kiely; J. Kevin Collins; Fergus Shanahan; Eamonn M. M. Quigley

2005-01-01

388

Diversity and functional characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated throughout the ripening of a hard cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the Lactobacillus spp. intra- and inter- species diversity in a Piedmont hard cheese made of raw milk without thermal treatment and without addition of industrial starter, and to perform a first screening for potential functional properties. A total of 586 isolates were collected during the cheese production and identified by means of molecular methods: three hundred and four were identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two hundred and forty as Lactobacillus helveticus, twenty six as Lactobacillus fermentum, eleven as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, three as Lactobacillus pontis, and two as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. A high genetic heterogeneity was detected by using the repetitive bacterial DNA element fingerprinting (rep-PCR) with the use of (GTG)5 primer resulting in eight clusters of L. helveticus and sixteen clusters in the case of L. rhamnosus. Most of isolates showed a high auto-aggregation property, low hydrophobicity values, and a general low survival to simulated digestion process. However, sixteen isolates showed promising functional characteristics. PMID:24819414

Bautista-Gallego, J; Alessandria, V; Fontana, M; Bisotti, S; Taricco, S; Dolci, P; Cocolin, L; Rantsiou, K

2014-07-01

389

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Strain ND02?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain ND02 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. Here, we report the main genome features of ND02 and several differences with two other published genomes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains.

Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01

390

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum EGD-AQ4, Isolated from Fermented Product of Northeast India.  

PubMed

We present a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum strain EGD-AQ4, isolated from nonalcoholic fermented bamboo shoot products of Northeast India. The size of the draft genome sequence is the largest among all the reported genome sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum, thus enabling the exploration of new gene clusters involved in various functional and probiotic attributes. PMID:24407637

Qureshi, Asifa; Itankar, Yogeshwari; Ojha, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Manabendra; Khardenavis, Anshuman; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

2014-01-01

391

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum EGD-AQ4, Isolated from Fermented Product of Northeast India  

PubMed Central

We present a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum strain EGD-AQ4, isolated from nonalcoholic fermented bamboo shoot products of Northeast India. The size of the draft genome sequence is the largest among all the reported genome sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum, thus enabling the exploration of new gene clusters involved in various functional and probiotic attributes.

Itankar, Yogeshwari; Ojha, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Manabendra; Khardenavis, Anshuman; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J.

2014-01-01

392

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dryfermented sausages on muscle sarcoplasmic proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteolytic activity of seven strains of Lactobacillus from two species isolated from dry cured sausages was assayed using a soluble muscle extract as a source of proteins, at a temperature of 30 °C. The results indicated that the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum tested had the more active proteolytic system, showing the highest amino acid release in the medium after

Silvina Fadda; Graciela Vignolo; Aída P. R. Holgado; Guillermo Oliver

1998-01-01

393

Correlation between Morphological and Physiological Characters in the Classification of Members of the Genus Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY : Physiologically definable groups within the genus Lactobacillus are morphologically distinct. There are marked differences between homofermentative and heterofermentative strains and between physiological groups within the former. In recent years little use has been made of morphology in the classification of Lactobacillus. Much emphasis has been placed upon the pleomorphism of members of the genus, a state of affairs

G. H. G. DAVIS; K. A. BISSET; C. M. F. HALE

1955-01-01

394

Lactobacillus delbrueckii : probable cause d’infections urinaires chez la femme très âgée  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus urinary tract infection (UTI) seems exceptionally reported. Nevertheless, with the introduction of a chromogenic medium UriSelect 4, eight cases of UTI in old women (mean of 81.2 years) mediated by Lactobacillus delbrueckii identified by DNA sequencing were reported between 2007 and 2009.

M. Bernier; P. Njomnang Soh; A. Lochet; L. Prots; R. Félice; A. Senescau; R. Fabre; A. Philippon

2010-01-01

395

[Lactobacillus delbrueckii: probable agent of urinary tract infections in very old women].  

PubMed

Lactobacillus urinary tract infection (UTI) seems exceptionally reported. Nevertheless, with the introduction of a chromogenic medium UriSelect 4, eight cases of UTI in old women (mean of 81.2 years) mediated by Lactobacillus delbrueckii identified by DNA sequencing were reported between 2007 and 2009. PMID:20605373

Bernier, M; Njomnang Soh, P; Lochet, A; Prots, L; Félice, R; Senescau, A; Fabre, R; Philippon, A

2012-04-01

396

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fabifermentans Strain T30PCM01, Isolated from Fermenting Grape Marc  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome assembly of Lactobacillus fabifermentans strain T30PCM01 isolated from grape marc. Its genome is the largest (3.58 Mbp) among Lactobacillus species and reveals an enormous potential for carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation.

Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica; Bovo, Barbara; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2014-01-01

397

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108(T) and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202(T), isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

398

Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 isolated from faeces of the same human infant produce identical cyclic bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericin 6, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 that was isolated from the faeces of a human infant at 2 months of age, was purified to homogeneity from broth culture-supernatant by reverse-phase chromatography. Molecular weight (5652) by mass spectrometry and primary structure of reutericin 6 were identical to that of gassericin A produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 which was

Yasushi Kawai; Yasuyuki Ishii; Koichiro Uemura; Haruki Kitazawa; Tadao Saito; Takatoshi Itoh

2001-01-01

399

Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and ‘fishy’ odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme. The subjects were treated with oral metronidazole (500mg) twice daily from days 1 to 7, and randomized to receive oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (1×109) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (1×109) or placebo twice

Kingsley Anukam; Emmanuel Osazuwa; Ijeoma Ahonkhai; Michael Ngwu; Gibson Osemene; Andrew W. Bruce; Gregor Reid

2006-01-01

400

Characterization of reutericyclin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did not affect the growth of gram-negative bacteria; however, the growth of lipopolysaccharide mutant strains of Escherichia coli was inhibited. Reutericyclin exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and B. subtilis and triggered the lysis of cells of L. sanfranciscensis in a dose-dependent manner. Germination of spores of B. subtilis was inhibited, but the spores remained unaffected under conditions that do not permit germination. The fatty acid supply of the growth media had a strong effect on reutericyclin production and its distribution between producer cells and the culture supernatant. Reutericyclin was purified from cell extracts and culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 cultures grown in mMRS by solvent extraction, gel filtration, RP-C(8) chromatography, and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by rechromatography by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Reutericyclin was characterized as a negatively charged, highly hydrophobic molecule with a molecular mass of 349 Da. Structural characterization (A. Höltzel, M. G. Gänzle, G. J. Nicholson, W. P. Hammes, and G. Jung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2766-2768, 2000) revealed that reutericyclin is a novel tetramic acid derivative. The inhibitory activity of culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 corresponded to that of purified as well as synthetic reutericyclin. PMID:11010877

Gänzle, M G; Höltzel, A; Walter, J; Jung, G; Hammes, W P

2000-10-01

401

Influence of compounds associated with fermented dairy products on the growth of lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of 24 strains of lactic acid starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis) and 24 strains of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bifidobacteria) in liquid media containing different substances was assessed. The substances used were salts (NaCl and KCl); sugars (sucrose and lactose); sweeteners (acesulfame and aspartame); aroma

C. G Vinderola; G. A Costa; S Regenhardt; J. A Reinheimer

2002-01-01

402

Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus are currently used in a variety of clinical practices with limited evidence to support their use. Lactobacillus species are a normal part of gastrointestinal flora, and bacteremia with probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is very uncommon. We describe a case of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 17-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis managed with systemic corticosteroids and infliximab, who presented with fever to 102°F, flushing, and chills 1 week after starting Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG probiotics. Initial blood culture on day 2 of his fever was positive for Lactobacillus, however, subsequent blood cultures on day 3 and 5 were negative. He was treated empirically with antibiotics for 5 days and defervesced by day 8 of his illness. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis identified the organism from the patient's blood culture and probiotic capsule as L. rhamnosus with a 99.78% match for both the strains. This case report highlights the potential risk of Lactobacillus bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients with severe active ulcerative colitis. PMID:23426446

Vahabnezhad, Elaheh; Mochon, Albert Brian; Wozniak, Laura Joyce; Ziring, David Alexander

2013-01-01

403

B Cells Are Not Essential for Lactobacillus-Mediated Protection against Lethal Pneumovirus Infection.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that priming of respiratory mucosa with live Lactobacillus species promotes robust and prolonged survival from an otherwise lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice, a property known as heterologous immunity. Lactobacillus priming results in a moderate reduction in virus recovery and a dramatic reduction in virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production; the precise mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. Because B cells have been shown to promote heterologous immunity against respiratory virus pathogens under similar conditions, in this study we explore the role of B cells in Lactobacillus-mediated protection against acute pneumovirus infection. We found that Lactobacillus-primed mice feature elevated levels of airway Igs IgG, IgA, and IgM and lung tissues with dense, B cell (B220(+))-enriched peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates with germinal centers consistent with descriptions of BALT. No B cells were detected in lung tissue of Lactobacillus-primed B cell deficient ?MT mice or Jh mice, and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice had no characteristic infiltrates or airway Igs. Nonetheless, we observed diminished virus recovery and profound suppression of virus-induced proinflammatory cytokines CCL2, IFN-?, and CXCL10 in both wild-type and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice. Furthermore, Lactobacillus plantarum-primed, B cell-deficient ?MT and Jh mice were fully protected from an otherwise lethal pneumonia virus of mice infection, as were their respective wild-types. We conclude that B cells are dispensable for Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity and were not crucial for promoting survival in response to an otherwise lethal pneumovirus infection. PMID:24748495

Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

2014-06-01

404

[Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].  

PubMed

The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

2014-01-01

405

Aglycone production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 during soymilk fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 showed the highest levels of beta-glucosidase and was selected to characterize this enzyme system, among 63 strains of different Lactobacillus species. The maximum activity was obtained at pH 6.4 and 42 degrees C. The enzyme showed weak resistance to thermal inactivation maintaining only 20% of the initial activity when it was exposed at 50 degrees C for 5 min. It also, showed stability when stored at 4 degrees C for 60 days. Afterwards, L. rhamnosus was evaluated for hydrolysis of isoflavones to aglycones, cell population, residual sugars and organic acid produced during fermentation on soymilk (37 degrees C for 24 h). Higher viable counts were obtained after 12 h of fermentation (8.85 log CFUml(-1)) followed by a drop of pH and an increase of acidity during fermentation due the production of organic acids. L. rhamnosus CRL981 was able to proliferate in soymilk and produce a high beta-glucosidase activity achieving a complete hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones after 12 h of fermentation. The present study indicates that L. rhamnosus CRL981 could be used in the development of different aglycone-rich functional soy beverages. PMID:19269578

Marazza, Jose A; Garro, Marisa S; de Giori, Graciela Savoy

2009-05-01

406

Lactobacillus prophylaxis for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In vitro and animal experiments indicated that lactobacilli might prevent Escherichia coli from colonizing the intestine and may produce substances counteracting enterotoxin. Lactinex, a commercial preparation of dried Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus, is marketed for uncomplicated diarrhea. Preliminary experiments in nonfasting volunteers indicated that lactobacilli in this preparation colonized the small intestine for up to 6 h. To evaluate the protective efficacy of Lactinex, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in which 48 volunteers (23 receiving Lactinex and 25 receiving placebos) were challenged with E. coli strains that produced heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins or both. No significant differences between the two groups were noted with respect to attack rate, incubation period, duration of diarrhea, volume and number of liquid stools, and coproculture yields. These data suggest that this lactobacillus preparations does not prevent or alter the course of enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea in adults. Lack of efficacy occurred despite efforts to maximize small bowel colonization, including administration of Lactinex in milk and in a 6-hour-interval regimen during 36 h before and 96 h after challenge. PMID:6792978

Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Robins-Browne, R M; Cisneros, L A; Drusano, G L; Lanata, C F; Saah, A J

1981-07-01

407

Fatty Acid Composition of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

Normal C14, C16, and C18 saturated acids and C16 and C18 monoenoic acids are the main fatty acids of nine strains of Bifidobacterium. Their lactobacillic acid content was less than 5%. Lactobacillus strains contained the same fatty acids as main compounds except for octadecanoic acid, which was present only in very low amounts. Eight of nine Lactobacillus strains contained in the stationary phase more than 15% lactobacillic acid. No correlation was observed between the fatty acid composition and other physiological characteristics used in the literature for classification of strains of one genus. Aging of the culture, which involved a decrease of the pH, caused a lengthening of the chain length of the fatty acids of B. bifidum var. pennsylvanicus but only a conversion of octadecenoic to lactobacillic acid in the lactobacilli. Lowering of the temperature of cultivation decreased the chain length of the fatty acids of B. bifidum var. pennsylvanicus. L. lactis did not show any influence of the temperature on the chain length of the fatty acids. The percentage of unsaturated acids was temperature independent in both organisms.

Veerkamp, J. H.

1971-01-01

408

Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract. This pathogen causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in animals and humans. Antibiotic-associated diseases may be treated with probiotics, and interest is increasing in such uses of probiotics. This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus strains on the quorum-sensing signals and toxin production of C. difficile. In addition, an in vivo experiment was designed to assess whether Lactobacillus acidophilus GP1B is able to control C. difficile-associated disease. Autoinducer-2 activity was measured for C. difficile using the Vibrio harveyi coupled bioluminescent assay. Cell extract (10?g/mL) of L. acidophilus GP1B exhibited the highest inhibitory activity among 5 to 40?g/mL cell-extract concentrations. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional levels in luxS, tcdA, tcdB, and txeR genes in the presence of 10?g/mL of cell extract of L. acidophilus GP1B. Survival rates at 5d for mice given the pathogen alone with L. acidophilus GP1B cell extract or L. acidophilus GP1B were 10, 70, and 80%, respectively. In addition, the lactic acid-produced L. acidophilus GP1B exhibits an inhibitory effect against the growth of C. difficile. Both the L. acidophilus GP1B and GP1B cell extract have significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile. PMID:24856984

Yun, B; Oh, S; Griffiths, M W

2014-08-01

409

Anti-infective mechanisms induced by a probiotic Lactobacillus strain against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection.  

PubMed

The prevention of pathogen infections is one of the most extensively studied effects of probiotics. L. casei CRL 431 is a probiotic bacterium and its effects on the gut immune cells have been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to determine, using a mouse model, the preventive and therapeutic effect of L. casei CRL 431 to achieve protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium infection. In both previous and continuous (previous and post-infection) probiotic administration, the mechanisms induced by this lactic acid bacteria on the first line of intestinal defense (non-specific barrier and the innate immune cells associated to the gut), as a way to understand some of the mechanisms involved in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium, were analyzed. The results obtained demonstrated that 7 days L. casei CRL 431 administration before infection decreased the severity of the infection with Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium, demonstrating that the continuous administration (even after infection) had the best effect. This continuous administration diminished the counts of the pathogen in the intestine as well as its spread outside this organ. Several mechanisms and cells are involved in this protective effect against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium. L. casei CRL 431 acted on cells of the innate and adaptive immune response. The probiotic administration decreased the neutrophil infiltration with the consequent diminution of intestinal inflammation; activated the macrophage phagocytic activity in different sites such as Peyer's patches, spleen and peritoneum; and increased the number of IgA+cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine which was correlated with increased release of s-IgA specific against the pathogen in the intestinal fluids. The mechanism of the inhibition of cellular apoptosis was not involved. PMID:20193971

de LeBlanc, Alejandra de Moreno; Castillo, Natalia A; Perdigon, Gabriela

2010-04-15

410

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 differently reduce in vitro immunotoxic effect induced by Ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin contaminating several food products which causes detrimental health effects. The ability of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 to prevent OTA effects on TNF-? and IL-10 production and apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. Membrane rafts participation in these responses was also evaluated. L. reuteri reduced by 29% the OTA inhibition of TNF-? production whereas L. acidophilus increased 8 times the TNF-? production by OTA treated-PBMC. Also, both bacteria reversed apoptosis induced by OTA by 32%. However, neither of the bacteria reversed the OTA inhibition on IL-10 production. On the other hand, the lactobacilli were less effective to reverse OTA effects on disrupted-rafts PBMC. This study shows that two lactobacilli strains can reduce some negative OTA effects, being membrane rafts integrity necessary to obtain better results. Also, the results highlight the potential capacity of some lactobacilli strains usually included in natural dietary components in milk-derived products and cereals feed, to reduce OTA toxicity once ingested by humans or animals. PMID:22975144

Mechoud, Mónica A; Juarez, Guillermo E; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Rodriguez, Ana V

2012-12-01

411

Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 ?m) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products. PMID:22633536

Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

2012-07-01

412

Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.e., 1-kestose, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) of the strains were compared. L. paracasei DSM 20020 grew well on all these sugars, while the growth rates of the 4 L. delbrueckii strains were markedly higher on the fructans with a greater degree of polymerization than on fructose and sucrose. Secondly, sugar compositions of spent cultures of the strains of L. delbrueckii and L. paracasei grown in mMRS containing either the fructans or inulin were determined by thin layer chromatography, in which the spent cultures of L. paracasei DSM 20020 showed spots of short fructose and sucrose fractions, whereas those of the L. delbrueckii strains did not show such spots at all. These results suggest that, unlike the L. paracasei strains, the L. delbrueckii strains do not degrade the inulin-type fructans extracellularly, but transport the fructans capable of greater polymerization preferentially into their cells to be degraded intracellularly for their growth.

TSUJIKAWA, Yuji; NOMOTO, Ryohei; OSAWA, Ro

2013-01-01

413

Lactobacillus reuteri, A Member of the Gut Bacterial Flora: Studies on Antagonism, Metabolism and Genetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strains of the genus Lactobacillus, isolated from pig intestine, were characterized with physiological tests and DNA/DNA hybridiza